The Music of the Maya: Mysterious whistles Confound Experts

The Music of the Maya: Mysterious whistles Confound Experts

Musiek speel al duisende jare 'n besondere rol in die menslike samelewing. In antieke China, byvoorbeeld, is stelle bronsklokke gespeel vir vermaaklikheid en rituele doeleindes by die hof. Die komplementêre kleure wat deur die verskillende klokke geproduseer word, weerspieël die Confuciaanse harmonie -ideaal. In antieke Rome sou 'n fluitspeler by die offerande teenwoordig wees om versteurings van die eksterne omgewing te verdrink. Musiek was ook sentraal in die rituele en tradisies van die Maya's, duidelik in die voorwerpe wat in die argeologiese rekord gelaat is.

Die Maya's het talle blaas- en slaginstrumente gehad, waaronder fluitjies, fluitjies, trompette, ratels, been- en kalbasse en tromme. Hierdie instrumente is in tekste beskryf en uitgebeeld in Maya -kuns. Een van die mees interessante instrumente wat gevind is, is die Maya -fluitjie.

Maya -voëlfluitjie word omstreeks 1000 nC gemaak. Krediet: William Scott / Bron: BigStockPhoto

Maya -fluitjies is op verskeie argeologiese terreine gevind. Byvoorbeeld, agt van hierdie fluitjies is gevind tydens die opgrawing deur die INAH (Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia) op die terrein van Yaxchilan in Chiapas, Mexiko, tussen 1989 en 1991. Die fluitjies van hierdie webwerf is gevorm soos paddas en produseer 'n geluid wat lyk soos die geraas wat deur paddas gemaak word.

Links: 'n fluitjie in die vorm van 'n padda van Yaxchilan ( Tlapitzalli.com). Regs: Maya -aapfluitjie. (William Scott / BigStockPhoto)

Afgesien van Mexiko, is sulke fluitjies ook gevind in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Columbia, Ecuador en Peru, 'n aanduiding dat hierdie streke moontlik tot een gemeenskaplike musikale sfeer behoort het. Hierdie fluitjies word egter eeue lank as nuuskierighede beskou, eerder as musiekinstrumente, en dit word lankal beskou as drinkgoed. As gevolg van hul vreemde vorms, is hierdie fluitjies vanuit 'n artistieke, eerder as 'n musikale oogpunt ondersoek, en dit is eers onlangs dat hul musikale eienskappe werklik aandag geniet.

MEER

Fluitjie in die vorm van 'n balspeler, laat klassieke Maya - San Diego Museum of Man ( Wikimedia Commons )

Dit is van klei gemaak en dit is nie verbasend dat die fluitjies al so lank bestaan ​​nie. Aangesien klei 'n baie smeebare materiaal is, kan dit maklik in verskillende vorms gevorm word. Die fluitjies kan dus gevorm word soos diere, mense en mitiese wesens. Sodra hulle afgevuur is, word die fluitjies verhard en is dit gereed om gebruik te word.

Dit is onduidelik hoe die fluitjies gebruik is. Aangesien hierdie instrument baie moeite en moeite gedoen is, is dit onwaarskynlik dat die fluitjies as speelgoed gebruik is. Hulle het eerder 'n meer belangrike en ernstige funksie gehad.

Aangesien sommige van hierdie fluitjies in begraafplase gevind is, word bespiegel dat dit tydens begrafnisrituele gebruik is, miskien deur musikante wat die begrafnisstoet begelei. Daar word ook voorgestel dat die fluitjies tydens menslike offers gebruik is. Daar word gesê dat die geraas wat deur die fluitjies uitgestraal word, die bewussyn van die slagoffers kan verander, moontlik in 'n droomtoestand kan stuur.

Maya -vaartuig met 'n toneel van menslike offerande. Guatemala of Mexiko, c. AD 600 - 850. Is fluitjies gebruik om die bewussynstoestand van die slagoffers voor die dood te verander?

Die vorms van die fluitjies kan ook 'n idee gee van hul funksie. Fluitjies in die vorm van diere of mitiese wesens, byvoorbeeld, is moontlik in grafte geplaas om die oorledene in die hiernamaals te help. Aan die ander kant kon die kikkervormige fluitjies, soos dié wat in Yaxchilan voorkom, gebruik gewees het op feeste en feeste wat verband hou met die reengod.

Chaac, die Maya -reëngod. Uit The Maya Book of the Dead, The Ceramic Codex.

Die fluitjies van die Maya's is nog steeds vir ons 'n raaisel, en baie navorsing sal nodig wees voordat 'n beter begrip van hierdie musiekinstrumente verkry kan word. Tog kan dit regverdig wees om te sê dat ons 'n paar vordering gemaak het. In plaas daarvan om dit net as kunsvoorwerpe te beskou, sien argeoloë dit nou soos hulle is - musiekinstrumente. Deur hierdie fluitjies, net soos die bronsklokke vir die Chinese en die fluitjies vir die Romeine, kan ons 'n blik kry op die ideale en oortuigings van die Maya's.

Voorgestelde beeld: Maya -musiek: 'n Geverfde beeld van 'n lêer van Maya -musikante wat ratel, ocarina en trompette speel terwyl 'n toneel afspeel.

Verwysings

Associated Press, 2008. Argeoloë herskep die Asteke 'Whistles of Death'. [Aanlyn]
Beskikbaar by: http://www.foxnews.com/story/2008/07/01/archaeologists-recreate-aztec-whistles-death/

Broad, W. J., 1988. Komplekse fluitjies wat sleutelrolle in Inca en Maya Life speel. [Aanlyn]
Beskikbaar by: http://www.nytimes.com/1988/03/29/science/complex-whistles-found-to-play-key-roles-in-inca-and-maya-life.html?pagewanted=1

Cabrera, R. V., 2002. Yaxchilán se kleipaddas. [Aanlyn]
Beskikbaar by: http://www.tlapitzalli.com/rvelaz.geo/frogs/frogs.html

Deur Ḏḥwty


Musical Link 2- Dissonansie en dit beïnvloed die algehele tekstuur

Beide genres word gekenmerk deur klank wat beide mooi en geheimsinnig is. Die musiek klink asof dit oorspronklik gehoor is en nageboots is van 'n soort optog van hemelse wesens na die aarde. Die musiek is aanloklik, maar daar is ook iets ongemakliks daarin. Die ongemaklike gevoel word veroorsaak deur die gebrek aan resolusie teen botsende akkoorde, ook bekend as dissonansie.

In Entenraku verskeie melodielyne en veral die harde klank van die hichiriki maak die dissonante geluid. Die hichiriki op sigself is 'n dissonante instrument, maar gespeel met die melodiese shakuhachi, 'n soort fluit, is dit onmoontlik om ongemerk te bly. Die twee instrumente kom in konflik met mekaar, tot teen die einde van die stuk, wanneer die shakuhachi verlaat en die koto, 'n 13 -snaarplankinstrument, die hoofbegeleiding speel, en aan die einde 'n solo. Daar is minder dissonante kontras tussen die snaar -koto en die riethichiriki as die 2 blaasinstrumente, maar dit word steeds gehoor as die melodielyne bots.

In Tsompantli die dissonansie word hoofsaaklik gehoor tussen die naamlose fluitjie wat die dominante melodie speel en die onderste ostinato -lyn wat gespeel word deur 'n hol blaasinstrument, waarskynlik 'n beenfluit, en soms 'n nog hoër fluit. Die enigste instrument wat nie tot die algehele dissonansie bydra nie, is die panpype, wat die onderverdeling en ritme in die stuk bied, vanweë die totale gebrek aan perkussiewe instrumente. Hierdie stuk sou nie net gekies gewees het as gevolg van wind nie, as die panpype nie die ritme gegee het nie, wat een van die belangrikste aspekte van Maya -musiek is. Die dissonansie is brutaal, en saam met die geheimsinnige instrumentasie skep dit 'n baie ongemaklike tekstuur. Dit is egter nie dissonant tot op die punt dat dit heeltemal onaantreklik vir die luisteraar is nie. Net soos die res van die kultuur, is daar iets fassinerend uniek aan die Maya -musiek, wat dit aantreklik maak vir die nuuskieriges.


Ons is Anna Stacy baie dankbaar vir hierdie uitstekende inleiding tot die musiekinstrumente wat deur die ou Maya gespeel is. Stacy is 'n tweedejaarstudent aan die Brown University (VSA). Omdat sy belangstel om te leer hoe mense werk, volg sy 'n dubbele hoofvak in neurowetenskap en antropologie. Buiten die klas is sy 'n ywerige musikant, aktrise en grafiese ontwerper. Dit is (met toestemming van Anna & rsquos) 'n vereenvoudigde en verkorte weergawe van 'n artikel wat sy in 2014 geskryf het (skakel hieronder) in The Collegiate Journal of Anthropology, getiteld Of the same Stuff as Gods: Musical Instruments among the Classic Maya.

Die Maya's van Mexiko en Sentraal -Amerika lewer al meer as 2 000 jaar musiek op. Gedurende die klassieke tydperk speel musiek 'n belangrike rol in oorlogvoering sowel as in die kommunikasie met gode, voorouers en ander geestelike wesens. Aangesien dit van nature van korte duur en tydelik is, laat vokale musiek nie genoeg spore agter om intensief bestudeer te word in 'n kultuur met min geskrewe rekord van sy musiekpraktyke nie.
Alhoewel dit onmoontlik is om die spesifieke klanke van Maya -musiek heeltemal te herstel, sal ek deur die studie van musiekinstrumente, keramiekvate en die Bonampak -muurskilderye demonstreer dat daar genoeg argeologiese bewyse bestaan ​​om die betekenis en kulturele betekenis van Maya -musiek te interpreteer.

Foto 2: 'n Deel van 'n muurskildery deur Rina Lazo wat die antieke Maya-skryfkuns toon, sterrekunde (met kruisstokkies om die naghemel te sien) en musiek en dans National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City (klik op die foto om te vergroot)

Agtergrond
Die klassieke Maya-kultuur (250-900 CE) kan beskryf word as 'n met groot voorspoed en mag in antieke Meso-Amerika. Dit was 'n tyd van intense verstedeliking, konstruksie en landbouvooruitgang. Gedurende hierdie tydperk is 'n hiërogliewe skryfstelsel geskep, net soos die ikoniese stappiramides. Die Classic Maya het aan die einde van die 9de eeu afgeneem, moontlik as gevolg van droogte of oorjag. Net soos tekste uit ander Meso -Amerikaanse beskawings soos die Asteke of Mixtec, is Maya -geskrifte in die koloniale tydperk in die vroeë 16de eeu deur Europese ontdekkingsreisigers vernietig. Hierdie vernietiging het gepaard gegaan met die onderdrukking van die hiërogliewe geskrewe taal van die Maya's. Die vier oorlewende kodeks is heel waarskynlik net voorheen geskilder, indien nie tydens die verowering nie. Die oorblywende geskrewe bronne is dus die monumente en keramiekvate uit die Maya & rsquos Classic -era.

Foto 3: Bloedbad op Mexika -musikante deur die Spaanse in Tenochtitlan, Mei 1520 Codex Duran fol. 29a (klik op die prentjie om te vergroot)

Musiekinstrumente van die klassieke Maya
Volgens Duran in The History of the Indies of New Spain, was musikante die eerstes wat gedood is, gevolg deur dansers, tydens die bloedbad van die Mexika (Azteekse) adel in die vroeë stadiums van die Spaanse verowering (prent 3). Die conquistadores het alle musiekinstrumente wat hulle kon vind, vernietig omdat hulle van die duiwel afkomstig was. Alhoewel ons geen dokumentêre bewyse het om dit te bewys nie, het ons alle rede om ons voor te stel dat hulle presies dieselfde gedoen het in die geval van die Maya's. Alhoewel ons 'n lang pad bereik het om die hiërogliefiese uitsny van Maya te ontsyfer, moet die Maya -klanke nog nie ontsyfer word nie. Artefakte het egter oorleef wat baie oor klassieke Maya -musiek onthul. Polykrome vase bestaan ​​nog baie, ongeskonde, gekatalogiseer in 'n uitrolfotografiedatabasis deur Justin Kerr. Hierdie vase beeld tonele uit die lewe van die Maya -mense uit. Die Bonampak -muurskilderye van Chiapas, Mexiko, vertel die verhaal in drie dade van 'n viering en rituele opoffering. Hierdie voorwerpe en muurskilderye, wat musikante prominent uitbeeld, saam met stukke of hele musiekinstrumente uit die klassieke tydperk, kan gebruik word om die musiek van die Maya te verken.

Foto 4: Roberto Vel en aacutezquez Cabrera demonstreer hoe om 'n Maya -kalbas -basuin te speel (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

Miskien is die mees opvallende instrument in Maya -vaasskilderye die basuin. Trompette, wat hom-tahs genoem word, kan van hout, klei of kalebas gemaak word (prent 4) en was gevorm soos die moderne didgeridoo met groot klokke aan die einde. Hout-en-kalebas-tahs het plat, sirkelvormige mondstukke gehad, af en toe getemper met byewas om 'n seël teen die lippe van die speler te skep. Kleitrompette het kegelvormige mondstukke, soortgelyk aan dié van die moderne Franse horing, met bekervormige binne- en buitevellings. Die liggame van kleitrompette was af en toe geboë en was dikwels korter as dié van hout- en kleitrompette.

Foto 5: Trompetspelers verwerk saam met ander Maya -musikante Bonampak -tempelmuur, kamer 1 (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

In sy wetenskaplike analise van Maya -trompette het Roberto Vel & aacutezquez Cabrera van die Virtual Research Institute Tlapitzcalzin 'n algemene fundamentele klankfrekwensie vir hierdie trompette ontdek (tussen 144 en 139 Hz). Omdat hierdie instrumente van verskillende lengtes was, kan 'n mens tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat hulle ontwerp is met die toonhoogte -interaksie in gedagte (dws 'n mengsel van soortgelyke klanke) eerder as absolute stemming. As gevolg hiervan is klopfrekwensies en infrasoniese fantoomgeluide (klanke onder die normale omvang van menslike gehoor) geproduseer as meer as een basuin op 'n slag gespeel word, wat klanke skep wat waargeneem is, maar nie altyd gehoor is nie.

Foto 6: 'n Liniaal wat in 'n werpsel gedra word, word vergesel deur trompettiste en 'n hond, Kerr K6317 (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

In die Justin Kerr & rsquos -databasis van keramiekvase van Maya, sowel as op die Bonampak -muurskilderye, word trompettiste gewoonlik uitgebeeld in 'n groep (bv. Prent 6), eerder as alleen. As gevolg hiervan moes hout- en kalebas-tahas verantwoordelik gewees het vir die skep van 'n agtergrondklankbeeld eerder as 'n melodiese lyn.

Foto 7: Hierdie uitgebreide versierde konchdop dra die gesig van 'n Maya -koning Kimbell -kunsmuseum, Forth Worth, Texas (klik op die prentjie om te vergroot)

Trompette is ook uit konkelskille gebou. Trompette word deur 'n gat wat aan die punt van die toring gesny is, geblaas. Maya -konketrompette het drie klein gaatjies wat drie opeenvolgende note maak. Die skulpe is dikwels met dekoratiewe bande ingesny.
Fluitjies en fluite is egter meer ingewikkeld versier met gesnyde figure sowel as pigmente (bv. Prent 8). Maya -fluitjies het kippies gehad, of mondstukke soos die van blokfluitjies. Soms het Maya-fluite verskeie kamers gehad, soos 'n tweekamerfluit wat onlangs deur Donald Slater in die Yaxcab & aacute-streek gevind is. Beeldjies het dikwels as fluitjies in die kamer opgetree, soos in die van Jaina -eiland.

Foto 8: Voëlfluit Beeld en kopie The Metropolitan Museum of Art (Klik op die prent om te vergroot)

Die toonhoogte word beheer deur óf vingergate te bedek óf deur die hoeveelheid lug wat in die instrument geblaas word, te verander. In Veracruz is 'n buisfluitjie van die laat klassieke tydperk gevind sonder vingergate. In plaas daarvan beweeg 'n bol klei deur die buis wanneer dit opwaarts of afwaarts gekantel word om die toonhoogte te verander, soos in 'n moderne glyfluitjie. Fluitjies met vingergate het note op die pentatoniese toonleer.
Fluitjies en fluitjies met 'n soortgelyke klank en afstemming met dié wat op klassieke Maya -terreine ontdek is, word steeds in moderne Maya -kulture gebruik. Volgens J. Kathryn Josserand en Nicholas A. Hopkins, gebruik die tradisionele heilige musiek van moderne Maya -dorpe in Chiapas & ldquoem 'n soort fluit. en 'n silinder trommel met 'n leerkop, sowel as 'n skilpadtrommel, wat met rotse getap is (Josserand en Hopkins 2005: 410).

Foto 9: speel 'n skilpaddrom met takbokke en rsquos (hulle kliek op die prentjie om te vergroot)

In die klassieke tydperk is skilpadtromme met takbokke of bokke geslaan (foto 9). Sommige weergawes bestaan ​​uit 'n diervel wat gespan is oor 'n leë skilpadskerm. Die ander twee algemene soorte Maya -trommel was die tunkul - 'n lang horisontale houtspleet -gong soortgelyk aan die Azteekse teponaztli, en die pax, 'n vertikale houttrommel van hout wat lyk soos die Azteekse huehuetl. Die groot pax was bedoel om stil te speel eerder as om te marsjeer, in teenstelling met kleiner, soms met 'n pot-buigende, tromme wat in die skelm van 'n arm gehou kon word, sodat die speler ratels in die ander kan skud of kan dans terwyl hy dra gordels met dopknippers om by te dra tot die algemene perkussieklankbeeld.

Foto 10: Die musikante (middel en regs) speel 'n rasptrommel (middel) en 'n groot jaguarvormige skraper (regs) Kerr K5233 (klik op die prent om te vergroot)

Terselfdertyd 'n perkussie- en snaarinstrument, is die rasptrommel slegs een keer uitgebeeld in die oorlewende Maya -kuns (prent 10). Vaartuig K5233 toon en ldquo 'n Liniaal dans terwyl hy in 'n spieël kyk. Hy word begelei deur twee musikante wat 'n snaarinstrument speel en 'n rasca & rdquo (Kerr 1996). Beide rasptromme en rascas (skrapers) is wrywingsinstrumente, alhoewel die rasca 'n idiofoon is ('n instrument wat klank produseer deur te vibreer sonder die gebruik van 'n snaar of membraan, soos 'n musieksaag), terwyl die rasp trommel beide 'n kordofoon is ( snaarinstrument) en membranofoon (trom). Instrumente soortgelyk aan die rasca kom algemeen voor in die vroeë wêreld en word gespeel deur 'n boogagtige stok oor 'n nie-klinkende voorwerp te hardloop in die geval van die rasca, 'n leë kalebas. Die rasptrommel is egter eienaardiger omdat daar nie voor die ontdekking daarvan bekend was dat daar in die voor-Columbiaanse Amerika geen akkoordofoon bestaan ​​het nie.

Foto 11: Close-up van die rasp-drumspeler (detail van K5233-vaartuig hierbo) (klik op die prent om te vergroot)

Die rasptrommel val in twee groepe wrywingsinstrumente omdat dit uit 'n trommelkop en 'n geboë snaar bestaan. Die tou is tussen die trommelkop en 'n stokkie gespan om dit gespanne te hou terwyl 'n stokkie oor die gestrekte tou getrek word (prent 11). Die rasptrommel het dans begelei (soos aangetoon deur die dansposisie van die musikant in K5233) en is gespeel terwyl dit gesing is (soos getoon deur die toespraakrol). James Blades stel dat die rasp trommel as gevolg van die nogal onaardse karakter van sy klank en rdquo in religieuse kontekste gebruik is. Dieselfde kan aangeneem word vir die vreemde klinkende trompette, wat vanweë hul omvang vreeslik lae klanke produseer.

Foto 12: 'n Deel van die muurskildery op die oostelike muur by Bonampak, kamer 2, met 'n trompettist (regs bo) wat deelneem aan 'n raid -toneel (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

Gebruik van musiek in die klassieke Maya
Die ongewone klinkende basuine is moontlik ook gebruik om vrees by ander uit te lok, aangesien dit in oorlogstonele gespeel word. Bonampak Kamer 2 demonstreer 'n aanval op 'n klein dorpie en gevangene van gevangenes vir opoffering. Die vyand is ongewapen, wat daarop dui dat hulle verras is. 'N Mens kan tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat die musikante wat op die muurskildery uitgebeeld is, soos die basuin (foto 12) waarskynlik stil was totdat die geveg begin het, aangesien die Maya's dikwels aangeval het te midde van geskreeu, gesis, ratels, tromslae en die geluide van konke en trompette . Slaginstrumente dui op die begin van die geveg en is saamgevoeg deur blaasinstrumente namate die geveg vorder. Hierdie instrumente het gedien om die opposisie te intimideer en om die krygers opgewonde te maak, beide in die geveg en op 'n feestelike manier daarna.

Foto 13: Musikante vergesel 'n toneel van steiermarting en opoffering Kerr K206 (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

Die gevangenes in kamer 2 word in die noordwand getoon om tereggestel te word vir 'n offerende bloedvergietingsritueel. Opofferings- en ander rituele uitvoerings - dikwels voorafgegaan deur optogte na oorwinnings in die geveg - is gewoonlik vergesel van musikante, soos duidelik in verskeie Kerr -skepe aangetoon word. Sulke tonele beeld gewoonlik gevangenes, bloed, onthoofde en trofeekoppe uit - uitgevoer op fluite, tromme, trompette en ratels. K206 beeld so 'n gruwelike toneel uit, met betrekking tot die marteling en opoffering van 'n krygsgevangene bo -op 'n houtsteier, vergesel van fluite en vertikale pax vertikale oorlogstrommel (prent 13).

Foto 14: Opvoer van diere & lsquoways & rsquo met trommel, skilpadskulp en ratels Kerr K3040 (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

Musiek speel 'n soortgelyke rol in opoffering as in oorlog, as 'n manier om die deelnemers sowel as die kykers op te wek. Om hierdie rede was die musiek- en dansstyle van Maya -balspeletjies, wat soms met opoffering geëindig het, baie soortgelyk aan dié van oorlog. Autosacrifice, wat bloedverlating, littekens, deurbraak en verminking insluit, was 'n manier om met geestelike wesens te kommunikeer: gode, voorouers en maniere.
In Maya -kunswerke word maniere, of die dierlike geesgenote van mense, dikwels as musikante geteken, veral in offertonele. Op vaartuie word gordeldiere, konyne, honde, jaguars, insekte, takbokke en ongeïdentifiseerde knaagdiere getoon hoe hulle verwerk word terwyl hulle tromme, ratels en skilpaaie speel (prent 14). Sommige vase beeld die maniere van hulself as musikante uit, terwyl ander mense mense as diere aantrek. As kunstenaars maskers gedra het wat 'n mistieke wese aandui, het hulle vermoedelik 'n geestelike besitting ondergaan waarin die gode of godhede liggaamlike vorm aanneem. Spieël kyk, 'n ander vorm van goddelike besitting, kan vergesel word deur musikante op 'n paar vaas tonele, insluitend die een met die rasp-trommel (prent 10-die obsidiaanse spieël sit op die grond).

Foto 15: Blommelied: paleistoneel met musikante Kerr K1210 (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

Musiekinstrumente is gereeld in grafkelders begrawe, wat daarop dui dat musiek begrafnisse vergesel het om die oorgang na die geesteswêreld te vergemaklik. Hulle teenwoordigheid in grafte kan ook dui daarop dat die mense met wie hulle begrawe is, baie kragtig was, aangesien musiek verband hou met spiritualiteit. Volgens die Maya -godsdiens geniet geeste en gode musiek in dieselfde omgewing as mense. Hulle word beskou as gemaak van musiek sowel as gevoed deur dit.
God H, die windgod, is die god wat die meeste voorkom deur musiek te speel, wat daarop dui dat die Maya's geïnteresseerd was in die verband tussen klank en die lug. Blomme, sowel as die wind- en lewensasem-glyfe, dien as simbole vir musiekinstrumente en word op ratels, tromme en kelke (gereedskap) aangebring. As gevolg hiervan hou al drie die blomme, ik, en musiek, en ndash verband. Stippelrolle wat eindig in blomme -rosette word soms uit die klokke van instrumente getrek, soos in K1210, en dien as 'n visuele voorstelling van musiek. Hierdie uitbeelding van blomme toon 'n skakel tussen lied en rsquos na ik, aangesien die blomme die lied self verteenwoordig (prent 15).

Foto 16: Musiek getranskribeer deur die outeur uit die figuur in & lsquoChan Kom: A Maya Village & rsquo, 1962, Robert Redfield en Alfonso Villa Rojas (klik op die foto om te vergroot)

Baie vaartuigskilderye, soos K530, toon musikale gebeurtenisse wat by die monding van grotte plaasvind, wat vermoedelik toegangspunte tot die binnekant van die aarde is. Hierdie ondergrondse wêreld, die & ldquoFlower World & rdquo, ook genoem & ldquoFlower Mountain & rdquo in die Classic Maya, verwys na die idee van 'n blommeparadys wat algemeen voorkom in inheemse Meso -Amerikaanse kulture. Dit is die plek van voorvaderlike en ldquoorigin en return & rdquo en hou verband met die son, helder kleure en musiek). Daar is baie musiekinstrumente in grotte gevind.
Omdat blomme uit die lewegewende grond spruit, word blomme, en dus ik, gekoppel aan Flower Mountain, plante en die aarde. In die moderne Maya -dorpie Chan Kom hardloop boere langs die kante van 'n veld om die droë kwas te laat waai terwyl hulle die & ldquoWhistle for the Winds & rdquo as 'n offer aan die windgod voor die plantseisoen uitvoer (prent 16).

Foto 17: Replika's van antieke Meso-Amerikaanse skril fluitjies wat verskeie klinkende note gee wat deur Maya-krygers gebruik word om die vyand in die geveg af te skrik en te intimideer (klik op die foto om te vergroot)

Bespreking
Musiek is gesien as 'n noodsaaklike manier om met die gode en ander geestelike wesens te kommunikeer. Maniere, nabootsing, grotingange en spieëls het toegang tot hierdie wesens gebied, en musiek het hierdie verbindings net verbeter.
Musiek was kos en 'n geskenk van die gode. Musiek speel 'n rol in die skrikwekkende vyande in die geveg, in opoffering, godsdienstige seremonies en feeste. Musiek is net so deur gode geniet as deur mense, en sang het gedien as 'n soort aanbieding, behalwe om die gaping tussen die twee wêrelde te oorbrug. Omdat musiek as 'n lewende deel van goddelike wesens beskou is, was dit om die gode op te roep om dit op te voer. Om musiek te speel, was om die vermoë om verbind te word en met gode te kommunikeer, te verhoog en om hulle grenslose lof en waardering te bied.

Foto bronne:-
& bull Hartlik dankie aan Justin Kerr vir sy vriendelike toestemming om verskeie beelde uit die Mayavase -databasis weer te gee
& bull Pix 1 & amp 5 van Wikipedia (Maya Music)
& bull Pix 2, 4, 9 & amp 17: foto's deur Ian Mursell/Mexicolore
& bull Pic 3: beeld geskandeer uit ons eie kopie van C & oacutedice Dur & aacuten - Historia de las Indias de Nueva Espa & ntildea e Islas de Tierra Firme, Arrendedora Internacional, Mexico City, 1990
& bull Pic 7: van Wikimedia Commons (Maya Conch Shell Trumpet Kimbell)
& bull Pix 6, 10, 11, 13, 14 & amp 15: foto's en kopieer Justin Kerr (Mayavase -databasis)
& bull Pic 8: image & copy Die Metropolitan Museum of Art. Koop, geskenk van Elizabeth M. Riley, in ruil, 2000. Reproduksie van enige aard is verbied sonder uitdruklike skriftelike toestemming vooraf van The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
& bull Pic 12: beeld vanaf http://www.tlapitzalli.com/rvelaz.geo/bonampak/troja.jpg
& bull Pic 16: beeld met vergunning van Anna Stacy.

Hierdie artikel is op 28 Januarie 2015 na die Mexicolore -webwerf gelaai


In ons geskiedenis -werkswinkels in skole oor die Maya's en die Asteke speel kinders al jare lank lustig ocarinas (foto regs). Plastiese ocarinas is 'n gewilde bron in laerskool -musiekkamers in Engeland. As u 'lsquoocarina & rsquo' google, kan u vergewe word as u gedink het dat die instrument sy oorsprong het in die 19de eeu in Italië. Trouens, dit het 'n baie meer antieke stamboom wat ver na die ooste en weste van Europa strek. (Geskryf deur Ian Mursell/Mexicolore)

Imitatiewe musiek en rsquo - kort snit van Roberto Velazquez Cabrera wat 'n padda -vormige ocarina speel

Foto 1: A & lsquoclassic & rsquo: viergatvoël ocarina. Costa Rica. PM# 17-3-20/C8064 & kopieer president en genote van Harvard College, Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (klik op die beeld om te vergroot)

Die woord & lsquoocarina & rsquo is beslis van Italiaanse oorsprong: in die Bolognese dialek van die Emiliano-Romagnolo-taal beteken dit & lsquolittle goose & rsquo. Die Italiaanse Giuseppe Donati het in sy werkswinkel naby Bologna die moderne & lsquosweet-aartappel en rsquo-styl in sy werkswinkel uitgevind, wat in Europa weinig meer as 'n speelding in 'n musiekinstrument met agt gate verander het.
Wat is presies 'n ocarina? Dit is in die eerste plek 'n blaasinstrument of aërofoon. Tweedens behoort dit aan die fluitfamilie. Binne dit is 'n soort van 'lsquoduct & rsquo -fluit (& lsquoDuct -fluite. Het die boonste punt geblokkeer, behalwe vir 'n klein kanaal waarin die speler waai en wat sy asem lei na die skerp rand van 'n opening wat in die buis sny & rsquo - Jean Jenkins). Laastens, aangesien kanaalfluitbuise buisvormig of bolvormig kan wees, val die ocarina in die tweede kategorie, soms 'n & lsquovessel -fluit & rsquo genoem. Gelukkig is dit meer ingewikkeld as dit: daar is TWEE tipes vaartuigfluitjies, volgens die manier waarop die klank gegenereer word - met of sonder 'n kanaal. Diegene sonder 'n buis word & lsquoedge-blown & rsquo of & lsquorim-blown & rsquo genoem. Byvoorbeeld, die instrumente in die foto's 7, 13 en 15 is almal op die rand van die ocarinas.

Foto 2: Modelle van die binnekant van Meso -Amerikaanse instrumente, wat die (redelik komplekse) lugkanaal in elk toon. (Klik op die prentjie om te vergroot)

Kanaalfluitjies is dus fluite met lugkanale (sien prent 2), wat die lug na 'n skerp rand kanaliseer, in teenstelling met & lsquoend-fluite & rsquo, & lsquonotched fluite & rsquo, & lsquotransverse fluite & rsquo en ander wat nie & rsquot nie. Interessant genoeg is dit makliker om blaasfluitjies te blaas en minder asemhaling as die ander soorte.
Ongelukkig, soos Karl Izikowitz vroeg in die 20ste eeu uitgewys het, en 'n ander groep instrumente. het etnograwe soveel probleme veroorsaak, soos fluitjies en rsquo. Terwyl hy spesifiek na die Amerikas verwys het, kan dieselfde gesê word oor instrumentnavorsing oor die hele wêreld.

Foto 3: Moderne reproduksies van antieke ocarinas: peervormige Chinese & lsquoxun & rsquo (links) en (moeder-en-baba) paddavormige Meso-Amerikaanse vaartuigfluit (regs) (klik op die foto om te vergroot)

Bewyse vir ocarinas gaan al verskeie millennia terug, veral in die ou China, waar klei-ocarinas uit die Shang-dinastie voor 1100 vC en in die voor-klassieke Meso-Amerika (sommige van Dennett en Kosyk en rsquos Groter Nicoya-voorbeelde dateer uit 500 vC). Die probleem is dat argeoloë nie musikante is nie en omgekeerd. In Amerika, waar alle bekende tipe fluitkonstruksies ter wêreld ook deur die [Suid -Amerikaanse] Indiërs bekend was (Izikowitz), is die terme fluit, ocarina en soms fluit sorgeloos en dikwels sinoniem gebruik & rsquo (Norman Hammond). Hammond wys daarop dat die meeste fluitjies wat in wetenskaplike literatuur opgeteken is, eintlik ocarinas is, met 'n klein gaatjie by die mondstuk en een of meer stop in die mure van die kamer. Geleerdes klassifiseer gereeld vaartuigfluitjies sonder vingergate as & lsquowhistles & rsquo, en vaartuig
fluite MET ten minste een vingergat as & lsquoocarinas & rsquo

Foto 4: Stoor van musiekinstrumente in die keiser & rsquos paleis Florentynse Codex Boek 8. Let op die fluitagtige instrument links bo. (Klik op die prentjie om te vergroot)

Watter soort bewyse het ons? Die Spaanse indringers het woorde soos & lsquowhistle & rsquo en & lsquoflute & rsquo mildelik gemeng, maar hoewel die kroniekskrywers frases soos flautillas mui agudas (& lsquovery skril klein fluitjies & rsquo - Torquemada) gebruik het, het ons min te doen by wyse van detail of selfs ikonografie. Die naaste wat ons ooit aan 'n moontlike illustrasie van 'n Mexica (Azteekse) ocarina kom, is in die Florentynse kodeks (prent 4), maar dit is nie 'n ocarina nie! Die Mexikaanse kenner Guillermo Contreras identifiseer dit as 'n & lsquotwin-diafragma fluitjie, of in moderne terme 'n & lsquodeath fluit & rsquo of & lsquonoise generator & rsquo. Ons moet in hierdie stadium daarop wys dat daar min bewyse is dat ocarina hoegenaamd onder die Mexika gespeel het - in Robert Stevenson & rsquos onnavolgbare woorde moet die idee oorgegee word dat óf die Asteke self óf hul naaste bondgenote met liefde na die ocarina geneem het. & rsquo

Foto 5: Wat blykbaar 'n ocarina -speler is, volg op twee trompettiste in 'n optoggroep Maya -musikante, Bonampak -muurskilderye (rekonstruksie) (klik op die prent om te vergroot)

Ons het ook nie veel vir die antieke Maya nie. Daar is 'n toneel in kamer 1 van die beroemde Bonampak -muurskilderye wat 'n seremoniële Maya -band uitbeeld wat met die kloksgewys om die speler van 'n groot stilstaande vertikale trommel (pax) draai. Agter in die optog is 'n enkele musikant wat blykbaar multitaak, 'n ratel skud, 'n handtrommel vashou en 'n klein blaasinstrument blaas wat die meeste geleerdes glo 'n ocarina is (prent 5).

Foto 6: Pre-Spaanse keramiek in Gayraca-styl, Tairona-kultuur, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia (klik op die foto om te vergroot)

Wat ons wel het, is 'n verbasend groot aantal oorspronklike vaartuigfluitjies wat deur argeoloë gevind is, nie net in die hele Meso -Amerika en in die Karibiese Eilande nie, maar ook verder, deur middel van Sentraal en tot in Suid -Amerika (foto 6) - wat die gevolgtrekking gewig dra die enorme rykdom aan instrumente gee die indruk van die enorme belangrikheid van musiekmaak in die lewens van hierdie mense (Peter Crossley-Holland). Die oorgrote meerderheid is keramiek (soms is daar ocarina gevind). Alhoewel pottebakkery gewoonlik nie 'n materiaal is wat met musiek verband hou nie - dit breek aanvanklik nog makliker as glas - dit oorleef, as dit afgevuur word, baie langer as hout of kalebas as dit in die aarde begrawe word.

Pic 7: Maya ceramic ocarina made of 3 connecting spheres, the top sphere being a portrait head of a woman (Click on image to enlarge)

Characteristic of agricultural societies worldwide, the use of clay has important implications: most of these instruments were moulded carefully and symbolically (think integration, oneness. ) out of a single piece of material, being either &lsquozoomorphic&rsquo (representing living creatures), &lsquoanthropomorphic&rsquo (representing the human form) (pic 7), or mixed (anthropo-zoomorphic), depicting gods and other spiritual creatures. From the musical standpoint, clay warms slowly, requiring the player literally to warm up the instrument: &lsquoFlutes tend to sound their best after a good warming by the player&rsquos breath and hands&rsquo (Crossley-Holland).

Pic 8: Pottery 4-hole parrot or macaw-shaped ocarina, catalogued as Aztec, with traces of paint. British Museum no. Am1865,0610.9 (Click on image to enlarge)

By far the most common type of ocarina from ancient Mesoamerica was the 4-hole bird-shaped variety (pix 1 and 8), measuring roughly 4-7 cms., called huilacapitztli in the Aztec language Nahuatl. The ubiquity of these (they were so common) led 19th- and 20th-century scholars to make a number of false assumptions: that these were -
&bull just toys made for children to play with
&bull limited to a simple pentatonic (5-note) scale
&bull symbolic just of the four sacred quarters of the world.

Pic 9: Four pre-Columbian ocarinas (Click on image to enlarge)

Since then, however, scholars - including serious musicians - have discovered that Mesoamerican ocarinas:-
&bull came in a huge variety of shapes (Rodens, Both and Sánchez catalogue over 150, and that&rsquos just one particular type, &lsquopoly-globular flutes&rsquo with two or more connected globular chambers - instruments unique to Mesoamerica picture 7 shows a good example)
&bull have up to six finger holes (see picture 16) (or &lsquostops&rsquo as Izikowitz called them), and can measure up to 20 cm or 7 inches in length
&bull could produce a wide range of notes/pitches: even a 4-hole model could generate up to 16 or even 18 pitches (Stevenson, Martí)
&bull were played for serous purposes, particularly in rituals, and often accompanied songs and chants. With their gentle musical qualities, it&rsquos unlikely ocarinas would have featured in mass performances/ceremonies, and more likely they would have been played, for example, by court musicians, perhaps accompanying songs praising the ruler&rsquos exploits and victories.

Pic 10: Frogs featured strongly in Mexica/Aztec sculpture and iconography (Click on image to enlarge)

Frog-shaped ocarinas would almost certainly have been played by groups of musicians mimicking the croaking sound of frogs heralding rain, effectively &lsquocalling&rsquo the gods for rain just as rattlesnake-shaped rainsticks were shaken to the same end (rattlesnakes are always much more active in the rainy season) - what Kurath and Martí call &lsquoimitative music&rsquo. Mesoamerican peoples were very closely in touch with nature, and expressed that relationship through their senses and in the arts. Choice of materials was important: a clay resonator produces the most authentic sound for mimicking a frog&rsquos croaking voice.

Pic 11: 6-hole peccary-form ocarina, Greater Nicoya (Central America), 300 BC-AD 500. Denver Art Museum: Gift of Frederick and Jan Mayer, 1995.787. Photograph © Denver Art Museum (Click on image to enlarge)

By blowing into a frog-shaped ocarina, the musician performed a ritual act on several levels: he (it was usually a he) blew breath - ie life itself - into the instrument and frog, he drew out its voice (the Mexica spoke of musicians being &lsquosingers&rsquo of their instruments the Maya considered even percussion instruments to be animated by wind/breath), and also he invoked the association with rain that the frog represented. Ocarinas have also been found in the shape of armadillos, dogs, birds, felines, serpents, peccaries (pic 11), turtles, owls, tapirs, monkeys, bats, scorpions, lizards, and, rarely, turkeys and fish. In the vast majority of cases, the animal depicted faces AWAY from the musician when the instrument is played. The ocarina shown in picture 11 is a rare example where the animal image is oriented TOWARDS the musician.

Pic 12: 4-hole armadillo-shaped ocarina, University of Calgary collections, alongside a rolled-up three-banded armadillo (Click on image to enlarge)

Picture 12 shows another rare example. Dennett and Kosyk explain how it works: &lsquoThe mouthpiece is part of the armadillo&rsquos snout. The airduct is directed towards a rectangular aperture on the animal&rsquos throat between the vessel chamber and mouthpiece. The resonating chamber is almost perfectly spherical only alternating in shape with the extension of the armadillo&rsquos tail and head which are not solid and are part of the inner chamber as well. There is a single hole that goes through the tail that may have been used for suspension.&rsquo

Pic 13: Pottery ocarina from Guatemala with the modelled representation of a figurine with a human face. British Museum no. Am1930,F.172 (Click on image to enlarge)

If the Aztecs only played ocarinas on a small scale, FAR more evidence exists of ocarina playing in the Gulf of Mexico region, among the Classic Maya, and down into what is today Central America (as far as modern-day Costa Rica). We know from the Central American region that ocarinas were - and still are today - part of the &lsquotoolkits&rsquo of shamans, used to communicate with the dead and supernatural. We can only assume the Mexica used them in similar contexts. Examples have been found that combine human with animal features - indicating the depiction of nahuales or spirit guides. Healy has noted that male &lsquofigurine ocarinas&rsquo from Belize usually emit lower pitches than female ones. Dajer, in his richly illustrated study of pre-Columbian instruments from Michoacán, catalogues sets of three ocarinas with different pitches: deep, medium and shrill.

Pic 14: Two ocarinas with the same colour and finish, Instituto Michoacano de Cultura (Click on image to enlarge)

When played together today, they exhibit a &lsquoconsiderable tonal range&rsquo and produce &lsquounusual and rich harmonies&rsquo, and Dajer wonders if the ancients followed this practice. A pair of matching ocarinas that dramatically illustrates the two ends of this mini spectrum is shown in picture 14.
Crossley-Holland suggests possible cultural differences for these pitches: &lsquoIt may well be that deep sounds were especially sought-after in West Mexican antiquity&rsquo. We should point out that the concept of &lsquopitch&rsquo was not as important in ancient Mesoamerica as rhythm and timbre after all, it was almost impossible to make two ceramic instruments that matched each other exactly in pitch.

Pic 15: Two poly-globular ocarinas, the lower one with motifs resembling hallucinogenic plants. Instituto Michoacano de Cultura (Click on image to enlarge)

Just as figurines depict both individual musicians and ensembles, it seems likely that ocarinas were played both solo in every-day life (such as accompanying a chant to a deity within the family home, or a shaman carrying out a healing, or to mimic bird or animal calls while hunting) and - more commonly - in groups as part of fertility, rain and other rituals, or possibly in funeral processions, and - beyond - to call upon the dead, often to help the living. The ocarina&rsquos role in helping priest, shaman and nahual (animal companion spirit) to cross over between these worlds, whilst noted many years ago for South America by Izikowitz, has yet to be fully explored and documented in Mesoamerica. Dajer suggests, from seeing depictions of hallucinogenic plants on some ocarinas (pic 15), that the instruments may well have been used in hallucinatory rituals and ceremonies.

Pic 16: Two bird-shaped ocarinas, one with 4 fingerholes, the other with 6 reproductions by Taller Pozos, Guanajuato (Click on image to enlarge)

All sound is communication. Wind instruments have always been employed to send messages, both in war and in peace. Some scholars believe ocarinas and whistles were used in part for the mundane purpose of communicating back and forth between (distant) households (Nielsen & Helmke, Both & Giles). (This would presumably have involved smaller instruments, since lower-pitch sound waves don&rsquot reach as far as higher-pitch ones). Others suggest one-way message-sending, such as calling family or community members to prayer. Communication with spirits is a two-way process. An ocarina might be played in one context to call a person&rsquos animal spirit or nahual but in another to scare away an unwanted bad spirit.

Pic 17: Collage of pre-Hispanic frog-shaped ocarinas/whistles from Colima (Click on image to enlarge)

In the case of rain rituals, instruments might have been played not only to invoke rain, but also to thank the appropriate deities AFTER the rain has come. As Miller succinctly put it &lsquoWind begets rain, and rain begets maize. &rsquo Following research on 1325 clay aerophones held by the Museo de Antropología e Historia, San Pedro Sula (Honduras), Campos suggests ocarinas may have been played &lsquoin chorus&rsquo (pic 17), reproducing the celebratory murmur of frogs and other creatures to be heard every evening after a heavy storm in the Sula valley. The Sula collection, incidentally, contains several ceramic &lsquostamp-ocarinas&rsquo, indicating a dual - decorative/musical - function.

Pic 18: Small self-standing avian ocarinas from West Mexico (Crossley-Holland collection, University of Bangor) (Click on image to enlarge)

The decorative potential of some zoomorphic ocarinas is raised by Nielsen & Helmke: a set of five hand-modelled small Maya avian (bird-shaped) ocarinas from Belize has been found in the form of a necklace the instruments are of incremental sizes, suggesting that &lsquothe wearer of the necklace could easily switch between the various suspended instruments to play melodies more elaborate than those produced by a single ocarina. While only the one necklace has been identified at Pook&rsquos Hill [Belize], it is conceivable that such necklaces were widespread, given the number of similar small effigy ocarinas with suspension holes. If such necklaces were indeed commonplace, musical activity with these instruments could have been highly social with multiple wearers of necklaces producing music together&rsquo.
Ocarinas may have decorated not just the human body, but also the physical environment: as the authors point out, in addition to suspension holes, &lsquomost ocarinas also exhibit small supports or nubbin feet so that these can stand as small statuettes or effigies&rsquo (pic 18).

Pic 19: Female pottery figurine-ocarina, decorated in red on the face and legs apparently there was a child on the back which has now disappeared. Chiriquí, Costa Rica. British Museum no. Am1965,04.24 (Click on image to enlarge)

Maybe it&rsquos fitting to end this introduction to Mesoamerican ocarinas on the theme of aesthetics. Several scholars have commented on the exquisite look and feel of some of these diminutive instruments - most notably Samuel Martí, who gave his highest vote to the &lsquoenchanting whistle-figurines&rsquo from the Central Mexican region of Tlatilco. We hope you will agree that some of the musical artefacts shown on this page are genuinely beautiful, and would proudly grace any museum or art gallery&rsquos display cases. Yet the artists knew they were imbuing them with a living spirit - a &lsquobreath-soul&rsquo in Taube&rsquos words - which would be animated and brought to life, in real and spiritual domains, through skilled musical performance.

Pic 20: Large horned toad-shaped ceramic ocarina (reproduction) (Click on image to enlarge)

Sources/references (&lsquoin order of appearance&rsquo):-
&bull Jenkins, Jean (1970), Musical Instruments , Horniman Museum, London
&bull Izikowitz, Karl (1970) Musical Instruments of the South American Indians , S R Publishers, Yorkshire (first published in Sweden, 1934)
&bull Dennett, Carrie L. and Kosyk, Katrina C. (2013) &lsquoWinds of Change: Ceramic Musical Instruments from Greater Nicoya&rsquo in Flower World/Mundo Florido , vol. 2, General Editor Arnd Adje Both, Ekho Verlag, Berlin
&bull Hammond, Norman (1972) &lsquoClassic Maya Music Part II: Rattles, Shakers, Raspers, Wind and String Instruments&rsquo in Archaeology 25, 222-228
&bull Contreras Arias, Juan Guillermo (1988) Atlas Cultural de México: Música , SEP/INAH/Grupo Editorial Planeta, Mexico
&bull Stevenson, Robert (1968) Music in Aztec & Inca Territory , Cambridge University Press, London
&bull Crossley-Holland, Peter (1980) Musical Artefacts of Pre-Hispanic West Mexico , Monograph Series in Ethnomusicology, no. 1, University of California, Los Angeles
&bull Rodens, Vanessa, Both, Arnd Adje, Sánchez Santiago, Gonzalo (2013) &lsquoLas flautas poli-globulares de Mesoamérica&rsquo in Flower World/Mundo Florido , vol. 2, General Editor Arnd Adje Both, Ekho Verlag, Berlin
&bull Martí, Samuel (1968) Instrumentos Musicales Precortesianos , INAH, Mexico City
&bull Kurath, Gertrude Prokosch and Martí, Samuel (1964) Dances of Anáhuac , Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology no. 38, Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, New York
&bull Healy, Paul F. (1988) &lsquoMusic of the Maya&rsquo, Archaeology 41, 24-31
&bull Dájer, Jorge (1995) Los artefactos sonoros precolombinos desde su desbubrimiento en Michoacán , Empresa Libre de Autoeditores, Mexico
&bull Nielsen, Kristina and Helmke, Christophe (2015) &lsquoA Case Study of Maya Avian Ocarinas from Pook&rsquos Hill, Belize&rsquo in Flower World/Mundo Florido , vol. 4, General Editor Arnd Adje Both, Ekho Verlag, Berlin
&bull Both, Arnd Adje and Giles (2017) &lsquoLos artefactos sonoros de Xochicalco&rsquo in Flower World/Mundo Florido , vol. 5, General Editor Arnd Adje Both, Ekho Verlag, Berlin
&bull Miller, Mary (2017) &lsquoSounds and Sights: Sweeping the Way at Bonampak&rsquo in Flower World/Mundo Florido , vol. 5, General Editor Arnd Adje Both, Ekho Verlag, Berlin
&bull Campos, Teresa M. (2012) &lsquoLos aerófonos de barro del Valle de Sula, Honduras&rsquo in Flower World/Mundo Florido , vol. 1, General Editor Arnd Adje Both, Ekho Verlag, Berlin
&bull Taube, Karl A. (2004) &lsquoFlower Mountain. Concepts of life, beauty, and paradise among the Classic Maya&rsquo, Res 45, 69-98.

Picture sources:-
&bull Main pic and pix 2, 3(R), 10 (except codex illustration), 16 & 20: photos by Ian Mursell/Mexicolore
&bull Pic 1: photo courtesy Harvard College, Peabody Museum of Archaeology & Ethnology
&bull Pic 3(L): photo from Amazon.ca (Sound-of-Mountain)
&bull Pix 4 & 10 (bottom R): images from the Florentine Codex (original in the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence) scanned from our own copy of the Club Internacional del Libro 3-volume facsimile edition, Madrid, 1994
&bull Pic 5: Image scanned from our copy of Ancient Maya Paintings of Bonampak Mexico , Supplementary Publication 46, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1955. Painting (detail) by Antonio Tejeda
&bull Pic 6: photo from Wikimedia Commons (Ocarina), original in the The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
&bull Pic 7: photo by, courtesy of and ©Justin Kerr, mayavase.com cat. K7285
&bull Pix 8, 13 & 19: photos © 2018 Trustees of the British Museum
&bull Pic 9: photo downloaded from https://www.skinnerinc.com/search?s=Ocarina
&bull Pic 11: photo courtesy Denver Art Museum
&bull Pic 12: photo (L) from University of Calgary collections (Cat. no. UCAD 2.29 permission to use granted by Arnd Adje Both. Photo (R) by Mark Payne-Gill/naturepl.com (permission sought), downloaded from https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn25716-devils-claw-looms-over-world-cups-armadillo-mascot/
&bull Pix 14 & 15: photos scanned from Los Artefactos sonoros. (see above)
&bull Pix 17 & 18: original photos by and courtesy of Christina Homer, Bangor University.

This article was uploaded to the Mexicolore website on Sep 04th 2018


Inhoud

According to Peter Beal, the term scripture – derived from "scriptura" (Latin) – meant "writings [manuscripts] in general" prior to the medieval era, then became "reserved to denote the texts of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible". [14] Beyond Christianity, according to the Oxford World Encyclopedia, the term "scripture" has referred to a text accepted to contain the "sacred writings of a religion", [15] while The Concise Oxford Dictionary of World Religions states it refers to a text "having [religious] authority and often collected into an accepted canon". [16] In modern times, this equation of the written word with religious texts is particular to the English language, and is not retained in most other languages, which usually add an adjective like "sacred" to denote religious texts.

Some religious texts are categorized as canonical, some non-canonical, and others extracanonical, semi-canonical, deutero-canonical, pre-canonical or post-canonical. [4] The term "canon" is derived from the Greek word "κανών", "a cane used as a measuring instrument". It connotes the sense of "measure, standard, norm, rule". In the modern usage, a religious canon refers to a "catalogue of sacred scriptures" that is broadly accepted to "contain and agree with the rule or canon of a particular faith", states Juan Widow. [17] The related terms such as "non-canonical", "extracanonical", "deuterocanonical" and others presume and are derived from "canon". These derived terms differentiate a corpus of religious texts from the "canonical" literature. At its root, this differentiation reflects the sects and conflicts that developed and branched off over time, the competitive "acceptance" of a common minimum over time and the "rejection" of interpretations, beliefs, rules or practices by one group of another related socio-religious group. [18] The earliest reference to the term "canon" in the context of "a collection of sacred Scripture" is traceable to the 4th-century CE. The early references, such as the Synod of Laodicea, mention both the terms "canonical" and "non-canonical" in the context of religious texts. [19]

One of the oldest known religious texts is the Kesh Temple Hymn of ancient Sumer, [20] [21] a set of inscribed clay tablets which scholars typically date around 2600 BCE. [22] The Epic of Gilgamesh from Sumer, although only considered by some scholars as a religious text, has origins as early as 2150 BCE, [23] and stands as one of the earliest literary works that includes various mythological figures and themes of interaction with the divine. [24] The ‘’Rigveda’’ – a scripture of Hinduism – is dated to between 1500–1200 BCE. It is one of the oldest known complete religious texts that has survived into the modern age. [25]

There are many possible dates given to the first writings which can be connected to Talmudic and Biblical traditions, the earliest of which is found in scribal documentation of the 8th century BCE, [26] followed by administrative documentation from temples of the 5th and 6th centuries BCE, [27] with another common date being the 2nd century BCE. [27] Although a significant text in the history of religious text because of its widespread use among religious denominations and its continued use throughout history, the texts of the Abrahamic traditions are a good example of the lack of certainty surrounding dates and definitions of religious texts.

High rates of mass production and distribution of religious texts did not begin until the invention of the printing press in 1440, [28] before which all religious texts were hand written copies, of which there were relatively limited quantities in circulation.

The following is a non-exhaustive list of links to specific religious texts which may be used for further, more in-depth study.


Mayas Had Their Own Musical Scale, Experts Say

MEXICO CITY – The Mayas had a musical scale very different from the western one according to experts who examined and played 125 instruments recovered from Maya sites, Mexico’s National Institute of Anthropology and History, or INAH, said.

After 18 months of work, researchers have identified the possible sounds played at attracting them with imitation birdcalls, the institute said. This is the first study to be made of instruments preserved in the Maya Gallery of the National Anthropology Museum, and which include flutes, ocarinas, whistles, trumpets, ceramic horns, conch shells, turtle shells, rattles and bells.

According to INAH, taking part in the study are professional musicians charged with finding out how to play each instrument and identifying their musical scales, their notes and semitones. “The ranges of notes detected do not correspond to music played with the western institute” said. Museum director Diana Magaloni who said that the objects have been analyzed from an archaeological point of view, but lack a study on how they work as musica instruments. She added that this research project, developed by a group of experts from INAH and distinguished scholar Francisca Zalaquett, will continue with some 200 pre- Columbian instruments from the Gulf cultures and 40 more from the Mexica culture.

After reviewing the state of preservation of each instrument, professional musicians play and record all possible notes in acoustic conditions free of anything that could distort the sounds, she said. The number of chords that can be played varies with the instrument – for example, whistles have produced up to four, ocarinas up to eight or nine, and the triple flute up to 600 combinations.


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The Music of the Maya: Mysterious whistles Confound Experts - History

lutes and their kin, including whistles, ocarinas, recorders and pipe organs, are among music's oldest and most versatile instruments. Yet science has long had trouble understanding all but the most elementary aspects of how they work.

Now, however, researchers are starting to learn some of the secrets. In a way, science is glimpsing the soul of a very old machine.

The tardiness may seem surprising. After all, the scientific revolution has been rolling along for centuries and has made great progress in understanding time, space, matter and life, to name a few basics. The physics of wind instruments would seem to be passe.

But the truth is that the methods of science work exceedingly well in some fields and poorly or not at all in others. There are more mysteries than most people realize.

The new insights center on how jets, eddies and waves of air pressure come together at the heart of such wind instruments to form the complex vibrations heard as agreeable tones. Such turbulence is now being photographed and parts of it modeled mathematically with rigor. Even so, the analyses are still sketchy and limited by gaps and approximations.

"These instruments seem very simple," said Marc-Pierre Verge, a leader of the research. "But from a physical point of view, they're very complicated, much more so than the piano or violin."

The new insights are nonetheless plentiful enough to help music professionals make better reproductions of old wind instruments, such as Baroque recorders, and to invent new ones, scientists say.

The advances also are aiding electronic music, including that of synthesizers, organs, home computers, games and movies. The goal is to make artificial tones more realistic and, in other cases, to create sounds and instruments that have no counterpart in the real world.

For instance, scientists can now make a virtual flute of almost any size and shape, its tube curled or a hundred feet long. Notes can be very low and sometimes very strange.

Electronics giants such as Yamaha, the Japanese maker of musical instruments, are incorporating some of the advances into products. The research is global, with work being done in Japan, Europe and Canada as well as the United States.

Scientists agree that the physics of flutes and similar wind instruments is a challenging final frontier, despite the field's long history and recent strides. Julius O. Smith III, a Stanford University expert on music, called the theoretics of wind instruments "perhaps the most slippery in all of musical acoustics."

Perry R. Cook, a Princeton professor of music and computer science who works on flute simulations, said progress of late had been "really profound," especially because European studies are illuminating what had previously been hidden.

"People have been scratching their heads about this stuff since at least Pythagoras and probably before," Cook said. "Aristotle had a theory. So did lots of acoustics guys."

Flutes, whistles and kindred instruments date to humanity's early days, when they were used in hunting, signaling, magic and ritual. The Maya and Incas made flutes of clay that modern scholars have found to be surprisingly complex in tone and construction.

During the Renaissance and Baroque periods, wood recorders evolved rapidly, with bores becoming tapered and tubes made of two or more interconnecting parts. The more elaborate recorders had a wide range of pitch, volume and color tone, allowing them to come alive in expert hands.

By the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, large organs in cathedrals had many hundreds of pipes and a spectrum of tonal characteristics. They were among the age's most complex machines, rivaled only by clocks.

In general, members of the family work by directing a stream of air against a sharp edge, which causes the jet to pulsate back and forth, creating waves of sound. The family is thus commonly known as jet or edge winds.

With some instruments, such as the flute, pan pipe and soda bottle, the player's lips and skill are central to forming the flow of air, which must be fast but even. With other edge instruments, such as whistles, recorders and the flue pipes of organs, the forming job is done by a smooth duct.

For the family as a whole, experts have long known that the basic pitch is determined by the length of the tube.

Throughout history, great scientists have probed the subtleties of such instruments, especially the origin of the sound and what controls its tonal qualities. But the job is very hard. As Lord Rayleigh, an English physicist, showed in 1896, the flow of one gas or fluid past another (or of air moving through still surroundings) is unstable, producing the kinds of swirls seen in puffs of cigarette smoke.

For string instruments, the job is much easier. A plucked string produces waves of vibrations that are easy to see, study and model mathematically, so much so that beginning students of physics often do such analyses to develop their skills.

"The math models are extremely good" for string instruments, said Smith of Stanford. But for many of the winds, he added, "you're on thin ice."

Despite the edge family's many puzzles, music scientists have made some analytic headway in recent decades.

From the 1960s to the 1980s, researchers did so mainly by simplifying the problem to its bare bones. For instance, a math simulation of a flute would assume that the instrument had only one dimension, length, rather than the usual three. And the analysis would focus on the instrument's overall characteristics, rather than the riddle of how the sounds start and evolve.

Scientists would often make ad hoc adjustments to get things going. Then, by trial and error, and careful listening, they would test how well the math and computer simulations matched the real thing, tweaking the model to improve the sound.

Douglas Keefe, head of music for the Acoustical Society of America, said many of these efforts were toylike and produced relatively crude sounds.

Still, progress was eventually sufficient to attract companies that made electronic instruments. For flutes, their products had often used recorded samples of real sounds. But the companies were eager to tap the greater flexibility of tone, timbre and quality that was possible if they had some insight into the real nature of the sound's generation.

Yamaha in the early 1990s drew heavily on Stanford University flute modelers, including Cook, who later went to Princeton. The results showed up in such devices as the company's VL1 Virtual Acoustic Synthesizer, which used physical modeling to create a variety of instrument sounds.

Flute mimicry evolved rapidly as a European research group found a way to illuminate many details of the hidden action. The work, overseen by Avraham Hirschberg, a physicist at the Eindhoven University of Technology in the Netherlands, was done in concert with IRCAM, the Institute for Research on Acoustics and Music in Paris.

To limit variables, the team zeroed in on recorderlike instruments, which can be excited by compressed gas rather than human blowing.

At the heart of the test apparatus was an 11-inch instrument resembling the flue pipe of an organ, its central parts made of glass to permit viewing. For visualizations, carbon dioxide was found to give the best contrast with surrounding air. The gas was shot through the pipe's duct, and the resulting jets, whorls and eddies were photographed up close.

Eventually, the team was able to take a series of snapshots (and even movies) that laid things bare, in particular how the sounds form and develop.

From 1994 to 1997, the team published a series of influential papers based on analysis of the snapshots. And in 1995, Verge, the team's leader, who had come from Paris to study with Hirschberg in the Netherlands, received his Ph.D. from Eindhoven University.

The work, Verge said in an interview, is deeply rooted in the team's observations.

"It was by looking at the pictures that we noticed many, many things that weren't obvious at first," he recalled.

For example, the team found that much influence was exerted by tiny vortexes -- little whirlwinds shed from the jet-edge interface in rising number and complexity as the sound developed. Such eddies were previously presumed to exist, and some scientists had suggested that they were key to sound amplification.

But the Eindhoven team, which included Benoit Fabre, from the Musical Acoustics Laboratory of the University of Paris, found otherwise.

The vortexes actually cut the strength of the fundamental, the root vibration that makes up the instrument's lowest note. Moreover, the team discovered that the tiny whirls were important in the rise of harmonics, the vibrations more rapid than the fundamental that give an instrument much of its tone and distinctiveness.

Finally, the team found that vortex shedding helped trigger the instrument's first sounds, especially when the note's onset, or attack, as musicians call it, was fast. An initial eddy that curled off the sharp edge into the pipe would start a pressure wave that bounced back and forth in the tube, setting up a feedback loop and the instrument's main vibratory state.

The research so impressed the Acoustical Society of America, a professional group, based in Woodbury, N.Y., that it highlighted it last year in its annual "World of Sound" calendar. Splashed atop November were eight of the Eindhoven team's photographs showing how a note is rooted in subtle whorls and vortexes.

Despite the advances, the calendar noted, just how such wind instruments work "is still not fully understood."

Verge said he and some colleagues are turning their insights into products. In Montreal, they have set up a company, Applied Acoustics Systems Inc. that in a few months is to release music-making software based on physical modeling.

Using this software on a computer, a player will be able to be form flute, string, reed, brass and other kinds of electronic notes.

"It's fun," Verge said. "It's like Lego. You have small blocks and you build what you want. The only limit is your imagination."

Verge added that that he had made virtual flutes more than 30 feet long, some with side tubes branching off in different directions.

"You get some very low tones," he said, as well as odd harmonics.

Such studies and products are increasingly of interest to makers of synthesizers, organs, home computers, games and movies, all of whom are eager for sounds that are new and more realistic.

Surprisingly, Verge said the flute research also had many industrial uses.

The team's models of turbulent noise and note generation, he said, have application to industrial design, where ventilation systems as well as gas and water pipes often develop unwanted sounds.

A last frontier of the field is using the new knowledge to illuminate how wind instruments old and new are put together, revealing strengths and weaknesses.

Over the centuries, Verge said, "craftsmen have learned to exploit subtle acoustical phenomena which make musical instruments very interesting as study objects."

Hirschberg, the research team's overseer and an expert in fluid dynamics at Eindhoven University, said that, despite the increasing pace of advance, many of those mysteries were likely to remain unsolved for years, given the nuances.

"I expect," he said, "that the details of the physical differences between fair and excellent instruments will remain obscure" far into the future.


Mayan Afterlife

The ancient Mayans thought of the afterlife as the soul&rsquos journey toward paradise. But they also believed that journey was one fraught with danger. There was no guarantee, according to ancient Mayan legend, that a soul would ever reach &ldquoparadise&rdquo in the afterlife.

First, a soul had to pass through an underworld called Xibalba, which was a terrifying place inhabited and guarded by frightening deities. Those deities had names like Bloody Teeth, Flying Scab, and Bloody Claw, to name a few.

The only people exempt from making this journey before entering paradise were victims of sacrifice, women who died in childbirth, those killed in warfare, suicides, and people who died playing the game Pok-a-Tok. With such a frightful adventure waiting for you after death, it&rsquos easy to see why the Mayans placed such importance on death rituals and ceremonies .

But the Mayans also held a strong belief that everything was cyclical: from the seasons to the procession of life and death, Mayans saw life as an eternal, neverending cycle.


Kyk die video: Ancient Maya