Koninkryk van Malakka - Geskiedenis

Koninkryk van Malakka - Geskiedenis

Die koninkryk van Malakka is in die huidige Indonesië op die Maleise skiereiland gestig. Malakka, wat deur Paramesvara gestig is, het gou die voorste maritieme mag in Suidoos -Asië geword.

Die geskiedenis van Malakka beïnvloed die hede

Die huidige Malakka in die land Maleisië weerspieël sy onstuimige geskiedenis-'n veelrassige bevolking van Maleiers, Indiërs en Chinese noem hierdie historiese stad die tuiste. Die belangrikste is dat Peranakan en Portugese gemeenskappe steeds floreer in Malakka, 'n herinnering aan die staat se lang ervaring met handel en kolonisasie.

Na bewering was die stigter van Malakka, die voormalige seerower prins Parameswara, 'n afstammeling van Alexander die Grote, maar dit is meer waarskynlik dat hy 'n Hindoe-politieke vlugteling van Sumatra was.

Volgens die legende het die prins eendag onder 'n Indiese kruisbessieboom (ook bekend as 'n melaka) gerus. Toe hy kyk hoe een van sy jaghonde probeer om 'n muishert af te val, kom dit by hom op dat die hert 'n soortgelyke situasie as sy eie het: alleen, verban in 'n vreemde land en omring deur vyande. Die muishertjie bereik toe die onwaarskynlike en veg die hond af.

Parameswara het besluit dat die plek waar hy sit, 'n gunstige plek is vir minderbevoorregtes om te seëvier, en besluit daarom om 'n huis ter plaatse te bou.

Malakka was inderdaad 'n gunstige plek om 'n stad te stig vanweë die beskutte hawe, die oorvloedige watervoorsiening en die uitstekende ligging in verhouding tot die plaaslike handels- en moessonwindpatrone.


Die opkoms en ondergang van die Malakka -sultanaat

Die Malakka Sultanaat was 'n kragtige maritieme en kommersiële ryk wat die politieke, sosiale en kulturele stelsels van die Maleise Skiereiland gevorm het. Parameswara (1401 tot 1511) was 'n Palembang -prins van Hindoe -afkoms uit Srivijaya, in 1402. Hy was die stigter van Malakka. Hy vlug noordwaarts van die Majapahit -leërs en bereik 'n vissersdorpie by die monding van die Bertamrivier (voormalige naam van die Malakka -rivier) waar hy 'n muishert sien hoe 'n hond 'n hond uitoorlê terwyl hy onder 'n Malakka -boom rus. Hy het wat hy gesien het as 'n goeie teken beskou en besluit om 'n koninkryk daar te stig, genaamd Malakka.

Die opkoms van die Malakka -sultanaat

In 1414 het Parameswara Islam omhels en sy naam verander na Megat Iskandar Shah en getroud met 'n Moslem -prinses uit Pasai, Sumatra. As gevolg hiervan het dit Moslem -handelaars aangetrek om na die hawe van Malakka te kom. Hy handhaaf ook 'n goeie verhouding met Ming China, hy stuur sending na sending in 1415, 1416 en 1418 na Peking.

Teen die 1430's het die stad die vooraanstaande kommersiële emporium in Suidoos -Asië geword, deur plaaslike handelaars, Indiese, Arabiese en Persiese handelaars en Chinese handelsmissies. Hierdie alliansies het gehelp om Malakka te bou tot 'n groot internasionale handelshawe en 'n tussenganger in die winsgewende speseryhandel. Gesetel in die moderne stad Malakka, het die sultanaat gestrek van die suide van Thailand in die noorde tot Sumatra in die suidweste.

Islam in die streek

Binne dekades het die Sultanaat van Malakka een van die belangrikste promotors van Islam in die streek geword. Die uitbreiding van Islam in die streek was 'n bydrae tot die voortgesette teenwoordigheid van Indiese en Arabiese Moslem -handelaars wat uit die Weste kom en hul godsdiens saambring en dit na die plaaslike bevolking versprei. 'N Ander faktor was die talle besoeke deur die Chinese Moslem -admiraal Zheng He (wat bekend staan ​​as Cheng Ho in Suidoos -Asië) wat gehelp het om Islam deur die Maleise argipel te versprei. Dit is belangrik om daarop te let dat daar nie gedwonge bekerings tot die godsdiens was nie, aangesien die streek stadig in die Islamitiese groep gekom het.

Administrasie van die Malakka Sultanaat

By sy dood in 1424 word Parameswara opgevolg deur sy seun Sri Maharaja (1424–1444) en later opgevolg deur sultan Muzaffar Shah (1446–1456). Hy was die eerste wat die Arabiese titel 'Sultan' gebruik het en die Malakka -wette, bekend as Risalah Hukum Kanun, geformuleer het om die soewereiniteit en welvaart van Malakka te beskerm.

Onder Sultan Muzaffar Shah het die stadstaat 'n belangrike territoriale sowel as kommersiële mag in die streek geword en 'n bron vir die verdere verspreiding van Islam in die Indonesiese argipel. Die belangrikste plaaslike mededingers van die Sultanaat was Siam in die noorde en die dalende Majapahit -ryk in die suide. Majapahit was nie in staat om die Malakka in die argipel te beheer of effektief mee te ding nie. Siam aan die ander kant het Malakka drie keer aangeval, maar alle aanvalle is afgeweer.

Die Bendahara het as hoofminister (of hedendaagse premier) opgetree, die Temenggung het as senior regter opgetree terwyl die Syahbandar sal verantwoordelik wees vir die bewapening, organisering en bevel van hul gemeenskap vir Sultan. Die kantoor van die Laksamana is gestig tydens die bewind van Sultan Mansur Shah (1456–1477). Die pligte en jurisdiksie van die Laksamana sou die stad en die samelewing van Malakka vinnig ontwikkel.

Die aankoms van die Portugese

Aan die einde van die 1400's het die Koninkryk Portugal begin soek na nuwe handelsgeleenthede op die oop see. Die ontdekkingsreisiger Vasco de Gama het aan die einde van die 1400's daarin geslaag om om die suidpunt van Afrika te vaar, met die hulp van Moslem -seevaarders wat vertroud was met die Indiese Oseaan.

Met hierdie ontdekking in Europa het Portugal vinnig 'n vlootmag in die Indiese Oseaan geword en probeer om die Asiatiese speseryemark te oorheers. Nadat hulle omstreeks 1510 basisse in Indiese stede soos Goa en Calicut gevestig het, het die Portugese na die Ooste gekyk om hul handelsryk uit te brei.

Die val van die Malakka -sultanaat

In 1511 besluit die Portugese om die belangrike hawe van Malakka te verower om die handel met China te beheer. Op 25 Julie 1511 het die Portugese bevelvoerder, Afonso de Albuquerque, 'n aanval op die stad begin. Ondanks die bondgenootskap met naburige Moslemstate kon die Sultanaat nie die voortreflike Portugese wapens en vuurkrag weerstaan ​​nie, en teen einde Augustus is die stad verower.

Die Portugese het gou begin bou aan 'n vesting, bekend as A Famosa, wat gehelp het om die Portugese in die stad te beskerm teen Maleise teenaanvalle. 'N Groot deel van die middestad, insluitend die belangrikste moskee en regeringsgeboue, is vernietig om klip vir die vesting te verskaf. Dit was die amptelike einde van die Sultanaat van Malakka, aangesien die streek vir die eerste keer in sy geskiedenis onder buitelandse oorheersing gekom het.

Malakka vandag

Vandag is Malakka 'n staat in Maleisië en 'n sentrum van die Peranakan -kultuur. Toe Chinese setlaars oorspronklik as mynwerkers, handelaars en koeltjies na Malakka kom, neem hulle plaaslike bruide (van Javaanse, Batak, Acehnese, ens.) En neem baie plaaslike gebruike aan. Die gevolg hiervan is 'n interessante samesmelting van plaaslike en Chinese kulture. Die mans word aangespreek as Babas en die vroue Nyonyas.

Vandag, in Malakka, kan u nog steeds die afdrukke sien van Britse, Nederlandse en Portugese magte wat in forte, museums, kerke en torings agtergebly het. Hier het koloniale magte eers kontak gemaak met Maleisië, wat uiteindelik die land in sy huidige ekonomiese en politieke stelsel gevorm het.


Hang Tuah die dwaas

Daar was ook 'n bewering dat die Italiaanse Renaissance -skilder en die tweeledige genie Leonardo Da Vinci die Malakka -vegter Hang Tuah ontmoet het. Ek is nie seker wat die verhouding is tussen 'n regte persoon wat 'n fiktiewe figuur ontmoet nie. Ek twyfel of die dwaas van die Malakka -koninkryk die afspraak gehad het, anders sou sommige van Da Vinci se intelligensie die moronisme van die mitiese Malakka -kryger afgeskrik het en Tuah sou 'n bietjie brein gehad het om na te dink.

Tuah sou nie Hang Ketuat gewees het nie (een met 'n gevoelloos brein en 'n swak verstandelike vermoë) deur die bevel van die slordige sultan van Malakka te volg, wat nie die moeite werd is om as 'n Maleise heerser onthou te word nie. Hoe anders kan ons kinders verduidelik dat 'n sultan niks verkeerd kan doen deur sy Lakshmana te beveel om Tun Teja in Pahang te ontvoer sodat die heerser sy begeerte kan bevredig nie, net omdat hy die mag het om sy dwase rond te beveel?

Ons moet ons kinders leer om hierdie verheerlikte tiranne en sy groep breinlose krygers te verslaan.

Ek sou sê dat ons moet ophou probeer om selfs te bewys dat die nuttelose eertydse Maleise sultans afstammelinge was van Alexander van Masedonië. Fokus op die huidige bestaan ​​van ons bestaan ​​en die realisme wat daarmee gepaard gaan, eerder as om dwase krygers en skisofreniese sultans van Malakka te verheerlik wat vroue as seksuele voorwerpe gebruik, mense verslaaf, hul eie mense vermoor en die vreemde kopbedekking dra om aanspraak te maak op legitimiteit en om die onderdane te onderwerp aan onderwerping.

Dit is die Malakka -geskiedenis wat ons nodig het om dit reg te stel en vir eens en vir altyd vir kinders te leer.

Hierin lê die behoefte om kinders op skool die gereedskap te gee om die geskiedenis te ondervra en hul eie begrip te maak van wat in die geskiedenis gebeur het, wie die verhale geskryf het en hoe ons ons eie helde moet maak. Ons moet hulle leer hoe lelik die feodale kultuur en die immorele innerlike werking van die Malakka-sultanaat is.

Ons leef in 'n wêreld van die CI3 – van bewussyn, individue, instellings, ideologie wat die menslike psige oorheers.

Ons leef in 'n wêreld wat ons begrip van die semiotiek en kubernetika van die self vereis om te verstaan ​​hoe ons onsself en die wêreld binne en buite ons moet lees om ons innerlike en uiterlike wêreldbeskouings te konstrueer, te dekonstrueer en te rekonstrueer om die lewe as 'n komplekse proses van outeur van die self en die her-outeur van ons wêreld wat voortdurend verander om 'n idee te kry van wat die ‘core ’ is as daar inderdaad een is om lineariteit en multidimensionaliteit van ons uitgevinde realiteite te sien as een om te sien onsself as 'n organiese meganisme van 'n groot verhaal met veelvuldige subplotte sonder 'n narratiewe struktuur en as 'n komplekse roman sonder 'n plot, maar 'n verhaal wat smeek om vertel te word – van vreugdes en lyding en betekenis en betekenisloosheid om chaos as 'n pragtige patroon van willekeur om die kuns om 'n metafisiese anargis te wees, te bemeester wat die sin van wees sal gebruik om die hegemoniserende mag te weerstaan, individue, instellings en ideologie om die self te oorheers en te vernietig. nog baie meer … in wese: … leef gratis – of sterf gelukkig in die hande van die staat en godsdienstige, kulturele of enige ideologie … om te lewe, lief te hê, te bevry en te sterf, lag vir tiranne, totalitêre regerings en teokrasieë.

Ons moet ons kinders leer om die geskiedenis te herskryf, die aansprake van eiesinnigheid, feodale ideologie te bevraagteken, en daarna om hulle eie geskiedenis te laat skryf wat die naaste aan hul eie familietrots en geheue is. Waarom hulle dwing om ander se glorie te memoriseer? Van die verhale van die ou sultans ’ lus vir seks, mag en geld? En vandag het ons nie genoeg gesien van die skynheiligheid van die heersers van die sogenaamde Islamitiese lande nie?

Dr Azly Rahman

Dr. Azly Rahman is 'n akademikus, opvoeder, internasionale rubriekskrywer en skrywer van nege boeke. fiksie en nie-fiksie skryf. Hy is lid van die Columbia University -hoofstuk van die Kappa Delta Pi International Honor Society in Education. Twitter @azlyrahman. Meer geskrifte hier. Sy nuutste boek, 'n memoir, word uitgegee deur Penguin Books is hier beskikbaar.

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Die historiese stad Malakka

Baie jare gelede was Malakka een van die gewildste bestemmings in Maleisië. Voordat Kuala Lumpur verander het van 'n malaria-besmette oerwoud tot 'n gepoleerde hoë hoofstad, was Malakka een van die grootste handelshawe in Suidoos-Asië. Met verloop van tyd verander dit van 'n florerende hawe in 'n slaperige agterwaterstad en verloor sy plek as 'n moet-besoek bestemming vir sy hooggroeiende neefs.

Tog is Malakka die afgelope paar jaar herleef as 'n uitstekende vakansie weg vanweë sy vele historiese besienswaardighede. Dit is die tuiste van die bekende Nyonya-kombuis, en dit is 'n gewilde bestemming vir toeriste wat 'n blik op die unieke erfenis van Maleisië wil kry.

Oorsig van Malakka

Malakka is 'n hotpot van Maleise, Chinese, Indiese, Europese en verskillende invloede. Maleisiërs loof die rustige atmosfeer van Malakka en die rustige atmosfeer en voel dat die winkels vroegtydig hier sluit, die verkeer gaan rustig verby en die stadslewe is 'n trae aangeleentheid. Tussen die verspreide historiese plekke is atmosferiese Chinese winkelfronte en tradisionele Maleise kampongs. Alhoewel die staat nie spog met 'n wit sandkuslyn wat aan sy neefs aan die ooskus herinner nie, is Malakka opmerklik vir sy erfenis-hotspots.

As die son ondergaan, is die Jonker Walk -nagmark op Vrydag en Saterdag een van die gewildste bestemmings in die stad, wat 'n versameling stalletjies bied wat alles behalwe die wasbak verkoop. Hier kan u 'n verskeidenheid snuisterye koop en selfs 'n paar van die bekendste plaaslike geregte van die staat, waaronder gebraaide roomys en gebakte radyse-koek, proe. In die nag word die handjievol kroeë langs die boulevard 'n mini -straatpartytjie met tafels wat oor die sypaadjies stroom en 'n mengsel van lewendige musiek in die hele omgewing.

Malakka -geskiedenis

Malakka & ndash, wat Maleisië en nie -amptelike historiese hoofstad genoem is, het in 2008 tot 'n werelderfgoed van UNESCO verklaar, en ndash is een van die land se mees beskeie state. Met 'n goeie mengsel van historiese besienswaardighede en 'n porselein van die salmpienk Stadhuys tot die Jonker Walk Night Market en die ndash Malacca, is daar ook 'n smulbord van heerlike kos.

Aan die einde van die 14de eeu was Malakka 'n eenvoudige vissersdorp. Parameswara en ndash, 'n vlugtende prins van die nabygeleë Sumatra en ndash, beland op die strande van Malacca en rsquos, stig die stad en verander dit in 'n gunsteling hawe vir die wag van die moesson en die herverskaffing van skepe in die strategiese Straat van Malakka. As gevolg van sy strategiese ligging tussen China en Indië, het Malakka mettertyd die handelsroetes in hierdie kwadrant van die wêreld kom monopoliseer. In 1405 sluit Malakka 'n alliansie met die Ming -keiser om mettertyd beskerming te bied teen Siamese indringers, wat tot gevolg het dat Chinese setlaars wat met plaaslike Maleiers getrou het, die Baba Nyonya -volke genoem is.

Nadat Malakka in 1511 deur die Portugees aangeval is, het die indringer -sendelinge probeer om die katolisisme in die staat in te plant en die gewildheid van Malakka het afgeneem toe Moslem -handelaars van die hawe af wegbeweeg. Die reputasie van Malakka en rsquos het weer toegeneem in 1641 toe dit vir 150 jaar in Nederlandse hande oorgegaan het en later het die Britte vir 'n kort rukkie beheer oorgeneem, wat verder geleen het aan die menigte van kulturele invloede. Maar met verloop van tyd het Malakka weer 'n slaperige agterwaterstaat geword, maar dit was eers gedurende die 21ste eeu, toe Maleisië sy onafhanklikheid verkry het, dat Malakka 'n toeristekaart geword het.

Hoogtepunte en funksies

  • Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum & ndash Hierdie meenthuis in Peranakan is ingerig in Victoriaanse en Nederlandse styl in Chinese hardehoutmeubels en lyk soos 'n tipiese 19e-eeuwse Baba-Nyonya-woning.
  • Cheng Hoon Teng Tempel & ndash Hierdie tempel is beduidend vanweë die gegraveerde houtwerk, die oudste tradisionele Chinese tempel in Maleisië. Die hoogtepunt van hierdie heiligdom, toegewy aan die godin Kwan Yin, is die gewaad van die godin van barmhartigheid self in die hoofsaal.
  • Christus Kerk & ndash Hierdie koraalrooi gebou is 'n groot wit kruis en is die oudste Protestantse kerk in Maleisië. Dit is gebou in 1753 ter herdenking van 'n eeu van Nederlandse heerskappy in Malakka, en is een van die bekendste erfenisgebiede in die stad.
  • Jonker Street & ndash Malacca & rsquos Chinatown se middestraat was deesdae bekend vir sy versameling antiekwinkels, en dit is veral opmerklik vanweë die Jonker Walk Night Market op Vrydag en Saterdag, waar heerlike lekkernye en heerlike lekkernye teen goedkoop pryse verkoop word.
  • Maritieme Museum en Naval Museum & ndash Hierdie massiewe herskepping van die Flora de la Mar is een van die toeriste-waardigste besienswaardighede in Malakka. Die Maritieme Museum, wat in 1990 gebou is, is die tuiste van gedateerde rekwisiete, insluitend ou kaarte, skaalmodelskepe, wapens en nautiese verwante bykomstighede en oorblyfsels wat die geskiedenis van Malakka vertel.
  • Melaka -riviervaart & ndash 'n Rivierbootrit van 40 minute wat u op 'n reis neem langs die & lsquoVenice of the East & rsquo. Hierdie waterweg, wat vroeër as 'n handels- en handelsentrum vir die Melaka Maleise Sultanaat gebruik is, is nou 'n eenvoudige herinnering aan die oorvloedige verlede waar u verby kampungs en ou pakhuise en ndash -rivierpakkies kom.
  • Melaka -rivierpark & ndash Hierdie gewilde pretpark huisves die Eye on Malacca en 'n reuse reuzenrad in gondelstyl en 'n rustige draai van 20 minute met 'n wonderlike uitsig op die Straat van Malakka.
  • Melaka Sultanaatpaleis & ndash Hierdie kultuurmuseum is 'n hout replika van 'n oorspronklike 15de-eeuse paleis, 'n unieke struktuur met sierlike houtsnywerk en beskik oor talle dioramas wat die paleisatmosfeer van die era uitbeeld.
  • Porta de & rsquo Santiago (A & rsquoFamosa) En 'n vinnige foto -stop geleentheid, dit is die beste om hierdie Portugese ruïnes laat in die aand te besoek as die son nie so hoog in die lug is nie. Om bo -op te klim, is miskien nie 'n uitmergelende taak nie, maar aangesien daar amper geen bome langs die pad is nie, kan die kort rit skroei as gevolg van die vurige strale van die son.
  • Stadhuys & ndash Hierdie salmpienk stadsaal en die goewerneurskoshuis, vermoedelik die oudste Nederlandse gebou in die Ooste, huisves verskeie museums en is 'n gunsteling opvangpunt vir trishaw.

Goed om te weet en wat u nie moet misloop nie

  • Wat u ook al doen, sorg dat u die Vrydag en Saterdag Jonker Walk -nagmark nie misloop as u in Malakka is nie. Daar is 'n verskeidenheid uit-en-uit taai knicks, sowel as 'n verskeidenheid Maleisiese plaaslike lekkernye, en probeer die gebraaide-roomys sowel as die Nyonya-pynappeltert.
  • Besoek Malacca en rsquos se talle historiese plekke, van die Porta de rsquo Santiago tot by die Stadhuys -gebou.

Hoe om daar te kom/Tegniese inligting

Toegangskoste:
Malakka en historiese stede in die Straat van Malakka

  • Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum: Volwasse en RM 8 Kinders en RM 4
  • Maritieme museum en Vlootmuseum: Volwassene en RM 2 Kinders en RM 0,50
  • Melaka -riviervaart: volwassene - R10 vir kinders en R5,00
  • Melaka Sultanate -paleis: volwassenes en volwassenes 2 RM & kinders 0,50
  • Stadhuys: Volwassenes en kinders 5 RM 2

Openingstye:
Malakka en historiese stede in die Straat van Malakka

  • Baba Nyonya Erfenismuseum: 10:00 en 12:00 12:30 en 14:00 en 16:30 Maandag - Saterdae
  • Cheng Hoon Teng -tempel: 07:00 en 19:00
  • Christ Church: 09:00 & ndash 17:00
  • Maritieme museum en vlootmuseum: 09:00 en 17:30
  • Melaka -riviervaart: 09:00 en elke dag om 11:30
  • Melaka -rivierpark: 05:30 en 01:30 elke dag
  • Melaka Sultanate -paleis: 09:00 en 17:30 elke dag
  • Stadhuys: 09:00 & ndash 17:30 Saterdag & ndash Donderdag en 09:00 & ndash 12.15 14:45 & ndash 17:30 Vrydag

Hoe om daar te kom: Malakka is ongeveer drie uur van Kuala Lumpur af. Firefly voer vlugte tussen Singapoer en Malakka in Maleisië, daar is busse wat van talle plekke na Malakka ry. A-Bus Express bestuur die KLIA- en Malacca-roete vir slegs RM 36 per reis.


Portugees Malakka 1511-1641

Ten tyde van die Portugese aankoms in die Asiatiese see, was Malakka, danksy sy strategiese ligging aan die seestraat met dieselfde naam, 'n merkwaardige handelsentrum vir die handel en speserye. Destyds is Malakka regeer deur 'n Moslem Sultan. Die stad het sy invloed uitgebrei oor 'n groot gebied, wat die hele Maleise skiereiland insluit. Die hawe word gereeld besoek deur 'n menigte skepe en handelaars uit al die destydse Asiatiese lande: Arabië, Persië, China, Indië, Japan, Indonesië, Ceylon en Bengale. Daarin is al die Asiatiese speserye versamel en verkoop: peper, naeltjies, gemmer, kaneel, neutmuskaat, ens.

Na hul aankoms in Indië het die Portugese gou bewus geword van die belangrikheid van die stad. 'N Ekspedisie het in 1509 na Malakka gevaar, maar dit het misluk en baie van die Portugese is gevange geneem en in die tronk gesit deur die Sultan. In 1511 het die onderkoning van Indië, Afonso de Albuquerque, besluit om 'n ekspedisie te reël wat bestem was om Malakka te verower. Aan die hoof van 1100 en#8211 het 1200 mans en 14 skepe Afonso de Albuquerque in Junie 1511 met die oog op Malakka aangekom en onmiddellik die redding van die Portugese geëis, wat in die 1509 -ekspedisie gevange geneem is. Die Sultan het probeer om tyd in te win om die stad se verdediging te versterk. Hy was deeglik bewus van die klein aantal Portugese troepe en was vol vertroue in sy kragtige leër van 20 000 man en 2 000 gewere.

Albuquerque het geen tyd gemors nie. Teen dagbreek van 25 Julie 1511 val die Portugese die stad aan en konsentreer die aanval op die brug van die rivier wat die stad verdeel. Na 'n hewige geveg is die brug deur die Portugese verower, maar in die nag moes hulle terugtrek. Na 'n paar dae van voorbereidings het die Portugese die aanval op 10 Augustus 1511 hernu. Albuquerque het die hulp van 'n paar Chinese junks, wat in die hawe geanker het, gekry.

Die gebruik van junks, aangebied deur die Chinese handelaars, was deurslaggewend, aangesien hierdie junks as 'n brugkop gebruik is. Hierdie keer was die aanval suksesvol en het die Portugese uiteindelik daarin geslaag om 'n brughoof in die stad te vestig. Dan was daar 'n paar dae van beleg, waartydens die Portugese die stad gebombardeer het. Op 24 Augustus 1511 val die Portugese weer net aan om te ontdek dat die Sultan ontsnap het. Malakka was nou in Portugese hande. Hulle het die stad ontslaan, maar volgens die bevele van Albuquerque respekteer hulle die eiendom van diegene wat by hulle staan.

BW Diffie en GD Winius in die boek “Foundations of the Portuguese Empire 1415-1580 ” skryf: “ die verowering van Asië se grootste handelsstad deur slegs 900 Portugese en 200 Indiërs moet as 'n gebeurtenis in die geskiedenis van Europese uitbreiding is nie minder as die bekendste verowering van Tenochtitlan deur Hernando Cortés ”.

Porta de Santiago, Portugese fort (A Famosa), Malakka, Maleisië. Skrywer T0lk

MALACCA 'N PORTUGUESE STAD

Malakka was een van die drie belangrikste punte met Goa en Hormuz, wat Portugal die beheer oor die belangrikste Asiatiese handelsroetes gegee het. Na die verowering beveel Albuquerque onmiddellik die bou van 'n vesting aan die suidekant van die rivier. Hierdie vesting heet “A Famosa ” en is klaar in November 1511. Ruy de Brito Patalim is aangestel as kaptein van die “Fortaleza de Malaca ” en ongeveer 500 Portugese soldate is as garnisoen agtergelaat. Kort daarna berei Albuquerque die skepe voor op die terugkeer met die buit van Malakka. Tydens die terugreis na Goa sak sy skip “Flor do Mar ” tydens 'n storm en al die skatte wat in Malakka gehaal is, het verlore gegaan. Verskeie Florentynse handelaars het aan die Portugese ondernemings in Asië deelgeneem. Onder hulle was Giovanni da Empoli teenwoordig in Malakka tydens die beleg en die verowering. Hy beskryf sy ervarings in 'n interessante brief aan sy pa.

Na die verowering van Malakka was Portugal se beleid op die Maleise skiereiland óf om alliansies met plaaslike heersers aan te gaan óf om die aangrensende koninkryke te oortuig om Portugese heerskappy te aanvaar. Vanaf sy basis in Johore het die ou sultan van Malakka Malakka herhaaldelik aangeval in 1517, 1520, 1521 en 1525. Uiteindelik, in 1583, is 'n vredesverdrag onderteken. Malakka was herhaaldelik beleër in 1550, 1567, 1571. Die belangrikste vyande was Johore en Atjeh (in Sumatra). In Malakka het Albuquerque 'n nuwe administrasie gestig, 'n nuwe geldeenheid geslaan en 'n houtkapel naby die vesting gebou. Aangrensend aan die vesting is 'n klipkerk gewy aan “Nossa Senhora da Anunciada ” in 1521 opgerig en later aan “Nossa Senhora da Assumpção ”. Op 4 Februarie 1558 is hierdie kerk ingewy as 'n katedraal. Baie Portugese “Casados ​​”, meestal ambagsmanne, handelaars of boere, vestig hulle in Malakka. In 1532 is die Confraria da Misericórdia gestig en 'n pragtige houthospitaal vir armes ook gebou. Die kerk het ook 'n skool begin. Aktiewe sendingwerk begin in 1545 met die aankoms van St. Francisco Xavier. In 1552 is die “Câmara ” (Munisipale Raad) van Malakka opgerig.

In 1602-1603 blokkeer die Nederlanders Malakka oor die see, maar dit was slegs 'n eerste skugter poging. In 1606 sluit Johore en die Nederlanders 'n alliansie teen die Portugese en in 1607 plaas hulle die stad weer onder beleg. Versterkings van Goa het die poging gestaak. Eredia beraam dat die Christelike bevolking in Malakka ongeveer 7.400 in 1613 was. Daar was agt gemeentes in die stad. In 1629 het Atjeh 'n nuwe groot poging aangewend, maar hierdie keer wen die Portugese weer. Die Nederlanders het tussen 1623 en 1627 verskeie vrugtelose pogings aangewend en in 1633 is 'n blokkade opgestel.

Ou prentjie van die Fort -poort van Malakka. Geen kopiereg nie

Die laaste beleg van die Portugese Malakka het in Junie 1640 begin toe 'n gesamentlike vloot van Hollanders-Johore van 1500 Nederlanders, 1500 Maleiers, 12 Nederlandse skepe, 6 sloepe en 40 Johore-vaartuie van die hawe van Malakka af gesien is. Die beleg was uiters moeilik en byna 1 500 Nederlanders het hul lewens verloor. Na vyf maande se beleg was die Portugese verdedigers sonder kruit en met 'n ernstige voedseltekort. Ten spyte van die probleme onder die bevel van Dom Manuel de Sousa Coutinho, wat siek was, kon hulle die beleg weerhou. Ten tyde van die Nederlandse aanval in Junie 1640 was daar 'n garnisoen van ongeveer 50 Portugese soldate, meer as 300 Portugese “Casados ​​” met hul gesinne en 2 000 of 3 000 mestiços en inheemse inwoners in Malakka. Op 14 Januarie 1641 het die Nederlandse bevelvoerder Willemsoon Kartekoe die laaste desperate aanval beveel. Die Portugese verdedigers het 'n hewige finale weerstand in die Fortaleza Velha gemaak en die Nederlanders is uiteindelik teruggedryf.

In wanhoop bied die Nederlandse bevelvoerder eer aan die Portugese eerbare oorgawe. Die dapper (en sterwende) Portugese bevelvoerder het die vrygewige terme aanvaar. Twee dae later sterf hy deur die Nederlanders met militêre eer in die kerk van São Domingo. Die stad Malakka was dus van 24 Augustus 1511 tot 14 Januarie 1641 in Portugese hande.

Die afstammelinge van die Portugees van Malakka praat tot vandag toe Creools Portugees (Papia Kristang). Hulle is Christene en het Portugese vanne. Die Eurasiese gemeenskap het 12 000 lede op die Maleise skiereiland.

ANDER PORTUGUESE FORTIFIKASIES IN DIE BESIGHEID VAN MALACCA:

ILHA DAS NAUS: die eerste verdedigingslinie ter see van die fort van Malakka

Die Portugese noem Ilha das Naus (Pulau Java of Pulau Melaka) 'n klein eiland buite die hawe van Malakka. In 1606/1615 het die Portugese 'n battery op hierdie eiland geplaas. Op die Ilha das Naus het die Portugese 'n fort van 60 vierkante voet beplan. Maar in 1638 is slegs die fondamente van die fort Ilha das Naus gelê en die mure daarvan was nog nie klaar toe die Nederlandse invalsmag twee jaar later in die hawe van Malakka ingevaar het nie. Om hierdie rede moes die Portugese hul gedeeltelik afgewerkte fort laat vaar sonder dat daar in 1640 'n skoot afgevuur is. Kort na die verowering van Malakka voltooi die Nederlanders die Portugese fort op die Ilha das Naus (nou Rooi Eiland genoem).

MUAR: 'n Portugese fort op die Maleise skiereiland

Die Portugese het 'n tweede fort op die Maleise skiereiland gehad. Hierdie fort was in Muar en bestaan ​​nie meer nie. Dit is gebou deur Eredia by die monding van die Muar -rivier in 1604. Die fort was driehoekig met ronde skanse.

PACEM-PASSUMAH: 'n Portugese fort in Sumatra

Die werklike naam moet Pueek (05.09N -97.13E) wees. Die fort is in 1520/21 gebou en sy lewensduur was kort. Gaspar Correia is positief (Lendas da Índia, Tomo II, Parte II, pp.795: “ …e puserão fogo à fortalesa, que tudo foy feito em cinza: o que foy em Maio de 1524. ” Die fort was vierkantig met 'n hout “tranqueira ” (palisade) en is naby die strand gebou.

Vir inligting oor Pacem, dank ek Nuno Rubim.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

– Fernandis, Gerard “ Stoor ons Portugese erfeniskonferensie 95 Malakka, Maleisië ” 103 pp. Gerard Fernandis, 1995, Malakka, Maleisië. 'N Baie interessante boek oor die Portugese erfenis en geskiedenis van Malakka.

– Irwin, G. W. “Melaka fort ” In “Melaka – Die transformasie van 'n Maleise hoofstad ca. 1400-1980 ” Vol. een Geredigeer deur Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley. bl. 195-241. Die geskiedenis van die fort van Malakka gedurende die Portugese en Nederlandse tyd.

– Leupe, P.A. Die beleg en vang van Malakka van die Portugese in 1640-1641 ” JMBRAS vol, 14, pt. 1 (1936) pp 1-176. Die besetting van die seestraat van Malakka 1636-1639, die beleg en die verowering van Malakka 1640-1641, rapporteer kommissaris Justus Schouten oor sy besoek aan Malakka 1641.

– Noonan, L. “ Die Portugese in Malakka: 'n studie van die eerste groot Europese impak op Oos-Asië ” in: “Studia ” N ° 23 April, pp. 33-104 Centro de Estudos Históricos Ultramarinos, 1968, Lissabon, Portugal. Baie interessant. Die koms van die Portugese, Portugese bewind in Malakka, Malakka se rol in die Portugese koloniale strategie, die Portugees-Asiatiese verhoudings in Malakka, die einde van die Portugese bewind.

– O ’ Neill, Brian Juan “A tripla identidade dos portugueses de Malaca ” In: “Oceanos ” n ° 32 Outubro – Dezembro 1997, pp. 63-83

– Sandhu K. en Wheatley P. ” Melaka The Transformation of a Maleis Capital ca. 1400 – 1980 ″ 816 + 784 pp. 2 volumes, geïllustreer in OUP / Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1983, Kuala Lumpur, Maleisië. 'N Volledige studie oor die stad Malakka van die begin tot vandag, met 'n bibliografie van Melaka -studies.

– Silva Rego, Padre António da “A Comunidade Luso-Malaia de Malaca e Singapura ” In: Actas do V Colóquio Internacional de Estudos Luso-Brasileiros, vol. I, Coimbra, 1964, pp. 507-512. Ook in: Silva Rego, Padre António da “Dialecto Português de Malaca e outros escritos ” 304 pp. (Cadernos Ásia) CNCDP, 1998, Lisboa, Portugal.

– Silva Rego, Padre Antonio da “A Cultura Portuguesa na Malaia e em Singapura “Comunicação apresentada à reunião conjunta da Academia Internacional da Cultura Portuguesa en do Conselho Geral da União das Comunidades de Cultura Portuguesa, 28 Mei 1968 ook. : Silva Rego, Padre António da “Dialecto Português de Malaca e outros escritos ” 304 pp. (Cadernos Ásia) CNCDP, 1998, Lisboa, Portugal.

– Sousa Pinto, P. J. de “Portugueses e Malaios: Malaca e os Sultanatos de Johor e Achém 1575-1619 ” 334 pp. Maps, Fundação Oriente, 1997, Lissabon, Portugal. Malaca e o Estado da Índia: enquadramento económico, quadro político militar Malaca e a geopolítica dos estreitos 1575-1619, Portugueses e Malaios, a cidade de Malaca.

– Sousa Pinto, P. J. de “Capitães e casados: um retrato de Malaca nos finais do século XVI ” In: “Oceanos ” n ° 32 Outubro – Dezembro 1997, pp. 45-60

– Sta Maria, Bernard “My mense, my land. Die verhaal van die Portugese gemeenskap in Malakka ” 236 bls. Malakka Portugese Ontwikkelingsentrum, 1982, Malakka, Maleisië. Vestig die aandag op die rol van lekegroepe om die geloof te behou, veral gedurende die Nederlandse periode.

– Sta Maria, Joseph “Where do we go from here” 89 pp. Joseph Sta Maria , 1991, Malacca, Malaysia.

– Subrahmanyam, Sanjay “Commerce and conflict: two views of Portuguese Melaka in the 1620s” In: Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, n° 19(1), March 1988, pp.62-79.

– Teixeira, Manuel “The Portuguese missions in Malacca and Singapore (1511-1958)” ? 3 vols. Agência Geral do Ultramar, 1961, 1963, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Thomaz, Luís Filipe Ferreira Reis “Early Portuguese Malacca” 196 pp. CTMCDP – IPM, 1998, Macau From: Thesis “Os Portugueses em Malaca: 1511-1580” Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Lisboa, 218 pp. maps 2 vols. 1964, Lisboa. This volume comprises three essays on the city of Malacca and its society during the first decades of Portuguese rule.

– Thomaz, Luis Filipe Ferreira Reis “The Indian merchant communities in Malacca under the Portuguese rule” In: Souza, T. R. de (ed., ) “Indo-Portuguese History: Old issues, new questions” Concept, New Delhi, 1985, pp.56-72.


Kingdom of Malacca - History

Malaysia's History and Background

Ancient Malaysia - Negrito aborigines are considered to be one of the first groups of people to inhabit the Malaysian peninsula. When the Proto-Malays, made up of seafarers and farmers, came to the peninsula they sent the Negritos into the jungles and hills. The Proto-Malays came from China and were technologically advanced, especially in comparison to the Negritos. After the Proto-Malays came the Deutero-Malays, which were made up of many different people - Arabs, Chinese, Indians, Proto-Malays, and Siamese. The Deutero-Malays were proficient in their use of iron and when they united with Indonesians, they combined to make up the people known today as the Malay.

Hindu Kingdom - 100 BC - 1400 AD - During this period, Malaysia's culture changed dramatically with the arrival of Indians. Indians initially went to the Malaysian peninsula in search of a mystical place known as the "Land of Gold." Although the places in Malaysia may not have been what they were looking for, they didn't leave, but continued to arrive in search of gold, spices and aromatic wood. In addition to trade (with goods), the Indians introduced Hinduism and Buddhism to the peninsula, thus bringing temples and other cultural traditions from India. As a result, local kings in Malaysia combined what they considered to be the best aspects of India's government with their own structure, thus resulting in "Indianised kingdoms." Today, the Indian influences can best be seen in a traditional Malay wedding ceremony, which is similar to those in India.

Islam and the Golden Age of Malacca - 1400 AD - 1511 AD - Chinese, Indian and Arab records show that Srivijaya to be the best trading area in the region. After seeing its great success, other areas quickly copied it thus causing a decline in Srivijava's influence. Since the Hindu kingdoms of Malaysia weren't very strong and didn't have a central power, this caused a big problem for the region. Pirates were another problem that needed to be taken care of in order for there to be a safe, secure port. This problem was taken care of with the emergence of Malacca, which was in an ideal location, thus attributing to its great success. It was founded in 1400 and within 50 years it was a major port, actually the most influential in Southeast Asia and with alliances being built with other tribes and ports, Malacca was able to "police" the waters and provide an escort for vessels that needed it. With this success, Malacca quickly became the power in control of all of Malaysia's west coast.

Colonial Malaysia - 1511 AD - 1957 AD - Malacca's power and success was quickly extinguished with the arrival of the Portuguese in 1511. Since the Arabians weren't allowing vessels piloted by non-Muslims into their harbors, the Europeans realized they needed a trading port of their own. Thus bringing about capture of Malacca and it's harbor. After conquering Malacca, the Portuguese built an immense fort which in turn was captured by the Dutch in 1641. In 1785, the British, who needed a port for their ships to dock while in route to China, persuaded the Sultan of Kedah to let them build a fort on Penang. After the French conquered the Netherlands in 1795, the Dutch allowed England to oversee the port of Malacca rather than turn it over the the French. This was the first in a series of "swaps" to and from each country regarding this area. Eventually, although it was finally given to Britain in a trade, the Dutch were the main controllers of the region. With the establishment of a port in Singapore, the British colonies (Malacca, Penang, and Singapore) came to be known as the Straits Settlements.

England's monopoly on tin mining was tremendously helped with the Pangkor Agreement in 1874. This Agreement was the result of internal fighting among the Malay kingdoms over control of the Perak throne. The commotion that ensued prompted Britain to basically force the Malay rulers into signing the peace treaty. A result of this treaty was that England had greater control, which greatly helped them in maintaining their monopoly in tin mining. Britain's control continued until the Japanese invasion in 1942, although they tried to regain control after the end of World War II in 1945. This attempt was foiled by Malaya's independence movement under the guidance of Tunku Abdul Rahman. The British flag was lowered for good in 1957 in Merdeka Square (Kuala Lumpur).

Independence to the Present: 1957- Now - Malaya's independence brought about new decisions that needed to be made, the first decision being to ascertain which territories to include in the new state. "Malaysia" was a term brought up in 1961, when Tunku persuaded Singapore, Sabak and Sarawak to combine with Malaya in a federal union. This didn't go over well with Indonesian president, Sukharno, who feared the impact of such a union on his plans to expand. He initiated several unsuccessful attacks against Malaysia.

Since Malaysia is comprised of such a diverse mix of people, another problem the country faced with independence was determining their (Malaysia's) national identity. Although the majority of the population was Malay and as such they were given permanent positions in government and other perks, the Chinese were dominate in business and trade. Since most Malaysian's were not doing well economically, the government imposed some quotas that were designed to help the Malays improve their chances economically. The Chinese didn't like this and formed a political party that won a good number of seats in the next election (1969). The Malays protested this political win by erupting into riots throughout Kuala Lumpur, which for the next couple of years put Malaysia in a state of emergency.

Malaysia has made tremendous strides in their growth and wealth. Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohammed, who has led Malaysia since 1981, is felt to be responsible for Malaysia's success.


Kingdom of Malacca - History

A History of the Malay Peninsula

Back to Sejarah Melayu

Forward to Western Conquests

In 1456, Raja Kasim assumed the throne of Melaka after the murder of his half-brother Raja Ibrahim. This was a momentous turning point in Melaka history - a real palace revolution. The son of a Sumatran princess who took a Hinduised title was murdered and replaced by his Muslim half brother, the son of a Tamil common woman. His Tamil Muslim uncle Tun Ali Sri Nara diraja was made Bendahara after the Malay Bendahara Sriwa Raja poisoned himself - either in fear that he was no longer trusted by the ruler or in anguish at the growing power of the New Guard. Raja Kasim adopted the title Sultan and called hinself Muzaffar Shah.

The small city state was now to become Sultanate and Empire. Sultan Muzaffar Shah married the daughter of the dead Bendahara Sriwa Raja, Tun Kudu. This was a shrewd move, for Tun Kudu's brother was Tun Perak - a man deeply respected by the Sultan's Malay subjects and a man he knew had the charisma, ability and courage to build his Empire. To avoid unrest and civil war, Muzaffar attempted to oust his tamil Bendahara and replace him with Tun Perak. Tun Ali had a heavy price for resignation - he wanted the Sultan's wife, Tun Kudu, in marriage. Tun Kudu made the ultimate sacrifice, divorced the Sultan and her brother was free to shape Melaka history for the next 40 years and serve as Bendahara under four Sultans.

Melaka very quickly mounted a series of military campaigns that won her Manjong, Selangor and Batu Pahat. Kampar and Indragiri in Sumatra were soon to become loyal vassals as well. Melaka's expanding power rattled its much larger and more powerful Thai neighbours, who insisted Melaka belonged to its vassal Kedah. The Thais launched massive attacks against the Malay upsturbs - won overland from its vassal State Pahang in 1445 and another by Sea in 1456. Both attacks were beaten back. n 1459, Muzaffar's son, Raja Abdullah, succeeded his father and assumed the title of Sultan Mansur Shah. He wanted to settle the Thai problem once and for all and lau nched two attacked against the two Thai States of Kedah and Pahang. Kedah fell quickly and he sent an expedition of over 200 ships against Pahang. The Governor of Pahang, Maharaja Dewa Sura was captured and his daughter taken captive to Melaka to become Mansur Shah's concubine.

It was during Mansur Shah's reign that Hang Tuah, the ultimate Malay hero and symbol of honour, courage and loyalty was made Laksamana or Admiral. Other States quickly fell in battle or become vassals - Johor and Muar in the Peninsular, Jambi, Siak and (briefly) Pasai in Sumatra. Like its Sri Vijayan predecessor, Melaka now firmly ruled much of the two coasts, guarding the vital Straits. Mansur Shah's reign was the peak of Melaka's meteoric rise to Empire and became the golden age of Malay folklore and culture. It was recorded that by this time, Melaka alone, had 40,000 inhabitants, including almost all the known races in the world.

In 1477, Mansur Shah died and his son Raja Hassan ( and a nephew of Tun Perak) became Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah. He mysteriously died in the prime of his life 11 years later, supposedly poisoned just as he was about to leave for pilgrimage to Mekah. We are now seeing a revival of the Tamil Muslim revolution - with the Temenggung Tun Mutahir, the son of the old former Bendahara Tun Ali, being the chief architect. Sultan Alauddin's elder son and the rightful heir Munawar Shah was passed over for his younger half brother, Mahmud, the son of the Temenggong's own sister. The grand old man of Melaka, Tun Perak, died in 1498, to be succeeded by his brother Tun Puteh. When he died shortly after, Tun Mutahir achieved the victory he desired and became Bendahara - the real power in Melaka. Melaka's State continued to flourish but the court was now thronged and dominated by Tamil merchants, ready to buy their way to royal favour. Thier monopoly in trade made them despised by other traders and the Malay chiefs and common people hated the arrogant and greedy "Jawi Pekan" strutting like rulers.

Then, on September 1st, 1509, a Portugese fleet under Admiral Diego Lopez De Sequeira sailed into Melaka harbour - the first European fleet to have ever dropped anchor into Malay waters. That moment was to become a dramatic crossroads in the history of the Malay Peninsular and, ultimately, the fate of all eastern Asia.


When the World Came to Southeast Asia: Malacca and the Global Economy

Situated in the west coast of the Malay Peninsula on the strait that bears its name, the port of Malacca is adjacent to one of the world’s busiest shipping lanes. Today’s Malacca (Melaka in Malay) is a small port city with few obvious signs of its former glory. Despite a growing tourist trade, most visitors are ignorant of the city’s spectacular maritime past as one of the most important trade centers in the early modern global economy, a past that put Malacca in the same league with Venice, Cairo, and Canton. The average tourist is more likely to mention the city’s food than its history. With centuries of trade with China, India, and the Arab world being ruled by the Portuguese, Dutch, and English and its close proximity to many of the world’s spice producers, Malaccan culinary culture brings together East Asian, Indian Ocean, Halal, and European traditions into a Southeast Asian celebration of global food. But tasty as they are, these dishes are artifacts of the city’s lost prominence. Fortunately, city leaders have funded several museums, restoration projects, and archeological sites to celebrate this Malaysian port’s role in the world system, its dynamic multiculturalism, and significance in maritime Asian history.

Despite the port’s tremendous importance and wealth in the fifteenth century, Malacca’s greatness was fleeting. After 1403, a Malay ruler rapidly transformed it from a sleepy fishing village to a center of world trade in less than a decade, but in 1511, the dynamic trade emporium fell to Portuguese invaders who gradually ran Malacca into the ground until they were conquered in turn by the Dutch in 1641. If it became a backwater under colonial rule, a larger historical perspective on Southeast Asia shows that there has always been a hegemonic port city similar to Malacca in its glory days. Geography, meteorological patterns, and the logistics of maritime commerce dictated that somewhere along the Straits of Malacca, one city would serve as the regional center in the global economic order.

Land, Water, and Wind

French historian Fernand Braudel argued that geography and climate structured the decisions humans could make, placing human agency inside of certain environmental constraints. Although he studied the Mediterranean, his perspective is essential for understanding the history of maritime Asia. A check of the map reveals Malacca’s importance. The land literally creates a funnel, as the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra get steadily closer as one travels into the strait. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese apothecary, referred to the strait as a “gullet,” and contemporary analysts use the term “choke point.”1

The Straits of Malacca connect the Indian Ocean basin to the South China Sea. China- bound maritime trade from India, Persia, and the Arabian Peninsula must either pass by Malacca or travel much farther to the south to the Sunda Strait between Sumatra and Java. While the Sunda passage is appropriate for ships coming from the Cape of Good Hope, it is a major detour for Indian, Persian, and Arab merchants. Furthermore, the winds along the west coast of Sumatra can be unreliable, and the open ocean swells spawned by massive storms in the Southern Ocean provide for excellent surfing in the Mentawai Islands but dangerous sailing for small craft. The placid waters between the northeast coast of Sumatra and the west coast of the Malay Peninsula are well-protected from ocean swells and can seem like a lake when compared to the towering waves of the Indian Ocean.

The monsoon wind cycle adds a final and historically decisive factor to the history of global trade patterns. In the Northern Hemisphere’s summer months, a high-pressure system over .Siberia pulls wet and warm air off the Indian Ocean, bringing heavy rain and dominant winds that blow toward the northeast. In winter, the pattern is reversed, with Siberian low pressure pushing relatively cooler and dry air to the southwest. In the age of sail, it was next to impossible for boats to travel against these winds. Mariners sailed downwind from India or China toward the southern edge of the Straits of Malacca from November to April. From May to October, they used the monsoon winds to push boats northward to India or China. This wind pattern combined with Malacca’s geographic location to make it an ideal place to await the change of the wind cycle. As merchants going from South Asia to China realized that it was easier and quicker to simply exchange goods with each other at a halfway point in the straits, ports in the region developed into trade emporia where goods from afar could be imported, stored, and exchanged amongst foreign merchants. Such a system allowed Indians and Chinese to bring goods from home, exchange them for foreign goods, and return home in close to six months, rather than the almost two years it would take to travel the full distance.

The Braudelian factors of geography, ocean patterns, and wind cycles made the Straits of Malacca a natural pivot point of commerce in maritime Asia.

Pre-Malaccan Thalassocracies

Before Malacca, there were two great thalassocracies, or sea-going empires: Srivijaya (eighth through twelfth centuries) and Majapahit (1293–1527). Initially, the kingdom of Funan (first through seventh centuries), in what is now Southern Việt Nam, Cambodia, and Thailand, established maritime trade connections between India and China, with the city of Oc-Eo serving as the main port. However, with the Straits of Malacca home to various pirate bands, merchants in the age of Funan used the overland route at the narrow Isthmus of Kra near the present- day Thai-Malaysian border.

In the seventh century, Srivijaya opened up the Straits of Malacca. Using naval power to crush pirates and rivals, the kingdom grew from the region around present-day Palembang in South Sumatra Province in Indonesia to claim control over most of Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, much of Java, and thousands of smaller islands. For centuries, Srivijaya expanded the volume of trade through the straits as it led military expeditions against potential rivals while ensuring foreign merchants safe passage and necessary port facilities. After half a millennium of power, the maritime empire fell to the rising Javanese Majapahit kingdom. Another sea-going empire, Majapahit controlled an even larger amount of territory at its imperial zenith in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Javanese combined access to the spice islands of the Moluccas with domination of the Straits of Malacca.

These thalassocracies set the example of incredible wealth that would come from servicing the maritime Silk Roads between China and the Indian Ocean basin. Sea-going trade proved itself to be a much more cost-effective and faster option than Central Asia’s thousands of miles of unreliable roads, slowly crossed by camel caravans at a walking pace.

The Rise of Malacca

Following these precedents, the rise of Malacca was simply the newest phase of a centuries-old pattern. While specific details on the founding of the city remain murky and often the stuff of legend, we do know that prior to 1400, Malacca was a small fishing village. Malay, Portuguese, and Chinese sources hold that the displaced Malay nobleman Parameswara (1344–1414) was in search of a kingdom. Finding a small river that met a beach in the protected waters of strait— all at the foot of a nearby hill that allowed one to observe the coming and going of ships— Parameswara must have realized that the site would make an ideal port that could both service trade and project military power. Accordingly, he forged an alliance with the nomadic orang laut (known as “sea people,” they were literally a floating population of pirates and merchants) to crush his rivals, scare off other pirates, and encourage merchants into his harbor. If he strongarmed some ships into his port, once there they found reliable trading practices and security in a dangerous area.

Malacca’s just and uniform trade practices quickly gained notoriety throughout maritime Asia. Under the watchful but protective eyes of the fierce orang laut, merchants who came into Malacca found that the city offered safe and secure warehouse facilities. Ensuring smooth transactions, Parameswara established a system with clear rules on the percentage of incoming cargo that would be taxed. Avoiding opportunities for graft and petty corruption, the local government had a hierarchy of officials with four harbormasters, each for an ethnically defined group of merchants such as Gujarati, Bengali, Malay, or East Asian. An executive officer stood above them all to arbitrate interethnic disputes and ensure harmonious multicultural commerce. Serving as a marketplace for imports to be traded amongst foreigners, the city produced and consumed relatively little.

Within a few years, the successful system made Malacca the most important trading center in Southeast Asia. With this prosperity, the young city grew. Merchants, laborers, and slaves from throughout Southeast Asia, East Asia, and South Asia soon filled Malacca. Cultural diversity became the norm, and one could hear dozens of languages spoken in the cosmopolitan city’s bustling streets.

Tribute State and Sultanate

Parameswara solidified Malacca’s position with institutional and personal connections to the great economic engines of his world, China and India. The city’s rise coincided with one of the most dynamic phases in Chinese history as the early Ming dynasty (1364–1644) deployed a massive fleet and established direct relations with the Asia maritime world. The Yongle Emperor (1402–1424) tasked Zheng He (1371– 1433) with building and commanding hundreds of ships, some estimated to be over 400 feet in length. Not a mission of conquest or exploration, the fleet followed the well-known monsoon trade routes to promote trade and diplomacy by impressing the world with China’s might. Maritime powers were encouraged to enter into the Confucian-based tribute-state relationship with the Middle Kingdom. Parameswara himself traveled to the Chinese capital to kowtow before the emperor in 1411. In return for his tribute and respect, the Malaccan ruler received honorary robes from the Chinese court, a symbol of prestige, and, more practically, assurances of Chinese military assistance should it be needed. Furthermore, the Chinese court granted the city what we might call most-favored-nation status. If the sinitic tribute state system ensured the city’s standing to the east, religion solidified Malacca’s economic relationship toward the west.

While it is unclear if Parameswara converted to Islam, he adopted titles associated with the faith (the Persian Iskandar Shah and the Arabic Sultan) and intermarried with Muslim royal families. This is not surprising, as increasing numbers of Indian, Persian, and Arab merchants began to arrive in Aceh on the northern tip of Sumatra and the Straits of Malacca. By midcentury, the city’s leadership converted, and a sultan made the Hajj pilgrimage, placing Malacca in the wider Islamic trade network that dominated the greater Indian Ocean basin. Muslims from South Asia, Arabia, or North Africa knew that they would be able to find places of worship, individuals familiar with Arabic, and communities governed by familiar trade practices and influenced by Islamic law codes.

These relationships strengthened Malacca’s foreign relations and its domestic dynamism. As a tribute state, the city became familiar to Chinese who soon began to reside in the port. Muslim merchants from thousands of miles away settled in the city, adding to its ethnic diversity. By the close of the fifteenth century, Malacca was one of the world’s most important cities for trade and home to a cosmopolitan community of over 100,000. Arabs prayed with Chinese. Armenians traded with Javanese. Indians and Japanese saw each other in the street.

The Portuguese Crusade

Historians often mark Columbus’s 1492 voyage across the Atlantic as the dawn of the modern era. This perspective, with its emphasis on the Iberian construction of global connections, can obscure the fact that the original goal of Spanish expansion was not the unknown New World but rather the markets of East and Southeast Asia. The Portuguese were more immediately successful in this quest. After the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, in which Portugal and Spain agreed to divide the world into two spheres of expansion, the smaller kingdom sent Vasco da Gama to India to build a trade empire on the far side of the world. Unfortunately, the Portuguese had little to sell in Asia and quickly turned to more violent means of acquiring the spices, silks, and other riches of Indian Ocean ports. Alfonso de Albuquerque (1453-1515), a brilliantly ruthless strategist was the main architect of Portuguese Asian policy. Recognizing the relative weakness of his small armed forces on land, he exploited his fleet’s naval superiority by attacking strategic waterways such as the Strait of Hormuz (1507) and ports such as Goa (1510). His ships, bristling with guns and sailors trained in the ways of armed trade in the less-than-peaceful Mediterranean, highjacked Asia’s maritime economy. Realizing that control of Malacca would give him a near-monopoly of Chinese goods and spices from the Moluccas, Albuquerque attacked the city in 1511. After several fierce battles with the sultan’s skilled archers and powerful war elephants, the Portuguese conquered the port.

While Albuquerque’s aim was to monopolize Asian trade by taking this crucial choke point, his motivations must be understood in the context of early modern Europe. Coming out of the Crusades and feudalism, Islamophobia and the warrior culture were central to the Portuguese worldview. But this conquistador also understood global patterns of trade and realized that if he seized Malacca, Portugal would gain an upper hand on a European commercial rival: the city of Venice. Since the Venetians made tremendous profits selling eastern goods to the Iberians and as the merchant republic got along a little too well with their Muslim colleagues, a move in Southeast Asia would solve a Mediterranean political crisis. Albuquerque justified his assault on the port in a speech to his men:

And I hold it as very certain that if we take this trade of Malacca away of their hands, Cairo and Méca are entirely ruined, and to Venice will no spiceries be conveyed except that which her merchants go and buy in Portugal.2

Clearly, the commander saw the world as a sophisticated trading system but also as a bitter clash of civilizations between Islam and Christianity. The merchants of Venice immediately understood the threat to their centuries-old trade with the East, which indeed went into an immediate and irreversible decline. The Catholic invaders viewed Southeast Asian Muslims with the same hostility and contempt displayed in Iberia, killing or expelling them from the city. Mosques were torn down and churches raised in their place. The subsequent century saw almost constant warfare between Portuguese Malacca and the neighboring Sultanates of Johore and Aceh. When compared with the Spanish Americas and Philippines, Portuguese missionary activity was spectacularly unsuccessful in Asia, and ironically, anti-Muslim policies may have sped up conversions to Islam as a means of resisting the Iberian invaders. Visiting priests, such as the Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier, disparaged the city’s lack of piety and reputation for sin.

After a century of growth, Malacca went into a period of demographic instability. As many ethnic Malay Muslims and orang laut fled with the sultan and only a handful of ethnic Portuguese arrived in the city, the new rulers encouraged the migration of mixed-race Catholic converts from India. Others made it to Malacca from Portuguese colonies in Brazil, Africa, East Timor, and Macau. While Catholics remained a minority, the city’s Hindu and Buddhist communities grew as Indian and Chinese merchants took up residence. As before, the new arrivals brought new food and increased the city’s ethnic diversity.

Under the 130 years of Portuguese rule, trade declined. Muslim merchants found rival ports, and Protestant Europeans soon posed a serious threat. Increasingly, Portuguese Malacca survived only as a military outpost in a sea of enemies.

Stagnation and Displacement under the Dutch and British

When the Dutch arrived in Southeast Asia, they brought a new form of economic organization: the modern corporation. After its creation in 1602, the Dutch East India Company (VOC), with its system of buying and selling shares in the company, diversified risk for its many investors after its creation in 1602. The Iberian feudal elites and their merchant allies could not compete with the forces of early modern capitalism. The VOC’s Batavia, modern-day Jakarta, quickly took over the spice trade, redirecting commerce away from the Straits of Malacca and toward the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra. When the Dutch replaced the Portuguese as masters of the city in 1641, the new Protestant rulers held the port only to keep it out of the hands of their rivals. The few Dutch who immigrated to Malacca did build distinctive buildings for VOC officials and merchants.

In the early nineteenth century, the British East India Company took an interest in the Straits of Malacca. English ships loaded with opium from India passed through Southeast Asia on their way to Canton. In order to secure this crucial waterway, the British negotiated control of Malacca by the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty. However, Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781–1826) established Singapore as the center of English operations in the region and Malacca remained a backwater. When the naturalist Russel Alfred Wallace (1823–1913) visited in the 1850s, he wrote the following:

The population of Malacca consists of several races. The ubiquitous Chinese are perhaps the most numerous, keeping up their manners, customs, and language the indigenous Malays are next in point of numbers, and their language is the lingua-franca of the place. Next come the descendants of the Portuguese—a mixed, degraded, and degenerate race, but who still keep up the use of their mother tongue, though ruefully mutilated in grammar and then there are the English rulers, and the descendants of the Dutch, who all speak English.3

While neglected by the authorities, the port’s vibrant multiculturalism continued to flourish. Under British rule, the Chinese population grew as part of the larger Peranakan Chinese community. As with the Portuguese and Dutch, many Chinese men took Malay, Javanese, and Balinese brides and concubines, producing a hybrid culture. Malacca’s Baba-Nyonya cuisine combines southern Chinese dishes with spices and cooking techniques of Southeast Asia.

Contemporary Malacca

A number of factors combined to marginalize the once-great port city. In the twentieth century, Malacca’s harbor served regional ships picking up tin and rubber from nearby mines and plantations. Yet this commerce was fairly small-scale, and the city became a backwater, eclipsed by Singapore to the south and Georgetown to the north. The British chose landlocked Kuala Lumpur as the political center of the colonial Federated Malay States. While the nationalist leader Tunku Abdul Rahman (1903–1990) did famously utter “Merdeka” (“freedom”) in Malacca in 1956 and drew upon the city’s historical legacy in his speeches, the following year he declared independence in Kuala Lumpur. With rising Malay nationalism, Malacca’s diversity raised some eyebrows in regards to the city’s authenticity.

However, a new wind is blowing into Malacca. In recognition of its important role in maritime history and diverse culture, the city became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2008. Tourists can see the colonial past in ruins of the Portuguese A Famosa Fort (1511) or the Dutch Stadthuys (1650). The hungry can sample local specialties in Baba Nyonya restaurants on Jonker Street. A number of museums represent the port’s past as a center of Malay culture but also the meeting place of the Chinese and Islamic worlds, best seen in the exhibits and statues that celebrate Zheng He. For today’s visitor, history in Malacca is alive and well.


Dutch Malacca 1641-1795, 1818-1825

On 14 January 1641 the Dutch took possession from the Portuguese of the fortress of Malacca with the help of their ally the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch had treaties with the Johore Sultans to get rid of the Portuguese. The Malays were confident of a victory with the help of the Dutch, thus regaining the Malacca throne. But this was not the Dutch aim.

After the capture the Dutch set up a government. Malacca was too important for the VOC strategies, as the city was situated on the main trade route to the Far East (Spices islands, China and Japan) and was a formidable strategic outpost. A short time after the conquest of Malacca the Dutch made trading agreements with several states of the Malay Peninsula to obtain tin (Kedah 1642, Ujung Salang 1643, Bangkeri 1645, Perak). For this reason a Dutch outpost was established in Perak, but in 1651 the garrison was killed and the outpost destroyed by the Malays. In 1660 even the factory established at Ujung Salang was abandoned.

In the 1650s a great imposing building, the Stadthuys, is built by the Dutch as the administrative centre and home of the Governor of Malacca. By the 1660s the trade in Dutch Malacca was in decline and the relations with the Malay states had deteriorated as well. The Dutch had a factory at Bengkalis (1670s) at the mouth of the Siak river (Sumatra). From here they controlled the tin trade.

The trade at Siak was vital for Malacca and for the Malacca Freeburghers community, a community of Dutch and Portuguese descendants intermarried with the local people. The duty collected of their Siak trade was an important share of Malacca’s revenue.

Perak was the main tin producing kingdom on the whole peninsula and the VOC was interested in controlling its trade. For this reason a Dutch outpost was established from 1670 to 1690 at Teluk Gedung on pulau Pangkor. This fort was reoccupied by the Dutch in 1746 and later the same year the fort was moved upstream to Tanjung Putus.

Malacca trade quickly declined after the Dutch conquest. In fact the city’s prosperity was supported by free trade. However, to the contrary, the VOC wanted the monopoly for all goods. Malacca’s decline was also due to the fact that, while under the Portuguese rule the city was only behind Goa the main Portuguese base in the east. Under the Dutch Batavia was the main Eastern base of the VOC and the company had no interest in developing Malacca’s trade to the detriment of that of Batavia. The Sultanate of Johore (the Dutch ally during the siege of Portuguese Malacca) took advantage of all this by opening his seaport of Riau (an Indonesian island near Singapore) to all ships and to all types of commerce.

In the 1700s Johore was a powerful force on the Straits. The trade of Riau (the seaport for the Johore Sultanate) had far surpassed that of Malacca. The VOC maintained the alliance with Johore despite the discontent of Malacca. The strength of Johore was seen as a safeguard to the peaceful trade on the Straits. In those years it was rumored that the Dutch might leave the city. The only importance of Malacca for the Dutch was that it was situated on a very strategic point and they did not want Malacca to fall into the hands of any other European power this is why the Dutch remained. During the period of Dutch rule Malacca had a garrison of usually less than 550 Dutchmen.

Map of the Malay Peninsula. Author and Copyright Marco Ramerini

In 1710 St. Peter’s Church is built. It is still the oldest functioning Christian church in Malaysia. In the 1720s a new power appeared on the scene: the Bugis. They were and are the main ethnic group of the south-western coastal region of Sulawesi (Celebes). After the Dutch conquest of the Sultanate of Makassar several groups of Bugis emigrated from Makassar (Sulawesi) and settled near Malacca in the 1710s. In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca). In 1710 the St. Peter’s Church is built. It is the oldest still functioning Christian church in Malaysia. In 1722 the Bugis captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca).

In 1746 the Sultan of Johore gave the Siak Kingdom to the VOC as a gift. The same year agreements were concluded with the peninsular Kingdoms of Nanning, Rembau and Perak. In Perak the Dutch fort was reoccupied. With these agreements the prosperity of Malacca was improved. However, the Bugis were a constant threat to the Dutch. Their leader Daeng Kamboja made Linggi his base and from October 1756 till July 1757 besieged Dutch Malacca. In February 1757 reinforcements arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to drop the siege. In that year the Dutch built a fort on the Linggi River and named it Philippe (today’s Kota Linggi) after the daughter of the Dutch Governor Jacob Mussel (Governor of Batavia from 1750 to 1761). Tin that was transported from Linggi, Rembau and Kelang Selan. The purpose of the fort was to collect taxes from the tin that was transported from Linggi, Rembau and Kelang Selangor. On the 1st of January 1758 this fort was the site where the treaty between the Bugis and the Dutch was signed. This treaty enabled the Dutch to impose their control on this area: Linggi and Rembau were ceded to the VOC. In 1758 on Pulau Gontong at the mouth of Siak river the Dutch built a fort to control the tin trade, but later in 1765 the fort was abandoned, the good relations between Siak and the VOC no longer needing such a defence facility. In 1759 the fort of Linggi was also abandoned. Between 1753 and 1760 the Christ Church in Malacca was built. Malacca trade was flourishing, but a new sea power appeared on the scene: the British. From the 1750s they traded tin with Riau and in 1781 they occupied the Dutch outpost Perak. Then in 1786 a British base was established in Penang.

To prevent a British occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and on 29 October 1784 the Bugis were defeated. The resulting treaty ended Johore’s independence and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau). On the Malay Peninsula Johore, Selangore, Perak, Trengganu and Pahang became Dutch territories. The VOC was truly dominant in the Straits. During the Napoleonic wars the Dutch Governor surrendered Malacca to the British East India Company in August 1795. During their rule the British demolished the fortress of Malacca. In 1818 after the Napoleonic Wars Malacca is restored by the British to the Dutch under the Treaty of Vienna. In 1824 the Anglo-Dutch Treaty or the Treaty of London was signed between the Dutch and the British. The British give Bencoolen on Sumatra to the Dutch and Malacca was given to the British. On 9 April 1825 the Dutch ceded Malacca.

BIBLIOGRAFIE:

– Andaya, Barbarba Watson “Melaka under the Dutch 1641-1795”, in: “Melaka – The Transformation of a Malay Capital ca. 1400-1980”, Vol. one, edited by Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley, pp. 195-241.

– Andaya, Leonard Yuzon “The Kingdom of Johore 1641-1728: a study of economic and political developments on the Straits of Malacca” 458 pp. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Cornell University, 1971

– Arasaratnam, S. “Dutch commercial policy and interests in the Malay peninsula, 1750-1795” In: “An Expanding World” Vol. n° 10 Prakash, Om “European commercial expansion in early modern Asia” pp. 177-207 Also in: “The age of partnership, Europeans in Asia before dominion” Honolulu, 1979, pp. 159-189

– Harrison, Brian ” Holding the Fort: Melaka Under Two Flags, 1795-1845″ xiv, 148pp. with illustrated plates and maps, The Malaysian branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1985, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

– Hayes Hoyt, Sarnia “Old Malacca” xii, 84 pages, 16 pp. colour plates Oxford Paperbacks, 1997, Singapore. A pocket history to the oldest of the cosmopolitan entrepôt city states in Malaysia, includes a series of illustrations from colonial times to the present.

– Irwin, G. W. “Melaka fort”, in: “Melaka – The Transformation of a Malay Capital c. 1400-1980” Vol. one Edited by Kernial Singh Sandhu, Paul Wheatley. bl. 195-241. several maps The history of the fort of Malacca during the Portuguese and Dutch time. A detailed historical research.

– Ketelaars, Toine “Living apart together – Ethnic Diversity in Dutch Malacca 1640-1690” pp. 20 A very interesting paper with various information on the numerical and ethnical composition of Dutch Malacca.

– Leupe, P.A. “The siege and capture of Malacca from the Portuguese in 1640-1641” JMBRAS vol, 14, pt. 1 (1936) pp 1-176. Index: The occupation of the Straits of Malacca 1636-1639, the siege and the capture of Malacca 1640-1641, commissary Justus Schouten’s report of his visit to Malacca 1641.

– Lewis, Dianne “Jan compagnie in the Straits of Malacca 1641-1795” 176 pp. map, Ohio University Center for International Studies, 1995, Athens, Ohio, USA. A good book on Malacca/Dutch history. Index: The Dutch conquest and its aftermath, the crisis with Johor 1700-1718, the Dutch company and the Bugis opting for neutrality, Dutch alliance with Malays, neutrality revisited, neutrality abandoned: the Dutch capture of Riau, the VOC’s “forward movement” in the Straits of Malacca.

– Smith, W. H. “The Portuguese in Malacca during the Dutch period” in: STUDIA N° 7 pp. 87-106, 1961, Lisbon, Portugal.

– Sta Maria, Joseph “Undi nos by di aki? Where do we go from here ? Portuguese land title dilemma” vi+89 pp. Sakti Bersatu Enterprises, 1994, Melaka, Malaysia.


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