Amerika 101: Wat is die kabinet?

Amerika 101: Wat is die kabinet?


QRIS 101: Feiteblad

Kwaliteitsgraderings- en verbeteringstelsels, of QRIS, "beoordeel, verbeter en kommunikeer die kwaliteit van die kwaliteit in vroeë sorg- en opvoedingsinstellings." 1 Hierdie staatsstelsels kan ontwerp word vir gebruik deur alle soorte programme vir vroeë kinderjare-kindersorgsentrums, gesinsopvanghuise, Head Start-programme en voorskoolse programme op skool. State kan deelname heeltemal vrywillig maak, of hulle kan deelname verpligtend maak vir sekere verskaffers, soos diegene wat openbare befondsing aanvaar of alle programme wat in die staat gelisensieer is.

Waarom is QRIS nodig?

Slegs 10 persent van die verskaffers van vroeë kinderjare in die Verenigde State word as van hoë gehalte beskou, 2 en kinders uit gesinne met 'n lae inkomste en minderheidsgesinne is meer geneig om sorg te ondergaan. 3 QRIS bied 'n raamwerk aan:

  • Verhoog die beskikbaarheid van programme van hoë gehalte
  • Lewer deurlopende professionele ontwikkeling en ondersteuning vir kwaliteitverbetering aan verskaffers
  • Versterk die ouer se begrip van die kwaliteit van die program en die belangrikheid van kindergehalte en voorskoolse kinders van hoë gehalte

Hoe algemeen is hulle?

QRIS is aan die einde van die negentigerjare ontwikkel, grootliks as 'n manier om die hoër vergoeding van kindersorgsubsidies na programme van hoër gehalte te lei. Sedert 2017 het 49 state en die District of Columbia staatswye of plaaslike QRIS besig met 'n proeffase of beplan hulle vir QRIS. In die afgelope 15 jaar het QRIS 'n aansienlike uitbreiding beleef- beide as gevolg van vereistes onder die federale Race to the Top- Early Learning Challenge-toekenning 4 en in reaksie op 'n groeiende hoeveelheid navorsing oor vroeë breinontwikkeling wat die belangrikheid van hoë- kwaliteit vroeë leer. 5

Wat doen QRIS?

Beoordeel programme vir vroeë kinderjare: Programme word op 'n skaal gegradeer, gewoonlik met drie of vyf stappe, sterre of vlakke. Elke staat QRIS is uniek, maar daar is verskillende algemene domeine of standaarde waaroor programme beoordeel word. Die gebiede wat die meeste in QRIS beoordeel word, is:

  1. Personeel kwalifikasies en opleiding
  2. Kurrikulum
  3. Omgewing en interaksies
  4. Gesinsvennootskappe
  5. Program administrasie
  6. Gesondheid en veiligheid
  7. Kinderassessering

Direkte kwaliteitverbetering ondersteun: Dit kan finansieel van aard wees-bonusse of hoër vergoedingskoerse bied om programme te beloon vir die behaal van 'n hoë kwaliteit gradering of om hulle aan te spoor om 'n hoër gradering te behaal. Hulle kan ook die vorm aanneem van direkte hulp aan programme, insluitend toegang tot professionele ontwikkeling, afrigting, mentorskap of tegniese hulp om die QRIS -proses self te navigeer.

Stel ouers in kennis oor kwaliteit: QRIS gee ouers inligting oor die kwaliteitsvlak van vroeë kinderprogramme, asook om ouers en gemeenskappe op te voed oor die belangrikheid van kindergehalte en voorskoolse kinders van hoë gehalte. Dit vereis dat die werklike beoordelingsvlakke deur middel van webwerwe, geleenthede en flyers gekommunikeer word - maar ook om te verseker dat ouers die verskille tussen graderings verstaan ​​sodat hulle volledig ingeligte besluite kan neem oor die sorg van hul kind.

Hoe lyk QRIS in die Verenigde State?

Deelname is laag.

Terwyl drie QRIS rapporteer dat 100 persent van die geskikte verskaffers deelneem, is deelname aan baie QRIS laag. In 17 QRIS neem minder as 50 persent van kindersorgsentrums deel. Onder die verskaffers van gesinskinders is deelname minder as 50 persent in 23 stelsels.

Die meeste QRIS bied finansiële aansporings om kwaliteit te verbeter.

Byna 85 persent van QRIS bied 'n vorm van finansiële aansporings, met kwaliteitstoekennings en bonusse wat die algemeenste is.

Tegniese bystand is wyd beskikbaar vir deelnemende verskaffers.

Byna driekwart van die QRIS meld dat tegniese hulp beskikbaar is vir alle deelnemende verskaffers. Onder die QRIS wat hul ondersteuning vir tegniese bystand aan sekere verskaffers rig, is hulle meestal gerig op programme wat 'n aansienlike persentasie van kinders met 'n lae inkomste of programme in gemeenskappe met 'n groot behoefte bedien.


Geskiedenis 101: wat dit is en waarom ons dit nou nodig het

Sowat jare gelede het die geskiedenisdepartement aan die Universiteit van Michigan met die oog op die gevolge van wat bekend gestaan ​​het as die & ldquocrisis of the humanities & rdquo & mdash begin om sy voorgraadse kurrikulum te herstruktureer. Ons wou oorgaan van kursusse en vereistes wat oor dekades ietwat organies ontwikkel het met die eb en vloed van fakulteitsbelange, na 'n meer doelbewuste, strategiese aanbod. Die proses het gelei tot intellektueel en pedagogies produktiewe vrae oor wat geskiedenis is, waarom dit relevant is vir studente vandag, en hoe ons departement meer studente, uit 'n groter verskeidenheid agtergronde, kan probeer. Een resultaat van hierdie gesprekke was 'n nuwe poortkursus, soos dié in ekonomie, antropologie, sielkunde of sosiologie: Geskiedenis 101.

In die herfs 2012, na 'n dinkskrum by die fakulteit en 'n loods in seminaarstyl, het ons 'n historikus van moderne Latyns-Amerika en die ander 'n historikus van die moderne Suid-Asië ontwikkel en 'n lesingsweergawe van Geskiedenis 101 ontwikkel en saam geleer. Ian Moyer, 'n historikus van antieke Griekeland en Egipte, het deelgeneem aan die aanvanklike ontwerp van die kursus en het sedertdien 'n wending geneem as mede-instrukteur. Geskiedenis 101 het verdubbel in vergelyking met die aanvanklike aanbod, wat tans 200 studente uit alle jare en 'n verskeidenheid velde en skole inskryf.

Hoe lyk so 'n kursus selfs? Geskiedkundiges het geen gevestigde kanon nie. Historici het ook nie 'n kanonieke metode nie. Een van die kenmerke van die geskiedenis vandag is sy interdissiplinariteit, uiteenlopende teoretiese benaderings en verskeie subvelde. Historici is boonop diep geleë op spesifieke tye en plekke. Geskiedenis 101 kon kwalik die dissipline en tydelike, geografiese en metodologiese dekking verteenwoordig. Ons het die kursus daarom ontwikkel as 'n langvormige antwoord op die vraag & ldquoWat is geskiedenis? & Rdquo Maar om hierdie vraag te beantwoord & mdashand hou ons gehoor & mdashwe geleer om 'n ander, meer basiese een aan te spreek: & ldquoWhy history? & Rdquo

Baie studente vind dit moeilik om te verstaan ​​waarom geskiedenis relevant is vir hul lewens, en in die konteks van kursusse vind hulle dit moeilik om die gereedskap van historiese denke te sien as vaardighede wat in verskillende omgewings aangepas en aangewend kan word. Ons begin dus presies verduidelik hoe die geskiedenis kritiese denke ontwikkel, 'n vaardigheid wat fundamenteel is vir byna elke loopbaan en vir die hedendaagse globale burgerskap. Op grond van die AHA & rsquos Tuning -projek, beklemtoon ons empatie as nog 'n belangrike vaardigheid wat hierdie kursus (soos almal in die geskiedenis) help ontwikkel. Ons probeer ook om studente in staat te stel om van dag een af ​​geskiedenis te begin doen deur te demonstreer hoe hulle al baie van die geskiedskrywers al die belangrikste instrumente in hul daaglikse lewens gebruik, indien dit onbewustelik is. Facebook en Instagram kan byvoorbeeld wys hoe historiese denke en met inbegrip van chronologie, gebruik van bewyse, navorsing, argumentasie, argivering en vertelling en strukture die lewe op verskillende skale, van die individu tot die globale.

Hoe lyk so 'n kursus selfs? Geskiedkundiges het geen gevestigde kanon of kanonieke metode nie.

Met die devaluasie van die geesteswetenskappe in die openbare diskoers en ons studente en diepgaande onsekerheid oor hul vooruitsigte na afloop, is ons kernmissie in Geskiedenis 101 om die idee te beklemtoon dat geskiedenis maak saak. Gedurende die kursus poog ons om 'n gevoel van kritiese rol van historiese denke in die openbare lewe te gee (om die welsprekende frase van AHA en rsquos te leen). Ons bereik dit deur aan te toon dat die geskiedenis werklike en skaam wêreldwye belange het en deur die politieke implikasies van historisering te beklemtoon. As studente sien hoe geskiedenisse op spesifieke tye en plekke gemaak word, vir spesifieke doeleindes, binne magsverhoudings, kan hulle ontvanklike verhale bevraagteken en voel dat hulle gemagtig is om verandering teweeg te bring.

Geskiedenis 101 is nie bedoel om omvattend te wees nie, en dit is ook nie 'n lineêre verloop nie. Elkeen van die vier eenhede in ons leerplan volg een benadering tot die kernsending van die kursus en die vraag wat geskiedenis is. Gesamentlik produseer hulle 'n kursus wat in konsentriese sirkels na buite bou en nuwe rigtings inslaan terwyl hulle verworwe materiaal versterk en herimineer.

Ons eerste eenheid, & ldquoFoundations, & rdquo bou 'n struktuur op om die geskiedenis en die metodes daarvan te verstaan, en trek verslete historiese vertellings af (of ontstel dit ten minste). 'N Lesing oor tyd en mdasha se belangrikste bousteen van die geskiedenis en mdash maak die bekende onbekende deur die manier waarop tyd histories en oor kulture heen opgebou is, te illustreer. Gebou op R. G. Collingwood & rsquos & ldquo Wie vermoor John Doe? & Rdquo (in Die idee van geskiedenis), 'n lesing oor bewyse en narratiewe toon aan dat hierdie twee aspekte van die historikus en rsquos -metode rekursief is, eerder as om bloot opeenvolgend te wees. Tydens die ondersoek van fondamente oorweeg studente ook die plek van mag in geskiedskrywing deur Martin Bernal en rsquos te ontleed Swart Athena (1987) en die omstrede stelling dat die antieke Griekeland (en dus die Westerse beskawing) aan die Afrikaanse beskawings verskuldig was.

'N Tweede eenheid, & ldquoThe Modern Discipline, & rdquo verduidelik en kritiseer die Euro-Amerikaanse of & ldquoWesterse & rdquo-tradisie van die geskiedenis. Aangesien historisering die kern is van wat historici doen, moet 'n inleidingskursus die dissipline historiseer, selfs al beklemtoon ons dat ons benadering slegs een van die vele moontlike geskiedenisse van die geskiedenis is. & Rdquo Met hierdie eenheid kan studente leer hoe die dissipline oor tyd verander het & mdashnew en verskillende geskiedenisse wat deur verskillende mense vertel word, om te verstaan ​​hoe mag die geskiedenis skryf. Van antieke Griekeland tot en met die ontwikkeling van 'n 19de-eeuse en wetenskaplike en historiese dissipline, ondersoek ons ​​hoe die skryf van die geskiedenis (anders as ander vorme van vertelling) objektiwiteit as die belangrikste ideaal daarvan beweer het. Dit moedig studente aan om te ondersoek hoe die geskiedenis met die werking van nasie- en ryk- en skaambou verbind is. Ons ondersoek spesifiek hoe historici en hul werke idees oor rasse-, etniese en kulturele verskille wat sentraal staan ​​in die politiek van hul tyd, onderhou of ondermyn het. In lesings oor die Britse Ryk in Indië en oor die transnasionale geskiedenis van die & ldquoBlack Legend & rdquo van Spaanse wreedheid, wys ons byvoorbeeld hoe bespreking en skryf oor die verlede die verloop van sake gevorm het. Terwyl ons die huidige toestand van die dissipline benader, ondersoek ons ​​hoe kulturele en sosiale historici die gebruik van ras en geslag as kategorieë van historiese analise die manier waarop belangrike gebeurtenisse, soos die Franse en Haïtiaanse revolusies, verstaan ​​word, verander.

Ons derde eenheid, & ldquoBuiten die boek, & rdquo gaan voort om na buite te bou om te ondersoek hoe geskiedenis buite die grense van tradisionele geskrewe bronne gemaak word. Die studente kyk Le retour van Martin Guerre en span-debat oor wat die filmmedium kan doen wat die klassieke mikrogeskiedenis van Natalie Zemon Davis nie kan doen nie, en omgekeerd. Die doel van hierdie eenheid is om diversiteit ten toon te stel eerder as om narratiewe kontinuïteit te skep, dus bied hierdie eenheid 'n ideale geleentheid om gasdosente uit te nooi wat perspektiewe op onkonvensionele bronne of metodes kan bied. Kollegas het lesings gelewer oor musiek, spookverhale, kuns, geesbesit, sprokies en nie -menslike biologiese entiteite (mikrobes, DNA, plante). Hierdie besprekings moedig studente aan om die potensiaal en beperkings wat sulke bronne vir historiese analise inhou, na te dink, verbeeldingryk te dink oor wie of wat 'n historiese agent is, en om die differensiële waarde wat aan verskillende soorte verslae van die verlede toegeken word, te oorweeg.

Ons het die drang weerstaan ​​om studente deur eindelose gebeure, liggaamlose konsepte of subspesies van die geskiedenis te marsjeer.

Uiteindelik gebruik & ldquoHistory in the Present & rdquo gevallestudies wat die krag van die geskiedenis illustreer om hedendaagse konflikte aan te wakker en vrede te bewerkstellig. Ons ondersoek die Suid-Afrikaanse en rsquos Waarheids- en Versoeningskommissie as 'n vorm van publieke geskiedenis wat gerig is op herstellende geregtigheid, en hoe herinneringe aan Australiese en Nieu-Seelandse dapperheid in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog (die & ldquoANZAC-legende en rdquo) 'n samehangende, manlike visie van die nasie beklemtoon koste van nasionale verbeeldings wat meer omstrede is. Ons eindig met 'n oorweging van die toekoms van ons dissipline en wys op die moontlikhede (in byvoorbeeld Big History of Deep History) vir nuwe verstaan ​​van ons menslike penarie deur uitgebreide historiese denke.

Geskiedenis 101 was 'n groot sukses. Inskrywing in die ses herhalings van die kursus (2012 en ndash17) beloop 865 studente, wat byna ewe veel uit al vier jaar getrek is. Die oorgrote meerderheid studente (89 persent) kom van ons College of Literature, Science and the Arts (LSA), terwyl 11 persent van ander skole en kolleges van die Universiteit van Michigan, soos Engineering, Kinesiology, en Nursing, kom. Alhoewel 27 persent van die studente nie 'n hoofvak verklaar het toe hulle die kursus gevolg het nie, illustreer die kursus dat die kursus verder gaan as die geesteswetenskappe. Van die LSA -studente is 51 persent hoofvakke in sosiale wetenskappe en 13 persent afkomstig van STEM -velde (hoewel STEM -studente se inskrywing tot 19 persent styg as ons studente van die Skool vir Ingenieurswese insluit). Hierdie getalle bevestig ons opvatting van Geskiedenis 101 as 'n kursus wat uitreik na nuwe gehore en potensiële kiesafdelings.

Daar is geen enkele manier om geskiedenis 101 te onderrig nie. Maar as ons weergawe daarin geslaag het om 'n groter aantal studente term na kwartaal te betrek, is dit miskien omdat ons die drang weerstaan ​​het om studente deur eindelose gebeurtenisse, liggaamsgebonde konsepte of subspesies van die geskiedenis te marsjeer. Die antwoord op & ldquoWat is geskiedenis? & Rdquo behoort te kom in die vorm van 'n oortuigende verhaal wat kragtig geïllustreer word en studente moet hulself daarin bevind. Dit lyk asof die tyd reg is dat ons dissipline 'n 101 volg, 'n kursus wat vrymoedig en breed spreek oor ons doel en waardes as historici.

Die skrywers is medeprofessore in die Departement Geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Michigan en ontvangers van die 2017 Matthews Underclass Teaching Award vir hul werk oor Geskiedenis 101. Hulle leerplan vir Geskiedenis 101 is hier beskikbaar.

/>
Hierdie werk is gelisensieer onder 'n Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Die naam moet die outeur se naam, die titel van die artikel, Perspektiewe op geskiedenis, datum van publikasie en 'n skakel na hierdie bladsy. Hierdie lisensie is slegs van toepassing op die artikel, nie op teks of beelde wat met toestemming hier gebruik word nie.

Die American Historical Association verwelkom kommentaar in die besprekingsgebied hieronder, by AHA Communities, en in briewe aan die redakteur. Lees ons beleid oor kommentaar en briewe voordat u dit indien.


Kabinet van die Verenigde State

Die Kabinet van die Verenigde State is 'n liggaam wat bestaan ​​uit die vise -president van die Verenigde State en die hoofde van die uitvoerende tak se federale uitvoerende departemente in die federale regering van die Verenigde State, wat as die belangrikste adviesliggaam vir die president van die Verenigde State beskou word. Die president is nie formeel 'n lid van die kabinet nie. Die departementshoofde, wat deur die president aangestel en deur die senaat bevestig is, is lede van die kabinet, en waarnemende departementshoofde sit ook by die kabinetsvergaderings, of hulle nou amptelik vir die bevestiging van die senaat genomineer is of nie. Die president kan hoofde van ander agentskappe en nie-senaatbevestigde lede van die uitvoerende kantoor van die president aanwys as lede van die kabinet.

Die kabinet beskik nie oor eie kollektiewe uitvoerende bevoegdhede of funksies nie, en daar hoef nie gestem te word nie. Op 13 April 2021 was daar 24 lede (26 insluitend die president en vise-president): 15 afdelingshoofde en nege lede op kabinetsvlak, wat almal, behalwe twee, deur die Senaat bevestig is. Die kabinet vergader met die president in 'n kamer langs die ovaalkantoor. Die lede sit in die volgorde waarin hul onderskeie departement gestig is, met die vroegste wat die naaste aan die president is en die nuutste die verste weg. [1]

Die lede van die kabinet dien na die plesier van die president, wat hulle te eniger tyd sonder die goedkeuring van die senaat kan ontslaan, soos bevestig deur die Hooggeregshof van die Verenigde State in Myers v. Verenigde State (1926), of verlaag hul lidmaatskapstatus van die kabinet. Die president kan die kabinet organiseer soos hy goeddink, soos die instelling van komitees. Net soos alle federale amptenare, is die kabinetslede ook onderhewig aan beskuldiging deur die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en verhoor in die Senaat weens "verraad, omkopery of ander hoë misdade en wangedrag".

Die Grondwet van die Verenigde State stel nie uitdruklik 'n kabinet in nie. Die rol van die kabinet, afgelei uit die taal van die opinieklousule (artikel II, afdeling 2, klousule 1) van die Grondwet, is om advies aan die president te gee. Boonop gee die vyf-en-twintig wysiging die visepresident magtiging, tesame met 'n meerderheid van die hoofde van die uitvoerende departemente, om die president te verklaar dat hy "nie die bevoegdhede en pligte van sy amp kan nakom nie". Die hoofde van die uitvoerende departemente is - indien dit in aanmerking kom - in die presidensiële opvolgingslyn.


Inhoud

In die meeste regerings kry lede van die kabinet die titel Minister, en elkeen het 'n ander portefeulje van regeringspligte ("Minister van Buitelandse Sake", "Minister van Gesondheid", ens.). In 'n paar regerings, soos in die geval van Mexiko, die Filippyne, die Verenigde Koninkryk en die Verenigde State, word die titel van sekretaris ook gebruik vir sommige kabinetslede ("minister van onderwys", of "minister van buitelandse sake vir X" in die Verenigde Koninkryk). In baie lande (bv. Duitsland, Luxemburg, Frankryk, ens.), Is 'n minister (van die staat) 'n kabinetslid met 'n laer rang as 'n minister. In Finland is 'n minister van buitelandse sake 'n loopbaanbeampte wat die minister dien. In sommige lande is die kabinet bekend onder name soos "Council of Ministers", "Government Council" of "Council of State", of onder minder bekende name soos "Federal Council" (in Switserland), "Inner Council" of "Hoë Raad". Hierdie lande kan verskil in die manier waarop die kabinet gebruik of gevestig word.

Die supranasionale Europese Unie gebruik 'n ander konvensie: die Europese Kommissie verwys na sy uitvoerende kabinet as 'n 'kollege', met sy top openbare amptenare 'kommissarisse', terwyl 'n 'Europese kabinet' die persoonlike kantoor van 'n Europese kommissaris is .

In presidensiële stelsels, soos die Verenigde State, word lede van die kabinet deur die president gekies, en dit sal moontlik ook deur een of albei die huise van die wetgewer bevestig moet word. In die meeste presidensiële stelsels kan kabinetslede nie sitende wetgewers wees nie, en wetgewers wat aanstellings aangebied word, moet bedank as hulle dit wil aanvaar.

Afhangende van die land, moet kabinetslede, mag nie, of mag hulle parlementslede wees. Die volgende is voorbeelde van hierdie afwyking:

  • In die lande wat die Westminster -stelsel gebruik, soos die Verenigde Koninkryk of Australië, het kabinetsministers moet aangestel word uit sittende parlementslede.
  • In lande met 'n streng skeiding tussen die uitvoerende en wetgewende takke van die regering (bv. Luxemburg, Switserland en België) kabinetslede Moenie terselfdertyd 'n parlementslid wees wat aangewys/genomineer word, moet kabinetslede hul sitplek in die parlement prysgee.
  • Die tussengeval is waar predikante mag parlementslede wees, maar nie soos in Finland nie.

Die kandidaat -premier en/of die president kies die individuele ministers wat aan die parlement voorgestel word, wat die voorgestelde kabinetsamestelling kan aanvaar of verwerp. Anders as in 'n presidensiële stelsel, moet die kabinet in 'n parlementêre stelsel nie net bevestig word nie, maar moet die volgehoue ​​vertroue van die parlement geniet word: 'n parlement kan 'n mosie van wantroue aanvaar om 'n regering of individuele ministers te verwyder. Hierdie stemme word dikwels, maar nie noodwendig nie, oor partygrense geneem.

In sommige lande (bv. Die VSA) sit prokureurs -generaal ook in die kabinet, terwyl dit in baie ander streng verbode is, aangesien die prokureurs -generaal beskou word as deel van die regterlike tak van die regering. In plaas daarvan is daar 'n minister van justisie, apart van die prokureur -generaal. Verder bevat die kabinet in Swede, Finland en Estland 'n kanselier van justisie, 'n staatsamptenaar wat as regsadviseur van die kabinet dien.

In veelpartystelsels kan die vorming van 'n regering die ondersteuning van verskeie partye vereis. So word 'n koalisieregering gevorm. Voortgesette samewerking tussen die deelnemende politieke partye is nodig vir die kabinet om die vertroue van die parlement te behou. Hiervoor word 'n regeringsplatform beding, sodat die deelnemende partye aan die pen kan kom en hul kabinet ondersteun. Dit is egter nie altyd suksesvol nie: samestellende partye van die koalisie of parlementslede kan steeds teen die regering stem, en die kabinet kan uit interne onenigheid breek of deur 'n mosie van wantroue ontslaan word.

Die grootte van die kaste wissel, hoewel die meeste ongeveer tien tot twintig predikante bevat. Navorsers het 'n omgekeerde verband gevind tussen die ontwikkelingsvlak van 'n land en die grootte van die kabinet: hoe meer 'n land meer ontwikkel is, hoe kleiner is die kabinet. [1]

'N Raad van adviseurs van 'n staatshoof was deur die geskiedenis en regoor die wêreld 'n algemene kenmerk van die regering. In die ou Egipte het priesters die farao's bygestaan ​​in administratiewe pligte. [2] In Sparta het die Gerousia, of raad van ouderlinge, gewoonlik by die twee konings gesit om oor die wet te beraadslaag of sake te beoordeel. [3] Die Maurya -ryk onder die keiser Ashoka is beheer deur 'n koninklike raad. [4] In Kievan Rus 'was die prins verplig om die advies te aanvaar en die goedkeuring te ontvang van die duma, of raad, wat bestaan ​​uit bojare, of adel. 'N Binnekring van 'n paar lede van die duma het 'n kabinet gevorm om die prins voortdurend by te woon. [5] Die ruïnes van Chichen Itza en Mayapan in die Maya -beskawing dui daarop dat politieke gesag deur 'n opperraad van elite -here gehou is. [6] In die Songhai -ryk was die sentrale regering saamgestel uit die belangrikste ampsdraers van die keiserlike raad. [7] In die Oyo -ryk was die Oyo Mesi, of koninklike raad, lede van die aristokrasie wat die mag van die Alaafin, of koning, beperk het. [8] Tydens die Qing-dinastie, was die Deliberative Council die hoogste besluitnemingsliggaam. [9]

In die Verenigde Koninkryk en sy kolonies het kabinette begin as kleiner ondergroepe van die English Privy Council. Die term kom van die naam van 'n relatief klein en privaat kamer wat as studeerkamer of toevlugsoord gebruik word. Frases soos 'kabinetsraad', wat privaat aan die monarg beteken, kom uit die laat 16de eeu voor, en gegewe die nie-gestandaardiseerde spelling van die dag, is dit dikwels moeilik om te onderskei of 'raad' of 'raad' is. bedoel word. [10]

Die Oxford English Dictionary skryf Francis Bacon in sy Opstelle (1605) met die eerste gebruik van "Kabinetsraad", waar dit beskryf word as 'n vreemde gewoonte, waarvan hy dit afkeur: "Waarvoor ongerief, die leer van Italië en die praktyk van Frankryk in sommige konings se tye die kabinet gee raad vir 'n erger middel as die siekte. " [11]

Charles I begin 'n formele "kabinetsraad" vanaf sy toetreding in 1625, aangesien sy Privy Council, of "private raad", blykbaar nie privaat genoeg was nie, [ aanhaling nodig ] en die eerste aangetekende gebruik van 'kabinet' op sigself vir so 'n liggaam kom uit 1644, en is weer vyandig en assosieer die term met twyfelagtige buitelandse praktyke. [10] Die proses het homself die afgelope tyd herhaal, aangesien leiers die behoefte gevoel het om 'n kombuiskas of 'bankregering' te hê. [12]

Onder die Westminster -stelsel is lede van die kabinet ministers van die kroon wat gesamentlik verantwoordelik is vir alle regeringsbeleid. Alle ministers, hetsy senior en in die kabinet of junior ministers, moet die beleid van die regering in die openbaar ondersteun, ongeag privaat voorbehoude. Alhoewel, in teorie, alle kabinetsbesluite gesamentlik deur die kabinet geneem word, word daar in die praktyk baie besluite gedelegeer aan die verskillende subkomitees van die kabinet, wat aan die volledige kabinet verslag doen oor hul bevindings en aanbevelings. Aangesien reeds in die kabinet wat die ministeriële portefeuljes het, oor hierdie aanbevelings ooreengekom het, word die volledige kabinet gewoonlik sonder meer bespreking oor die aanbevelings aanvaar. Die kabinet kan ook idees verskaf oor/as nuwe wette ingestel is, en wat dit insluit. Kabinetsbesprekings is geheim en dokumente wat in die kabinet behandel word, is vertroulik. Die meeste van die dokumentasie wat verband hou met kabinetbesprekings, sal eers 'n aansienlike tydperk nadat die betrokke kabinet ontbind is, in die openbaar bekend gemaak, afhangende van die bepalings van 'n land se wet op vryheid van inligting.

In teorie is die premier of premier eerste onder gelykes. Die premier is egter uiteindelik die persoon van wie die staatshoof advies sal neem (volgens grondwetlike ooreenkoms) oor die uitoefening van uitvoerende mag, wat die bevoegdhede kan insluit om oorlog te verklaar, kernwapens te gebruik en kabinetslede aan te stel. Dit lei tot die situasie waarin die kabinet de facto deur die eerste minister aangestel word en dien. Die kabinet is dus dikwels sterk ondergeskik aan die premier, aangesien dit te eniger tyd vervang kan word, of na 'n ander portefeulje in 'n kabinetskommeling verskuif kan word ('gedegradeer') vir 'onderprestasie'.

Hierdie posisie ten opsigte van die uitvoerende gesag beteken dat in die praktyk elke verspreiding van verantwoordelikheid vir die algemene leiding van die regering gewoonlik deur die premier gedoen is - óf omdat hulle ongewild is by hul agterbanke, óf omdat hulle glo dat die kabinet kollektief oor dinge moet besluit.

Die skadu kabinet bestaan ​​uit die voorste lede, of voorste bankiers, van 'n opposisieparty, wat oor die algemeen kritici -portefeuljes hou wat die kabinetsministers in die skadu stel, hul besluite bevraagteken en beleidsalternatiewe voorstel. In sommige lande word na die skadu -ministers verwys as woordvoerders.

Die Westminster -kabinetsisteem is die basis van kaste, soos dit bekend is in die federale en provinsiale (of staats) jurisdiksies van Australië, Bangladesh, Kanada, Pakistan, Indië, Suid -Afrika, Nieu -Seeland en ander lande van die Statebond waarvan die parlementêre model nou gebaseer op die van die Verenigde Koninkryk.

Onder die leerstelling van die skeiding van magte in die Verenigde State, is 'n kabinet onder 'n presidensiële regeringstelsel deel van die uitvoerende gesag. Benewens die administrasie van hul onderskeie segmente van die uitvoerende gesag, is kabinetslede ook verantwoordelik vir die advisering van die regeringshoof oor gebiede binne hul gebied.

Hulle word aangestel deur en dien volgens die regeringshoof se plesier en is daarom sterk ondergeskik aan die president, aangesien hulle te eniger tyd vervang kan word. Normaalweg, aangesien hulle deur die president aangestel is, is hulle lede van dieselfde politieke party, maar die uitvoerende gesag is vry om enigiemand, insluitend opposisiepartylede, te kies, onderhewig aan die advies en toestemming van die senaat.

Normaalweg moet die wetgewer of 'n gedeelte daarvan die aanstelling van 'n kabinetslid bevestig, dit is maar een van die vele kontrole en saldo's wat in 'n presidensiële stelsel ingebou is. Die wetgewer kan ook 'n kabinetslid verwyder deur 'n gewoonlik moeilike beskuldigingsproses.

In die kabinet het lede nie 'n invloed op die wetgewende beleid tot die mate wat in 'n Westminster -stelsel voorkom nie, maar elke lid het 'n beduidende invloed op aangeleenthede rakende hul uitvoerende departement. Sedert die administrasie van Franklin D. Roosevelt, het die president van die Verenigde State meestal deur sy eie uitvoerende kantoor of die Nasionale Veiligheidsraad opgetree eerder as deur die kabinet, soos die geval was in vroeëre administrasies.

Alhoewel die term 'sekretaris' gewoonlik gebruik word om die mees senior amptenaar van 'n regeringsdepartement te noem, het sommige departemente verskillende titels om sulke amptenare te noem. Die departement van justisie gebruik byvoorbeeld die term Prokureur-generaal in plaas van Justisie sekretaris maar die prokureur-generaal is nietemin 'n posisie op kabinetvlak.

Volgens die model van die federale regering word die uitvoerende takke van die staat ook georganiseer in uitvoerende afdelings onder leiding van kabinetsekretarisse. Die regering van Kalifornië noem hierdie departemente 'agentskappe' of informeel 'superagentskappe', terwyl die regering van Kentucky dit as 'kabinette' noem.


Behalwe vir die vise -president en prokureur -generaal, word alle kabinetshoofde 'sekretaris' genoem.

Die moderne kabinet bevat die vise -president en die hoofde van 15 uitvoerende departemente.

Sewe ander individue het kabinetsrang:

  • Stafhoof van die Withuis
  • Administrateur van die Environmental Protection Agency
  • Kantoor van bestuur en begrotingsdirekteur
  • Amerikaanse ambassadeur vir handel
  • Amerikaanse sending by die Verenigde Nasies se ambassadeur
  • Raad van Ekonomiese Adviseurs voorsitter
  • Administrateur van die Kleinsake -administrasie

Die minister van buitelandse sake is die hoogste lid van die presidensiële kabinet. Die minister van buitelandse sake is ook vierde in die ry van die presidentskap agter die vise -president, die speaker van die Huis en die president van die Senaat pro tempore.

Kabinetsbeamptes dien as die hoofde van die volgende uitvoerende agentskappe van die regering:

  • Landbou
  • Handel
  • Verdediging
  • Onderwys
  • Energie
  • Binne
  • Geregtigheid
  • Arbeid
  • Gesondheid en Menslike Dienste
  • Nasionale Sekuriteit
  • Behuising en stedelike ontwikkeling
  • Staat
  • Vervoer
  • Tesourie
  • Veterane Sake

Die Wetgewende Tak

Die wetgewende tak, bestaande uit die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en die Senaat, het die enigste grondwetlike gesag om wette uit te voer, oorlog te verklaar en spesiale ondersoeke te doen. Boonop het die senaat die reg om baie presidensiële aanstellings te bevestig of te verwerp.

Die Senaat

Daar is 'n totaal van 100 verkose senatore - twee uit elk van die 50 state. Senatore kan 'n onbeperkte aantal termyn van ses jaar uitdien.

Die Huis van Verteenwoordigers

Daar is tans 435 verkose verteenwoordigers, volgens die grondwetlike proses van verdeling word die 435 verteenwoordigers verdeel onder die 50 state in verhouding tot hul totale bevolking, soos gerapporteer deur die mees onlangse Amerikaanse sensus. Boonop is daar afgevaardigdes sonder stemreg wat die District of Columbia en die gebiede in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers verteenwoordig. Verteenwoordigers kan 'n onbeperkte aantal termyn van twee jaar uitdien.


CLINTON BEHANDEL KAS VAN VERSKEIDENHEID

Met die voltooiing van die mees uiteenlopende kabinet in die geskiedenis, het president Bill Clinton die eerste vroulike prokureur-generaal, die korporatiewe prokureur, Zoe Baird, aangestel.

In a flurry of Christmas Eve appointments, Clinton also nominated former Denver Mayor Federico Pena, head of his transition task force on

transportation issues, to be transportation secretary, bypassing Chicago banker William Daley for the post.

The president-elect selected Rep. Mike Espy (D-Miss.) to be agriculture secretary former Arizona Gov. Bruce Babbitt to be interior secretary Dr. Joycelyn Elders, his outspoken Arkansas health director, to be surgeon general and Mickey Kantor, his campaign chairman, to be U.S. trade representative.

The addition of Baird and Pena, who is Hispanic, and Espy, who is African-American, to Clinton`s Cabinet made history in several ways. But it created some hard feelings in Chicago where Daley, a banker and brother of Mayor Richard M. Daley, once was considered the leading candidate to run the Transportation Department.

Daley apparently lost out to Clinton`s desire to put a second Hispanic on his Cabinet.

Saying that Clinton valued the Daley family`s advice and support, George Stephanopoulos, communications director for the transition, said, ''Throughout this process, the governor was trying to balance the need for diversity with the need to get excellent people in the Cabinet.''

Clinton pledged during the campaign that his administration would ''look like America.''

Of the 14 department chiefs, 11 are male and three female, the most ever but fewer than women`s groups wanted.

There are eight white appointees, four black-the most ever-and two Hispanic, which ties the record.

Women also will head the Environmental Protection Agency and be the United Nations ambassador, two posts that Clinton said will have Cabinet rank. Earlier in the process, when some feared his effort at diversity was faltering, Clinton came under pressure, particularly from leaders of Hispanic and women`s groups.

Clinton and his aides counseled patience, and Monday he lashed out at

''bean counters'' who were looking at numbers rather than the quality of his choices. In completing his major appointments Thursday, Clinton said,

''They came from diverse backgrounds, and we will all be better and stronger for that diversity.''

One of those most vocal in her criticism, Eleanor Smeal, president of the Fund for the Feminist Majority, had insisted that at least six of the 14 Cabinet secretaries be women.

But Thursday she lauded the final list, saying it ''will put the most women at the Cabinet table in history. Any way you count it, this is a step forward for women in breaking the glass ceiling in public leadership.''

Although women have served in the Cabinet for years, the appointment of Baird, 40, senior vice president and general counsel at Aetna Life & Casualty Co. of Connecticut, marks a breakthrough. No one but a white male has served in the what are considered the four senior Cabinet posts: justice, state, treasury and defense.

In introducing Baird, Clinton said, ''I believe that the nation`s first woman attorney general will be one of the best in the history of this nation.''

Although her primary responsibility will be to run what is essentially the world`s largest investigative and legal office, Baird will share responsibility with the Department of Health and Human Services for turning the social agenda of the country away from the conservative policies of the Reagan and Bush years.

''In our administration,'' Clinton said, ''the Justice Department will be on the side of individual freedom, personal privacy and citizen security.''

Baird, an associate counsel in the White House of former President Jimmy Carter, said the department ''will be firm in its prosecution of crime, will be guided by the rule of law and will be committed to the principled and deliberate advancement of civil rights, environmental protection and economic fairness.''

Reaffirming his campaign position, Clinton said one of the first things the Justice Department will do is take a different position before the Supreme Court in support of Roe vs. Wade, the decision that upheld a woman`s right to an abortion nationwide.

Elders, 59, although not in the Cabinet, is expected to be one of the most visible members of the administration, as her controversial five-year record in Arkansas as Clinton`s health director suggests.

She was a vocal advocate fighting teenage pregnancies and the spread of AIDS by urging schools to offer health education and to distribute condoms and birth control pills, although she would not force them on a community where they weren`t wanted.

Babbitt`s appointment to run the Interior Department was especially pleasing to environmentalists, who did not strongly support another name frequently mentioned for the job, Rep. Bill Richardson (D-N.M.).

The national president of the League of Conservation Voters and a popular two-term governor of Arizona before he ran for president in 1988, Babbitt, 54, will be a conduit to the interests of Rocky Mountain states, where Clinton tried with some success this year to break the Republican hold on the region. Passing over Richardson, a Hispanic, for Interior added pressure on Clinton to name Pena to Transportation.

During two terms as Denver`s mayor, the 45-year-old Pena spearheaded construction of the world`s largest airport, which will be completed next year.

Clinton interviewed William Daley last week, and aides said he liked the Chicagoan, who headed Clinton`s Illinois campaign.

But the governor didn`t decide on the appointment until Wednesday night as he juggled personalities and experience with the commitments he had made for diversity.

Espy, 39, was widely expected to be named agriculture secretary but was too vocal about his apparent nomination, so was kept on hold for almost two weeks, sources said.

The first black congressman from Mississippi since Reconstruction, Espy sits on the House Agriculture Committee, where he promoted development in the Delta region.

Kantor`s appointment as trade representative reflected a comeback of sorts for the 53-year-old Los Angeles lawyer, who was once thought to be a likely nominee for attorney general. Liked by Clinton personally, he was faulted by campaign aides for his leadership of the election effort. Skipped over to run the transition, his management of the economic conference last week helped raise Kantor`s stock.


The Kitchen Cabinet

To shape and expand its research, collections, programs and exhibitions related to food, agriculture and beverage history, the National Museum of American History established the Kitchen Cabinet, an advisory board made up of leaders in food scholarship, culinary history and food-related business in America.

CURRENT MEMBERS

Sileshi Alifom
Owner/Operator, DAS Ethiopian Cuisine

Melanie Asher
CEO, Founder, and Master Distiller, Macchu Pisco

Dr. Warren Belasco
Food Historian, University of Maryland, Baltimore County

Joanne Chang
Pastry Chef/Owner, Flour Bakery

Llewellyn Correia
Regional Executive Chef, Wegmans Food Markets

Darrell Corti
Corti Brothers, Sacramento, CA

Neil Dahlstrom
Manager, Corporate History & Archives, John Deere

Michael Dellar
Co-founder Lark Creek Restaurant Group, Principal One Market Restaurant, San Francisco

Jim Dodge
Director of Specialty Culinary Programs, Bon Appétit Management Company

Geoffrey Drummond
Executive Director of Food Lab, Stony Brook Southampton

Darra Goldstein
Wilcox B. and Harriet M. Adsit Professor of Russian, Emerita, Williams College

Jessica B. Harris, Ph.D. Food Historian
Queens College/CUNY

Anthony Hesselius
President & Publicist, Linda Roth Associates, Inc.

Pati Jinich
Chef, Host of Pati’s Mexican Table

Kim Jordan
Co-Founder and Executive Chair, Board of Directors, New Belgium Brewing Company

Ris Lacoste
Chef/Owner of RIS, Washington, DC

Ilyse Fishman Lerner
Former CEO, On Rye

Linda Lovejoy
Community Relations Manager, Wegmans Food Markets

Doug Margerum
Owner/Director of Winemaking at Margerum Wines

Joan Nathan
Author and Director, Martha's Table

Alexandra Nemerov
Curatorial Associate, Glenstone

Libby H. O’Connell
Cultural Historian

Linda Novick O’Keefe
Founding Chief Executive Officer, Common Threads

Maricel Presilla, Ph.D.
Chef, Culinary Historian, and Author

Todd Schulkin
Executive Director, The Julia Child Foundation for Gastronomy and the Culinary Arts

Eric W. Spivey
Chairman, The Julia Child Foundation for Gastronomy and the Culinary Arts

Tanya Wenman Steel
CEO, Cooking Up Big Dreams and Tanya Wenman Steel LLC ‎

Vincent Szwajkowski
Senior Director, Global Brand Strategy, Hilton Worldwide

Julia Turshen
Cookbook Author

Susan Westmoreland
Food Director, Good Housekeeping

Izabela Wojcik
Director of House Programming, James Beard Foundation


Inhoud

US 101 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, [8] and is part of the National Highway System, [9] a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy, defense, and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. [10]

Portions of US 101 are eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System. [11] It is officially designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation from Goleta to Las Cruces in Santa Barbara County, [4] and through Del Norte Coast Redwoods State Park in Del Norte County. [5] This designation means that there are substantial sections of highway passing through a "memorable landscape" with no "visual intrusions", where the potential designation has gained popular favor with the community. [12]

Los Angeles to Ventura Edit

The south terminus of US 101 is in Los Angeles, about one mile (1.6 km) east of downtown Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange, also known as the "Commuters' Complex". This southernmost portion is named the Santa Ana Freeway, inheriting that title as the northerly extension of the roadway now known as I-5. US 101 heads north for 2 miles (3.2 km) before merging with the western end of the San Bernardino Freeway (I-10).

After merging with westbound traffic from the San Bernardino Freeway (I-10), US 101 then proceeds northwest via the Downtown Slot under the northern edge of Los Angeles' Civic Center to State Route 110 (SR 110) at the Four Level Interchange. From here, US 101 becomes the Hollywood Freeway. It then passes through the L.A. neighborhoods of Echo Park, Silver Lake, and Los Feliz and heads to Hollywood and up through the Cahuenga Pass before reaching the San Fernando Valley.

US 101 passes right next to the Universal Studios Hollywood and then intersects with SR 134 and SR 170 at the interchange known as the Hollywood Split. Here, the alignment of US 101 shifts to the alignment of SR 134 (i.e. heading northbound, the road's alignment turns left, or westbound) and thereafter is referred to as the Ventura Freeway until it reaches Ventura. Though confusing, the "Hollywood Freeway" name continues northward from this interchange on SR 170, and the "Ventura Freeway" name continues eastward to SR 134.

From the Hollywood Split, US 101 is an east–west highway (until it reaches Gaviota State Park in Santa Barbara County where it shifts back to a north–south alignment). It meets with I-405 in Sherman Oaks, an interchange which holds claim to the most traveled intersection in the nation. [ aanhaling nodig ] The east–west geographical alignment of the Ventura Freeway and the north–south designation which appears on the freeway signs can be confusing to visitors the same freeway entrance can often be signed as "101 North" and "101 West" this is most common in the San Fernando Valley where the local E/W signing does not match the Caltrans' proper statewide N/S designation.

After the Conejo Grade, which is a 7% grade incline, the freeway enters the Oxnard Plain and runs concurrent with SR 1 for the first time. Upon reaching Ventura, there is an interchange with SR 126, which runs east to Santa Clarita.

Central Coast Edit

North of Santa Barbara, US 101 switches intermittently between freeway and expressway status (i.e. there is occasional cross-traffic), but there are no traffic signals until San Francisco. The last traffic signals along this stretch of the route were removed in 1991 when the section through downtown Santa Barbara was constructed to freeway standards after years of disagreement over the impact that the original elevated design would have on the community. [13]

From Ventura and through Santa Barbara, US 101 closely follows the Gaviota Coast (generally no more than one to two miles [1.6 to 3.2 km] from the shore) until Gaviota State Park, about 23 miles (37 km) west of Goleta. At Gaviota State Park, the highway shifts back from an east–west highway to a north–south alignment. About one mile (1.6 km) north of this point, the northbound lanes pass through the Gaviota Tunnel.

A few miles north of the Gaviota Tunnel, SR 1 splits from US 101 and heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline parallel and to the west of US 101. US 101 passes through Buellton, Los Alamos, Orcutt, Santa Maria, and Nipomo. South of Santa Maria, US 101 widens from a four-lane highway to a six-lane freeway. SR 166 joins US 101 for about 3 miles (4.8 km) before splitting just north of the city limits, while US 101 continues as a four-lane freeway before reverting to expressway status north of Nipomo.

Farther north, SR 1 rejoins US 101 between Pismo Beach and San Luis Obispo. Then US 101 takes an inland route through the Salinas Valley, while Highway 1 heads northwest, running along the Pacific coastline in California, parallel and to the west of US 101.

A steep segment (7% grade) between San Luis Obispo and Atascadero is known as the Cuesta Grade. North of Atascadero, the highway joins SR 46 for about three miles (4.8 km) through Paso Robles.

From Paso Robles to Salinas, US 101 is an expressway known as the Salinas River Valley Highway, since the Salinas River Valley extends from Santa Margarita to the SR 156 junction in Prunedale. US 101 resumes freeway status between San Miguel and King City, bypassing the smaller towns of Camp Roberts, Bradley, and San Ardo, as well as the San Ardo Oil Field about five miles (8.0 km) south of San Ardo. Near this point, the wide agricultural bottomlands of the Salinas Valley begins. North of King City, US 101 once again switches intermittently between freeway and expressway status, passing through Greenfield, Soledad, Gonzales, and Chualar before reaching Salinas. Shortly after leaving Salinas, US 101 joins SR 156 in Prunedale for about eight miles (13 km). After crossing the San Benito County line, SR 156 splits from US 101 near San Juan Bautista while US 101 continues northward mostly as a four-lane highway until it reaches Gilroy.

San Francisco Bay Area Edit

US 101 crosses the Pajaro River into Santa Clara County as a four-lane highway, with an interchange at SR 25 a few miles later. Upon reaching Gilroy, it becomes the South Valley Freeway (as in South Santa Clara Valley), and at the same time, it expands to three lanes in each direction. It then enters Silicon Valley when reaching Morgan Hill, and shortly afterwards expands to four lanes in each direction, with an HOV lane in the middle, before reaching San Jose. From San Jose to San Francisco, US 101 is known as the Bayshore Freeway as it passes through Palo Alto and the other major communities along the San Francisco Peninsula.

US 101 is called the James Lick Freeway, named for James Lick, a philanthropist, from the San Francisco county/city line, through the interchange with I-280 at the Alemany Maze, until the junction with the San Francisco Skyway (I-80) and the Central Freeway near the city's Civic Center. US 101 continues in a northwestern direction on the Central Freeway, and then leaves the freeway, on Mission Street (northbound) and South Van Ness Avenue (southbound), to run north on Van Ness Avenue. At the intersection of Van Ness Avenue and Lombard Street, US 101 heads west on Lombard Street, and then on Richardson Avenue, entering The Presidio, where it becomes a divided highway again (the Presidio Parkway). It is then joined by Route 1 before approaching and crossing the Golden Gate Bridge.

From San Francisco north the highway is heavily traveled by commuters through to Windsor, just north of Santa Rosa. North of the Golden Gate Bridge, US 101 enters Marin County and is known as the Redwood Highway. After crossing the bridge, US 101 climbs the Waldo Grade and passes through the Robin Williams Tunnel, the only one of its kind in 300 miles (480 km) (the other being the Gaviota Tunnel in Santa Barbara County). Upon exiting the tunnel, it passes above the hillside town of Sausalito and descends to Richardson Bay, where SR 1 splits from the freeway and heads to the coast. US 101 then passes through Mill Valley, Corte Madera, Larkspur, San Rafael and Novato, before entering Sonoma County. The section between Novato in Marin County and Petaluma in Sonoma County changes from its original six or eight lanes through Marin to four lanes, creating a bottleneck, and is thus called the "Novato Narrows" by locals. [14] The Narrows continue up to the county line between Marin and Sonoma Counties. The entire area between Novato and Petaluma is also the voter approved Novato–Petaluma Community Separator, which forbids most development. [15]

Upon entering Sonoma County, the freeway widens again to six lanes from the county line to Windsor, passing through Petaluma, Cotati, Rohnert Park, and Santa Rosa. Upon reaching Windsor, the freeway returns to two lanes in each direction, crossing the Russian River in Healdsburg and then following the river up the Alexander Valley. SR 128 joins US 101 in the town of Geyserville before splitting just north of Cloverdale. US 101 then heads up a steep hill just before leaving Sonoma County and entering Mendocino County.

North Coast Edit

US 101 crosses into Mendocino County as a freeway for one mile (1.6 km), but then narrows to an expressway through the Russian River canyon and eventually a two-lane road south of Hopland, the first time since leaving San Francisco. Just before reaching Ukiah, US 101 becomes a four-lane freeway. In the community of Calpella, SR 20 merges with US 101 for the next 15.5 miles (24.9 km) to Willits. The freeway portion ends as the combined US 101 and SR 20 ascend the 1,956-foot (596 m) Ridgewood Summit, the highest elevation along the route's 808-mile-long (1,300 km) trek through California. [16] As US 101 resumes freeway status just south of Willits, SR 20 splits from US 101 shortly before it suddenly reverts to a 2-lane undivided freeway and eventually a highway north of Willits.

US 101 then widens to a four-lane expressway until the intersection with the western portion of SR 162, where it reverts to a two-lane road. North of Laytonville, US 101 ascends Rattlesnake summit (1,796 feet or 547 metres) before a descent to follow the South Fork Eel River and Eel River all the way to Fortuna near the mouth of the river. About 12 miles (19 km) northwest of Laytonville, US 101 becomes an undivided freeway near the community of Cummings. SR 271 is the old portion of US 101 through this area. At Leggett, US 101 meets SR 1 for the last time, and from this point until Piercy, US 101 runs along a section of highway with frequent landslides. Caltrans bypassed the most difficult section in 2009 with unique construction of two bridges known collectively as the Confusion Hill Bridges. This project, funded by an emergency act from the State Legislature, moved the highway across the Eel River away from the troubled spots to prevent disruption in commerce and travel from infrequent, but costly, winter closures on the main transportation route to the far North Coast. North of Piercy, the freeway portion again ends and the road narrows down to two lanes, before another stretch of divided highway.

Arriving in Humboldt County, another narrow two lane portion of US 101 bisects Richardson Grove State Park. Just after the park boundary, the highway switches to a short undivided freeway and then eventually a divided freeway just before reaching Garberville. North of Garberville, US 101 reverts to an undivided freeway, which continuing north by northwest, passes through the 53,000-acre (210 km 2 ) Humboldt Redwoods State Park, California's third largest State Park and the site of the largest remaining Redwood old growth forest in the world. A preserved portion of the original, bypassed highway route, known as the Avenue of the Giants for the huge, centuries-old redwood trees, parallels the highway for over 30 miles (48 km) in southern Humboldt County. US 101 again switches to another stretch of divided freeway near the town Pepperwood before reverting to a short, 2-mile (3 km) expressway just north of Stafford. A short freeway then runs through Rio Dell before another short, 3-mile (5 km) expressway.

Shortly before reaching the western terminus of SR 36, US 101 becomes a freeway again between Fortuna and Eureka. North of Humboldt Hill, the road enters the City of Eureka (a potential new freeway cutting through or bypass of the city was successfully blocked repeatedly). As the route traverses Eureka, the southern portion is known as "Broadway" and then as it bears east along Humboldt Bay, the Highway is aligned on a one-way couplet (4th and 5th streets). Five miles (8.0 km) later the highway leaves Eureka's northern city limit and continues north. The expressway style section between Eureka and Arcata, which is also a safety corridor, is named the "Michael J. Burns Freeway," in honor of the State Senator who was a proponent of California's Highways. The highway becomes an unobstructed freeway south of the center of Arcata. Proceeding north it passes the junction for SR 299 (also the western terminus for that route), in the Valley West (northernmost) part of the college town.

The highway continues north as it skirts westerly around McKinleyville on a high bluff north of the Mad River. As the highway reaches Clam Beach (a county park), motorists get their first magnificent full view of the Pacific Ocean north of the Golden Gate. North of Trinidad, the highway narrows to one lane in each direction after crossing Big Lagoon to pass inland of Stone Lagoon and follow the coastal bar between Freshwater Lagoon and the Pacific Ocean south of Orick. It becomes a 14-mile (23 km) undivided freeway through Redwood National and State Parks running inland east of the Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park boundary. The freeway narrows to one lane in each direction at the Klamath River before losing its freeway designation in Klamath. The original placement of the highway near giant Coast Redwoods led to increased awareness of the destruction of the redwoods after decades of extensive logging, which ultimately led to the establishment of Redwood National Park in 1968. The original highway segment through Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park is now a scenic alternate similar to Avenue of the Giants, named Newton B. Drury Scenic Parkway in honor of the fourth director of the National Park Service and executive director of the Save-the-Redwoods League

North of the town of Klamath just inside Del Norte County, the highway closely follows the Pacific coast again. In Crescent City, US 101 once again separates into a one-way couplet (L and M Streets) for nine blocks. As it leaves Crescent City, US 101 becomes a divided freeway for the last time in California (built slightly to the west of the original two-lane alignment, now called Parkway Drive). As the 3-mile divided freeway portion ends, US 101 intersects the southern terminus of US 199, which heads northeast as the Redwood Highway, passing through the Collier Tunnel and terminating in Grants Pass, Oregon. US 101 (no longer called the "Redwood Highway" at this point) is reduced to two lanes and continues north along the California coast until it reaches the Oregon border.

Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail Edit

The US 101 Highway is part of the auto tour route of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail, a National Park Service unit in the United States National Historic Trail and National Millennium Trail programs. [17] In 2005, Caltrans began posting signs on roads that overlap with the historic 1776 Juan Bautista de Anza trail route, so that California drivers can now follow the trail.

Historic route: San Diego to Los Angeles Edit

Instead of terminating in Los Angeles, US 101 once continued all the way south through San Diego to the United States–Mexico border in San Ysidro. However, this part was decommissioned on July 1, 1964, in favor of I-5. Though much of U.S. Route 101 has been superseded by I-5, several street segments of former Route 101 exist.

Historic route in San Diego County Edit

Much of the route in northern San Diego County is County Route S21 this includes Coast Highway in Oceanside, Carlsbad Boulevard in Carlsbad, Coast Highway 101 in Encinitas, Camino del Mar in Del Mar, and Torrey Pines Road in Torrey Pines. In San Diego, one alignment entered La Jolla Village on La Jolla Blvd, while a newer alignment went through Rose Canyon under what is now I-5. Roads followed by US-101 in San Diego included Mission Bay Drive, Pacific Hwy, Harbor Drive and Main Street. It ran along National City Blvd in National City, Broadway in Chula Vista and Beyer Blvd in San Ysidro.

Oceanside–Carlsbad freeway bypass Edit

By the early 1950s, traffic had become very heavy on US 101 through Oceanside and Carlsbad. The US 101 freeway bypass (Oceanside-Carlsbad freeway bypass) was built in 1953 and completed in 1955 by the California Department of Public Works (now Caltrans) and brought up by the San Diego Highway Development Association on a US 80/US 101 discussion on how to resolve the huge traffic loads on US 101 in Oceanside. Today it is part of I-5 and Palomar Airport Road. It follows I-5 from Coast Highway (former Hill Street exit) in Oceanside to Palomar Airport Road in Carlsbad. From there the US 101 bypass went onto Palomar Airport Road to merge with US 101 Bus. on Carlsbad Boulevard. As it approached the Coast Highway/SR 76 exit on southbound I-5 in Oceanside, US 101 Bus. split off. US 101 Bus. followed the original US 101 through downtown Oceanside and Carlsbad as former Hill Street/Carlsbad Boulevard (CR S-21) while the US 101 freeway followed modern I-5 and Palomar Airport Road. The south end of the freeway bypass is Carlsbad Boulevard and Palomar Airport Road and the north end is I-5 and the Coast Highway/SR 76 exit. The south end was modified after US 101 was decommissioned between the East Los Angeles Interchange in Los Angeles and the Mexican border in San Ysidro. This freeway construction by the California Department of Public Works put US 101 on an all new highway route alignment to relieve Oceanside and Carlsbad of their very heavy bumper-to-bumper burdensome traffic problem. Also before the bypass in the 1950s, US 101 followed North Coast Highway (formerly Hill Street) from San Luis Rey Mission Expressway (SR 76 and north end of the Oceanside–Carlsbad freeway bypass) to Harbor Drive. From there it followed Harbor Drive to Vandergrift Boulevard, San Rafael Drive, and the freeway onramp for I-5 north near the Camp Pendleton north entrance guardhouse gate. It merges with the I-5 northbound onramp to shoot onto the southbound lanes of I-5 to follow the freeway lanes all the way to Las Pulgas Road in Camp Pendleton.

Historic route in Orange and Los Angeles Counties Edit

An old orphaned alignment of US 101, that ran through the cities of Mission Viejo, Laguna Niguel, San Juan Capistrano, Dana Point, and San Clemente, was located in south Orange County. The old roadway, from a dead end just west of I-5 and east of the railroad tracks in Mission Viejo to Cristianitos Road in San Clemente, followed Camino Capistrano, Doheny Park Road, Coast Highway and El Camino Real. It had interchanges with I-5 and California State Route 1. It was replaced by the San Diego freeway (which US 101 became part of it in 1958) and finally replaced by I-5 in 1968.

In northern Orange County, US 101 followed Harbor Boulevard. U.S. Route 101 left Orange County, traversed southeast Los Angeles County, and entered the City of Los Angeles along Whittier Boulevard.

El Camino Real: Los Angeles to San Francisco Edit

Significant portions of US 101 from its southern terminus to the San Francisco Bay Area is designated as the Royal Road or El Camino Real. The route roughly follows the historic trail that connected the former Alta California's 21 missions.

Before the Golden Gate Bridge was completed in 1937, there was regular vehicle ferry service across the Golden Gate strait, running from the Hyde Street Pier to Sausalito. Under the California Streets and Highways Code § 401, the Golden Gate Bridge is legally nie part of US 101. The portion of US 101 starting from Los Angeles ends at "the approach to the Golden Gate Bridge" and then resumes at "a point in Marin County opposite San Francisco" to the Oregon state line. The bridge itself is maintained by the Golden Gate Bridge, Highway and Transportation District instead of Caltrans.

From the 1940s to 1991, various segments of US 101 between Los Angeles and San Francisco were upgraded to either a freeway or expressway. In the Los Angeles area, the first segment of the Hollywood Freeway through the Cahuenga Pass opened in 1940, while the segment from the San Fernando Valley to Downtown Los Angeles opened in 1954, replacing Cahuenga Boulevard. [18] The Ventura Freeway then opened in 1960, replacing Ventura Boulevard. [19] The segment of the original two-lane alignment between Emma Wood State Beach north to the Mobil Pier Undercrossing near Sea Cliff, which followed the historic Rincon Sea Level Road, was the re-signed as part of SR 1.

In the San Francisco Bay Area, US 101 was originally divided. US 101W followed the same general right-of-way of today's US 101 through the region, primarily along what was originally signed as Bayshore Boulevard. US 101E then generally followed the right-of-way taken by today's I-880 from San Jose to Oakland, then across the Carquinez Bridge to follow what is now SR 37, joining US 101W. The US 101E designation was removed by the 1940s and became SR 17 (later designated as I-880 and the westernmost section I-580), running from San Jose to Oakland and then across the Richmond–San Rafael Bridge. Meanwhile, Bayshore Boulevard was later redesignated as the US 101A bypass and then eventually upgraded to what is now the Bayshore Freeway. The first stretch that was completed between Redwood City and South San Francisco was the Bay Area's first freeway when it opened in 1947. After the entire Bayshore Freeway was completed in the early 1960s, the old alignment along the peninsula was renumbered and renamed as SR 82/El Camino Real.

Various other freeway or expressway bypasses along the California Central Coast were also built. In 1991, the last traffic signal along US 101 between Los Angeles and San Francisco was taken down in Santa Barbara. [20] The primary control city that is listed on freeway signs along northbound US 101 through the Central Coast region remains San Francisco.

As the result of freeway revolts in San Francisco in the 1950s, a direct freeway connection through the city to the Golden Gate Bridge has never been built. The Central Freeway was completed to extend from the Bayshore Freeway to Turk Street in 1959, [21] [22] before the San Francisco Board of Supervisors voted to remove the remainder of the Central Freeway and most other proposed freeways from the city's highway plan. [23] For decades, southbound traffic on US 101 flowed on the one-way Turk Street from Van Ness Avenue to the Central Freeway, while northbound traffic used the parallel Golden Gate Avenue. After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake damaged the structure, the segment of the Central Freeway north of Market Street was replaced with the surface-level Octavia Boulevard traffic on US 101 was then eventually re-routed to exit south of that at Mission Street/South Van Ness Avenue. With no direct freeway along US 101 through the City of San Francisco, the old US 101E/I-880/I-580 route remains as a faster bypass through the Bay Area.

In the wake of the dot-com bubble expansion, the segment of US 101 between Morgan Hill and San Jose, also known as the Sig Sanchez Freeway, expanded to eight lanes between Cochrane Road and SR 85 exits between 2001 and 2003 and a new interchanged at Bailey Avenue, which had been planned since the 1970s, opened in 2004. [24] Originally, the ten-mile segment was only four lanes (it was planned to have six lanes when opened in 1984). [25] The improved segment was to alleviate the consistent congestion that had expanded as far south as Masten Avenue coming from Gilroy, and as far north as Bernal Road coming from San Jose. [26] [27] Traffic now typically only runs slow between the Bailey Avenue and East Dunne Avenue exits.

The interchange at the beginning of I-280 and I-680 in San Jose was constructed years before its completion. The three flyovers, with no on ramps or off ramps connecting them stood at 110-foot-tall (34 m) over US 101 for years in the 1970s (the SR 87/I-280 interchange also had this at the same time). It became the butt of many local jokes. The highlight prank occurred in January 1976, when a 1960 Chevrolet Impala was placed on the highest bridge overnight, where it obviously would be impossible to drive. The following day, San Jose City Councilman Joe Colla was photographed standing next to the car, a photo which was circulated across many newspapers. [28] It has been suggested this stunt nudged the wheels of progress to find the funds to complete the freeway. In 2010, the interchange was named the Joe Colla Interchange. [29]

The proposed Liberty Canyon wildlife crossing is a vegetated overpass spanning the Ventura Freeway and Agoura Road in Agoura Hills. If built, it will be one of the largest urban wildlife crossing in the United States, connecting the Simi Hills and the Santa Monica Mountains over a busy freeway with ten traffic lanes (including exit lanes). [30] [31]

Redwood Highway: Marin County to Del Norte County Edit

An abandoned segment of the Redwood Highway, US 101, located in the Redwood National and State Parks near Klamath was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1979. [32]

Freeway segments along the Redwood Highway portion of US 101 are not as prevalent as along the Los Angeles-San Francisco route. A notable segment of the old US 101 alignment is SR 254, also known as the Avenue of the Giants, in Humboldt Redwoods State Park. The freeway bypassing this scenic route, surrounded by towering Coast Redwoods, was completed in 1960. [33] Several bridges along the segment of highway running along the Eel River were destroyed during the Christmas flood of 1964.

Construction on a freeway segment bypassing Willits began in 2013. [34] The bypass around Willits remained controversial because the intended route goes through protected wetlands. Construction was halted by US Army Corps of Engineers in June 2014 and work restarted the following month after Caltrans committed to extensive mitigation of the project. [35] [36] The 5.9 mi (9.5 km) bypass around Willits opened to traffic in November 2016. [37] The bypass included a 1.1 mi (1.8 km) viaduct going over a flood plain. [38] The freeway segment cost $459 million to complete, 50% more than what Caltrans first reported when it opened. [39] The city of Eureka has long resisted a freeway through it. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on the alignment that existed at the time, and do not necessarily reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since then, M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, and T indicates postmiles classified as temporary ( for a full list of prefixes, see California postmile § Official postmile definitions ). [1] Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted. The numbers reset at county lines the start and end postmiles in each county are given in the county column.