Edward Steichen

Edward Steichen

Edward Steichen was 'n Amerikaanse fotograaf, skilder en kurator van 'n kunsgalery en 'n museum.Vroeë daeEdward Jean Steichen is gebore in Luxemburg, op 27 Maart 1879. Hulle vestig hulle in Hancock, Michigan, maar verhuis na Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1889. Edward se vroeë belangstelling in kuns is deur sy ma aangemoedig. Hy woon die Columbian Exposition van 1893 in Chicago by, waar hy kennis gemaak het met kontemporêre kunswerke. Hy het in 1895 begin foto's neem, maar het ook met sy skilderloopbaan voortgegaan.Ontmoet StieglitzSteichen het 'n genaturaliseerde burger van die Verenigde State geword in 1900. In 1902 werk hy saam met Alfred Stieglitz en 11 ander fotograwe om die Photo-Session, 'n organisasie wat gestig is om fotografie as kuns te bevorder, te stig. Hulle stig ook Little Galleries in New York, waar hulle hul werk kan uitstal. In 1904 begin Steichen eksperimenteer met kleurfotografie en was 'n vroeë gebruiker van die Lumiere Autochrome -proses. Die kunstenaars was onder andere Picasso, Rodin en Cezanne, en Steichen en Stieglitz het 'n stormagtige verhouding gehad. Hulle uiteenlopende gesindhede ten opsigte van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het die uiteensetting van hul vennootskap aanleiding gegee en 'n tydperk van 25 jaar begin waarin hulle nie met mekaar gepraat het nie.Werk beïnvloed kunsGedurende die Eerste Wêreldoorlog was Steichen in beheer van die afdeling wat lugmagfoto's vir die Amerikaanse weermag geneem het. Daardie presisiewerk het 'n blywende verandering aan sy kuns gebring; Hy het die realisme en duidelikheid in sy werk beklemtoon. Na die oorlog het Steichen 'n kommersiële ateljee in New York geopen en gespesialiseer in portrette en advertensies. Sukses het gelei tot die werk met Vanity Fair en Vogue tydskrifte. Sy foto's gedurende hierdie tyd het in die twintiger- en dertigerjare van die bekendste beelde van persoonlikhede geword - name soos Greta Garbo en Charlie Chaplin. In 1938 tree Steichen uit kommersiële fotografie. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het hy die Pad na oorwinning en mag in die Stille Oseaan uitstallings vir die Museum of Modern Art in New York. Hy is eervol ontslaan in 1946, met die rang van kaptein.Die familie van die mensVan 1947 tot 1962 was Steichen direkteur van die Departement Fotografie by die Museum of Modern Art. Hy was verantwoordelik vir 50 vertonings, insluitend Die familie van die mens, bestaande uit 500 foto's gekies uit meer as twee miljoen, wat lewe, liefde en dood in 68 lande uitbeeld. Dit was die gewildste uitstalling in die geskiedenis van fotografie, en ook 'n topverkoper-boek. In 1961 is Steichen vereer met 'n eenmanvertoning van sy foto's in die Museum of Modern Art. In 1964 is die Edward Steichen -fotografiesentrum by die museum gestig.EindnotasEdward Steichen sterf op 25 Maart 1973 in West Redding, Connecticut. Hy was twee dae skaam vir 94. In 2000 het Steichen se derde vrou en weduwee, Joanna Steichen, 'n groot werk geskryf en geredigeer oor sewe dekades van Steichen se werk, met meer as 300 foto's. Steichen's Legacy: Photographs, 1895-1973, vertel ook die verhaal van hul jare saam as man en vrou, kunstenaar en assistent.


Edward Steichen -kunswerke

Steichen het verskeie foto's geneem van die virtuose Franse beeldhouer Auguste Rodin. Hy het ook afdrukke van sy beelde gemaak en baie van Rodin se sketse en tekeninge by die 291 Galery in New York. Die twee mans het goeie vriende geword terwyl Steichen aan die begin van die twintigste eeu in Montparnasse gewoon het. Rodin sou inderdaad peetvader word vir Steichen se dogter Katherine wie se middelnaam Rodina gekies is as huldeblyk aan die beeldhouer.

Op hierdie foto is Rodin in profiel aan die linkerkant van die beeld, en weerspieël (aan die regterkant van die raam) die profiel van moontlik sy mees ikoniese beeldhouwerk, Le Penseur (Die Denker). Op die agtergrond is nog een van Rodin se beroemde werke, syne Monument vir Victor Hugo, 'n skrywer wie se werk die Fransman baie bewonder het. (Die monument vir Hugo word hier slegs in gips weergegee en is eers na Rodin se dood in brons gegiet.) Beide werke verbind Rodin met die intellektuele deugde van kuns, filosofie en letterkunde en Steichen se doel was om hom ook met hierdie eienskappe te vereenselwig. Deur 'n moderne kunstenaar en met twee van sy kunswerke te fotografeer, roep Steichen 'n soort vierrigtinggesprek op (tussen Rodin, die denker, Hugo en Steichen self) wat fotografie, nog in sy kinderskoene in 1900, as 'n wettige hulpmiddel vir brei die dialoog van modernisme uit.

Fotograaf - Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Landskap met laan van bome

In sy vroeë loopbaan kombineer Steichen skildery en fotografie, en u kan hier sien hoe sy skildery sy fotografiese werk inlig. In Landskap met laan van bome, Toon Steichen duidelik die invloed van Tonalisme, 'n artistieke beweging wat begin het met die skilder James McNeill Whistler in die 1870's. Whistler, wat 'n erkende invloed op die jong Steichen was, was geïnteresseerd in die skildery van sy skilderye op 'n manier wat die komposisie van musiekstukke weerspieël, maar deur kleur eerder as notas te gebruik. Deur hierdie noue komposisiestruktuur en fokus, ondersoek Tonaliste die subtiele nuanses van kleur en die moontlikhede daarvan om 'n gegewe stemming uit te druk (baie soos musiek).

Hierdie skildery toon Steichen se vaardigheid om die nuanses van uitdrukking deur middel van 'n gedempte kleurpalet te kommunikeer. Die werk grens amper tot abstraksie deur sy wisselwerking tussen donker en lig. Alhoewel die titel ons in kennis stel van die 'laan van bome', is die vorms op die voorgrond nie noodwendig maklik nie, en die landskap self word slegs flou uitgebeeld. Die maan kyk net agter die blare van die hoë boom uit, wat 'n gloed om die rand van sy vorm gee en 'n byna rimpelende effek van lig oor die lug self veroorsaak. Dit is 'n beeld wat ons konsentrasie vereis, Steichen moedig sy kyker aan om te kyk (en weer te kyk) om die onderskeid in kleur, vorm en lyn te bepaal.

Olieverf op doek - privaat versameling

Flatiron -gebou

Steichen se belangstelling in die onderlinge verband tussen fotografie en Tonalistiese skildery blyk duidelik uit sy beroemde beelde van die Flatiron -gebou. Die Flatiron -gebou, geleë in Fifth Avenue 175 in Manhattan, was na voltooiing in 1902 een van die hoogste ter wêreld en was vanweë sy vorm werklik uniek. Hierdie beeld is die eerste keer in die openbaar gesien tydens die "International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography" wat in 1910 in Buffalo, New York, gehou is. Dit was in werklikheid een van ses honderd beelde wat deur Alfred Stieglitz gekies is as 'n manier om die kuns van piktoristiese fotografie ten toon te stel. Steichen se foto, wat sy gevoel vir vorms en teksture beklemtoon, het een van sy bekendste beelde geword en dit is maklik om 'n verhouding hier te sien met sy skildery Landskap met laan van bome. Die bou van die titel doem onrusbarend op die agtergrond op, 'n groot skaduwee in die middel van die raam. Steichen laat die punt van die gebou weg, asof die raam miskien nie die groot skaal daarvan kan bevat nie.

Hierdie beeld is gemaak op die hoogtepunt van Steichen se piktorialistiese tydperk met die Foto-sessie groep. In hierdie tyd was hy geïnteresseerd in die aanpassing en manipulasie van sy foto's, en hier kleur hy die beeld in met pigmentlaag in 'n ligsensitiewe oplossing. Die beeld bestaan ​​eintlik in drie weergawes, elk met 'n effens ander toon en gevoel, wat aantoon hoe kragtig kleur in 'n veranderende bui kan wees. Met hierdie afdruk was sy doel om in die vroeë oggendure iets van die nuanses van lig vas te vang. Soos professor William Sharpe opgemerk het: 'Die nag is 'n tyd van drome, van die onderdrukking van onderdrukte libidinale energie, en foto's soos hierdie benut die suggestiewe eienskappe van 'n stedelike landskap subtiel en gebruik 'n simboliese taal om waarhede te onthul [wat middernag verborge sou wees]. "

Gom -bichromaat oor platinumafdruk - Gom -bichromaat oor platinumafdruk

Maanlig: Die dam

Hierdie beeld is geneem in Mamaroneck, New York, toe Steichen by sy vriend, die kunskritikus Charles Caffin, gekuier het. Dit beeld die maan op wat agter 'n skuur van bome opkom en dan weerkaats op 'n heeltemal stil dam. Soos Flatiron, Maanlig: Die dam gebruik lig en skaduwee op 'n buitengewoon stimulerende en spookagtige manier.

Steichen demonstreer hier nogmaals sy belangstelling in Tonalisme. Sy landskap word 'gewas' in 'n kleurtoon om 'n voltooide misagtige effek te vorm. Die samespel van lig en donker en die breë donker wasgoed wat oor Steichen se palet gelê het, was dan heeltemal in ooreenstemming met die beeldvoorkeure van die Foto-sessie groep. Alhoewel die beeld baie eenvoudig lyk, is dit eintlik 'n komplekse emosionele samestelling in die manier waarop dit die ligbronne manipuleer. Die maan piek bo die horison en gloei helder deur die bome, terwyl dit in die middel van die raam posisioneer, wat 'n akkurate en bestudeerde komposisionele opset voorstel. Reageer op hierdie beeld in Kamerawerk, Bevestig Caffin Steichen se geloofsbriewe as 'n beenfide fotografiese kunstenaar deur hierdie taamlik poëtiese voorlesing: "Dit is in die penumbra, tussen die duidelike sigbaarheid van dinge en hul totale uitsterwing in die duisternis, wanneer die konkreetheid van voorkoms saamgevoeg word in halfgerealiseerde, half verward visie, lyk dit asof daardie gees hom losmaak van materie om dit te omhul met 'n raaisel van sielsuggestie. "

Windbrand, Thérèse Duncan op die Akropolis

In hierdie verstommende beeld, gemaak nadat hy sy belangstelling in Tonalisme laat vaar het, vang Steichen 'n ander wêreldse energie in die beweging van Thérèse Duncan, die aangenome dogter van die bekende danser Isadora Duncan. Steichen het Isadora ontmoet toe sy saam met haar dansgroep in Venesië was. Daarna volg hy haar na Griekeland in die hoop om haar op die Akropolis te kan dans. Uiteindelik was dit egter Thérèse en nie Isadora wat hy op die rotse bo die sitadel afgeneem het nie. Die beeld is die eerste keer gepubliseer in Vanity Fair in 1923 vergesel van 'n onderskrif deur die digter Carl Sandburg (Steichen se swaer) wat lui: "Bokmeisie wat in die struikelblokke vasgevang is ... laat dit alles brand in hierdie windvuur, laat die vuur dit hê."

Op die foto het die uitbundige Thérèse haar liggaam verdraai, haar knie is vasgeslaan en haar arms oor 'n klassieke vroulike houding oor haar kop. Sy staan ​​op 'n ongelyke rots met 'n paar blare wilde plante op die voorgrond, maar dit is haar golwende rok wat ons aandag trek. Die deurskynende materiaal verberg en onthul haar liggaam. Thérèse lyk vir ons as feitlik naak. Steichen het die volgende oor die beeld gesê: "Sy was 'n lewende reïnkarnasie van 'n Griekse nimf [.] Die wind het die kledingstukke styf teen haar lyf gedruk, en die ente het laat waai en fladder. Hulle het eintlik gekraak. Dit het die effek van vuur veroorsaak . " Steichen het daarin geslaag om 'n tydlose beeld vas te lê op die manier waarop die moderne en die klassieke mekaar ontmoet.

Silwer gelatienkontakafdruk - privaat versameling

Gloria Swanson

Hierdie portret van die stille filmster Gloria Swanson is een van Steichen se mees gevierde werke. Dit smelt die wêrelde van portret en modefotografie saam tot 'n betowerende effek. Die beeld is later gepubliseer in die Februarie 1928 -uitgawe van Vanity Fair om Swanson se nuwe film bekend te maak Sadie Thompson.

Joernalis, kritikus en redakteur van Vanity Fair Frank Crowinshield het na Steichen verwys as die 'wêreld se grootste lewende portretfotograaf' en in hierdie portret kan 'n mens sy punt waardeer. Die opvallendste element van die prentjie is die ster se hipnotiese oë wat direk in ons oë kyk. Aangesien hulle geen stem gehad het nie, was dit die norm vir stille filmsterre om hul teenwoordigheid op die skerm deur hul oë oor te dra. Swanson is inderdaad algemeen erken vir haar grootoog, en deur dit in hierdie beeld te beklemtoon, erken Steichen haar intelligensie en haar vaardigheid as kunstenaar. Op hierdie manier vier die portret haar status as kunstenaar en haar kwaliteite as individu. Steichen skryf oor die fotosessie in sy outobiografie: "Aan die einde van die sessie neem ek 'n stukkie swart kant sluier en hang dit voor haar gesig. Sy herken die idee onmiddellik. Haar oë word verwyd en haar voorkoms was dié van 'n luiperdin wat skuil agter blaarryke struikgewas en na haar prooi kyk. Jy hoef nie dinge aan 'n dinamiese en intelligente persoonlikheid soos juffrou Swanson te verduidelik nie. Haar gedagtes werk vinnig en intuïtief. " In hierdie beskrywing erken Steichen dat as u wil streef na die beste portret, dan is daar moet eerstens 'n ware verbintenis tussen sitter en kunstenaar.

Silwer gelatiendruk - privaat versameling

Die Maypole, Empire State -gebou

Gedurende die eerste helfte van die twintigste eeu het New York tot sy reg gekom. Daar was aansienlike openbare fassinasie met wolkekrabbers en die vraag na argitektoniese fotografie en tydskrifte was groot. Steichen is dus in opdrag van Vanity Fair om die Empire State -gebou, destyds die hoogste gebou ter wêreld, en waarskynlik die grootste argitektoniese prestasie van die moderne wêreld, te fotografeer.

Gekonfronteer met die probleem om die ware majesteit van hierdie ikoniese landmerk vas te lê, berei Steichen hom voor met dieselfde bedagsaamheid waarmee hy sy portret benader het. Om die ware statuur van die gebou vas te vang, het Steichen 'n strategie beraam waardeur hy die gebou vooraan fotografeer en in 'n hoek vasmaak voordat hy die een negatief bo-op die ander plaas. Die eind -effek, waarin Steichen die gebou se krag in drie dimensies weergee, is verstommend. Wat die titel van die beelde betref, het Steichen gesê: "Ek het die gebou as 'n Maypole beskou. Om die werveling van 'n Maypole -dans voor te stel" (inderdaad 'n middelpunt van die stad waarheen die trotse inwoners van New York hulle kan verheug).

In 1951 begin MoMA 'n 'Art Lending Service' wat begin in die tagtigerjare begin het. Die uitleendiens is ontwerp deur die Junior Raad van die museum om kunsversameling onder sy lede en/of die algemene publiek aan te moedig. Geselekteerde werke was drie maande op 'n slag te huur, waarna die beskermheer vry was om die werk aan die museum te koop of terug te besorg. Die Maypole was een van die gewildste beelde wat deur die "Art Lending Service" deurgegee is. Volgens MoMA se eie publisiteit, Die Maypole's gewildheid was "'n bewys van die tegnologiese vooruitgang in argitektuur net soos in fotografie, en [van] die ikoniese nalatenskap van een van die skerpste oë wat albei vasgevang het."


Edward Steichen - Geskiedenis

Help my om by hierdie afdeling te voeg. Dien u idees of artikels in by [email protected]

Steichen, Edward (1879-1973), Amerikaanse fotograaf, wat gesoek het na 'n emosionele, impressionistiese weergawe van sy onderwerpe en probeer het om fotografie as 'n ernstige kunsvorm te erken.

Steichen is op 27 Maart 1879 in Luxemburg gebore en as kind na die Verenigde State gebring. Hy het op 16 met fotografie begin werk, en het op 21 na Parys gegaan om skilderkuns te studeer.

In New York het hy (1905) by die Amerikaanse fotograaf Alfred Stieglitz aangesluit om 'n galery te stig wat bekend staan ​​as '291', waar baie belangrike 20ste-eeuse skilders hul eerste Amerikaanse vertonings ontvang het. Die jaar daarna keer Steichen terug na Parys, waar hy eksperimenteer met skildery, fotografie en die kruising van plante.

In 1923 keer Steichen terug na New York as hooffotograaf vir Vanity Fair en Vogue tydskrifte. Onder die beroemde mense wat hy vir Vanity Fair afgeneem het, is die Amerikaanse akteur Greta Garbo en die Britse akteur Charlie Chaplin.

In 1938 tree Steichen terug na syne West Redding, Connecticut, plaas. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het hy 'n gevegsfotografiespan van die Amerikaanse vloot gelei.

In 1947 word Steichen aangestel as direkteur van fotografie vir die Museum of Modern Art in New York. Hy berei The Family of Man voor, 'n fotografiese uitstalling (1955) wat later deur die wêreld getoer het en in boekvorm 3 miljoen eksemplare verkoop het. Sy werk word versamel in die Museum of Modern Art en Eastman House, Rochester, New York. Hy is op 25 Maart 1973 in West Redding oorlede.

Kyk na voorbeelde van sy werk- Steichen Photographs.

Topstone Park
Oliver Goulston

'N Groep burgers van Redding het die stad 270 hektaar oop ruimte gebied, insluitend die swemarea van die stad. Die burgers, wat hulself Redding Open Lands, Inc. (R.O.L.I.) noem, het die idee in 1970 begin.

Die jaar tevore het Axel Bruzelius, wat 'n plaasvervanger in die Beplanningskommissie was, belanggestel in 'n projek in Lincoln, Massachusetts. 'N Hele plaas in 'n voorstad van Boston is deur die plaaslike burgers gekoop. Die oortollige grond is aan die stad gegee. Mnr. Bruzelius besluit dat Redding 'n soortgelyke organisasie benodig.

Omstreeks hierdie tyd het Edward Steichen, die bekende fotograaf, besluit om alles behalwe 38 van die 421 hektaar wat hy besit op Topstoneweg te verkoop. Voordat mnr Steichen dit op die ope mark plaas, het hy die stad die voorreg gegee om te weier. 'N Groep van twaalf burgers het besluit om 'n organisasie te stig en te probeer om dieselfde te bereik as wat in Massachusetts gedoen is.

R.O.L.I. begin met die idee om 'n park op die eiendom van mnr. Steichen te bou. Geloof in die idee van R.O.L.I., het nog elf burgers by die groep aangesluit. James Jenkins is verkies tot die voorsitter van die eerste vergadering en William Karraker is as voorsitter van die organisasie verkies. Hulle plan was om die grootte van die pakkie te verander sodat die grond wat beskikbaar is vir die aankoop van die stad, minder as 'n miljoen dollar werd sou wees. Hulle was dit eens dat as R.O.L.I. genoeg oppervlakte gekoop het, sou die waarde van die oorblywende grond onder 'n miljoen dollar beloop word.

R.O.L.I. kon 'n banknota vir $ 350,000 dollar beding om slegs deur die handtekeninge van die 23 lede van R.O.L.I. Dit het R.O.L.I. 117 van die 387 hektaar te koop. Die nota is op 1 Maart 1971 onderteken.

Die stad het inderdaad die ander 270 hektaar gekoop, en dit word nou gebruik vir oop ruimte en 'n natuurpark.

Maar R.O.L.I. moes sy geld terugkry. Hulle het besluit om hul oppervlakte in erwe te verkoop. Die kleinste is 2,8 hektaar en die grootste 10,6 hektaar. Hulle het al 15 erwe verkoop en uiteindelik 'n wins behaal. Hierdie winste is aangewend om die Bewaringskommissie en die Land Trust te help.

History of Redding is nie 'n besigheid of 'n organisasie nie. Dit is een persoon wat die geskiedenis van sy tuisdorp wil bevorder
en omliggende gebiede. Alle koste is uit die sak, sodat skenkings en/of borgskappe my meer tyd kan afstaan
en moeite om navorsing en opdaterings te doen.


Verdere leeswerk

Steichen se eie rekening was 'N Lewe in fotografie (1963). Biografieë ingesluit: Penelope Niven's Steichen: 'n Biografie (Crown, 1997) Patricia Johnston's Real Fantasies: Edward Steichen's Advertising Photography (University of California Press, 1997) en Eric Sandeen's Stel 'n uitstalling voor: The "Family of Man" en Amerika uit die 1950's (University of New Mexico Press, 1995). 'N Ou biografie is Carl Sandburg, Steichen, die fotograaf (1929). 'N Groot, verteenwoordigende keuse van Steichen se werk was die New York Museum of Modern Art, Steichen die fotograaf (1961), uitstallingskatalogus met teks deur Sandburg, Alexander Liberman en Steichen en chronologie deur Grace M. Mayer. □


Edward Steichen - Biografie en nalatenskap

Eduard Jean Steichen is gebore in Bivange, Luxemburg in 1879. Sy pa, Jean-Pierre, verhuis die volgende jaar na die Verenigde State, Eduard en sy ma, Marie, in 1881, nadat sy pa werk in die kopermyne in Hancock gekry het. , naby Chicago. Eduard se suster Lilian is kort daarna in 1883 gebore. Die Steichen-gesin verhuis in 1889 na Milwaukee, Wisconsin, waar Marie, as gevolg van die agteruitgang van sy gesondheid, die rol van broodwinner aangeneem het as molenaar.

Toe hy vyftien was, het Steichen 'n vakleerlingskap in litografie by die American Fine Art Company van Milwaukee begin. Kort voor lank het hy die aanleg getoon om te teken en vinnig deur die geledere gegaan om 'n litografie -ontwerper te word. Hy het in 1895 'n tweedehandse kamera gekoop en homself begin leer hoe om foto's te neem. Hy studeer ook skilderkuns in sy vrye tyd en sy eerste uitstappies na fotografie het die skildertegnieke van die piktoristiese styl wat destyds in die mode was, behoorlik herhaal. Sy werkgewers was beïndruk met sy fotografiese werk en dring daarop aan dat die ontwerpe van die onderneming voortaan uit sy werk moet kom. Kort daarna het Steichen en 'n uitgesoekte groep vriende die Milwaukee Art Students League gevorm. Die Liga het 'n kamer in 'n sentrumgebou gehuur om in te werk en lesings aan te bied. In 1899 is die foto's van Steichen uitgestal in die tweede Philadelphia Photographic Salon langs die van Alfred Stieglitz en Clarence H. White. Die geleentheid was 'n voorspel vir 'n vrugbare professionele verhouding tussen die mans.

In 1900 skryf White aan Stieglitz om voor te stel dat hy met Steichen moet vergader. Die ontmoeting was 'n sukses, in werklikheid, dat Stieglitz Steichen se vroeë mentor en medewerker geword het. Stieglitz, wat 13 jaar oud was as Steichen en wat reeds 'n reputasie vir homself gemaak het, het drie van Steichen se afdrukke gekoop (vir $ 5 elk). Dit was die eerste afdrukke wat Steichen ooit verkoop het. In dieselfde jaar het Steichen 'n genaturaliseerde burger van die VSA geword en die spelling van sy naam verander van 'Eduard' in 'Edward'.

In Oktober 1900 het die Boston -fotograaf F. Holland Day 'n belangrike uitstalling aangebied met die titel Die New School of American Photography by die Londense hoofkwartier van die Royal Photographic Society. Sommige van die inhoud van die uitstalling het die Britse pers en die publiek geskok: inderdaad, Die fotografie nuus beweer dat die versameling 'bevorder is deur die gekheid van 'n paar kranksinniges'. Daar was 'n mate van onrustigheid oor die skool se 'progressiewe' piktorialistiese metode (in stryd met Day, Stieglitz wou nie deelneem aan die uitstalling nie), maar die ergernis was hoofsaaklik op Day gerig ('n persoon wat opspraak was, en wat homself op Oscar Wilde gemodelleer het) vir sy homoerotiese beelde met naakte swart mans en 'n selfportret waarin hy homself as Christus voorgestel het. Tog, te midde van die ontsteltenis, is die 22-jarige Steichen uitgesonder vir 'n warboel lof.

Tussen 1900 en 1902 het Steichen 'n ateljee op die boheemse linkeroewer -gebied van Parys geneem. Sy verbintenis met Europese moderniste was baie nuttig vir sy volgende mede-poging met Stieglitz: die galery in Fifth Avenue 291. Handel tussen 1905 en 1917, en amptelik die Klein galerye van die fotosessie, het dit gou eenvoudig bekend geword as 291. Danksy Steichen se Franse verbindings is die 291 gallery was verantwoordelik vir die bekendstelling van die werk van opkomende (en nou legendariese) Franse avant-gardiste aan die Amerikaanse publiek. In die eerste vyf werksjare het die galery werke van Rodin, Cezanne, Matisse en Picasso uitgestal.

In 1902 stig Steichen en Stieglitz die artistieke groep Foto-sessie, 'n groep fotograwe, waaronder White, Eva Watson-Schutze, William B. Dyer en Edmund Stirling. Die groep wou die foto as kuns vier, maar met die klem veral op Pictorialisme en die verskeidenheid tegnieke wat gebruik kan word om die oorspronklike komposisie te manipuleer en te verander. Die geboorte van Foto-sessie het min of meer saamgeval met die eerste uitgawe van die invloedryke kwartaalliks Kamerawerk. Gestig deur Stieglitz en Steichen, Kamerawerk, waarvoor Steichen die logo en bladuitlegte ontwerp het en opstelle bygedra het, strek van 1903 tot 1917. Die tweede uitgawe was feitlik uitsluitlik gewy aan Steichen se werk en gedurende sy 14 jaar lange geskiedenis het Steichen geword Kamerawerk mees gereelde bydraer (met ongeveer 70 inskrywings). Steichen se betrokkenheid by die tydskrif is egter in 1906 onderbreek toe hy saam met sy gesin na Parys terugkeer - Steichen was in 1903 getroud met Cara E. Smith, 'n musikant wat hy tydens sy vroeëre besoek aan Parys ontmoet het - tot 1914. Hoewel hy nog in staat was om by te dra Kamerawerk, sy primêre motivering om na die Franse hoofstad terug te keer, was om op sy skildery te konsentreer.

Middeljare

In 1910 het verdeeldheid tussen lede van die Foto-sessie, as gevolg van uiteenlopende menings oor die wankelende artistieke geloofwaardigheid van Pictorialisme. Daar was 'n nuwe oproep om 'n suiwer fotografiese styl wat nuwe perspektiewe en detail vir gewone of voorheen geïgnoreerde onderwerpe in die naam van beeldende kuns sou bring. Die nuwe estetika het in die tweede helfte van die dekade inspirasie gekry van Paul Strand, wie se 'Straight' estetika alle vorme van piktorisme veroordeel het. Die Foto-sessie Die groep het omstreeks hierdie tyd ontbind, en Steichen het self begin met kommersiële fotografie. In 1911 het hy die opdrag gekry om foto's vir die Franse tydskrif te neem Art et Decoration. Sy beelde sou 'n stuk van die Franse mode -ontwerper Paul Poiret vergesel, en word nou algemeen beskou as die eerste voorbeelde van modefotografie.

Toe die VSA die Eerste Wêreldoorlog in 1917 betree, het Steichen by die weermag aangesluit en gehelp om die fotografiese afdeling te stig, en uiteindelik bevelvoerder en hoof van lugfotografie geword. In hierdie rol moes hy sy benadering tot fotografie verander en sy piktoristiese styl laat vaar vir 'n meer veeleisende, realistiese metode. Die oorlog dui ook op 'n laaste breuk tussen hom en Stieglitz. Eerstens het Stieglitz Steichen se oorgang tot kommersiële fotografie afgekeur, en tweedens het die mans teenoorgestelde standpunte oor die oorlog gehad. Stieglitz, 'n Duitser, was veral bekommerd oor die veiligheid van sy familie en vriende in Duitsland. Hy was ook bekommerd oor praktiese en kommersiële kommer, soos die feit dat hy 'n nuwe drukker vir die fotograwe moes vind Kamerawerk, wat tot dusver in Duitsland gedruk is. Steichen het op sy beurt Amerika se betrokkenheid by die oorlog ondersteun en hy was meer bekommerd oor die lot van Luxemburg (die land van sy geboorte) en sy geliefde Frankryk. Teen die tyd dat die oorlog geëindig het, het Steichen sy fotografiese tegniek heeltemal herwaardeer en die piktorisme en skildery heeltemal laat vaar. Hy het gesê dat: "As 'n skilder het ek 'n hoë muurpapier vervaardig met 'n goue raam daar rondom [.] Het ons al die skilderye wat ek gemaak het, in die tuin getrek en 'n vuur gemaak van die hele ding [.] was 'n bevestiging van my geloof in fotografie en die opening van 'n hele nuwe wêreld vir my. "

Hy en Clara is in 1922 geskei ná 'n paar jaar van wreedheid. Die egpaar het twee dogters, Katherine en Mary, maar hulle het 'n moeilike verhouding met hul pa gehad, deels weens Clara se beskuldigings van Steichen se ontrouheid. Steichen trou in 1923 met die aktrise Dana Desboro Glover. Dieselfde jaar keer hy terug na die modewêreld en beklee die pos as hooffotograaf vir Condé Nast, die uitgewer van hoogstaande modetydskrifte soos Vogue en Vanity Fair. Steichen het die wêreld van modefotografie dan effektief verander deur syne te maak Haute couture beelde meer geanimeerde en vindingryker. Hy het ook verskeie portrette geneem van hooggeplaastes en Stars of stage en screen waaronder Lillian Gish (as Ophelia), Marlene Dietrich, Gloria Swanson, Greta Garbo en Paul Robeson. Oor sy opname met Robeson het Steichen die volgende gesê: "By die fotografie van 'n kunstenaar, soos Paul Robeson, kry die fotograaf uitsonderlike materiaal om mee saam te werk. Met ander woorde, hy [die fotograaf] kan op niks verdien nie. , maar dit gaan nie ver nie, tensy die fotograaf waaksaam, gereed en in staat is om van so 'n geleentheid gebruik te maak. "

Later jare

After working for 15 years in the fashion industry, Steichen closed his studio on January 1 st , 1938. When World War II broke out, Steichen took up his second military post as Director of the Naval Aviation Photographic Unit. During his service (through which he rose to the rank of Captain) he produced two shows - The Road to Victory en Power in the Pacific - for the Museum of Modern Art, and directed his only film, a documentary entitled The Fighting Lady. The film followed the life of an aircraft carrier of the same name and won the Academy Award for Best Documentary in 1945.

Following the war, Steichen served as Director of the Department of Photography at New York's Museum of Modern Art between 1947 and 1961. In 1955 he curated and assembled the exhibit The Family of Man, an exhibition that travelled across the world and was seen by an estimated nine million people over eight years. The exhibition, the most famous photographic exhibition of all time, brought together works by two hundred and seventy-three different photographers, including the likes of Ansel Adams, Diane and Allan Arbus, Robert Frank, Nora Dumas, Lee Miller, Henk Jonker, and August Sander. Steichen had worked on the selection of images for two years and wanted to show the wide range of experiences photography can capture. In the press release from the time he said "[The photographers] have photographed the everyday story of man - his aspirations, his hopes, his loves, his foibles, his greatness, his cruelty his compassion, his relations to his fellow man as it is seen in him wherever he happens to live, whatever language he happens to speak, whatever clothes he happens to wear."

In 1957, Dana, his wife of 34 years, died of leukaemia. Three years later the 80-year-old Steichen married the copywriter Joanna Taub, 53 years his junior. They remained together until his death in 1973 when she became the guardian of her husband's legacy. While in his last year at MoMA, a 14-year-old boy named Stephen Shore rang Steichen to ask if he could show him some of his photographs. Admiring of the boy's audacity, Steichen allowed him an appointment and bought three of the images. Shore, known predominantly for his color photography, has gone on to have a long and laureled career.

In 1963 Steichen published his autobiography A life in Photography. He died on March 25th, 1973 at the age of 93 in his home on a farm in West Connecticut.

The Legacy of Edward Steichen

Steichen's place in the pantheon of photographic greats was secured as a young man through his contribution to three interlocked bodies: the Photo-Secession group Camera Work en die 291 Gallery. With his colleagues he was instrumental in establishing a permanent footing for photography amongst the modern plastic arts and as such his influence can be traced through a range of photographic genres. He made the most personal impact however on fashion photography and magazine portraiture. The renowned photography historian Beaumont Newhall put it perfectly when he said that "Armed with his mastery of technique, and with his brilliant sense of design and ability to grasp in an image the personality of a sitter, [Steichen] began to raise magazine illustrations to a creative level." Curators and art critics William A. Ewing and Todd Brandow went further still when they suggested that Steichen "was among a tiny band of talented photographers who elevated celebrity portraiture from the status of formulaic publicity stills to an aesthetically sophisticated genre in its own right."

Through Steichen is primarily - and rightly - known through his photography, he was also crucial in bringing the works of highly distinguished French artists such as Rodin, Cézanne and Matisse to the United States. His curation of Family of Man exhibition, meanwhile, suggested new possibilities for photographic portraiture as at once an art form and a means of reaching a more nuanced understanding of the complexities of humankind.

Steichen was the recipient of numerous awards and honors in his lifetime including the Presidential Medal of Freedom (for his work in Photography) in 1963. He has been the subject of books and exhibitions and in 1974 he was inducted (having already served on its advisory board) into the International Photography Hall of Fame and Museum. In 1994, meanwhile, The Family of Man Exhibition found a permanent home in Luxembourg (Steichen's birthplace) where it is housed in the Steichen Museum. Perhaps the last word on his legacy should go to the esteemed American poet Carl Sandberg who said this of Steichen's work: "A scientist and a speculative philosopher stands [at the] back of Steichen's best picture. They will not yield their meaning and essence on the first look nor the thousandth -- which is the test of masterpieces."


Edward Steichen

He apprenticed with the American Fine Art Company, a lithography firm. Painting and drawing regularly, his natural talent developed and soon he was designing posters for the company. Steichen was introduced to photography and bought his first camera, a Kodak 50-exposure box camera, in 1895.

Steichen’s artistic instincts and abilities were only transferred to the camera, and within a few years he was exhibiting photographs rather than his paintings. By 1898, he had his first show with the Philadelphia Photographic Salon, which had one juror, Clarence White. One year later, Clarence White and Alfred Stieglitz were the judges for a photography show to be held at the Chicago Art Institute, and almost all of Steichen’s entries were accepted. In 1900, F. Holland Day opened The New School of American Photography in London, and Steichen’s photographs were included. That same year, Steichen decided to go to New York.

During Steichen’s brief visit to New York, Stieglitz bought some of Steichen’s photographs for only $5 each! They were the first photographs Steichen had sold. A restless artist, in May 1900 Steichen went to Europe on the S.S. Champagne to visit F. Holland Day and see the school. He lived in Paris until 1902 where he exhibited widely and met Rodin. When Steichen returned to New York, Steiglitz hailed him as “the greatest photographer.” Steichen did not believe in “specialism.” He said, “I believe that art is cosmopolitan and that one should touch all points. I hate specialism. That is the ruin of art…” While in Paris Steichen experimented with pigmented processing and upon his return to America, he furthered his experimental stages with photography, working with platinum, gum bichromate, gelatin silver carbon and any combination of the mentioned. The photography magazine Camera Work was Steichen’s perfect artistic avenue.

In 1902, Steichen and Stieglitz began their long and productive relationship and became the founding members of the Photo-Secession. The No. 2 issue of Camera Work was dedicated almost entirely to Steichen’s photography. Over the life of the magazine, Steichen was published more than 70 times. This was more than any photographer collected and published by Stieglitz. In addition to his photographic contributions, Steichen also edited, designed the layouts and wrote critical essays. His work with the magazine was interrupted in 1906 when he returned to Paris where he and his family (he married in 1903 to Clara E. Smith) lived until 1914.

Although over seas, Steichen continued his contributions to Camera Work, and while in Paris he learned of many artists and sent information about Cezanne, Picasso, Rodin and others who eventually were shown in New York at gallery 291. While remaining active with photography in America and experimenting with the Autochrome process in Paris, Steichen went to Paris to concentrate on painting. He helped organize the New Society of American Painters in Paris. He also exhibited at the Albright Art Gallery at the International Exhibition of Pictorial Photography in New York. The catalogue for the show read, “in the struggle for the recognition of photography, Mr. Steichen’s work has been one of the most powerful factors, and his influence on some workers, both in America and Europe, has been marked.” Alfred Stieglitz has been proclaimed as the one person responsible for bringing modern art to America, but it was Steichen who introduced it to Stieglitz in many respects. Steichen also experimented with photography as art more expansively than most photographers of his time. This was not, however the extent of his work.

By 1911, Steichen began fashion photography with Art et Decoration. This marked a new era in his life and the beginning of the end of his relationship with Stieglitz who did not agree with commercial photography. However, as Steichen is quoted, he wanted to explore the many aspects of the art of photography. He once said, “I shall use the camera as long as I live, for it can say things that cannot be said with any other medium.”

Steichen returned to the United States in 1914 and eventually joined the Army during World War I and helped to establish and became commander of the photographic division of the Army Expeditionary Forces, devoting much his work there to aerial photography. He left the service in 1919 with a rank if Lt. Colonel. This experience had made its impression. He was to return to fashion and commercial photography, but with a new outlook. The success of aerial photography lay in the high definition. Steichen saw the beauty of clearly focused photography and by 1920 he completely rejected Pictorialism, burned his paintings and devoted himself entirely to modernist ideas. “As a painter I was producing a high grade wall paper with a gold frame around it….we pulled all the paintings I had made out into the yard and we made a bonfire of the whole thing….it was a confirmation of my faith in photography, and the opening of a whole new world to me.”

From 1923 until 1937 Steichen worked for the Conde Nast publications, Vogue and Vanity Fair and freelance commercial work with great financial success. He raised the standards of fashion and commercial photography, taking portraits of the likes of Chaplin, Gershwin, Mencken and Garbo. During this time he divorced his first wife and remarried to Dana Desboro Glover and took permanent residence in the United States. He retired from fashion and commercial photography in 1937. A few years later he was commissioned Lt. Commander in the United States Navy Reserve and eventually became director of the U.S. Naval Photography Division during World War II. His first unit held seven young men, who Steichen expressed the importance of photographing the men in the army. He said, “the ships and planes, they would be obsolete before long, but the men never go obsolete.” By the end of his Navy career in 1945 he had been placed in charge of 4,000 men, all of the navy combat photographers, and was ranked Captain. Also during his service he directed the two shows for the Museum of Modern Art, The Road to Victory and Power in the Pacific. Steichen also supervised the filming of The Fighting Lady. And yet, his career was not yet over.

Two years after he retired from the Navy, Edward Steichen became the director of the Photography Department at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. There he created what has become the most famous photographic exhibition of all time, The Family of Man. It opened in January, 1955. For three years Steichen traveled the world to form this exhibition. The main purpose or theme of the exhibit, according to Steichen, was to create “a mirror of the essential oneness of mankind.” Photography as the universal language inspired him to compose the exhibit with more than 500 photographs from 273 photographers from 68 different countries. Amateur to professional photographers, including Ernst Haas, Robert Capa, Eugene Smith, Henri Cartier-Bresson and Andreas Feininger were sought for The Family of Man. All rights of the images were forfeited and Steichen had complete creative control. He would crop, blow-up, reduce the images as he pleased to have his visual message read that all the world experiences happiness of love and sorrow of death. Although considered one of the greatest exhibitions, seen by 9,000,000 people, it did have its critics, however. Photography critic for the New York Times, Jacob Deschin wrote, “the show is essentially a picture story to support a concept and an editorial achievement rather than an exhibition of photography.”

The exhibit toured for eight years. It saw 37 countries on 6 continents and holds the record for the highest attendance of any exhibition. At the end of its tour, the exhibit experienced thirty years of neglect. Finally, it made its way to Luxembourg in 1994 where it is now conserved in the Steichen museum. During his directorship until 1962 Steichen curated numerous other exhibits and collected diverse photography for the museum.

Throughout his lifetime Steichen received countless awards and honors. He has been the subject of numerous articles, books and exhibitions. His obvious contribution to photography led to his induction into the International Photography Hall of Fame and Museum in 1974. Before his induction he served on the International Photography Hall of Fame and Museum’s Advisory Board. The museum holds several of Steichen’s photographs, including several from Camera Work and one of his most famous, The Flat Iron.

Today I am no longer concerned with photography as an art form. I believe it is potentially the best medium for explaining man to himself and to his fellow man.


Edward Steichen

Edward Steichen was the older brother of Lillian and became brother-in-law to Carl. These three people remained inextricably tied throughout their lives. They were bound together by personal and professional relationships and believed that art should be a civilizing force and a humanizing power in the modern world.

Steichen assisted Sandburg in selecting images for Sandburg's Lincoln biographies. Their most important collaboration was the 1955 Museum of Modern Art exhibition The Family of Man . Steichen, who was then director of photography at the Museum, curated this unprecedented exhibit that featured 503 images from 273 photographers in 68 countries. The exhibit featured a prologue by Sandburg that expressed their shared belief in the universal oneness of humanity.

Steichen was instrumental in helping to establish photography as art, introducing modern art to America, defining American culture with his celebrity portraits of the 1920s and 1930s, and documenting the human drama of World War II.


Oral history interview with Edward Steichen, 1970 June 5

Format: Originally recorded on 1 sound tape reel. Reformatted in 2010 as 4 digital wav files. Duration is 2 hr., 9 min.

Summary: An interview of Edward Steichen conducted 1970 June 5, by Paul Cummings, for the Archives of American Art.

Biographical/Historical Note

Edward Steichen (1879-1973) was a photographer from New York, N.Y.

Provenance

These interviews are part of the Archives of American Art Oral History Program, started in 1958 to document the history of the visual arts in the United States, primarily through interviews with artists, historians, dealers, critics and others.

Language Note

How to Use This Collection

For information on how to access this interview contact Reference Services.

Quotes and excerpts must be cited as follows: Oral history interview with Edward Steichen, 1970 June 5. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.


Captain Edward J. Steichen, USN Ret. Army & Navy Combat Photographer WWI & WWII Received the French Legion of Honor, Distinguished Service Medal, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and Commander of the Order of Merit (Germany)

Edward Steichen (born Eduard Jean Steichen, 27 March 1879 in Bivange, Luxembourg) was one of the premier photographers of his generation. Aside from being one of the first to go into color photography, he also helped usher in the era of fashion photography.

During WWI he joined the Army Photographic Corps at the age of 38. He joined the Navy in January 1942 at the age of 63.

Steichen had retired in 1938, and closed his studio to devote his time to plant breeding. Soon afterwards he would find himself trying to reenlist in the military at the age of 61 as America faced the prospect of World War II. After his third attempt to reenlist he was commissioned a Lieutenant Commander in 1942, and headed the Naval Aviation Photographic Unit, which documented aircraft carriers in action. His first assignment was to complete an exhibition he had started for The Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1941, on national defense. He organized the extremely popular exhibition "Road to Victory" that had 150 images and opened in May 1942, at MoMA. The show then traveled to many American cities and to London, Australia, and South America.

He directed the creation of the war documentary "The Fighting Lady," chronicling the battles of the crew of the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Yorktown, which won the 1944 Academy Award for Best Documentary.

In 1945, his second joint Navy and MoMA exhibition, "Power in the Pacific," went on display. He was officially discharged in 1945, at the age of 67, and received the Distinguished Service Medal. Steichen left the Navy with the rank of Captain, as Director of the WWII Naval Photographic Institute.

Steichen was the recipient of many awards, some of which include his status as Chevalier of France's Légion d'Honneur, awarded in 1919, the Presidential Medal of Freedom (1963), and the Commander of Order of Merit, Germany (1966).

In 1963, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President John F. Kennedy, however Kennedy was assassinated before he could present it. President Lyndon B. Johnson presented it to him in December 1963.

Edward Steichen died in West Redding Connecticut on March 25, 1973, at the age of 94.

The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is&mdashalong with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal bestowed by an act of U.S. Congress&mdashthe highest civilian award in the United States.


Edward Steichen

Zoë Samels, &ldquoEdward Steichen,&rdquo NGA Online Editions, https://purl.org/nga/collection/constituent/5478 (accessed June 27, 2021).

Verwante inhoud
Biografie

Born in Luxembourg, Steichen emigrated as a small child to the United States with his parents, eventually settling in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. At 15 he began a four-year apprenticeship at a lithography firm there and became interested in painting while studying at the newly established Milwaukee Art Students’ League. In 1895 he acquired his first camera. Steichen’s photographs from this time are soft-focused and atmospheric, reflecting his primary interest in painting and the influence of the impressionists, especially Claude Monet (French, 1840 - 1926) , as well as the American pictorialist photographers such as Clarence H. White (American, 1871 - 1925) .

In 1900 Steichen made a brief stopover in New York City en route to Paris, where he was planning to study painting at the Académie Julian. White had come across the young artist’s photographs and was impressed enough to arrange for him to meet with Alfred Stieglitz (American, 1864 - 1946) at the Camera Club of New York. Stieglitz ended up purchasing three photographs from Steichen—a self portrait and two dreamy forest scenes—for the considerable price of five dollars apiece.

Once in Paris, Steichen soon gave up painting and began focusing exclusively on the medium of photography. His artistic education there was twofold: Steichen both worked to improve his technical skills behind the camera and in the darkroom and also availed himself of the city’s vast artistic resources. By the time he left Paris in 1902, he had established himself as a successful portraitist of writers, artists, and other high-profile clients.

Upon returning to New York in 1902, Steichen opened a professional portrait studio at 291 Fifth Avenue. The same year, he became a founder, along with Stieglitz, of the Photo-Secession group. This coincided with Stieglitz’s establishment of the magazine Camera Work, in which Steichen’s photographs frequently featured, including a “Special Steichen Supplement” in April 1906 and a monographic double issue in 1913. In 1905 the two artists repurposed Steichen’s studio space for photography exhibitions originally called The Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession, the space became known simply as 291 after its Fifth Avenue address. Eleven of Steichen’s photographs were featured in 291’s inaugural exhibition and four solo shows of his work followed over the next few years. His studio portrait business continued to flourish, attracting celebrity clients such as banking magnate J. P. Morgan.

In 1906, feeling stifled by his portrait commissions and hoping to return to painting, Steichen moved back to Paris. Soon he was sending Stieglitz works of art for display at 291 by the European modernists he befriended there, including Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881 - 1973) , Auguste Rodin (French, 1840 - 1917) , and Henri Matisse (French, 1869 - 1954) . For some of these artists, it was the first time American audiences had been introduced to their work.

The outbreak of World War I forced Steichen’s return to New York. Though he continued to experiment with photography, especially complicated printing techniques, Steichen still identified himself as a painter. In 1915 an exhibition of his paintings was held at Knoedler Gallery, comprised of small works he had been able to take out of France as well as works already in the United States owned by friends and patrons. Also included were seven canvases listed in the catalog as “Mural Decorations Painted for Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Meyer, Jr. Motive: -- In Exaltation of Flowers,” a commission Steichen had worked on from 1911 to 1914. Two years later Knoedler organized a second show of Steichen’s paintings.

When the United States entered World War I, Steichen’s attention turned to photojournalism. From 1917 to 1919 the artist served as the commander of the photographic division of the US Army Expeditionary Forces, overseeing the production of aerial photographs. This photographic turn caused a rift with Stieglitz, who had loftier ambitions for the medium. The two suffered a personal and professional schism when Steichen accepted a job with Condé Nast to produce fashion and celebrity portraits, a role which won him great acclaim. By that time, Steichen’s commitment to the photographic medium was absolute. He had even taken the symbolic step of burning all of the paintings remaining in his studio in France sometime between 1920 and 1923.

During World War II the artist once again enlisted and was placed in charge of all naval combat photography. In 1947 Steichen gave up his artistic practice and became director of the photography department at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), where in 1955 he organized the Family of Man exhibition. Featuring 503 photographs of the human experience from hundreds of photographers both professional and amateur from around the world, the show went on to travel the globe and was seen by over nine million people.

A retrospective of Steichen’s work was held at MoMA in 1961 he retired the following year and the museum's photography department is named for him. President Lyndon Johnson presented Steichen with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1963. In the last decade of his life Steichen spent much of his time on his farm in West Redding, Connecticut, where he grew prize-winning delphiniums and revisited his early interest in landscape photography. Steichen passed away at home the day before his 94th birthday.


Dallas Museum of Art Uncrated

Seven murals painted by Edward Steichen are undergoing conservation treatment this summer in the DMA’s Cindy and Howard Rachofsky Quadrant Gallery. After treatment is completed, the rare and exquisite murals will be on view September 5, 2017, through May 28, 2018, as part of the exhibition Edward Steichen: In Exaltation of Flowers (1910-1914), overseen by the Pauline Gill Sullivan Associate Curator of American Art at the DMA, Sue Canterbury.

Coleus – The Florence Meyer Poppy being unrolled from a travel tube

Edward Steichen, born Eduard Jean Steichen in 1879, was an American artist who was both a painter and photographer during his lifetime. Most of his paintings and photographs were produced for the American art market while he was living in the United States or France. He stayed in Paris for about a year in 1901 and then returned to Paris a second time in 1906 it was then that he joined the New Society of American Artists. One of his friends in Paris was an American student at the Sorbonne named Agnes Ernst, and she later played a large role in Steichen’s commission for In Exaltation of Flowers. In 1908, Steichen moved from Paris to his villa, L’Oiseu Bleu, in Voulangis, France. There, he cultivated a garden and built a small studio with a skylight.

In 1910 Agnes Ernst married Eugene Meyer and the couple traveled to L’Oiseu Bleu during their honeymoon. The three friends likely discussed the commission for In Exaltation of Flowers during that visit. This commission would include seven 10-foot-tall murals designed for a foyer in the Meyers’ new townhouse at 71st Street and Park Avenue, which the Meyers acquired in 1911. The commission was $15,000 and these artworks became Steichen’s most ambitious undertaking.

As Steichen worked on the Meyers’ commission from 1910 to 1914, many of their American friends visited Voulangis, including Arthur Carles, Mercedes de Cordoba, Katharine Rhoades , Marion Beckett, and Isadora Duncan. Some of these visitors identified with specific floral personifications, which became incorporated into Steichen’s tempera and gold leaf compositions. Die In Exaltation of Flowers series consists of the following seven panels:

    1. Gloxinia – Delphinium: a kneeling woman (likely Isadora Duncan) with Gloxinia, Delphinium, and Caladium flowers
    2. Clivia – Fuchsia – Hilium – Henryi: one woman sitting (possibly Isadora Duncan or Marion Beckett) and another woman standing (likely Katharine Rhoades) with Clivia, Fuchsia, and Henry Lily flowers
    3. Coleus – The Florence Meyer Poppy: Florence Meyer (first child of Eugene and Agnes Meyer) with a butterfly and poppies
    4. Petunia – Begonia – The Freer Bronze: a Zhou Dynasty bronze (symbolizing Charles Lang Freer, a collector of Asian art and benefactor of the Freer Gallery in Washington, DC) with Petunia and Begonia flowers
    5. Rose – Geranium: Katharine Rhoades with a fruit-bearing tree, roses, and geraniums
    6. Petunia – Caladium – Budleya: two standing women (Marion Beckett and an unidentified woman in the background), with Petunia, Iris, Caladium, and Budleya (other spelling variants include Buddleia and Buddleja) flowers
    7. Golden Banded Lily – Violets: a standing woman (likely Agnes Meyer) with Golden Banded Lily and Violet (also identified as Begonia rex) flowers

    Coleus – The Florence Meyer Poppy in the DMA’s Cindy and Howard Rachofsky Quadrant Gallery

    Even before receiving the Meyers’ commission, Steichen had been painting and photographing women and flowers however, his depiction of the subject matter and use of gold leaf in In Exaltation of Flowers alludes to influences from French couture designer Paul Poiret and Art Nouveau painters Gustav Klimt, Alphonse Mucha, Pierre Bonnard, and Maurice Denis.

    All seven murals in In Exaltation of Flowers were completed by 1914. Even though they had originally been commissioned for the townhouse on 71st Street and Park Avenue, the paintings were never displayed in that building. Due to financial hardship, the Meyers had to sell their townhouse earlier in 1914, and Steichen’s intended sequence for the murals remains unknown today. The order listed above is based on a 1915 checklist from their presentation at the Knoedler Galleries in New York. Two of the murals were later displayed at the Pennsylvania Academy in 1921 and 1996, and at least one mural was displayed at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in 1988. The DMA’s presentation this fall of the murals, which are part of a private collection, will mark the first time the seven panels have been exhibited together since their debut at the Knoedler Galleries 102 years ago.

    Rose – Geranium in the DMA’s Cindy and Howard Rachofsky Quadrant Gallery


    Kyk die video: Journée mondial du livre à lécole internationale Edward Steichen