Susanoo tydlyn

Susanoo tydlyn

  • 712

    Die Kojiki is geskryf, 'n versameling mondelinge mites wat die basis vorm van die Shinto -godsdiens.

  • 720

    Die Nihon Shoki is geskryf, 'n versameling mondelinge mites wat die basis vorm van die Shinto -godsdiens.

  • c. 807

    Imibe-no-Hironari skryf die Kogoshui, 'n versameling mondelinge mites wat die basis vorm van die Shinto-godsdiens.


XG-70 Susanoo

'N Foto van die oorspronklike ingenieurspan wat die XG-70 gebou het.

Die resultaat van die HI-MAERF-projek (HIgh-M.aneuver AERonauties Fortress), 'n program wat deur die VSA gelei is, wat daarop gemik was om 'n kragtige mobiele wapen te bou wat die aantal mans en masjiene wat nodig is vir aanrandingsoperasies byna 100 keer kan verminder, veral dié wat korweinfiltrasie behels.

Die XG-70 is in wese 'n drywende vesting, aangedryf deur 'n Moorcock-Lechte-motor wat deur Lockweed gebou is na die ontdekking van G Elements. Die XG-70 is aanvanklik geskrap weens die onvermoë om die veld rondom die vlieëniers presies te beheer sonder om hulle dood te maak.

Na die voltooiing van alternatiewe IV en die 00-eenheid, het die VN die twee XG-70-eenhede van die Verenigde State verkry in ruil vir XM3. Dit moet gebruik word om die 00 -eenheid te bewaak om te verseker dat dit sy doel kan bereik.

Dit is genoem die Susanoo, na die Shinto -god van die see en storms en wat beskou is as die heerser van Yomi (die land van die dooies) in die Japannese mitologie.


7 Shisui Uchiha

Een van die beroemde Uchiha -wonderkinders, Shisui, was 'n Konoha -jonin met uitsonderlike talent en vaardighede. Op 'n stadium tydens die Derde Groot Ninja -oorlog het Shisui gesien hoe iemand na aan hom sterf, wat daartoe gelei het dat hy die Mangekyo Sharingan gekry het. Aangesien hy dit in albei oë gehad het, het hy ook die vermoë gehad om die Susanoo te gebruik.

In Naruto Shippuden: Ultimate Ninja Storm Revolution, Shisui se agtergrond het onthul dat hy in werklikheid die Susanoo kon gebruik. Alhoewel sy weergawe van hierdie vermoë nie volledig was nie, waarskynlik omdat hy een oog deur Danzo gesteel het, was dit steeds kragtig genoeg om 'n bataljon shinobi aan te vat.


Inhoud

Sedert die middel van die 19de eeu was die belangrikste vorme van Japannese poësie tanka (die moderne naam vir waka), haikoe en shi of poësie in westerse styl. Deesdae bevat die belangrikste vorme van Japannese poësie sowel eksperimentele poësie as poësie wat tradisionele maniere probeer herleef. Digters wat in tanka, haiku en shi skryf, skryf selde gedigte anders as in hul spesifieke gekose vorm, hoewel sommige aktiewe digters gretig is om met digters in ander genres saam te werk. Die geskiedenis van die Japannese poësie behels sowel die evolusie van Japannees as taal, die evolusie van Japannese digvorme en die versameling van poësie in bloemlesings, baie deur keiserlike beskerming en ander deur die "skole" of die dissipels van beroemde digters (of godsdiens) , in die geval van die Bussokusekika). Die studie van Japannese poësie word bemoeilik deur die sosiale konteks waarbinne dit plaasgevind het, deels vanweë grootskaalse politieke en godsdienstige faktore soos clanpolitiek of Boeddhisme, maar ook omdat die samewerkingsaspek wat Japannese poësie dikwels kenmerk het. Baie Japannese poësie bevat ook kort versvorme, dikwels gesamentlik, wat dan saamgevoeg word in langer versamelings, of andersins in die prosa van langer werke afgewissel word. Ouer vorme van Japannese poësie sluit in kanshi, wat 'n sterk invloed uit die Chinese letterkunde en kultuur toon.

Kanshi Redigeer

Kanshi beteken letterlik "Han -poësie" en dit is die Japannese term vir Chinese poësie in die algemeen, sowel as die poësie wat in Chinese deur Japannese digters geskryf is. Kanshi vanaf die vroeë Heian tydperk bestaan ​​in die Kaifūsō bloemlesing, saamgestel in 751.

Waka Redigeer

Waka is 'n tipe poësie in die klassieke Japannese letterkunde. Waka is in Japannees gekomponeer en word gekontrasteer met poësie wat deur Japannese digters in klassieke Chinees, bekend as kanshi. Dus, waka het die algemene betekenis van "poësie in Japannees", in teenstelling met die kanshi 'poësie in Chinees' waka word soms ook gebruik in die meer spesifieke en beperkende poësie wat in Japannees is en wat ook in die tanka vorm. Die Man'yōshū bloemlesing bewaar uit die agtste eeu 265 chōka (lang gedigte), 4,207 tanka (kort gedigte), een tan-renga (kort verbindingsgedig), een bussokusekika ('n gedig in die vorm 5–7–5–7–7–7 vernoem na die gedigte wat op die Boeddha se voetspore by Yakushi-ji in Nara ingeskryf is), vier kanshi (Chinese gedigte) en 22 Chinese prosagedeeltes. Teen die tyd van die tiende eeu Kokinshū bloemlesing, waka het die standaardterm geword wat gebruik word vir kort gedigte van die tanka vorm, tot meer onlangse tye.

Tanka Redigeer

Tanka is gedigte in Japannees geskryf met vyf reëls met 'n 5–7–5–7–7 meter. Die tanka vorm toon 'n mate van moderne herlewing in gewildheid. Soos voorheen genoem, het dit vroeër waka genoem.

Samewerkende vers Redigeer

Baie tradisionele Japannese poësie is geskryf as gevolg van 'n proses van twee of meer digters wat verse tot 'n groter stuk bydra, soos in die geval van die renga vorm. Gewoonlik bestaan ​​die 'geëerde gas' uit 'n paar beginreëls, dikwels in die vorm van hokku (wat as 'n losstaande stuk uiteindelik tot die haikoe ontwikkel het). Hierdie aanvanklike sally is gevolg deur 'n strofe wat deur die 'gasheer' saamgestel is. Hierdie proses kan voortgaan, soms met baie strofe wat deur talle ander "gaste" saamgestel is, tot die finale gevolgtrekking. Ander gesamentlike vorme van Japannese poësie het ook ontwikkel, soos die renku ("gekoppelde vers") vorm. In ander gevalle was die poësie -samewerking meer mededingend, soos met uta-awase byeenkomste waarin digters uit die Heian -periode saamgestel het waka gedigte oor vaste temas, met 'n beoordelaar wat die wenner (s) bepaal.

Haiku wysig

Haiku is 'n kort versgenre wat in een reël in Japannees geskryf is en gewoonlik drie reëls in Engels en ander tale. Dit het aansienlike wêreldwye gewildheid behaal, nadat dit van Japannees in baie ander tale aangepas is. Kenmerkend van die Japannese haikoe is die metriese patroon van 5, 7 en 5 op (ook bekend as morae). Ander kenmerke sluit in die kombinasie van twee beelde of idees met 'n kireji ('snywoord') tussen hulle, en a kigo, of seisoenale verwysing, gewoonlik afkomstig van a saijiki, of tradisionele lys van sulke woorde. Baie haikoe is objektief in hul uitbeelding van persoonlike ervarings.

Baie van die Japannese poësie is histories oorgedra deur gepubliseerde versamelbundels, baie van hulle met keiserlike beskerming. Belangrike versamelings is die Man'yōshū, Kokin Wakashū, Shin Kokin Wakashū, en die Ogura Hyakunin Isshu.

Die geskiedenis van die Japannese poësie is gekoppel aan die geskiedenis van die Japannese letterkunde, dit wil sê in die suiwer historiese sin dat dit bestaan ​​uit geskrewe rekords. Die vroeë voorgeskiedenis en mitologie van Japan behels of bevat enkele verwysings na poësie. En die vroegste bewaarde werke in die Japannese taal behou ook 'n paar vorige poësie uit hierdie vroeëre tydperk.

Mitologie Redigeer

Volgens die Japanse mitologie het poësie begin, nie by mense nie, maar met die hemelse gode, die godin Izanami en die god Izanagi. Daar word gesê dat hulle deur die wêreldpilaar gestap het en mekaar teëgekom het. Die godin het eerste gepraat en die volgende vers gesê:

Wat 'n vreugde wat nie vergelyk kan word nie Om 'n man so regverdig te sien!

Die manlike god, kwaad omdat die wyfie eers gepraat het, het vir haar gesê om weg te gaan en later terug te keer. Toe hulle mekaar weer ontmoet, het die manlike god eers gepraat en die volgende vers gesê:

Om 'n vrou so regverdig te sien - Wat 'n vreugde wat nie vergelyk kan word nie! [1]

Chinese invloed Edit

Chinese literatuur is in die 6de eeu nC in Japan bekendgestel, meestal deur die Koreaanse skiereiland. Net soos die Chinese skrywe self, het Chinese letterkunde, historiese geskrifte, godsdienstige geskrifte en poësie die grondslag gelê vir die regte Japannese letterkunde. Hierdie invloed is ietwat vergelykbaar met die invloed van Latyn op die Europese tale en letterkunde.

In die hof van keiser Tenmu (ongeveer 631 - 686) het sommige edeles Chinese poësie geskryf (kanshi). Chinese geletterdheid was 'n teken van opvoeding en die meeste hoë hofdienaars het poësie in Chinees geskryf. Later is hierdie werke versamel in die Kaifūsō, een van die vroegste digbundels in Japan, wat in die vroeë Heian -tydperk geredigeer is. Danksy hierdie boek bestaan ​​die doodsgedig van prins Ōtsu vandag nog. [2]

Die sterk invloed van die Chinese poëtika kan in Kakyō Hyōshiki gesien word. In die 772 -teks poog Fujiwara no Hamanari om fonetiese reëls vir Chinese poësie op Japannese poësie toe te pas.

Baie van die digters van die Tang -dinastie het bekendheid verwerf in Japan, soos Meng Haoran (Mōkōnen), Li Bo (Ri Haku) en Bai Juyi (Haku Kyo'i). In baie gevalle, toe hierdie digters in Europa en die Amerikas bekendgestel is, was die bron via Japan en kon 'n Japannese invloed gesien word in die uitsprake van die name van die digters, sowel as die gepaardgaande kritiese analise of kommentaar op die digters of hul werke.

Die Nara -tydperk (710 tot 794) het in 710 in Japan begin, met die verhuising van die Japannese hoofstad van Fujiwara (vandag se Asuka, Nara) na Nara. Dit was die tydperk toe die Chinese invloed 'n hoogtepunt bereik het. Gedurende die Nara-periode is Tōdai-ji ('Groot Tempel van die Ooste') saam met die skepping van die Groot Boeddha van Nara, op bevel van keiser Shōmu, gestig. Die beduidende waka digters in hierdie tydperk was Ōtomo no Tabito, Yamanoue no Okura en Yamabe geen Akahito.

Vroeë gedigte opgeneem Edit

Die oudste geskrewe werk in die Japannese letterkunde is Kojiki in 712, waarin Ō no Yasumaro die Japanse mitologie en geskiedenis opgeteken het soos voorgehou deur Hieda no Are, aan wie dit deur sy voorouers oorgedra is. Baie van die digterlike stukke wat deur die Kojiki is miskien oorgedra sedert die Japannese geen skryfwerk gehad het nie. Die Nihon Shoki, die oudste geskiedenis van Japan, wat agt jaar later voltooi is as die Kojiki, bevat ook baie poëtiese stukke. Dit was meestal nie lank nie en het geen vaste vorms nie. Die eerste gedig wat in beide boeke gedokumenteer is, word toegeskryf aan 'n kami (god), genaamd Susanoo, die jonger broer van Amaterasu. Toe hy met prinses Kushinada in die provinsie Izumo trou, het die kami 'n uta, of waka, n gedig.

八 雲 立 つ 出 雲 八 垣 妻 妻 籠 に 重 垣 垣 作 そ の 八 重 垣 垣 を Yakumo tatsu / Izumo yaegaki / Tsuma-gomi ni / Yaegaki tsukuru / Sono yaegaki wo

Dit is die oudste waka (gedig in Japannees geskryf) en daarom is poësie later geprys as gestig deur 'n kami, 'n goddelike skepping.

Die twee boeke het baie van dieselfde of soortgelyke stukke gedeel, maar Nihonshoki bevat nuwes omdat dit latere aangeleenthede (tot die bewind van keiser Tenmu) opgeteken het as Kojiki. Die temas van waka in die boeke was uiteenlopend, wat liefde, hartseer, satire, oorlogskrete, lof van oorwinning, raaisels en so meer dek. Baie werk in Kojiki was anoniem. Sommige word toegeskryf aan kami, keisers en keiserinne, edeles, generaals, gewone mense en soms vyande van die hof. Die meeste van hierdie werke word gesamentlik as 'werke van die mense' beskou, selfs al word dit aan iemand toegeskryf, soos die kami Susanoo.

Die Heian -periode (794 tot 1185) in Japan was een van beide uitgebreide algemene taalkundige en wedersydse poëtiese ontwikkeling, in Japan. Ontwikkelings sluit in die Kanbun -skryfstelsel deur die klassieke Chinees aan te pas vir gebruik in Japan deur 'n aantekeningproses te gebruik, en die verdere ontwikkeling van die kana -skryfstelsel uit die Man'yōgana van die Nara -periode, wat meer volkspoësie aanmoedig, ontwikkelinge in die waka vorm van poësie. Die Heian -era het ook 'n toenemende proses ontwikkel om gedigte te skryf (soms saam) en dit in versamelbundels te versamel, wat in die geval van die Kokin Wakashū 'n mate van aansien gekry het as gevolg van keiserlike beskerming.

Waka in die vroeë Heian -tydperk Redigeer

Daar word gedink dat die Man'yōshū bereik sy finale vorm, die een wat ons vandag ken, baie vroeg in die Heian -periode. Daar is sterk gronde om te glo dat Ōtomo no Yakamochi die finale redakteur was, maar sommige dokumente beweer dat verdere redigering in die latere tydperk deur ander digters gedoen is, waaronder Sugawara no Michizane.

Alhoewel daar 'n sterk neiging tot Chinese poësie was, was sommige vooraanstaande waka -digters in die vroeë Heian -periode aktief, waaronder die ses beste waka -digters.

Man'yōshū -bloemlesing Redigeer

Die oudste poëtiese versameling van waka, een of ander tyd na 759, is die 20 -bundel Man'yōshū, in die vroeë deel van die Heian -periode, het dit antieke werke versamel. Die volgorde van die gedeeltes is rofweg chronologies. Die meeste werke in die Man'yōshū het vandag 'n vaste vorm genaamd chōka en tanka. Maar vroeëre werke, veral in deel I, het nie 'n vaste vorm gehad nie en word toegeskryf aan keiser Yūryaku.

Die Man'yōshū begin met 'n waka sonder vaste vorm. Dit is beide 'n liefdeslied vir 'n onbekende meisie wat die digter toevallig ontmoet het, sowel as 'n rituele lied wat die skoonheid van die land prys. Dit is waardig om aan 'n keiser toegeskryf te word en word vandag in die hofritueel gebruik.

Die eerste drie afdelings bevat meestal digterswerke van die middel van die 7de eeu tot die vroeë deel van die 8ste eeu. Beduidende digters onder hulle was Nukata no Ōkimi en Kakinomoto no Hitomaro. Kakinomoto Hitomaro was nie net die grootste digter in die vroeë dae nie en een van die belangrikste in die tyd Man'yōshū, hy het tereg 'n plek as een van die mees uitstaande digters in die Japannese letterkunde. Die Man'yōshū bevat ook baie vrouedigters wat hoofsaaklik liefdesgedigte geskryf het. Die digters van die Man'yōshū was aristokrate wat in Nara gebore is, maar soms as burokrate van die keiser in ander provinsies gewoon of gereis het. Hierdie digters het hul indrukke van reis neergeskryf en hul emosie vir liefhebbers of kinders uitgespreek. Soms het hul gedigte die politieke mislukking van die regering of tirannie van plaaslike amptenare gekritiseer. Yamanoue no Okura het 'n chōka geskryf, 'N Dialoog van twee armes (貧窮 問答 歌, Hinkyū mondōka) in hierdie gedig betreur twee arme mans hul ernstige armoede. Een hanka is soos volg:

世 の 中 を 憂 し と さ さ し と お へ ど も 飛 び 立 ち ね つ 鳥 に し ら ね ば Yononaka wo / Ushi na yasashi na / Omo (h) e domo / Tobitachi kanetsu / Tori ni shi / alhoewel / ek kan nie wegvlug nie / aangesien ek nie 'n voël is nie.

Die Man'yōshū bevat nie net gedigte van aristokrate nie, maar ook die van naamlose gewone mense. Hierdie gedigte word genoem Yomibito shirazu (よ み び と 知 ら ず), gedigte waarvan die outeur onbekend is. Onder hulle is daar 'n spesifieke styl waka genoem Azuma-uta (東 歌), waka geskryf in die Oos -dialek. Azuma, wat die Ooste beteken, het die oostelike provinsies aangewys wat ongeveer ooreenstem met Kantō en soms Tōhoku. Daardie gedigte was gevul met landelike geure. Daar was 'n spesifieke styl onder Azuma-uta, genaamd Sakimori uta (防 人 歌), waka deur soldate wat uit die Ooste gestuur is om Noord -Kyushu -gebied te verdedig. Hulle was hoofsaaklik waka deur opgestel soldate wat die huis verlaat het. Hierdie soldate is in die oostelike provinsies opgestel en is gedwing om etlike jare as wagte in Kyūshū te werk. Soms het hul poësie nostalgie uitgespreek oor hul verre tuisland.

Tanka is 'n naam vir en 'n tipe gedig wat in die Man'yōshū voorkom, wat gebruik word vir korter gedigte. Die naam het later nuwe lewe gekry deur Masaoka Shiki (pennaam van Masaoka Noboru, 14 Oktober 1867-19 September 1902).

Kanshi in die Heian tydperk Edit

In die vroeë Heian -periode was kanshi - poësie wat in Japannees in Chinees geskryf is - die gewildste digstyl onder Japannese aristokrate. Sommige digters soos Kūkai het in China gestudeer en was vlot in Chinees. Ander soos Sugawara no Michizane het in Japan grootgeword, maar het goed Chinees verstaan. Toe hulle buitelandse diplomate huisves, het hulle nie mondelings nie, maar skriftelik met kanji of Chinese karakters gekommunikeer. In daardie tydperk het die Chinese poësie in China een van sy grootste bloeisels bereik. Groot Chinese digters uit die Tang -dinastie, soos Li Po, was hulle tydgenote en die werke daarvan was goed bekend aan die Japannese. Sommige wat na China gegaan het vir studie of diplomasie, het kennis gemaak met hierdie groot digters. Die gewildste style van kanshi was in 5 of 7 lettergrepe (onji) in 4 of 8 reëls, met baie streng rymreëls. Japannese digters het vaardig geword in die reëls en baie goeie poësie opgelewer. 'N Paar lang gedigte met reëls van 5 of 7 lettergrepe is ook vervaardig. Dit word, as hulle gesing word, as shigin genoem - 'n praktyk wat vandag voortduur.

Keiser Saga was self vaardig in kanshi. Hy beveel die samestelling van drie bloemlesings van kanshi. Dit was die eerste van die keiserlike bloemlesings, 'n tradisie wat tot in die Muromachi -periode voortduur.

Roei styl waka Redigeer

Roei was destyds 'n gunstelingstyl om poëtiese werke voor te skryf. Dit was 'n manier om in die stem voor te skryf, met relatief stadige en lang klanke. Nie hele poëtiese stukke nie, maar 'n deel van die klassieke word deur individue aangehaal en voorgedra, gewoonlik gevolg deur 'n koor. Fujiwara no Kintō (966–1041) saamgestel Wakan rōeishū ("Sino-Japanese Anthology for Rōei", ca. 1013) uit Japannese en Chinese gedigte wat vir roei geskryf is. Een of twee reëls is aangehaal Wakan rōeishū en die aanhalings is gegroepeer in temas soos lente, reis, viering.

Waka in die konteks van elite -kultuur Edit

Kuge verwys na 'n Japannese aristokratiese klas, en waka poësie was 'n belangrike kenmerk van hul tipiese leefstyl, en dit sluit die nyobo of hofdames. In die ou tyd was dit 'n gebruik vir kuge om waka in plaas van letters in prosa te ruil. Soms is geïmproviseerde waka gebruik in daaglikse gesprekke in die hoë samelewing. In die besonder was die uitruil van waka algemeen tussen liefhebbers. Weerspieël hierdie gebruik, vyf van die twintig volumes van die Kokin Wakashū (of Kokinshū) versamel waka vir liefde. In die Heian -tydperk het die geliefdes soggens waka uitgeruil toe geliefdes by die vrou se huis geskei het. Die geruilde waka is gebel Kinuginu (後 朝), omdat daar gedink is dat die man by sy geliefde wil bly, en toe die son opkom, het hy byna geen tyd gehad om sy klere aan te trek wat in die plek van 'n matras gelê was nie (soos die gebruik was in daardie dae) . Gou het skryf en voorlesing van Waka deel geword van die aristokratiese kultuur. Mense het vrylik 'n stuk gepaste waka voorgedra om by 'n geleentheid iets te impliseer. In die Kussingsboek daar word geskryf dat 'n gemaal van keiser Murakami meer as 1 000 waka in memoriseer Kokin Wakashū met hul beskrywing.

Uta-awase, seremoniële waka -voordragwedstryde, ontwikkel in die middel van die Heian -periode. Die gebruik begin in die bewind van keiser Uda (r. 887 tot en met 897), die vader van keiser Daigo (r. 897 tot en met 930) wat beveel het dat die Kokin Wakashū. Dit was 'spangeveg' oor voorgestelde temas wat op dieselfde manier gegroepeer is as die groepering van gedigte in die Kokin Wakashū. Verteenwoordigers van elke span het 'n waka volgens hul tema voorgedra en die wenner van die ronde het 'n punt gewen. Die span met die hoër algehele telling het die wedstryd gewen. Beide die wen -digter en span het 'n sekere prys ontvang. Die hou van Uta-awase was duur en slegs moontlik vir keisers of 'n baie hoë ranglys.

Die grootte van Uta-awase het toegeneem. Uta-awase is aangeteken met honderde rondtes. Uta-awase het die verfyning van die wakategniek gemotiveer, maar ook waka formalisties en kunsmatig gemaak. Daar word van digters verwag om in die winter 'n lentewaka te skep of 'n gedig van liefde of klaaglied voor te skryf sonder werklike situasies.

Keiser Ichijō (980–1011) en die howe van sy keiserinne, byvroue en ander edele dames was 'n groot poel digters sowel as mans van die howe.

Die kussingsboek (begin gedurende die 990's en voltooi in 1002) en Verhaal van Genji deur Murasaki Shikibu (ongeveer 978 - ongeveer 1014 of 1025), uit die vroeë 11de eeu van die Heian -periode, gee ons voorbeelde van die lewe van aristokrate in die hof van keiser Ichijō en sy keiserinne. Murasaki Shikibu het meer as 3 000 tanka vir haar geskryf Verhaal van Genji in die vorm van waka het haar karakters in die verhaal geskryf. In die verhaal is die meeste van die waka geskep as 'n briefwisseling of 'n gesprek. Baie klassieke werke van beide waka en kanshi is deur die edeles aangehaal. Onder die klassieke digters het die Chinese Tang-dinastiese digter Bai Juyi (Po Chü-i) 'n groot invloed op die kultuur van die middelste Heian-periode gehad. Bai Juyi is deur albei aangehaal Die kussingsboek en Verhaal van Genji, en syne 'N Lied van oneindige hartseer (長恨歌), wie se tema 'n tragiese liefde tussen die Chinese keiser en sy byvrou was, het Murasaki Shikibu geïnspireer om tragiese liefdesverhoudinge in die Japanse keiserlike hof in haar voor te stel Verhaal van Genji.

Fujiwara no Teika Edit

Fujiwara no Teika (1162 tot 1241) was 'n waka -digter, kritikus, skriba en redakteur van die laat Heian -periode en die vroeë Kamakura -tydperk. Fujiwara no Teika het drie afstammelinge gehad: die Nijō-, Reizei -gesin en Kyōgoku -familie. Daarbenewens word verskeie lede van die Fujiwara -familie bekend vir hul werk op die gebied van poësie.

Kokin Wakashū bloemlesing Redigeer

In die middel van die Heian -tydperk herleef Waka die samestelling van die Kokin Wakashū. Dit is geredigeer op bevel van keiser Daigo. Ongeveer 1000 waka, hoofsaaklik van die laat Nara -tydperk tot die hedendaagse tyd, is deur vyf waka -digters in die hof ontleed, waaronder Ki no Tsurayuki wat die kana -voorwoord geskryf het (仮 名 序, kanajo)

Die Kana -voorwoord vir Kokin Wakashū was die tweede vroegste uitdrukking van literêre teorie en kritiek in Japan (die vroegste was deur Kūkai). Kūkai se literêre teorie was nie invloedryk nie, maar Kokin Wakashū het die tipes waka bepaal en dus ander genres wat uit waka sou ontwikkel.

Die versameling is verdeel in twintig dele, wat ouer modelle weerspieël, soos die Man'yōshū en verskillende Chinese versamelbundels. Die organisasie van onderwerpe verskil egter van alle vorige modelle, en is gevolg deur alle latere amptelike versamelings, hoewel sommige versamelings soos die Kin'yō Wakashū en Shika Wakashū verminder die aantal dele tot tien. Die dele van die Kokin Wakashū is soos volg georden: Deel 1–6 het die vier seisoene behandel, gevolg deur gelukwensingsgedigte, poësie by afskeid en reisgedigte. Die laaste tien afdelings bevat poësie oor die 'name van dinge', liefde, klaagliedere, af en toe gedigte, diverse verse en laastens tradisionele en seremoniële gedigte van die Bureau of Poetry.

Die samestellers het die naam van die outeur van elke gedig en die onderwerp (題 dai) of inspirasie van die gedig, indien bekend. Groot digters van die Kokin Wakashū sluit in Ariwara no Narihira, Ono no Komachi, Henjō en Fujiwara no Okikaze, afgesien van die samestellers self. Opname in enige keiserlike versameling, en veral die Kokin Wakashū, was 'n groot eer.

Invloed van Kokin Wakashū Redigeer

Die Kokin Wakashū is die eerste van die Nijūichidaishū, die 21 versamelings Japannese poësie wat op keiserlike versoek saamgestel is. Dit was destyds die invloedrykste verwesenliking van die idees van poësie, wat die vorm en formaat van die Japanse poësie tot laat in die negentiende eeu bepaal het. Die voorrang van gedigte oor die seisoene waarop die Kokin Wakashū gaan selfs vandag nog voort in die haikoe tradisie. Die Japannese voorwoord van Ki no Tsurayuki is ook die begin van Japannese kritiek, anders as die veel meer algemene Chinese poëtika in die literêre kringe van sy tyd. (Die bloemlesing bevat ook 'n tradisionele Chinese voorwoord wat deur Ki no Tomonori geskryf is.) Die idee om ou sowel as nuwe gedigte op te neem, was nog 'n belangrike innovasie, wat in latere werke wyd aangeneem is, beide in prosa en vers. Die gedigte van die Kokin Wakashū die liefdesgedigte is tydelik bestel, byvoorbeeld die verloop en skommelinge van 'n hoflike liefdesverhouding. Hierdie assosiasie van een gedig met die volgende merk hierdie bloemlesing as die voorouer van die renga en haikai tradisies.

Die tydperk van gesamentlike bewind het die einde van die Heian -periode en die begin van die Kamakura -periode oorvleuel. Kloosterreël (Insei) verwys na 'n keiser wat 'terugtrek' in 'n klooster, terwyl hy 'n sekere mate van invloed en mag oor wêreldse aangeleenthede behou, en tog tyd behou vir poësie of ander aktiwiteite. Gedurende hierdie tyd was die Fujiwara -stam ook polities sowel as poëties aktief. Die tydperk van gesamentlike heerskappy, meestal Heian -tydperk, maar tot in die vroeë Kamakura -tydperk, in of rondom die 12de eeu, het 'n paar nuwe poësiebewegings verskyn.

Imayō in die tydperk van kloosterreël Edit

Eers 'n nuwe liriese vorm genoem imayō (今 様, moderne styl, 'n vorm van ryūkōka) na vore gekom. Imayō bestaan ​​uit vier reëls in 8–5 (of 7–5) lettergrepe. Gewoonlik is dit gesing onder begeleiding van instrumentale musiek en dans. Vroulike dansers (shirabyōshi) gedans onder begeleiding van imayō. Belangrike werke is saamgestel in die Ryōjin Hishō (梁 塵 秘 抄) bloemlesing. Hoewel oorspronklik vermoed word dat vroue en gewone mense voorstanders van die genre is, was keiser Go-Shirakawa beroemd om sy beheersing van imayō.

Waka in die tydperk van kloosterreël Edit

'N Paar nuwe neigings verskyn in waka. Daar was twee teenoorgestelde neigings: 'n neiging tot die kontemporêre, moderne styl en aan die ander kant 'n herlewing van die tradisionele styl. Beide tendense het hul skole gehad en het die eer gewen om keiserlike versamelings van waka saam te stel. Fujiwara no Shunzei en sy seun Fujiwara no Teika was die leiers van laasgenoemde skool.

Renga in die tydperk van kloosterreël Edit

Ook vir die eerste keer in hierdie tydperk renga is opgeneem in die keiserlike bloemlesings van waka. In daardie tyd is renga beskou as 'n variant van waka. Die renga wat ingesluit is, is slegs deur twee persone gemaak, in teenstelling met die latere styl met baie strofe.

Die Kamakura -periode (1185–1333) is 'n tydperk van die Japannese geskiedenis wat die bestuur kenmerk deur die Kamakura -shogunaat, amptelik gestig in 1192 na Christus in Kamakura, deur die eerste skiet Minamoto no Yoritomo. Die tydperk is bekend vir die opkoms van die samoerai, die krygskaste en die vestiging van feodalisme in Japan.

Shin Kokin Wakashū bloemlesing Redigeer

In die laat periode van die bewind deur gekloosterde keisers, of die vroeë Kamakura-periode (1185–1333), beveel keiser Go-Toba (1180–1239), wat geabdikeer het, die samestelling van die agtste keiserlike bloemlesing van waka, die Shin Kokin Wakashū. Go-Toba het self by die redakteurspan aangesluit. Ander redakteurs was Fujiwara no Teika en Kamo no Chōmei.

Later Imperial waka bloemlesings Redigeer

Die invloed van die Kamakura -periode duur voort na die einde van die werklike tydperk: na die Shin Kokin Wakashū, veertien waka -bloemlesings is saamgestel onder keiserlike bevel: die 13 Jūsandaishū (十三 代 集) en die Shin'yō Wakashū (c. 1381). Hierdie bloemlesings weerspieël die smaak van aristokrate (en later krygers) en word in elke periode as die ideaal van waka beskou. Boonop het antologisering gedien as 'n bewys van kulturele legitimiteit van die beskermhere en het dit dikwels politieke konnotasies gehad. [3]

Die Nanboku-chō-periode (1334–1392) staan ​​ook bekend as die "Northern and Southern Courts-periode". Poëtiese bewegings het Renga -ontwikkelings ingesluit, soos die publikasie van die Tsukubashū - die eerste keiserlike bloemlesing van renga, in ongeveer 1356. Daar was verskillende Renga -digters, -kritici en -teorieë, soos die ontwikkeling van shikimoku (renga -reëls) en Sōgi. Haikai no renga verskyn - as 'n parodie op renga Shinseninutusukbashu. Noh -spel en poësie het begin ontwikkel. Daar was invloed van waka en ander poësie, en Noh speel voorlesing as vers.

Renga Redigeer

Renga is 'n gesamentlike versvorm tussen twee of meer digters. Tsukubashū, die eerste keiserlike bloemlesing van renga, is gepubliseer in ongeveer 1356. Dit het imperiale aansien verleen aan hierdie versvorm.

Die Sengoku -tydperk ontleen letterlik sy naam aan die Japannese vir 'strydende state'. Dit was 'n militêr en polities onstuimige tydperk, met byna konstante militêre konflik wat ongeveer van die middel van die 15de eeu tot die begin van die 17de eeu duur, en waartydens daar ook ontwikkelings was renga en waka poësie.

In die Pre-moderne of Edo-tydperk (1602–1869) het 'n paar nuwe digstyle ontstaan. Een van die grootste en mees invloedryke style was renku (ook bekend as haikai no renga, of haikai), wat uit die renga in die Middeleeue ontstaan ​​het. Matsuo Bashō was 'n groot haikai -meester en het 'n wye invloed op sy tydgenote en latere geslagte gehad. Bashō was ook 'n prominente skrywer van haibun, 'n kombinasie van prosa en haikoe, waarvan 'n beroemde voorbeeld sy Oku no Hosomichi (of, Die smal pad na die binneland).

Die tradisie van samewerking tussen skilders en digters het 'n gunstige invloed op die poësie in die middel -Edo -tydperk gehad. In Kyoto was daar 'n paar kunstenaars wat terselfdertyd digters en skilders was. Skilders van die Shujo -skool was bekend as goeie digters. Onder sulke digterskilders was Yosa Buson die belangrikste. Buson het sy loopbaan as skilder begin, maar het ook meester in Renku geword. Hy het baie skilderye agtergelaat, vergesel van sy eie haikoe -gedigte. So 'n kombinasie van haikoe met skildery staan ​​bekend as haiga.

Waka het ook 'n herlewing ondergaan met betrekking tot kokugaku, die studie van Japannese klassieke. Kyōka (mal liedjie), 'n soort satiriese waka, was ook gewild.

Een poësieskool van die era was die Danrin -skool.

Hokku Edit

Hokku renga, of van sy latere afgeleide, renku (haikai no renga). [4] Vanaf die tyd van Matsuo Bashō (1644–1694) het die hokku as 'n onafhanklike gedig begin verskyn, en is dit ook opgeneem in haibun (in kombinasie met prosa).

Haikai Edit

Haikai kom uit die renga van die Middeleeue. Matsuo Bashō was 'n bekende voorstander. Verwant aan hokku formeel was dit generies anders.

In die laat Edo -periode, 'n meester in haikai, het Karai Senryū 'n bloemlesing gemaak. Sy styl het bekend geword as senryū, na sy skuilnaam. Senryū is 'n styl van satiriese poësie waarvan die motiewe uit die daaglikse lewe in 5-7–5 lettergrepe ontleen is. Antologieë van senryū in die Edo -tydperk versamel baie 'maeku' of senryū gemaak deur gewone amateur -senryū -digters wat byvoeg voor laasgenoemde 7–7 deel wat deur 'n meester geskryf is. Dit was 'n soort poësiekompetisie en die goedgeskrewe senryū deur amateurs is toegeken deur die meester en ander deelnemers.

'N Nuwe golf het uit die Weste gekom toe Japan kennis gemaak het met Europese en Amerikaanse poësie. Hierdie poësie behoort aan 'n heel ander tradisie en word deur Japannese digters beskou as 'n vorm sonder grense. Shintai-shi (Nuwe vorm poësie) of Jiyu-shi (Freestyle poësie) het in hierdie tyd na vore gekom. Hulle maak steeds staat op 'n tradisionele patroon van 5-7 lettergreeppatrone, maar is sterk beïnvloed deur die vorme en motiewe van die Westerse poësie. Later, in die Taishō -periode (1912 tot 1926), het sommige digters hul poësie in 'n veel losser maatstaf begin skryf. In teenstelling met hierdie ontwikkeling, kanshi het stadig uit die mode geraak en is selde geskryf. As gevolg hiervan het Japannese letterkundiges die tradisionele agtergrond van Chinese literêre kennis verloor. Oorspronklik die woord shi bedoel poësie, veral Chinese poësie, maar vandag beteken dit hoofsaaklik moderne poësie in Japannees. Shi staan ​​ook bekend as kindai-shi (moderne poësie). Sedert die Tweede Wêreldoorlog gebruik digters en kritici die naam gendai-shi (kontemporêre poësie). Dit sluit die digters Kusano Shinpei, Tanikawa Shuntarō en Ishigaki Rin in.

Wat die tradisionele style betref, soos waka en haikoe, die vroeg -moderne era was ook 'n tyd van opknapping. Yosano Tekkan en later Masaoka Shiki het hierdie vorms laat herleef. Die woorde haikoe en tanka albei is deur Shiki geskep. Hulle het die basis gelê vir die ontwikkeling van hierdie poësie in die moderne wêreld. They introduced new motifs, rejected some old authorities in this field, recovered forgotten classics, and published magazines to express their opinions and lead their disciples. This magazine-based activity by leading poets is a major feature of Japanese poetry even today.

Some poets, including Yosano Akiko, Ishikawa Takuboku, Hagiwara Sakutarō wrote in many styles: they used both traditional forms like waka and haiku and new style forms. Most Japanese poets, however, generally write in a single form of poetry.

Haiku Edit

Haiku derives from the earlier hokku. The name was given by Masaoka Shiki (pen-name of Masaoka Noboru, October 14, 1867 – September 19, 1902).

Tanka Edit

Tanka is a name for and a type of poem found in the Heian era poetry anthology Man'yōshū. The name was given new life by Masaoka Shiki (pen-name of Masaoka Noboru, October 14, 1867 – September 19, 1902).

Contemporary Poetry Edit

Japanese Contemporary Poetry consists of poetic verses of today, mainly after the 1900s. It includes vast styles and genres of prose including experimental, sensual, dramatic, erotic, and many contemporary poets today are female. Japanese contemporary poetry like most regional contemporary poem seem to either stray away from the traditional style or fuse it with new forms. Because of a great foreign influence Japanese contemporary poetry adopted more of a western style of poet style where the verse is more free and absent of such rules as fixed syllable numeration per line or a fixed set of lines.

In 1989 the death of Emperor Hirohito officially brought Japan’s postwar period to an end. The category of "postwar", born out of the cataclysmic events of 1945, had until that time been the major defining image of what contemporary Japanese poetry was all about (The New Modernism, 2010). For poets standing at that border, poetry had to be reinvented just as Japan as a nation began reinventing itself. But while this was essentially a sense of creativity and liberation from militarist oppression, reopening the gates to new form and experimentation, this new boundary crossed in 1989 presented quite a different problem, and in a sense cut just as deeply into the sense of poetic and national identity. The basic grounding “postwar”, with its dependence on the stark differentiation between a Japan before and after the atomic bomb, was no longer available. Identity was no longer so clearly defined (The New Modernism, 2010) In 1990, a most loved and respected member of Japan’s avant-garde and a bridge between Modernist and Post-Modern practice unexpectedly died. Yoshioka Minoru, the very embodiment of what the postwar period meant to Japanese poetry, had influenced virtually all of the younger experimental poets, and received the admiration even of those outside the bounds of that genre (The New Modernism, 2010). The event shocked and dazed Japan’s poetry community, rendering the confusion and loss of direction all the more graphic and painful. Already the limits of “postwar” were being exceeded in the work of Hiraide Takashi and Inagawa Masato. These two poets were blurring the boundary between poetry and criticism, poetry and prose, and questioning conventional ideas of what comprised the modern in Japan (The New Modernism, 2010). Statistically there are about two thousand poets and more than two hundred poetry magazines in Japan today. The poets are divided into five groups: (1) a group publishing the magazine, Vou, under the flag of new humanism (2) Jikon or time, with neo-realism as their motto, trying to depict the gap between reality and the socialistic ideal as simply as possible (3) the Communist group (4) Rekitei or progress, mixing Chinese Han poetry and the traditional Japanese lyric, and (5) Arechi or waste land (Sugiyama, 254).

The Western poets who appeal to the taste of poetry lovers in Japan are principally French(Verlaine), Paul Valéry, Arthur Rimbaud, Charles Baudelaire and Rainer Maria Rilke is also a favorite (Sugiyama, 255). English poetry is not very popular except among students of English literature in the universities, although Wordsworth, Shelley, and Browning inspired many of the Japanese poets in the quickening period of modern Japanese poetry freeing themselves from the traditional tanka form into a free verse style only half a century ago (Sugiyama, 256). In more recent women’s poetry, one finds an exploration of the natural rhythms of speech, often in a specifically feminine language rather than a high, literary form, as well as the language of local dialects (The New Modernism, 2010). All of these strategies are expressions of difference, whether sexual or regional, and map out shifting fields of identity in modern Japan against a backdrop of mass culture where these identities might otherwise be lost or overlooked.


Voorkoms

According to Jiraiya, Naruto strongly resembles his father: ⎻] he has yellow-blond, spiky hair and blue eyes, while inheriting the shape of his mother's eyes and face. ⎼] His trademark characteristics are the three whisker markings on his cheeks. During the Fourth Shinobi World War, Dan Katō initially mistook Naruto for Nawaki due to their stark resemblance. ⎽] Naruto was rather short for his age during Part I, ⎾] though he grew to be taller than Sakura in Part II. ⎿] Naruto originally wore green goggles on his forehead, though he discards them upon becoming a genin.

In Part I, Naruto wore an orange and blue jacket with a white collar, a white swirl with a tassel on the left side, and a red Uzumaki crest on the back. He also wore orange pants with a shuriken holster on his right knee, blue sandals, and a blue forehead protector, given to him by Iruka after graduating from the Academy. In Part II, Naruto wears a more form fitting outfit after wearing out his original one while training with Jiraiya, ⏀] with a T-shirt or mesh armour underneath. While retaining the swirls and orange pants, the blue pieces of his outfit changes to black: his forehead protector (which is now longer), sandals, and orange jacket, the black colour showing more prominence than the blue did originally. During his battle with Pain, Naruto briefly wore a short-sleeved red coat with a black flame pattern around the hem and carried a large scroll on his back.

Naruto loses his right arm after the Fourth Shinobi World War, though it is later replaced by a fully maneouverable prosthetic arm made of Hashirama Senju's cells, wrapped completely in bandages. In The Last: Naruto the Movie, Naruto grew again to be one of the tallest of his graduating class, cut his hair short, and wore a black elastic forehead protector. Over his pants and sandals, he wears a black uniform jacket with an orange zipper and buttons on the waist and sleeves, which can be folded up at times. He has a red armband with an Uzumaki crest on his left arm. After becoming Hokage, Naruto dons a garment similar to his father's: a white cape that has a red flame pattern around the hem, is held together by a red rope, and has the kanji for "Seventh Hokage" ( 七代目火影 , Nanadaime Hokage) written vertically down the back. Underneath this, he wears an orange sweatshirt with black stripes (reverse in the manga version of Boruto: Naruto Next Generations), black pants and sandals. He occasionally wears the traditional Hokage headpiece, but has stopped wearing a forehead protector.


Armaments & Abilities

As a Nothung Model Fafner, Susanoo comes equipped with all standard design features for its type, including internal weapon storage for Razing Cutters and Mine Blades, and the self-destruct system Fenrir.

Within battle Susanoo is most often seen dual-wielding bladed weaponry such as Luger Lances and Long Swords, highlighting its pilot's status as a skilled swordsman.

After the awakening of Reo's SDP, Susanoo gains the Festum-like ability to instantaneously transport itself through space, allowing it to teleport at will. As this power grows, Reo and Susanoo are even shown to be capable of transporting nearby objects along with them, such as allied Fafners.


Ship Design and Appearance cont.

Armory

Certain panels within the Susanoo are capable of flipping on an internal axis bar, revealing a large display of weaponry. For the most part each crew member stores their best tools there or in other secret compartments across the Junk's body. The largest display of weaponry belongs to Dalmyo.

Verdediging

The metal exo-skeleton wrapped about Susanoo is capable of absorbing the kinetic energy behind most blows and storing it in the cannon's for return fire. It was designed by Kenta Senmaru after studying Inta's body to learn how his San'no Hikaru mode worked.

Retaliation

Aside from the Kinetic Cannon's stored on board, at least two other uncommonly designed cannons line the underside in specifically sealed compartments used for destroying the keel of enemy ships.


Keys: Normal Attack • Charge Attack • Musou • Jump/Mount

Ground Moveset [ edit | wysig bron]

, (), (): Stabs his sword in the ground, grabs his opponent and throws them to the ground before stomping on the victim, creating a large shockwave that cracks the earth around him. The final input does not occur if Susano'o K.O.s a target with the initial grab-slam. , , (), (): Creates a water bubble that explodes and lifts the opponent into the air, then creates a twirl of water around his sword as he stabs upward-in-front with it, which hits the opponent repeatedly and finally slashes them away with a 360 degree horizontal sword slash. , , , (), (): Summons a tornado with his sword in front of him, then creates a second one with his left hand and another with his sword again to harm enemies in front of him. , , , , (), (): Summons a rainstorm that sucks in foes to juggle them rapidly with spiral-launches before ending with a stretching gesture that blasts enemies away. Repeated inputs add more hits to the rainstorm as they drag the victims in and as Susano'o braces himself more before the final portion. , , , , : Points his sword to the sky, which summons lightning bolts, then waves his sword in a horizontal arc, and summons lightning bolts in a 180 degree arc in front of him. , , , , , , , : Slashes three times with his sword, roundhouse kicks five times in a horizontal arc and then slashes the opponents with a final horizontal swing of his sword. Dashing : A left-handed body-blow punch that sends out electric shockwaves if it connects. , : A horizontal slash in a slight downward angle. , : Smashes his left fist into the ground to create a huge shockwave around him that cracks the earth. R1: Draws his sword back behind himself, and draws it out for a mighty horizontal slash that warps time and space, cracking the wall between dimensions. Activates weapon elements. , R1 (Warriors Orochi 3 Ultimate only): Raises sword into the air and does a cross slashing motion which releases large blue energy streaks in the form of large cutting waves downward in front to the ground. : Many diagonal slashes covered in blue flames as he advances forward per each interchangeable-downward reaping slash. Ends by stabbing his sword into the ground, creating a small shockwave around him. (True): Ends instead with a final strong diagonal slash imbued with flames for multiple hits.

Horse Moveset [ edit | wysig bron]

: horse rears on hind legs before smashing the ground with their front hoofs. If the horse is sprinting, it will perform a long jump instead. , : summons a rainstorm. , , : summons a rainstorm. , , , : summons a rainstorm. , , , , , , , : many slashes to the right side. : horse stampedes with a powerful aura.

Fighting Style [ edit | wysig bron]


Inhoud

Vroeë lewe

Obito arrives late to his Academy entrance ceremony.

Obito grew up not knowing who his parents were in the anime, he was left in the care of his grandmother. Ε] Feeling alone in the world, Obito dreamed of becoming Hokage so that the people of the village would acknowledge his existence. Ζ] He enrolled in the Academy to help him achieve that goal, where he developed a one-sided rivalry with Kakashi Hatake, whose natural talent and popularity he was jealous of. He also became a close friend of Rin Nohara, whom he eventually fell in love with. After finally graduating some years later, Obito, Rin, and Kakashi were placed on a team under the leadership of Minato Namikaze. Η ]

In the anime, as a final qualifying test, Minato gave the team a bell test to test their cooperation skills. Obito could not accomplish this on his own but, by joining forces with Rin and Kakashi, they succeeded in taking the bells, teaching Obito the value of teamwork. ⎖] The team later participated in the Chūnin Exams, where Obito was defeated in the third round in a one-on-one match with Might Guy. Kakashi would go on to defeat Guy in a subsequent match, promoting him to chūnin and impressing Rin. Eager for Rin's attention, Obito trained relentlessly, eventually rising to the rank of chūnin himself. His excitement was short-lived as Kakashi soon afterwards became a jōnin, once again earning Rin's praise and Obito's resentment. Η ]

During the Third Shinobi World War, Kakashi was placed in charge of the team for a mission to destroy the Kannabi Bridge, which would hinder Iwagakure from using Kusagakure as a relief point. Before beginning the mission, Minato and Rin gave gifts to Kakashi to celebrate his promotion to jōnin, though Obito had "forgotten", straining their already poor relationship. Minato was soon called to the front lines, leaving the team to complete the mission alone under Kakashi's command. The three were discovered by Iwa-nin along the way and Rin was captured. Kakashi elected to abandon Rin, believing it was more important to finish the mission before concerning themselves with her safety. Obito became enraged at the idea and insisted that they focus on her rescue. When Kakashi refused, Obito left on his own, remarking that Kakashi was worse than trash for abandoning his friends. ⎗ ]

Obito located the cave the Iwa-nin were using as a hideout, but was found by a camouflaged Taiseki before he could launch a rescue. Kakashi, moved by Obito's earlier words, arrived in time to save him from Taiseki's attack, but lost his left eye in the process. From his desire to help Kakashi, Obito awakened his Sharingan, allowing him to see through Taiseki's camouflage and kill him. Obito and Kakashi infiltrated the cave and released Rin from her restraints. Her captor, Kakkō, caused the cave to collapse around them. As the team ran for the exit, Kakashi was struck in his blind spot and fell. When Obito noticed that Kakashi was about to be hit by a falling boulder, Obito pushed him out of the way and became trapped in his place.

Obito trapped beneath a boulder.

With the right side of his body crushed and no way to free himself, Obito accepted his fate and made an offering: to give Kakashi his left Sharingan as an apology for not getting him a present earlier. ⎘] Rin performed the transplant and, once the procedure was finished, Kakashi used his new Sharingan to kill Kakkō. Iwa reinforcements quickly began to further compress the rubble, forcing Kakashi and Rin to leave Obito behind. As the rocks tightened around him, Obito reflected that he had finally started to get along with Kakashi and that he couldn't confess to Rin that he loved her. Kakashi and Rin were rescued by Minato and, when they returned to Konoha, Obito's name was engraved on the village's Memorial Stone. ⎙ ]

Saved from Death

In actuality, Obito was rescued by White Zetsu under orders from an elderly Madara. He brought Obito to Mountains' Graveyard and tended to his injuries, removing those body parts too damaged to be healed and replacing them with limbs cultivated from the cells of Hashirama Senju. Despite his injuries, Obito's right Sharingan had survived intact. Although frightened by Madara, Obito felt indebted to him for saving his life and was willing to render any assistance he could, an offer Madara made clear he would collect upon. Obito began a long rehabilitation process, eager to recover enough for him to return to Konoha and help his friends and the village with the still-ongoing war. With the help of White Zetsu and another spiral-faced Zetsu he nicknamed Guruguru, Obito became accustomed to his replacement limbs and the abilities they granted him. ⎚] All the while, Madara would tell Obito about the harsh realities of the world and his plan to save it, which the young Uchiha disregarded.

Obito mourning Rin's death.

During the end of his recuperation process, White Zetsu informed Obito that Kakashi and Rin were elsewhere about to be killed by Kirigakure ninja. Obito was insistent on helping them, which Guruguru offered to help with by encasing Obito with its body. Before leaving, Obito thanked Madara for all his help but said he wouldn't be returning. Madara made clear his conviction that Obito would return to him. Guruguru directed Obito to Rin and Kakashi's location, along the way informing him of Minato's absence. When they arrived they found Rin and Kakashi surrounded by Kiri-nin and Kakashi plunging his Chidori through Rin's heart. ⎛] Rin's death caused each of their Sharingan to mature into Mangekyō Sharingan, a process that also caused Kakashi to pass out. Enraged by what had happened, Obito used a combination of his Mangekyō Sharingan's Kamui and the Wood Release of Guruguru's body to slaughter the Kirigakure ninja. When all of them were dead, Obito cradled Rin's lifeless body, ignoring the unconscious Kakashi. ⎜]

Obito returned to Mountains' Graveyard, vowing to do anything for Madara if it could bring him together with Rin and Kakashi again. Madara explained his Eye of the Moon Plan, which would replace the contemporary world of violence and death with one where nobody ever needs to die. Obito was intrigued, determined to create a reality where he, Rin, and Kakashi could exist alongside each other. Madara imparted all of his knowledge and plans to Obito, taught him about abilities he would need moving forward, entrusted him with his possessions, and manifested Black Zetsu to act as a guide. Having left almost all that he had to Obito, Madara disconnected himself from the Demonic Statue of the Outer Path that was keeping him alive and told Obito that until his revival, he was to act as Madara Uchiha. ⎜]

Moving the Plan Forward

Obito and Zetsu approach Nagato.

Using Madara's name and concealing his identity, Obito moved in the shadows of the ninja world to acquire the remaining pieces of the Eye of the Moon Plan. Shortly after Madara's death, Obito and Zetsu went to Amegakure and approached the fledgling Akatsuki with an offer of support in creating the world of peace they envisioned. ⎝] In truth he only needed Nagato, in whom Madara had implanted his Rinnegan several years earlier and who would be needed in the final stages of the Eye of the Moon Plan. While Obito was almost able to sway Nagato, the Akatsuki leader, Yahiko, declined Obito claims he eventually agreed without informing Akatsuki's other members. ⎞] In the anime, Obito learned of a conspiracy between Hanzō and Danzō Shimura to eliminate Yahiko. He intercepted and killed the members of Akatsuki that tried to rescue Yahiko and, once Yahiko was dead, encouraged Nagato in a new direction for the organisation, one focused on acquiring the tailed beasts. ⎟] While Nagato became the Akatsuki leader and recruited powerful missing-nin for their cause, Obito took on the alias of "Tobi", and changed his personality around members to conceal his identity.

In Kirigakure, Obito at some point took control of the Fourth Mizukage, Yagura (in the anime being accompanied by Pain and Konan) in effect making him the de facto Mizukage. After Kisame Hoshigaki became disillusioned by the lies of the world, Obito (as "Madara") revealed himself to Kisame and promised to help make a world of truth. Kisame became his loyal servant, one of the few Kiri-nin to knowingly work for him. ⎠] During this time Obito discovered the circumstances of Rin's death: that Kiri had sealed the Three-Tails into her to make her a timebomb that would destroy Konoha. At Rin's insistence, Kakashi killed her to prevent this from happening. ⎡] Obito's manipulation of the Mizukage was eventually discovered by Ao and he was forced to abandon it.

Twelve years before the start of the series, Obito visited Rin's grave in Konoha. Kakashi was already there when he arrived and Obito, watching secretly, heard him confide to Rin's grave that Minato's wife, Kushina Uzumaki, would soon be giving birth. Knowing that Kushina was the Nine-Tails' jinchūriki and that the seal keeping the Nine-Tails contained within her would weaken during childbirth, Obito tracked her down on the night of October 10. He killed her Anbu bodyguards and midwives, which included the Third Hokage's wife, and took her newborn son, Naruto Uzumaki, hostage to prevent Minato from interfering. Minato was able to take Naruto from him, which distracted him long enough for Obito to escape with Kushina. ⎢] He extracted the Nine-Tails from her body, placed it under his control with his Sharingan, and ordered it to destroy the village. ⎣]

Minato soon afterwards arrived to help in the village's defence. Before Minato could contribute much or even tell anyone what had happened, Obito located him and tried to use Kamui to send him away and prevent further interference. Minato was able to escape with his Flying Thunder God Technique, but Obito pursued him. Minato did not recognise Obito as they fought, instead suspecting he was Madara Uchiha. He initially struggled to successfully strike Obito but, after several failed attacks, Minato finally hit him with a Rasengan and branded him with a Flying Thunder God seal, allowing him to teleport to Obito whenever he wanted. He then used a Contract Seal on Obito to release the Nine-Tails from his control. Wounded and deprived of his best weapon, Obito fled. ⎤] Minato gave his life to save the village by sealing the Nine-Tails into his son, and thus never had the chance to inform anyone of Obito's involvement. Konoha's leadership nevertheless suspected an Uchiha's involvement, and to that end placed all members of the clan under heavy scrutiny.

Obito and Itachi plotting to massacre their clan.

Years later in the anime, Obito attacked the Fire Daimyō's convoy en route to Konoha, placing everyone in a genjutsu and killing Tenma Izumo, but swiftly retreats after sensing Kakashi approaching. ⎥] Years later, the Uchiha, as a result of their mistreatment, began plotting a coup d'état. Obito returned to the village with the intention of exacerbating the conflict, but was discovered by Itachi Uchiha. Believing Obito was Madara, Itachi asked for his help in wiping out their clansmen, offering revenge against them for their treatment of Madara decades earlier in exchange for Obito's agreement to spare the village. ⎦] Obito accepted and offered Itachi a position in Akatsuki. In the anime, during the night of the massacre, he slaughtered the Konoha Military Police Force and killed Izumi Uchiha. Afterwards, he collected several Uchiha corpses in order to extract their Sharingan for his own use. ⎧] He also met Danzō around this time, for unknown reasons. ⎨] Following the attack, he cut his hair and brought Itachi into his organisation.


Nalatenskap

After his second death, Madara's greatest lasting influence was in Obito's actions, who used Madara's knowledge to create Akatsuki. Several years later, when Obito began operating under Madara's name, the mere possibility that he was truly Madara was enough to unify the ninja of the Five Great Shinobi Countries and trigger the Fourth Shinobi World War. 𖏾]

Madara's actions during life, and even those subsequent actions of Obito, would end up having disastrous effects for the Uchiha clan. Following Madara's betrayal of Konoha, the Uchiha were entirely isolated from any form of control over Konoha's future, chiefly because of the actions of Tobirama Senju. His actions also played a role in Tobirama's growth, who believed that to be Hokage, one must balance between Hashirama's compassion and Madara's ruthlessness. At the time, some Uchiha members saw this as proof of what Madara always feared, but the fears subsided with time. Years later, when Obito causes the Nine-Tailed Demon Fox's Attack, Konoha once again becomes suspicious of the Uchiha and the Uchiha once again feel wronged. This time, however, their discontent does not subside. When the Uchiha began planning to overthrow Konoha, the upper echelons of Konoha's government ordered the Uchiha Clan Downfall.

One silver lining of Madara's legacy is the name of Konohagakure, which he himself came up with.


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