Kingston Lacy

Kingston Lacy

Kingston Lacy is 'n wonderlike landhuis en landgoed in Dorset, Engeland. Die huis was geslagte lank die gesinsstoel van die Bankes -gesin wat naby Corfe Castle gewoon het totdat dit tydens die Engelse Burgeroorlog vernietig is omdat die inwoners, sir John en Mary Bankes, lojaal gebly het aan Charles I.

Die eiendom is in die 17de eeu deur Ralph Bankes gebou, omring deur indrukwekkende landskapstuine, en is in 1982 aan die National Trust oorgelaat en is deesdae oop vir die publiek.

Kingston Lacy geskiedenis

Die huis by Kingston Lacy is oorspronklik in die Middeleeue gebou, wat as jaglodge gebruik is vanweë die groot takbok in die noordweste. Kingston Lacy is verhuur aan diegene wat ten gunste was van die regerende koninklikes, waaronder John Beaufort wie se dogter Margaret, die moeder van Henry VII, daar grootgeword het.

Na die burgeroorlog toe Corfe Castle vernietig is, verhuis die Bankes -gesin na die eiendom en laat dit verbou. Voorheen is landbougrond omskep in parkgrond en die gehuggie Kingston is gesloop. Teen die 1830's het die landgoed oorgegaan aan William John Bankes, wat 'n skerp oog vir kuns en versameling gehad het. Tussen 1835 en 1838 laat William Kingston Lacy omhul in Chilmark -klip.

William se merk op Kingston was 'n groot versameling Egiptiese artefakte en meesterlike skilderye wat elkeen van die huis se kamers versier. Die huis kon William egter nie ten volle 'n heiligdom vir sy seksualiteit bied nie. In 1833 het hy die straf vrygespring vir '' 'n onnatuurlike oortreding '' - betrekkinge met 'n ander man wat met die dood strafbaar was.

Danksy sy kragtige netwerk en invloed het William ontslae geraak van aanklagte, maar na 'n soortgelyke voorval in 1841 het hy na die buiteland gevlug. Voor sy dood in 1855 in Venesië, word geglo dat William nog 'n keer Kingston Lacy besoek het. 'N Brief wat hy geskryf het, bevat advies vir die verandering van een van die deure, 'n klein detail wat slegs persoonlik opgemerk sou word.

Kingston Lacy vandag

Vandag kan besoekers aan Kingston Lacy deur die weelderig versierde sale van die herehuis stap voordat hulle die uitgebreide parklandgoed van die landgoed verken. U kan een van die vele staproetes aflaai en deur die bos ronddwaal, of daagliks tussen 15 en 17 uur die rustige tuin van die tuin geniet.

Hoogtepunte regoor die eiendom is die 'Seven Treasures of Kingston Lacy', insluitend die Philae Obelisk wat gehelp het om hiërogliewe te ontsyfer, en die Vizagapatam -kabinet - 'n pragtige meubel in Suid -Asië. Die goue geverfde plafonne en mure wat met groot portrette omring is, sal ook by alle besoekers ontsag wek.

Om by Kingston Lacy te kom

Die maklikste manier om Kingston Lacy te bereik, is per motor: ry na die B3082 Blandford -pad na Wimborne. Parkering is gratis. Busdienste vanaf Bournemouth en Poole stop by Wimbourne Square. Hiervandaan moet u 'n taxi vir 10 kilometer na Kingston Lacy kry.


Spesialis praktyk

In 1870-72 beskryf John Marius Wilson se Imperial Gazetteer van Engeland en Wallis Kingston Lacy só: KINGSTON-LACY, 'n herehuis in die gemeente Wimborne-Minster, Dorset 2 myl NW van Wimborne. Dit bevat die gehuggies Abbotstreet, Badbury, Barford, Barnesley, Cowgrove, Pamphill en Stone. Pop., 752. 'n Urn, met Romeinse muntstukke, is in 1736 op Pamphill gevind. Kingston Hall is die setel van die Bankes -gesin wat in 1663 deur sir Ralph Bankes gebou is en deur Barry gerestoureer is, bevat 'n ryk versameling foto's, talle ander kunswerke, en die sleutel en seël van Corfe Castle, so merkwaardig verdedig deur Lady Bankes en in sy park 'n Egiptiese obelisk gebring het, van Philæ af gebring en in 1827 deur die hertog van Wellington herbou.
(afkomstig van visionofbritain.org)

Wie het die huis besit en wat het binne hierdie tyd gebeur?
Sir John Bankes, LP en Lord Chief Justice, het die eiland Purbeck, Corfe Castle en die Kingston Lacy-landgoed in 1635-6 gekoop. Tydens die Burgeroorlog het die vrou van Sir John die kasteel vir die koning verdedig, maar is in 1646 verslaan, en Corfe Castle is deur die parlementariërs vernietig.
In 1663 het sir John ’ se seun, sir Ralph Bankes, die argitek Roger Pratt die opdrag gegee om 'n nuwe gesinsstoel op die Kingston Lacy -landgoed te ontwerp. Die bou en inrigting van Kingston House het sir Ralph ernstig in die skuld gebring en sy seun was verplig om dit aan die 1ste hertog van Ormonde te verhuur om geld te bespaar. In 1693 kon die gesin na Kingston Hall terugkeer, en dit bly die woning van die Bankes -gesin tot 1981 toe dit aan die National Trust gegee is, as deel van 'n groot erfenis wat Corfe Castle en 'n groot deel van die omliggende grond insluit.

Georgiese verbinding
Kingston Lacy was in die Georgiese en Regentiese tydperk deur die familie Bankes besit.

Henry Bankes (1698-1776) het in 1772 van sy broer John geërf, en alhoewel hy reeds in sy sewentigs was, het hy die landgoed met groot vasberadenheid herorganiseer.

Henry Bankes die jongere (1757-1834) was 'n Tory-LP en 'n kurator van die British Museum. Hy was getroud met Frances Woodley, 'n bekende skoonheid. Sy veranderinge aan Kingston House was onder meer die skep van 'n balsaal.


Geskiedenis

Die Kingston Lacy -landgoed vorm oorspronklik deel van 'n koninklike landgoed in die herehuis van Wimborne. Die oorspronklike huis het noord van die huidige huis gestaan. Dit is in die Middeleeue gebou en is gebruik as 'n jaglodge in verband met die hertpark in die noordweste. Huurders is verhuur aan diegene wat guns by die monarg gevind het, insluitend de de Lacys, grawe van Lincoln, wat dit bykomend tot boedels by Shapwick en Blandford Forum gehou het. In die 15de eeu is die eiendom verhuur aan John Beaufort, hertog van Somerset, wie se dogter Lady Margaret Beaufort, die moeder van koning Henry VII, in Kingston Lacy grootgemaak is. [2]

Corfe Castle is in opdrag van die parlement in die 17de eeu versag.

Teen die 18de eeu was die huis in puin. In 1603 het koning James I die lande aan sir Charles Blount gegee. In 1636 verkoop sy seun die boedel aan Sir John Bankes, wat in 1634 aangestel is as prokureur -generaal van koning Charles I. [4] Sir John is in Cumberland gebore, maar het deur sy uitgebreide regswerke genoeg geld gekry om die Corfe te koop. boedel. Tydens die Burgeroorlog het die Bankes -gesin getrou gebly aan die kroon wat Sir John in Desember 1644 in Oxford oorlede is, terwyl die koning daar vir die winter afgetree het.

Sy vrou Mary Bankes het Corfe Castle verdedig tydens twee beleëringe, maar het uiteindelik die parlementêre magte te beurt geval. In Maart 1645 het die parlement gestem om die kasteel te versag, en dit word in sy huidige verwoestende toestand gelaat. [2] Alhoewel hulle van hul kasteel ontneem was, het die familie Bankes ongeveer 8 000 hektaar (3200 ha) van die omliggende platteland en kus van Dorset besit. [1] Die metselwerk uit die vernietigde kasteel is deur plaaslike dorpenaars gebruik om hul eie koshuise te herbou. [5]

Sir Ralph is in 1677 oorlede, en sy weduwee het die huis aan die hertog van Ormonde oorgelaat vanaf 1686 en 1688. John Bankes die Ouere het die eiendom in 1693 teruggekry en saam met sy vrou Margaret, dogter van sir Henry Parker van Honington Hall, die grootste deel voltooi sy pa se oorspronklike ontwikkelingsplan. In 1772 het die huis oorgegaan aan sy tweede seun Henry wat dit opgeknap het, 'n bedieningsvleuel gebou het en die park toegemaak het vir beter landboubestuur. [2]

Die Wet op die Omhulsel van 1784 het Henry Bankes die Jonger, kleinseun van Ralph Bankes, toegelaat om die huidige landgoed en die voetspoor van die park te skep. Hy het die gehuggie Kingston, wat langs die 16de-eeuse Keeper's Lodge geleë was, afgebreek, die Blandford-pad (nou die B3082) herlei en die voormalige landbougrond in parkgrond omskep. Hy het in die 1820's nog klein veranderings aangebring, voordat hy 'n parlementslid geword het vir die vrot stad Corfe. Hy was 'n kurator vir die British Museum en sy parlementêre advokaat, en 'n paar van sy versamelings wat vroeër deel van die huis was, is nou in die museum. [1] Bankes het sy vriende in die huis vermaak, waaronder William Pitt the Younger en Arthur Wellesley, 1ste hertog van Wellington. [1]

Bankes se seun, die ontdekkingsreisiger en avonturier William John Bankes, het sy vriend Charles Barry die opdrag gegee om die rooi baksteensaal in klip te omhul en sy ander eiendom Soughton Hall te vergroot. Barry het Kingston Lacy tussen 1835 en 1838 opgeknap. Die werk behels die voorkant van die baksteen met Chilmark -klip, die toevoeging van 'n hoë skoorsteen op elke hoek en die verlaging van die grondvlak aan die een kant om die keldervlak bloot te stel en 'n nuwe hoofingang te vorm. Hy het langs die Blandfordweg paaie van beuk geplant, waarvan ongeveer 2   1 ⁄ 4 myl (3,6 en#160 km) oorleef. [2] [6]

Borsbeeld van Mark Antony, versamel deur William John Bankes, uitgestal in Kingston Lacy

William John Bankes het die meeste oudhede van die huis versamel. Hy het baie gereis in die Midde -Ooste en Asië en het die grootste individuele versameling antieke Egiptiese items ter wêreld versamel. [1] Die opvallendste is die Philae -obelisk wat prominent op die terrein van die huis staan. Toe hy in Genua die portret van Maria di Antonio Serra, deur sir Peter Paul Rubens, verkry het tydens haar huwelik met hertog Nicol ò Pallavicini in 1606. In 1841, nadat sy vasgevang was in 'n homoseksuele skandaal wat kon lei tot 'n verhoor en sy teregstelling, het William John uit die land gevlug na Italië. Sy kunsversameling is by Kingston Lacy gelaat, waar sy notas en tekeninge jare lank in 'n kabinet gebly het, ongepubliseer en vergete. [7]

Tydens die afwesigheid van William John word die boedel bestuur deur sy broer, George Bankes, wat dit by sy broer se dood geërf het net 'n jaar voor sy eie in 1857. Sy jongste kleinseun, Walter Ralph, erf die erf in 1869, en trou later met Henrietta, en het 'n seun gehad: Henry John Ralph Bankes. Na Walter se dood in 1902 het sy weduwee die laaste groot ontwikkelinge op die landgoed onderneem, insluitend die bou van die kerk (1907), nuwe ingangshutte (1912 󈝹) en talle landgoedkothuise. [2] In 1923 het beheer oorgegaan na Ralph Bankes, die sewe maal agterkleinseun van die oorspronklike skepper. Tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is 'n uitgebreide militêre kamp opgerig in die suidoostelike kwart van die park, wat eers herstel is nadat die National Trust eienaarskap geneem het. [2] Ralph Bankes sterf in 1981 en die Kingston Lacy -landgoed, waaronder 12 werkende plase, en Corfe Castle is aan die National Trust nagelaat. Die geskenk is formeel aanvaar op 19 Augustus 1982, die grootste erflating wat dit ooit ontvang het. [1] [8]


Tess Young Designs & amp Makes

Sjoe, dankie vir die wonderlike ontvangs vir Kingston Lacy, vir die wense oor u blogherdenking en vir die terugvoer oor die patroonbespreking in die vorige pos. Dit was wonderlik om oor hierdie dinge te skakel, en so wyd. Ek sal u gedagtes en terugvoer saamneem terwyl ek in die komende maande aan nuwe patroonvrystellings werk. Nadat ek my sabbatjare terdeë waardeer het deur die ontwerp, is ek opgewonde dat daar soveel idees en projekte is wat nou op dreef is.

Vandag wil ek egter 'n entjie teruggaan en 'n rukkie meer direk praat oor die Kingston Lacy -patroon. Ek was 'n bietjie versigtig om hierdie patroon te begin as my eerste onafhanklike terugkeer na publikasie. Deels omdat dit so lank op die agtergrond was.

Soos ek dink ek vroeër genoem het, is dit geïnspireer deur die kant -insetsel van die Badbury Shawl -patroon wat ek in Februarie 2016 gepubliseer het. In werklikheid is daar aan die kantmonster van Kingston Lacy gewerk tydens ons somervakansie daardie jaar (onthou toe dit 'n ding?).

Hoe langer die patroon sit, hoe meer het my twyfel geword. Ek dink dit was deels die eenvoud van 'n herhaling van die hele kant wat my laat wonder het of daar 'n belangstelling in die patroon is. Ek het gedink daar is meerwaarde in die meervoudige meters, maar dit was nie genoeg om my heeltemal te oortuig nie.

Terwyl ek al my huidige patrone nagegaan het om sommige daarvan na publikasie oor te dra, het ek besef dat Kingston Lacy eintlik gereed was. Toe ek dit heroorweeg, het ek besef dat:

  • Ek was mal oor die omkeerbaarheid van die kant.
  • Ek het daarvan gehou dat dit van onder na bo begin het en kon werk totdat daar 'n sekere persentasie garing oor was en die afwerking werk.
  • Ek het gedink dit was nogal gaaf hoe 'n ander atmosfeer die kantweergawe gehad het, klassiek, groot, lugtig in vergelyking met die enkellak, 4 -laags, perfek verslete bandana -weergawe, of die wonderlike alternatief vir 'n serp DK -weergawe.
  • Ek het besef dat die eenvoudige herhaling van 'n algeheel, maklik gemaakte kantpatroon presies die soort projek was waarin ek tydens toevlug 'n toevlug gevind het.

Toe ek toe dieselfde hersieningsproses op die webwerf en amp-blog toepas en besef dat dit tien jaar oud is, is die plan uitgebreek om die herlansering van die webwerf en die hervatting van die aktiewe ontwerp aan te dui deur Kingston Lacy as 'n gratis patroon vir die maand vry te stel.

Die reaksie was 'n bietjie oorweldigend en ver bo alles wat ek kon dink. Dit was 'n groot hupstoot in terme van nie net volume nie, maar ook vrygewige en opbouende terugvoer en gedeelde herinneringe aan die plek waarna die sjaal vernoem is. Dankie.

Kingston Lacy is 'n groot landhuis en landgoed in Dorset. My ouma en tante, wat nou 'n National Trust Property was, het albei in die 1930's en 1940's by die huis gewerk toe dit nog in die besit van die Banks Family was. Ek het 'n paar jaar gelede die eerste keer die huis besoek, saam met my ma wat stories kon vertel wat my ouma en tante, haar ouer suster, vir haar vertel het. Ek moet erken dat ek nie regtig voorbereid was op hoe groot die binnekant was nie, of die omvang van die kuns- en oudheidsversamelings*. Dit het my laat stilstaan ​​en dink wat my ouma daarvan gedink het, so in so 'n huis gewerk, met so 'n duidelike rykdom, en dan teruggekeer na haar klein, vasgemaakte huisie **, wat selfs soos ek dit in die 1980's onthou nog 'n steensteen gehad het op moddervloer, geen elektrisiteit en 'n buitentoilet.

Destyds onthou ek as kind die Kingston Lacy -landgoed, hoofsaaklik vir Badbury Rings, die Iron Age Hill -fort, waar ek, net soos ander lesers van die blog as kind gespeel het (ja, ek onthou ook die koei -klap, en mag het een of twee ingetree en in die struikelblokke verstrengel geraak). As ek terugkyk, is dit ook die tyd van die jaar dat pragtige tapyte van sneeuwklokjes in die bos rondom die huis van die pad af gesien kan word. Die agterkant van die kantmotief herinner aan hierdie sneeuwklokjes terwyl die regterkant die indrukwekkende fasade van die huis self ontlok.

Dit is vir hierdie herinneringe en die verband met plek en familie wat ek die Kingston Lacy -sjaal genoem het. Ons is nie die dominante geskiedenis van hierdie plek nie, maar ek glo dit is belangrik om al die dele van die geskiedenis wat plek en voorreg maak, bymekaar te bring. Volg asseblief die onderstaande skakels om te sien hoe die National Trust die erkenning van die lang verborge geskiedenis van kolonialisme en slawerny wat met sy eiendom verband hou, nader.

Ek hoop jy geniet jou Kingston Lacy sjaal. Ek het wel gewonder oor die verandering van die naam van die patroon toe ek bewus word van die breër geskiedenis, maar om net hierdie kwessies te ontduik, is volgens my nie 'n voldoende antwoord nie. In plaas daarvan hoop ek dat ons, terwyl ons met ons breiwerk sit, ook met sommige van hierdie historiese prosesse in gedagte hou, in ag genome hoe dit ons kollektiewe hede beïnvloed en hoe ons dit in ons daaglikse praktyk kan aanpak. Ek het dit gedoen en het 'n plan vir die opbrengs van die sjaal sodra die gratis tydperk verstryk, wat ek met u sal deel nader aan die tyd.

U kan die Kingston Lacy -patroon vir Februarie gratis aflaai vanaf die aflaai -skakel in die vorige pos, en#822010 jaar blogging … “

Tot die volgende keer, versigtig en nadenkend brei,

*Die National Trust -webwerf erken ook nou die koloniale bronne van sommige van die rykdom, insluitend die wat deur slawerny gegenereer is, wat die huise en boedels van die Britse aristokrasie ondersteun het, insluitend diegene wat vir afskaffing gestem het.

** Vasgemaakte kothuise is tradisioneel vir landbouwerkers voorsien en is vir werk op 'n plaas of landgoed verbind. Sulke huisvesting was 'n manier om die lone laag te hou, en eienaars het min aansporing gehad om sulke akkommodasie te onderhou of te moderniseer.


BANKES, Henry (1756-1834), van Kingston Lacy, Dorset.

b. 19 Desember 1756, 2de maar o. oorleef. s. van Henry Bankes † van Kingston deur 2de w. Margaret, da. van Rt. Ds John Wynne, bp. van Bath en Wells, sus. en koh. van sir William Wynne van Soughton Hall, Flints. opvoed. Westminster 1767-73 Trinity Hall, Camb. 1773 Grand Tour. m. 18 Aug. 1784, Frances, da. van William Woodley †, gov. Leeward Islands, 4s. 2da. sukses. fa. 1776.

Kantore gehou

Lt.-kol. kommdt. W. Dorset milisie 1808.

Biografie

Bankes het die prestasies van 'n geleerde en fynproewer, getroud met 'een van die merkwaardigste skoonhede van die dag', by 'n landgoed van 60 000 hektaar gevoeg. Hy sit op sy eie plek en maak sy parlementêre debuut as teenstander van Lord North en was 'n vroeë aanhanger van William Pitt. Tog word aan Farington, die dagboekskrywer, gesê dat "as elke maatreël wat mnr Pitt voorgehou het nie voorheen aan hom verduidelik is nie, het hy dit teengestaan" en ook berig dat "soos wat banke soms teen Pitt gestem het, is hy gevra. as dit 'n verskil tussen hulle gemaak het, antwoord hy nie die minste nie '. Gedurende sy 51 jaar in die Huis het Bankes 'n formidabele reputasie as onafhanklikheid verkry, met 'n eie plek op die kruisbanke, bekend as 'Bankes' bank '. Sy vriend Wilberforce beskryf hom, ietwat optimisties, as een van diegene 'uit wie se algemene beginsels 'n mens met groot vertroue kan verwag hoe hulle in gegewe omstandighede sal optree'. Sy algemene beginsels is hoofsaaklik afgelei van sy aandrang op openbare geringheid. Dit beteken konstante waaksaamheid oor administrasie. Hy betreur die koste van oorlog met Frankryk en kontinentale alliansies en vra in vredestyd om aflegging. Hy het 'n veldtog gevoer vir die afskaffing van sinekure en omkeringskantore en vir die rasionalisering van administratiewe koste, en het deur die jare 'n vaste voorstander geword van die parlementêre komitee as 'n tjek op administrasie, sowel as 'n erkende deskundige oor parlementêre prosedures. Tog het hy nie geïnspireer nie: hy was, om sy seun se vriend John Cam Hobhouse aan te haal, ''n saai hond' '.

Bankes was onopvallend in die parlement van 1790 totdat hy by Wilberforce aangesluit het in sy poging tot vrede, 30 Desember 1794. Hy het verklaar dat hy die oorlog aanvanklik as 'n verdedigende goedgekeur het. so gou as moontlik oopgemaak word. Hy het op 26 Desember privaat geskryf: 'Ek het selde meer ongemaklik gevoel oor die politiek as op die oomblik, en ek twyfel regtig oor hoe om op te tree, alhoewel ek dink dat dit in hierdie tyd nie reg is om myself af te sien nie'. Hy het bygevoeg dat die Franse republiek volgens hom nie nou omvergewerp kan word nie en dat dit beter is om met hulle te behandel voordat die bondgenote verlate sou gaan as onderhandelinge misluk, 'ons mense sou die noodsaaklikheid sien om voort te gaan [die oorlog]'. die minderheid vir 'n vredesbod op 26 Januarie en 6 Februarie 1795, asook teen die keiserlike lening, 5 Feb. Op 27 Mei was hy 'n teller vir Wilberforce se pleidooi vir vrede. Die betaling van die Prins van Wallis se skuld uit die openbare beurs het ook op 1 en 5 Junie afgekeur. Hy kritiseer die onvoldoende aanbevelings van die komitee oor die hoë mielieprys, 11 Desember, en glo dat die rykes dieselfde brood as die armes moet eet. Hy het gestem vir die afskaffing van die slawehandel, 15 Maart 1796, soos hy voorheen op 18 April 1791 gedoen het, toe word hy as vyandig geag om die toetswet in Skotland te herroep.

Bankes se 'afstigting' vanuit die ministeriële oogpunt was geen verbygaande fase nie. Op 1 Maart 1797, ter ondersteuning van die ondersoek na die stabiliteit van die Bank, beweer hy dat die koste van oorlog dit ondermyn het: 'dit was die aard van die mens om 'n te hoë waarde op die voorwerp van sy hart te stel en te min op die prys wat hy betaal vir die verkryging daarvan '. Hy het 'n mede-redakteur van die Anti-Jakobyn in Desember 1797 en het die onderdrukking van rebellie in Ierland goedgekeur, maar het gekant teen die oorhandiging van die burgermag, waarop hy die Huis verdeel het, 19 Junie 1798. Boonop was hy 'n skerp kritikus van die projek van unie met Ierland, 12 Feb. 1799: Ierse probleme kan die beste ter plaatse hanteer word en 'die deelstaat Ierland was nie soos ons dit kon opneem nie'. Dus stem hy daarteen, 14 Februarie 1799. Op 22 April 1800 beskryf hy die Unie as 'blote palliatief en geen genesing' nie, en op 25 April spreek hy vir die minderheid wat stem teen die oorstroming van Westminster met Ierse lede. Op 2 Mei het hy bygevoeg dat die massa van die Iere ''n baie gevaarlike stel' was, en omdat ons nie 'n gemeenskaplike saak met hulle kon maak nie, 'kon ons nie die fisiese krag van Ierland in hierdie unie inbring nie'. Boonop het hy gedink dat honderd Ierse lede in Westminster minstens tien te veel was (5 Mei). Op 19 Maart 1801 stem hy teen die Ierse meester van die wetsontwerp

Gedurende daardie tyd het die parlementêre banke aktief geword as 'n komiteelid. Sy eerste poging om die Huis as 'n komiteevoorsitter te laat swaai, was onsuksesvol toe hy sy projek om aartappelverbouing onder die armer klasse aan te moedig, moes laat vaar om die hoë prys van voorraad in Maart 1800 teë te werk. sy eie erkenning, toe hy nie onder was nie, was hy bo.4 Hy het die bediening van Addington koel ontvang en betreur dat die toespraak geen vrede voorgehou het nie, 3 Februarie 1801: dit was 'Britse goud en Britse hardnekkigheid' die oorlogsvlam lewendig '. Hy het nietemin nie teen die adres gestem nie. kontinentale verstrengelinge, 20 Nov. Die vredesinstelling was 'te groot vir die ekonomie en nie voldoende vir verdediging nie. Dit was 'n maksimum beleid, dat niks in groot sake so onverstandig was as om 'n middelpad te volg nie '(9 Junie). Op 8 Desember het hy 'wenke' ter verdediging uitgegooi: 'ons radikale sterkte, die liefde vir die grondwet was 'n beter sekuriteit as die aantal leërs' en, versterk deur insulariteit, het mededinging met 'n kontinentale mag soos Frankryk verbied. Hy bepleit die hervatting van kontantbetalings deur die Bank op 7 en 11 Februarie 1803 en ondersteun die ondersoek na die eise van die prins van Wallis oor die inkomste van die hertogdom, 23 Februarie. 24 Mei het gewys, maar wou nie 'n Whig -aansluiting met die ministerie sien nie. Hy het moontlik op 3 Junie saam met Pitt gestem.

Van 7 Maart tot 25 April 1804 was hy in konstante opposisie teen Addington en is toe en in September as 'n Pittiet aangewys. Op 8 Junie verdedig hy Pitt se wetsontwerp op addisionele mag teen Addington en Fox en keur op 12 Februarie 1805 oorlog met Spanje goed. Maar hy was kritiek op die burgerlike lys en die burgermag wat in Maart aangewys is. Boonop het hy Melville op 8 April 1805 in die meerderheid gesensureer en die volgende dag vir Pitt ingelig:

Ek betreur die transaksie op u rekening sowel as op die van Lord Melville, maar met so 'n saak wat erken is, was dit onmoontlik dat enige aanvullende bewyse die oortreding van die wet sou verskoon.

Whitbread was bereid om hom aan te wys in sy voorgestelde komitee van ondersoek na Melville se optrede, 25 April. ons as Lord Melville, in teenstelling met sy verwagtinge, hom nie in sy toespraak môre in die Laerhuis duidelik maak nie '. Hy het ook gepraat en gestem teen die Manx -eise van die hertog van Atholl, 7 Junie. 'N Maand later word hy uit die ministeriële oogpunt' twyfelagtig 'genoem, alhoewel 'n brief van hom op 19 Desember 1805 aan Pitt dui op kommer oor die minister se gesondheid en volgehoue ​​ondersteuning. By die dood van Pitt was hy gekant teen die openbare betaling van sy skuld en vermy hy die debat oor die onderwerp

Bankes was nie sleg vir die ministerie van Grenville nie: hy het (30 April) gestem en (8 Mei) gepraat ter verdediging van hul intrekking van Pitt's Extra Force Act, wat misluk het. Hy het gedink dat hulle 'n net so goeie stel predikante is 'as wat uit sulke onenige materiaal gemaak kan word', hoewel hy 'n paar voorbehoude het, veral oor William Windham. Hy het laasgenoemde se wetsontwerp op 26 Junie goedgekeur, maar het gedink die vrywilligers is hard gedoen teen 11 Julie. Hy het nie tyd gehad vir die aanklagte teen Wellesley se optrede in Indië nie (8 Mei, 16, 18, 25 Junie 1806, 26 Januarie 1807, 10 Maart 1808), hoewel hy geneig was om te luister na kritiek op die St. , 14 Mei 1806. By Fox se dood het hy gedink dat ''n bietjie meer krag sowel as talent' nodig was en was teleurgesteld dat Grenville hom nie tot die Pittiete wend nie. by die verkiesing van 1806.

Bankes was tevrede dat die onderbreking van die onderhandelinge van die Grenville -ministerie met Buonaparte nie hul skuld was nie en hy het hul 'nuwe plan van finansies', 19 Februarie 1807, goedgekeur, hoewel hy wou hê dat buitelandse beleggings in Britse fondse op 9 Februarie 1807 belas moes word, 15 Junie 1808, en was vyandig teenoor die subsidie ​​aan Pruise, 5 Maart 1807. Grenville het Bankes tevrede gestel deur hom voorsitter te maak van die komitee wat op 10 Februarie 1807 aangestel is om openbare uitgawes te ondersoek, en meen dat hy 'oor die algemeen reg sou wees' op pad 'en hoop dat hy beheer kan word, veral omdat die komitee die bevoegdheid het om verlagings aan te beveel.9 Die meerderheid van die Whig -komitee was angstig om te begin verslag doen voor die ontbinding van 1807, maar Bankes het verdwyn. Hy het beslis 'n voorlopige besluit op 24 Maart ingedien dat geen amp in die toekoms in omgekeerde rigting toegestaan ​​moet word nie, en dit is nie net onbestrede nie, maar bied ook die voorwendsel om die nuwe kanselier van die skatkis, Perceval, van die vergoeding van die hertogdom te ontneem van Lancaster lewenslank. Banke andersins teleurgestel Whig hoop.10 Hy het reeds op 20 Februarie, 4 Mar. hy sien 'geen rede om vertroue te weier' vir die ministerie van Portland nie en het 'n standpunt teen Katolieke aansprake as opteller vir die regering beskou.

Banke kon in 1807 weer nie die land se setel kry nie, alhoewel hy nader aan sukses was as in 1806. Op 29 Junie stel hy sy wetsontwerp weer in om die terugskrywings, wat deur die ontbinding onderbreek is, af te skaf. Ministers het dit nie gekant nie en dit het op 9 Julie aangeneem, maar is op 4 Augustus in die Lords verwerp. Perceval, bewus van die wydverspreide steun van die wetsontwerp deur landsmanne en lede vir bevolkte stadsdele, het Bankes persoonlik verseker dat geen terugbetalings toegestaan ​​sou word nie totdat die vraag herleef het. Op 10 Augustus het die banke 'n adres gehou om sodanige toelaes te stop tot ses weke na die aanvang van die volgende sessie. Die wetsontwerp is weer op 1 Februarie 1808 aangeneem, maar ondanks ministeriële steun, verslaan deur die ultraklank onder leiding van Perceval se broer in die Lords. Bankes, wat deur die Whigs aangeval is, het belowe om weer te probeer: hy het met opposisie gestem oor die muiterywetsontwerp, 14 Maart, hoewel hy die bevele in die raad ondersteun. Sy derde bod word belemmer deur die dreigement van wysigings van Perceval, maar op 4 April het hy 'n kompromie aangegaan met Perceval om die wetsontwerp tot net meer as 'n jaar te beperk, in afwagting van die derde verslag van die komitee vir openbare uitgawes. Die wetsontwerp het toe albei huise aangeneem. Die komitee se eerste verslae oor die betaalkantoor, 22 Julie 1807, het daartoe gelei dat die departement vinnig sy huis reggekry het en die tweede verslag oor die bestuur van die nasionale skuld, waarin 'n beroep op die Bank gedoen is om sy heffings te verminder, is in Perceval se begroting geïmplementeer van 1808. Die derde verslag oor plekke en pensioene, 29 Junie 1808, was meer omstrede. Bankes het Cochrane se bod op 7 Julie 1807 weerstaan ​​om die ondersoek te beperk tot die vergoeding van parlementslede en hul gesinne, maar, soos hy gevrees het, het Perceval se teenbod om alle plekke en pensioene te omhels, die ondersoek vertraag en Perceval se opknapping van die gekose komitee, 30 Junie 1807 het ministeriële lede in staat gestel om vooruitgang te belemmer. Die verslag, waarvoor hy 'n omstrede voorwoord geskryf het, was minder skerp as wat Bankes wou hê, hoewel dit besparings van meer as £ 80 000 per jaar beoog en 'n aanvulling van Januarie 1809 het die interessante feit aan die lig gebring dat 28 van 76 parlementslede wat plekhouers was, 28 eerlik was. Maar Bankes het vir die sessie, 24 Januarie 1809, uit die komitee gekies. In plaas daarvan het hy probeer om 'n syfer te verminder in die debatte oor die beweerde misbruik van die hertog van York van weermagbeskerming. Op 10 Maart stel hy 'n wysiging van die voorgestelde sensuur voor, wat die hertog beskuldig van onsedelikheid eerder as korrupsie. Dit is ondersteun deur die 'heiliges', maar verslaan. Bankes kritiseer daarna die hele verrigtinge van die Huis in die aangeleentheid, 17 Maart. Hy ondersteun Porchester se wetsontwerp op die voorkoming van kantore, 20 April. die beoordelaars se salarisrekening — alles ontken.11

Toe Perceval premier word, het Bankes, wat twyfel of die ministerie sonder Canning sou klaarkom, 'buite uitnodigingsafstand' gebly.12 Perceval het sy manifes van 8 Junie 1809 teenstaan ​​dat elke oorbodige amp afgeskaf moet word en die salaris verlaag moet word tot die van die waarnemende afgevaardigdes. Op 31 Januarie 1810 is Bankes onbestrede tot die finansiële komitee herkies en die voorsitter hervat. Die opposisie het hom aangemoedig deur drie van die genomineerdes van Perceval te verwerp, en toe Perceval in ruil hierteen die herlewing van die wetsontwerp weerstaan, het die huis die wetsontwerp deur akklamasie versoek. Banke het onafhanklik gebly: hy het gestem vir die toespraak, 23 Januarie, maar met die meerderheid van die opposisie vir die Scheldt -ondersoek op 26 Januarie en weer op 23 Februarie. Op 1 Maart was hy bereid om die weermag se ramings teen te staan 'n afdeling. Op 5 Maart was hy egter in die meerderheid van die regering en ontken hy die reg om die vertroulike verslag van Chatham teen die koning te veto omdat die kabinet geen grondwetlike bestaan ​​het nie. Op 9 Maart, in die debat oor die subsidie ​​aan Portugal, het hy ministers gewelddadig gekant. Die Whigs was nie verbasend 'twyfelagtig' oor hom nie, alhoewel hy in die minderheid was tydens die afhandeling van die Scheldt -ondersoek op 30 Maart. Intussen is sy vierde wetsontwerp op 26 Februarie in die Lords verwerp, en 'n vyfde op 20 Maart teen sy beter oordeel, is eweneens verwerp. Op 31 Maart kondig hy sy opposisie aan parlementêre hervorming aan, wat hy slegs ondersteun het 'op 'n tydstip wat hy vermoed dat die respekvolle deel van die samelewing vir hierdie veranderinge wou'. He voted against the release of the radical Gale Jones, 16 Apr., and against Brand’s motion for reform, 21 May.

Bankes’s initial emphasis in his campaign against sinecures on the need to reduce the power of the crown had shifted to making it a moral end in itself, without counting the cost. On 16 May to meet his critics, he proposed to replace sinecures by a pension fund whereby government might reward services rendered. The proposal was rejected by 99 votes to 93. Nevertheless, he obtained a select committee to investigate sinecures, securing the support of Canning and his friends as well as of opposition. In this, Fremantle reported, he was ‘inexorable, and completely assumed the character of opposition by haranguing us in the lobby and imploring us to stay’.13 He voted with opposition on the Regency questions of 1 and 21 Jan. 1811, and on the latter day his nominees were accepted on the renewal of the finance committee and the select committee on sinecures. Government resisted his sixth reversion bill of April 1811, which went to the Lords but was rejected there. On 31 May he was an ambiguous supporter of Catholic claims, who did not wish for immediate relief: only a week before there had been ‘a most curious scene in the House . between Bankes and all the Irish’, when he called for the extension of the property tax to Ireland.14 In presenting the tenth report of the finance committee, 24 June, Bankes criticized military accounting. He was a spokesman for the resumption of cash payments by the Bank in July 1811, and so remained until 1818.

By 1812 Bankes’s prestige was at its height. Scarcely a debate of importance occurred in which his voice was not heard. Wilberforce anticipated (mistakenly) that William Morton Pitt would resign the county seat in Bankes’s favour.15 His committees were renewed without question, 27 Jan. 1812. His seventh reversion bill was rejected in the Lords in February, but he secured a token victory in his violent attack on the ‘sinecure’ paymastership of widows’ pensions, intended for Col. McMahon, 24 Feb. (Yet he cheered Perceval against opposition on the question of the droits of Admiralty that week.)16 On 10 Mar. he tried a temporary bill to veto reversions until 28 Feb. 1814, which passed both Houses. It had taken eight attempts to secure a bill that involved only 40 reversionaries. On 4 May he succeeded in launching a sinecure regulation bill, which Perceval ‘in vain attempted to oppose’, by 134 votes to 123.17 It passed the Commons on 17 June, but was rejected by the Lords. Bankes also aligned himself with opposition that session on the framework bill, 17 Feb., the barracks estimates, in April, delays in Chancery, 6 May, and the Admiralty registrar’s bill, 19 June. He reluctantly supported the leather tax, but opposed the penitentiary scheme, 1 July. On 13 July he supported and was teller for the preservation of public peace bill. He did not vote on the question of a stronger administration, 21 May, but was teller for Canning’s Catholic relief motion on 22 June. He favoured Liverpool’s negotiations with Canning in July, but advised Canning to strike a hard bargain and congratulated him on his ultimate refusal to parley.18

Bankes gave up the idea of contesting Dorset at the election of 1812. He was listed ‘doubtful’ by the Treasury: with justice, for he was in the minorities on the gold coin bill, 11 Dec. 1812, and the vice-chancellor bill, 11 Feb. 1813. On 29 Mar. he again induced the Commons to approve his sinecure regulation bill: it was virtually an open question there, but the Lords again rejected it. He did not try again, nor did he seek to renew the veto on reversions when it expired. Even if he had grown weary of the campaign and the House coughed him down, 15 June 1813, he had made his point. Goulburn’s colonial officers bill in 1814 was a concession to his ideas and the Liverpool administration showed marked sensitivity to them in the next few years.19 He had ceased, meanwhile, to be a political threat to the government. The turning point came when he became ‘Protestant’ Bankes in 1813. On 25 Feb. Peel wrote that Bankes, who had been rallying the anti-Catholics and

who voted with Canning last year, will lead the opposition to Grattan this night. It is contrary to all general principles to employ as a leader a deserter from the enemy’s camp, but it is justifiable in this case, I think, as well as politic, and it will greatly encourage all relapsed and relapsing Protestants.20

He remained militantly anti-Catholic. He also voted in favour of Christian missions to India, June-July 1813.

Although Bankes continued to press for public economy, the Whig opposition took the subject over from him henceforward and he was reluctant to join forces with them. He remained critical of parliamentary reform and in November 1813 attempted to foist a £10 franchise on Helston, if the freeholders of the neighbouring hundreds were enfranchised. On 20 May 1814 he championed the select committee on the corn trade to which he was appointed on 6 June when he came out in favour of agricultural protection, the mob attacked Sir Joseph Banks’s house in mistake for his. He set his face against industrialization: ‘instead of having a peaceable, easy governed society, they would place the population of the country in a state that the peace of the community would depend upon their being constantly kept in employment’, 27 Feb. 1815. He defended coercion in Ireland, 23 June 1814 opposed the international abolition of the slave trade, 28 June, and favoured the continuation of the property tax provided it was extended to Ireland, April 1815. He remained vigilant against abuses in government departments and opposed the civil list and new public building programmes. He deprecated expensive alliances against the returned Buonaparte if France rallied to him, 7 Apr., 26 May 1815. After Waterloo he expected France to pay for her defeat, and after a visit to Paris advised English withdrawal from the Continent, 29 June 1815, 20 Feb. 1816. He opposed the army estimates in March 1816 and, although he voted for the renewal of the property tax on Mar. and for the civil list on 24 May, joined opposition in other divisions on retrenchment that session. On 7 May he moved for a committee of inquiry into public offices, to no avail. Bankes was named to the select committee on public income and expenditure in 1817, 1818 and 1819, but when he tried to smuggle in his own ideas, was snubbed, only Tierney supporting him and when the ministry proceeded to replace sinecures by pensions, adopting some of Bankes’s proposals of 1812, no acknowledgment was made to him. He now voted with opposition only on questions of retrenchment and, with reservations of his own, on the resumption of cash payments by the Bank. He was in favour of the suspension of habeas corpus, 28 Feb., 23 June 1817, and supported ministers steadily on that issue. Canning, in a speech of 29 Jan. 1817, stated with respect to Bankes:

My skat. friend is well known for the independent manner in which his speeches and his votes are directed, sometimes to this, and sometimes to that side of the House a manner the most conformable to the theory of a perfect Member of Parliament.

A year later he acquired neighbours on his cross-bench when the Grenvillite ‘third party’ moved over.

In 1818 Bankes published his Civil and constitutional history of Rome from the foundation to the age of Augustus, a reflection of his abiding interest in constitutional history. It showed him to be ‘one of the most accomplished gentlemen in England’.21 As a trustee of the British Museum, he promoted its interests in the House. In the ensuing session he was one of the secret committee on the Bank. He voted with opposition on the Windsor establishment and royal household bills, 22, 25 Feb. and 19 Mar. 1819 also for criminal law reform, 2 Mar., against Admiralty salaries, 18 Mar., against delays in Chancery, 20 May, and against the navy estimates. He supported reform of the Scottish burghs, 1 Apr., and the extension of the franchise at Penryn, 22 June. His vote against Catholic relief on 3 May was disallowed, as he came in late. He stood by ministers on 29 Mar. and 18 May in hard-pressed divisions and also supported the foreign enlistment bill, 10 June. On 1 July he carried a resolution laying down the mode of accounting for public works. In December he was a spokesman for repressive legislation, ‘essential to the maintenance of our liberties and to the salvation of the state’. After staying in town to the end, he yet doubted whether the Acts went far enough. The danger came from ‘this new state of knowledge’ which arose from popular education.22 Lady Shelley wrote of him, 23 Nov. 1819: ‘Bankes is all for economy, and yet for severity in the Game Laws, and for arbitrary power in every way. Canning said the other day, that Bankes’ ideal government would be a cheap tyranny.’23 He would not have agreed, but he was certainly not a happy politician. Grattan aptly described him as ‘a political dry bob always in a state of irritation but never coming to a crisis’.24 It was doubtless his wish to be remembered as ‘one who endeavoured throughout a long public life, faithfully and honestly to fulfil the functions of an independent representative’.25 He died 17 Dec. 1834.


A $40 MILLION GIFT OF BRITISH HISTORY TO NATIONAL TRUST

known Dorset lawyer, has left a $40 million estate to the National Trust, the independent foundation dedicated to preserving Britain's heritage.

The bequest, the largest single gift the trust has received, includes 16,000 acres of farmland, an elegant 17th-century mansion containing one of the country's finest private art collections and the ruins of Corfe Castle, a historic fortress near the English Channel, parts of which are at least 900 years old.

''When the estate is opened to the public, it will certainly become one of the major attractions on the South Coast,'' said Warren Davis, a spokesman for the National Trust. ''The nation owes a tremendous debt of gratitude to Mr. Bankes.''

The Bankes estate, which has scarcely changed in 300 years, is a good example of the preservation of private wealth within a single family of England's landed gentry.

Kingston Lacy, the magnificent Italianate mansion that houses the art collection - and which was also Henry Bankes's home until his death last August - was built in the 1660's by Sir Ralph Bankes, an ancestor. It was a family home, intended to replace Corfe Castle, the hilltop fortress from which the Bankeses had been displaced by forces opposed to King Charles I.

Sir Ralph's father, Sir John Bankes, was Charles's Attorney General, and while he was off with the King resisting the rebellion that ultimately led to the King's execution and the ascent of Oliver Cromwell, Lady Bankes successfully defended the castle against a three-year siege from the valleys. After she finally gave in in 1646, Parliament ordered the castle demolished. The ruins that still stand are most impressive, and they are steeped in history that goes well beyond the Bankes family. There is even a legend, no more than that, that at the entrance to the castle in the year 978 King Edward the Martyr was murdered on the order of his stepmother so that her son, Ethelred the Unready, could assume the throne.

Kingston Lacy, the three-story mansion that the Bankes family built 12 miles north of their ruined castle, is a classic Restoration country house, with a formal garden and gentle meadows beyond. In the 19th century, Sir Charles Barry, the architect, cased its original brick facade in gray stone and made extensive interior alterations.

Many of the present treasures of the house date from its earliest days, including Van Dyck portraits of Charles I and his wife, rescued from Corfe Castle before it was sacked, and portraits of Sir Ralph and his family by Sir Peter Lely.

Over the generations squires of the manor added to the collection of paintings, which now fill the walls of five stately galleries. There are works by Titian, Rubens, Murillo, Velazquez, Romney, Bruegel, Rembrandt, Holbein and Tintoretto, worth millions of dollars.

The house was opened to the public in 1953 but abruptly closed in 1968. That its stunning collection will now be open permanently illustrates the value to Britain of the National Trust, which has developed beyond the greatest hopes of the little group of publicspirited people who founded it 87 years ago as a means of defending the unspoiled countryside against the spread of dirty industrial towns of the Victorian era.

The original idea, as explained by Octavia Hill, a social reformer of the period and one of the founders of the trust, was ''to provide open-air sitting rooms for the poor.'' Its first acquisition was typical - four and a half acres of beautiful cliff land overlooking Cardigan Bay in North Wales.

For the first few decades of the trust's existence it scarcely occurred to anyone that it would one day be called upon to save the great private residences in the countryside as well as the countryside itself, since that was still the heyday of the stately homes. But by the 1930's taxes, changing patterns in agriculture and reductions in the supply of domestic servants began leading to the destruction of some of the grand old houses built in the preceding two centuries, and the trust jumped in to save them.

It now owns more than 80 country houses of the Kingston Lacy type, plus 20 castles and two dozen houses that are important because of the people (Carlyle, Churchill, Disraeli and Wordsworth, for example) who lived in them.

With half a million acres of land, much of it unspoiled countryside in which the public is free to wander, the trust has become the largest landowner in Britain after the state and the Crown.

The largest share of its $50 million annual budget - 30 percent - comes from the individual donations of its million private supporters. On the expenditure side, 60 percent goes for repairs and maintenance of properties, many of which come to it in imminent danger of collapsing.

Kingston Lacy, for example, is infected with dry rot and its art treasures are badly in need of general cleaning and restoration. In recent years the trust has learned a good deal about the preservation of such properties - the rule that the sunlight must be kept out, for instance, which often necessitates rewiring so there will be enough light.

Even after such initial work is done, the trust will need an income of more than $100,000 a year just to keep the house going. To get the capital to generate that income, it is expected to sell off some of the less desirable property that came with the Bankes bequest, where its farmlands run into the urban sprawl from the city of Bournemouth. The trust has a rule of not accepting property that cannot be made self-supporting.

It will also refuse any property that is not ''of real historic or architectural interest.'' But Corfe Castle and Kingston Lacy, one steeped in English history, the other resplendent, easily meet that test. 'ɻy leaving a great estate like this to us,'' Mr. Davis said at the trust office, ''Mr. Bankes has preserved it forever as a legacy for the nation.''


Kingston Lacy, Dorset, England

Kingston Lacy is a country house and estate near Wimborne Minster, Dorset, England, now owned by the National Trust. From the 17th to the late 20th centuries it was the family seat of the Bankes family, who had previously resided nearby at Corfe Castle until its destruction in the English Civil War after its incumbent owners, Sir John Bankes and Dame Mary joined the side of Charles I. They owned some 8,000 acres (3,200 ha) of the surrounding Dorset countryside and coastline.[1]

Agtergrond

The grounds on which the house stands originally formed part of a royal estate within the manor of Wimborne. The original house, greatly developed in the medieval period, stood to the north of the current house and was used as a hunting lodge, with an accompanying deer park to its northwest. Leased to those in favour of the crown, these included the Lords de Lacys, Earls of Lincoln, who held it together with Shapwick and Blandford. By the 15th century the property was leased to John Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, whose daughter Lady Margaret Beaufort, mother of King Henry VII, was brought up at Kingston Lacy.[2]

In the 17th century Corfe Castle was demolished by order of parliament

By the 16th century the house was in ruins. In 1603 King James I gave the lands to Sir Charles Blount, whose son later sold the estate to Sir John Bankes in 1636, who in 1634 had been appointed Attorney General to King Charles I.[3] Sir John was born in Cumberland, but through his extensive legal works had acquired the Corfe Castle estate. During the English Civil War from 1642, the Bankes remained loyal to the crown, resulting in the death of Sir John in Oxford in 1644, and after two sieges defended by Mary Bankes, the ruination of Corfe Castle in 1645 after two Parliamentarian sieges.[2] In March 1645 Parliament voted to slight (demolish) Corfe Castle, giving it its present appearance. As it provided a ready supply of building material, its stones were reused by the local impoverished villagers to rebuild their own homes.[4]

Konstruksie

After the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, the Bankes family regained their properties. Rather than rebuild the ruined Corfe Castle, eldest son Ralph Bankes chose to build a new house on their other Dorset estate near Wimborne Minster.

In 1663, Ralph commissioned Sir Roger Pratt to design a new property to be known as Kingston Hall on the current site, based on Clarendon House which Ralph had visited several times. Construction of the red brick building started that same year, and was completed by 1665. The building has two main floors, plus a basement and an attic floor lit by dormer windows. The lead-covered hipped roof has a central flat section, surrounded by a balustrade with a cupola rising from its centre. The house is entered from the north through a later mid-19th century porte-cochère, whist to the south a central door leads to a stone-flagged terrace extending the full width of the building. The east facade has a triple-arched loggia with access to the garden, while the west accesses the later 18th century laundry and kitchen garden.[2]

The interiors were influenced by Inigo Jones, but executed by his heir John Webb, confirmed many years later when the National Trust discovered Webb's plan during their formal takeover of the estate.[1] Sited centrally within the 164 hectares (410 acres) grounds, externally the new house was provided with 5 hectares (12 acres) of formal gardens and pleasure grounds, some of which were enclosed by walls, while a series of formal avenues radiated throughout the surrounding 159 hectares (390 acres) of park lands.[2]

Geskiedenis

After the death of Sir Ralph in 1677, the house was leased by his widow from 1686 and 1688 to the Duke of Ormonde. John Bankes the Elder regained the property in 1693, and with his wife Margaret, daughter of Sir Henry Parker of Honington Hall, Warwickshire completed the majority of his fathers original development plan. After passing to his second son Henry in 1772, he remodelled the house, built a new servants wing, and enclosed the parkland for better agricultural management use.[2] The 1784 Enclosure Act allowed Henry Bankes the Younger, the grandson of Ralph Bankes, to create the current estate and park lands footprint. This allowed him to: remove the hamlet of Kingston, situated adjacent to the 16th century Keeper's Lodge diverted the B3082 Blandford Road convert the former agricultural land to parkland. He undertook some further minor alterations in the 1820s, before he became an MP for the rotten borough of Corfe. He was a trustee for the British Museum and its parliamentary advocate, and some of his collections which were once part of the house, now reside in the Museum.[1] Bankes often entertained his friends Pitt the Younger and the Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington at the house.[1]

His son, the explorer and adventurer William John Bankes commissioned his friend Charles Barry (later Sir Charles Barry, known for his re-visioning works on the Palace of Westminster), to encase the red brick Hall, and enlarge his other property Soughton Hall. The house, which was now to be formally known as Kingston Lacy, was extensively remodelled by Barry between 1835 and 1838: faced the brick with Chilmark stone added a tall chimney to each corner and lowered the ground level on one side, exposing the basement level and forming a new principal entrance. He also planted Lime tree avenues along the Blanford Road, of which today some 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) survive.[2]

William John Bankes provided most of the antiquities that currently form part of the house's collections. He travelled extensively to the Middle East and the Orient, collecting the largest individual collection of Egyptian antiques in the world.[1] Most notable is the Philae obelisk, which he brought back and which now stands prominently in the grounds of the house. He also acquired in Genoa, Italy the portrait of Maria Di Antonio Serra, by Sir Peter Paul Rubens, painted on the occasion of her marriage to Duke Nicolo Pallavicini in 1606. In 1841, after being caught in a homosexual scandal that could have resulted in a trial and his death, William John fled the country for Italy. He continued to return items that he collected to the house, and is rumoured to have returned to the house occasionally to view his collection, until his death in Venice in 1855.

During William John's absence the estate had been managed by his brother, Canon George Bankes, who inherited the estate on his brothers death, but a year before his own in 1857. His youngest grandson Walter Ralph inherited the estate in 1869, who in later life married Henrietta, and had a son Henry John Ralph Bankes. On Walter's death in 1902, his widow undertook the last major developments to the existing estate, including: construction of the church (1907) new entrance lodges (1912-13) and numerous estate cottages.[2] In 1923 control passed to Ralph Bankes, the seven times great-grandson of the original creator Sir Ralph Bankes. During World War II an extensive military encampment was established in the south-east quarter of the park, which was only restored after the National Trust took ownership.[2]

Upon his death in 1981, Ralph bequeathed the Kingston Lacy estate (including 12 working farms and Corfe Castle) to the National Trust, its largest bequest to date.[1]

Versamelings

On display in the house is an important collection of fine art and antiquities built up by many generations of the Bankes family. One of the rooms, the Spanish room (named by reason of the Murillo paintings which hang there), has walls hung with gilded leather. It was recently restored at a cost of several hundred thousand pounds over a 5-year period. Other important collections include paintings of the family stretching back over 400 years. Other artworks include works by Velázquez, Van Dyck, Titian and Brueghel. Aside from the Spanish Room, the library is the most atmospheric of rooms, upon the wall of which are hung the huge keys of the destroyed Corfe Castle, handed back to Mary Bankes after her defence of Corfe Castle during the Civil War. The state bedroom is extremely ornate and has featured such important guests as Kaiser Wilhelm II who stayed with the family for a week in 1907. The main staircase is beautifully carved from stone and features three huge statues which look out onto the gardens from their seats. These depict Sir John Bankes and Lady Bankes, the defenders of Corfe Castle, and their patron, Charles I.

Within the estate are Badbury Rings (an Iron Age hill fort) and the Roman road from Dorchester to Old Sarum. Architecturally there are several huge stone gates which stand at entrances to the Lacy estate. The house and gardens are open to the public and in 2011 received 234,124 visitors.[5]

^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Kingston Lacy. The National Trust. 2005. ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j Historic England. "Kingston Lacy (1000718)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 10 July 2015. Jump up ^ Brooks 2004 Jump up ^ Cantor 1987, pp. 93� Jump up ^ Dorset County Council: Visitor numbers at selected attractions 2002-2011 Pitt-Rivers, Michael, 1968. Dorset. London: Faber & Faber. THE EXILED COLLECTOR by Anne Sebba. Biography of William John Bankes. ISBN 0-7195-6571-5


BANKES, Ralph (c.1630-77), of Kingston Lacy, Dorset.

b. c.1630, 2nd s. of Sir John Bankes, c.j.c.p. 1641-4, of Corfe Castle, Dorset by Mary, da. of Ralph Hawtrey of Ruislip, Mdx. educ. G. Inn 1656. m. 11 Apr. 1661, Mary, da. and h. of John Brune of Athelhampton, Dorset, 1s. 1da. suc. bro. c.1653 kntd. 27 May 1660.1

Kantore gehou

Gent. of the privy chamber (extraordinary) June 1660-?d.2

J.p. Dorset July 1660-d., Mdx. Aug. 1660-70 dep. lt. Dorset July 1660-72, 1674-d. commr. for assessment, Dorset Aug. 1660-74, Carm. and Westminster 1673-4 ld. lt. Isle of Purbeck 1661-d. gov. Brownsea Castle 1661-d. freeman, Lyme Regis and Poole 1662 commr. for corporations, Dorset 1662-3, foreshore 1662, oyer and terminer, Western circuit 1665, recusants, Dorset 1675.3

Biografie

Bankes’s father, of Cumberland origin, entered Parliament in 1624. A lawyer and royal official, he acquired control of Corfe Castle by purchasing the manor in 1635. His estates in Dorset and elsewhere were valued at £1,780 p.a. by the committee for compounding, but the Purbeck lands alone were worth at least another £200 p.a. He was one of the most moderate and respected of Charles I’s supporters in the Civil War. His wife was the heroine of the siege of Corfe Castle, when she repulsed the parliamentary forces under Sir Walter Erle.4

Bankes was first returned to Richard Cromwell’s Parliament for Corfe Castle and was thus eligible at the general election of 1660. He was duly re-elected but was not active in the Convention. He probably sat on nine committees, the most important of which dealt with the printing of unauthorized Anglican works. His inclusion among the Members chosen to raise a loan in the City shows that his credit was still good, in spite of losses by plunder and fines. Brought up in a devout Anglican household, he was noted by Lord Wharton as an opponent. But a week after his re-election in 1661, he married an heiress worth £1,200 p.a., though she was the daughter of a parliamentary colonel and herself became a Roman Catholic. Though never prominent in the House he was moderately active in the Cavalier Parliament, being named to 70 committees. In the first session he was appointed to those for the security, corporations and regicides bills. His activity diminished during the period 1663-5 when his new house at Kingston Lacy was under construction nevertheless he served on the committee for the first conventicles bill. His estates bordering on Poole Harbour and his membership of the commission of the foreshore gave him a personal interest in the committee for reclaiming marshlands. In the 1667 session he was named to the committees to inquire into the charges against Lord Mordaunt and to set up a public accounts commission. He participated in an examination of the militia laws, in which his first concern would have been to protect the autonomous status of Purbeck. This may have provided Lord Ashley (Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper) with an excuse for dropping Bankes from the lieutenancy in 1672 the two families had long been embroiled over the enclosure of Holt chase.5

Bankes was noted in 1669 as a supporter of the Court, to be influenced by the Duke of York. He was named to the committee for the continuation of the Conventicles Act but about this time his financial difficulties began to overwhelm him. Besides the cost of his splendid new home, his will suggests that he was an ardent collector of books, maps, pictures, medals, curiosities and antiquities to adorn it. He sold his wife’s inheritance in 1670, and in the following year conveyed the rest of his land to trustees, who included Robert Coker, Henry Whitaker and his steward Anthony Ettrick. The trustees successfully promoted two private bills, one to clear the title of some Welsh property which they intended to sell, the other to rationalize the estate by exchanging land with a neighbour. The preservation of his property was now uppermost in Bankes’s mind, and it is not surprising that his last committee should have been concerned with river fishing, since he owned the royalty over an extensive stretch of some of the best stocked and most lucrative water in Dorset. His debts now totalled £11,780 (including £2,000 to George Pitt), and his income was insufficient to pay the interest and other charges. He died on 25 Mar. 1677 while endeavouring to arrange further sales. The family’s difficulties were successfully tided over, and his son sat for Corfe Castle from 1698 to his death.6

Ref Volumes: 1660-1690

Authors: M. W. Helms / John. P. Ferris

Notas

This article is based on the Bankes mss at Kingston Lacy, which have been seen by kind permission of Mr H. J. R. Bankes.


Kingston Lacy, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

This collection has 15,215 items online

Kingston Lacy houses the oldest established gentry collection of paintings in Britain, with works by Rubens, Van Dyck, Titian and Tintoretto. Kingston Lacy houses the largest private collection of Egyptian artefacts in the UK. There is an extraordinary ivory-inlaid and ivory-mounted rosewood cabinet on stand – one of the finest examples of Visakhapatnam furniture in any English collection. The magnificent family library, one of the Trust's largest early collections, includes roughly 1450 pre-1801 books, including the magnificent Jean de Planche binding for Sir Nicholas Bacon (1510–79).

Mary Hawtrey, Lady Bankes (1598-1661) (after John Hoskins)

Henry Pierce Bone (Islington 1779 - 1855)

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

The Judgement of Solomon

Sebastiano del Piombo (Venice c.1485 - Rome 1547)

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Marchesa Maria Serra Pallavicino (?)

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (Siegen 1577 - Antwerp 1640)

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Probably Marchesa Maria Grimaldi and an Attendant

Sir Peter Paul Rubens (Siegen 1577 - Antwerp 1640)

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Apollo crowning a Poet and joining him with a Consort, witnessed by Hercules and by four other .

Jacopo Tintoretto (Venice 1518 - Venice 1594)

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

The Separation of Night from Day

Guido Reni (Bologna 1575 – Bologna 1642)

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Theatrum vitae humanae.

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Carpet

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Tulip vase

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Settee

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Cassone

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Secrétaire à abattant

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Cabinet on stand

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Bürgermeister's chair

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

Ms receipt

Kingston Lacy Estate, Dorset (Accredited Museum)

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Make William John Bankes a character of your novel

William John Banks is great to use as a minor character in your novel, as he was rich, adventurous, quick-witted and a favourite of the polite society. Here are some more facts about him:

  • In 1806, being only 20 years old, he had an income of £8,000 a year (over £350,000 in modern terms) (3).
  • He had auburn, curled hair, an angular face and a small mouth.
  • He had an easy charm and was highly intelligent, but he was also loquacious, touchy, and arrogant (5). Further character traits were a dangerous temper, a penchant for risk and a lack of self-restraint (1).
  • Among his many talents were fluency in Italian, copying ancient inscriptions and an excellent understanding of architecture and epigraphy. One of his main hobby-horses was the history and culture of Egypt and the deciphering of ancient hieroglyphs (2).
  • He proposed to Miss Annabella Milbanke in 1812. However, she refused him. Byron burst out laughing when William told him about his unsuccessful proposal. Miss Milbanke, however, refused Byron in 1812, too (5).
  • If you want to be historically correct about William’s whereabouts in the Regency period, check the dates of his travels carefully before employing him for a scene: He began his travels in 1813, spending some time in Portugal and Spain until 1814. Between 1815 and 1819 he explored Egypt, Nubia and the Sinai (6).
  • During the Napoleonic Wars, he was informally attached to the Duke of Wellington’s camp (we remember: The Duke was a friend of the family). William also took advantage of the turmoil created by war to acquire works of art at prices well below their normal value (3). He also was very interested in discovering the new talents of the Spanish art scene rather than favouring the popular masters (7).
  • With regards to politics, William was a Tory. He opposed the Catholic emancipation and the reform of the electoral system (3). In 1810, he joined his father in Parliament until 1812. After his years of travel he represented various boroughs. He stayed in politics until 1834 (1).
  • In the early 1820s, he helped Lady Caroline Lamb writing the novel “Ada Reis“ (2).
  • Until the 1830ies, Kingston Lacy actually was called Kingston Hall. William renamed it, replacing “Hall” by “Lacy”, the family name of the medieval tenants of the original estate.

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