Die oorsprong van somerkampe

Die oorsprong van somerkampe


Kyk na die berge: 'n geskiedenis van die berg Lemmon

Ek het die afgelope somer hierdie boek oor die geskiedenis van Mt. Lemmon by die Palisades Ranger -stasie op Lemmon gevind en sedertdien probeer ek tyd kry om dit te lees. Die volledige titel is: Kyk na die berge: 'n Diepgaande blik op die lewens en tye van die mense wat die geskiedenis van die Catalina-berge gevorm het.

Besoekers aan die suide van Arizona word dikwels verbaas oor ons hoë "berge -eilande" hoë berge wat skielik en majestueus uit ons plat woestyn laaglande styg. Verskeie van die belangrikste sterrewagte in Arizona is bo -op Sky Island -pieke geleë. Die 7 Sky -eilande in die suide van Arizona is die berge met die naam Baboquivari, Whetstone, Chiricahua, Huachuca, Pinaleño, Santa Catalina -berge en Santa Rita. Die hoogste hiervan is 10.720 'Mount Graham in die Pinaleño -gebergte bo Safford en die Gila -rivier.

Mount Lemmon gesien vanuit ons swembad op die woestynvloer 7000 voet onder die top.

Mount Lemmon, die hoogste piek op die Santa Catalina Sky Island, het 'n unieke geskiedenis. Min mense besef wat 'n spesiale plek Mount Lemmon is, afgesien van die aantrekkingskrag van 'n koel somer ontsnapping. Van antieke paleo-Indiërs 4000 jaar gelede, tot die komplekse Hohokam-kultuur duisend jaar gelede, tot die Spanjaarde van die Coronado-ekspedisie in 1542, tot die Apaches en Mexikaanse en Anglo-Amerikaanse pioniers uit die 19de eeu van Arizona se territoriale tydperk, tot die inwoners van 'n Die 21ste -eeuse metropool, die berg Lemmon (9 159 ') en die Catalina -gebergte in die noordelike omtrek van Tucson is uitgebuit en geniet deur baie mense wat bosbronne soek en 'n blaaskans van die versengende woestynvloer soek.

Kyk na die berge is deur die plaaslike inwoner, Suzanne Hensel, geskryf. Dit was twaalf jaar in die maak en is gepubliseer deur Mt. Lemmon Woman's Club in 2006. Elke hoofstuk in hierdie boek is 'n verhaal op sigself, vol staaltjies, geskiedenis en baie persoonlike lewens van die mense wat voorheen hier was ons. Lees meer

Hoofstuk 1 gee 'n opsomming van die begin van die menslike besetting van Mount Lemmon, daarna die gebruik van die gebied deur Apaches en die weermag uit Ft. Lowell.

Hoofstuk 2 dek die eerste pioniers in hierdie gebied en die soektog na goud aan die noordekant van die berg. Daar is verskeie verhale in hierdie hoofstuk wat ek nie geken het nie, insluitend die legende van die myn met die ysterdeur, vermoedelik dieselfde deur waarna die restaurant op die top van die berg vernoem is. Baie name word in hierdie boek neergelê, name wat bekend is, maar waarvan die geskiedenis vir my onbekend was totdat ek hierdie boek gelees het: Canada del Oro, Salpointe, Romero, Oracle, Peppersauce word almal verwys. As u ooit die oorsprong van baie van die name wat rondom Tucson gebruik word, sou wonder, sou hierdie boek 'n uitstekende bron wees. Ons het almal van Sam Hughes gehoor, maar weet u wie Bob Leatherwood of E. O. Stratton of Louis Zeckendorf was? Al hierdie manne was baanbrekers in die myndae van Mount Lemmon. Het u geweet dat Buffalo Bill Cody 'n stuk van die Campo Bonito Mining Company naby Oracle besit.

Plantkundiges John & amp; Sara Lemmon.

Hoofstuk 3 handel oor die persoon na wie Mount Lemmon vernoem is. Nee, nie 'n ou nie Sara Lemmon, 'n plantkundige. Het u al ooit gewonder hoe Summerhaven Village ontstaan ​​het? Summerhaven is die gemeenskap naby die top van die berg, omring deur openbare grond wat in die Aspen -brand van 2003 verwoes is. Dit is in 1910 deur Frank Weber "gepatenteer" met behulp van die Homestead Act.

Hoofstuk 4 handel oor huisvesting op en om die berg, veral die Steam Pump Ranch van Oro Valley en die Romero Ranch, wat uiteindelik Catalina State Park geword het. Het u geweet dat die CCC Romero -swembaddens geskep het terwyl hy 'n roete vir 'n brandtoegangsroete geblaas het? Ons verneem dat die Bighorn -skaapbevolking in die Catalinas al in 1938 aan die afneem het en dat Catalina State Park amper 'n behuisingsontwikkeling geword het.

In hoofstuk 5 skryf Henzel oor hoe die Catalinas in 1908 die Coronado National Forest geword het onder Teddy Roosevelt. Hoofstukke 6 en 7 handel oor die lewe in Soldier Camp en Summerhaven in die vroeë 1900's. Soldaatskamp lê waar die Aspen -roete begin, deur die huise van die regering gehuur en verder na Marshall Gulch, nie ver van waar die Aspen -brand ontstaan ​​het nie. Dit is 'n kort staptog na Summerhaven, vanaf die Sunset Trailhead naby die kamp.

Catalina snelweg van Tucson na die berg Lemmon.

Vir jare was die enigste pad na die berg Lemmon deur Oracle en die roete uit die noorde. Min mense het deesdae die roete in die noordelike rigting afgelê. 'N Voertuig met 'n hoë klaring word aanbeveel. In hierdie boek verwys Henzel na die Catalina Highway met sy amptelike naam die Hitchcock Highway wat hoofstuk 8 van hierdie boek bevat.

Naby die voet van die berg is 'n kampterrein. In 1999 is dit herdoop tot die Gordon Hirabayashi -ontspanningsplek.

Sommige van die gevangeniskamp ruïnes vandag.

Die verhaal van Mr.

Dit is die voormalige plek van die gevangeniskamp waar federale gevangenes die skilderagtige Catalina Highway in samewerking met die Buro vir Openbare Paaie gebou het. Daar is baie foto's en staaltjies op hierdie bladsye. 'N Gedenkplaat wat aan generaal Frank Harris Hitchcock opgedra is, is by Windy Point. Dit is nuttig om op te let dat die term "generaal" in daardie dae nie na 'n militêre titel verwys nie, maar 'n honorarium. Hy was posmeester -generaal van die Verenigde State. Syne is 'n interessante verhaal. Naby myl 12 is 'n baie lekker kampterrein wat ook toegewy is aan hierdie man wat so 'n belangrike rol gespeel het om hierdie pad 'n werklikheid te maak. Die pad is in 1951 voltooi en later geplavei en verbreed van 22 tot 28 voet. Dit is vandag nog in 'n goeie toestand.

Beheerpad na die berg Lemmon. Die oorspronklike pad was nie breed genoeg vir twee motors om verby te kom nie. Daar was dus tye van die dag dat u slegs kon opry en ander tye dat u slegs kon afry.

Meer geskiedenis oor Summerhaven en Ski Valley word behandel in hoofstukke 9 en 10. Dit gee spesiale aandag aan die mense wat Summerhaven laat gebeur het en die stryd van The Lodge wat in die 50's gebou is, nou die Iron Door Restaurant. The Iron Door is een van ons gunstelinge. Dink aan uitstekende chili en mieliebrood, gevolg deur vars gebakte tert. Hierdie hoofstukke bevat baie prente om te illustreer hoe dit in die 1950's gelyk het en dit nog steeds doen.

Sterrewagte by Sky Center op die berg Lemmon.

Bo Summerhaven en die Ski -vallei is die sterrewagte en die radarbasis. Dit is ook in die 50's gebou om die Russiese bedreiging te stuit. Teen die 60's is dit egter gesluit en het die Universiteit van Arizona 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die herontwerp van hierdie webwerf vir astronomiese ondernemings. Verskeie sterrewagte is gebou. Vandag kan u die Sky Center besoek en die sterre deur een van hierdie teleskope sien. Dit is 'n wonderlike program wat die moeite werd is. U moet 'n bespreking maak en ons raai u aan om selfs in die somer warm aan te trek.

Hoofstuk 12 dek Scouting in die Catalinas, Camp Lawton, net suid van die Palisades -besoekersentrum by Organization Ridge. Daar is ook verskeie ander kampe op hierdie pad. Die laaste hoofstuk bring ons natuurlik op datum, ten minste tot 2006. Die bylae bevat foto's van die Aspen -brand in 2003. Ek onthou nog hoe ek die brand gesien het toe ek die somer van Texas na Burbank gevlieg het. Vanaf 30 000 'was die brand 'n wonderlike gesig. Op die grond was dit verwoestend: 85 000 hektaar bos en 340 huise en besighede het in die rook gesteek.

Daar is soveel goeie inligting in hierdie boek dat ek weer en weer daarna kan terugkeer. Een ding wat ek egter mis, is meer kaarte, sodat ek my kan oriënteer op die verskillende plekke wat in die wonderlike boek genoem word. Lees hierdie boek. Dit is bedagsaam en persoonlik. Koop Kyk na die berge of beter nog, gaan na die besoekersentrum van Palisades en koop dit daar.


Inhoud

Kampering beskryf 'n verskeidenheid aktiwiteite en benaderings tot buitelugverblyf. Survivaliste -kampeerders het so min as moontlik vertrek, terwyl reisigers met toerusting aangekom het met hul eie elektrisiteit, hitte en tuinmeubels. Kampering kan gekombineer word met staproetes, soos in rugsakreis, en word dikwels geniet saam met ander buitelugaktiwiteite, soos kanovaart, klim, visvang en jag. Fastpacking behels hardloop en kamp.

Daar is geen universele definisie van wat is en wat nie kampeer nie. Net soos met motelle, wat beide ontspannings- en sakegaste bedien, kan dieselfde kampeerterrein terselfdertyd ontspanningskampe, trekarbeiders en haweloses bedien. Fundamenteel weerspieël dit 'n kombinasie van bedoeling en die aard van die betrokke aktiwiteite. 'N Somerskamp vir kinders met maaltye in die eetkamer en akkommodasie in 'n stapelhuis het moontlik' kamp 'op sy naam, maar weerspieël nie die gees en vorm van' kampeer 'soos dit in die breë verstaan ​​word nie. Net so kan 'n hawelose persoon se leefstyl baie algemene kampeeraktiwiteite behels, soos om uit te slaap en maaltye voor 'n vuur voor te berei, maar weerspieël nie die elektiewe aard en strewe na geesverjonging wat 'n integrale aspek van kampeer is nie. Net so kan daar nie gesê word dat kulture met 'n rondreisende lewenstyl of 'n gebrek aan permanente wonings 'kampeer' nie, dit is net hul lewenswyse.

Die geskiedenis van ontspanningskampe word dikwels teruggevoer na Thomas Hiram Holding, 'n Britse reis -kleermaker, maar dit is eintlik die eerste keer gewild in die Verenigde Koninkryk aan die rivier die Teems. Teen die 1880's het 'n groot aantal besoekers aan die tydverdryf deelgeneem, wat verband hou met die laat Victoriaanse gier vir plesiervaart. Die vroeë kampeertoerusting was baie swaar, so dit was gerieflik om dit per boot te vervoer of om vaartuie te gebruik wat in tente omskep is. [1] Hoewel Thomas Hiram Holding dikwels as die vader van moderne kampeerplekke in die Verenigde Koninkryk beskou word, was hy in die vroeë twintigste eeu verantwoordelik vir die gewildheid van 'n ander soort kampeerplek. Hy beleef die aktiwiteit in die natuur vanaf sy jeug toe hy baie tyd saam met sy ouers deur die Amerikaanse prairies deurgebring het. Later het hy 'n fiets- en kamptoer saam met 'n paar vriende deur Ierland onderneem. [2] Sy boek oor sy ervaring in Ierland, Fiets en kamp in Connemara het gelei tot die stigting van die eerste kampgroep in 1901, die Association of Cycle Campers, wat later die Camping and Caravanning Club geword het. [3] Hy het geskryf Die Campers Handbook in 1908, sodat hy sy entoesiasme vir die buitelug met die wêreld kon deel. [4]

Die eerste kommersiële kampeerterrein ter wêreld was moontlik die kamp van Cunningham, naby Douglas, Isle of Man, wat in 1894 geopen is. Teen daardie tyd het die organisasie 'n paar honderd lede gehad. In 1910 is die Vereniging saamgevoeg in die National Camping Club. Alhoewel WW1 verantwoordelik was vir 'n sekere kampeeraktiwiteit, het die vereniging ná die oorlog 'n nuwe lewe gekry toe sir Robert Baden-Powell (stigter van die Boy Scouts-beweging) sy president geword het.

In die VSA is kampeer moontlik herlei na die publikasie van William Henry Harrison Murray uit 1869 van Camp-Life in die Adirondacks wat die somer 'n vloed van besoekers aan die Adirondacks tot gevolg gehad het. [5]

Die International Federation of Camping Clubs (Federation Internationale de Camping et de Caravanning) is in 1932 gestig met nasionale klubs van regoor die wêreld wat daarby aansluit. Teen die 1960's het kampeer 'n gevestigde standaard vir gesinsvakansies geword, en vandag is kampeerplekke oral in Europa en Noord -Amerika.

Verskillende tipes kampeerplekke kan vernoem word na hul vorm van vervoer, soos kanokamping, motorkamping, kampeervakansie en rugsak, wat ultraligte toerusting kan behels.

Kampering word ook deur lewenstyl aangedui: Glamping (glansryke kampeerplek) kombineer kampeer met die luukse en geriewe van 'n huis of hotel, [6] en het sy oorsprong in die vroeë 1900's Europese en Amerikaanse safari's in Afrika. Met Workamping kan kampeerders hul arbeid op verskillende maniere verruil vir afslag op kampeerterreine, kampplekke en selfs 'n mate van betaling. Trekkampe word nie vir ontspanning gevorm nie, maar as 'n tydelike behuisingsreëling. Kampeerplekke vir pasgemaakte stropers in die Verenigde State kan parkeerplekke en ander groot plaastoerusting insluit.

'N Ander manier om kampering te beskryf, is deur middel van die reëling: besprekingskampeer vs. Kampplekke kan vereis dat kampeerders by 'n werknemer of kampeerterrein aanmeld voordat hulle kamp opslaan, of hulle kan 'drop camp' toelaat waar dit nie nodig is nie. Inklap-kampeerplekke kan gratis wees, of 'n opbergkas kan voorsien word om betalings op die erestelsel te aanvaar. Alhoewel dropkampe gereeld spesifiek deur die wet toegelaat word, kan dit ook in 'n wettige grys gebied voorkom, soos in Slab City, Kalifornië. [7] Sosiale media wat op dropkamping gerig is, bied inligting oor onlangse polisiehandhawing, kwaliteit van die kampplek, koste en vereistes vir verblyf.

Die toerusting wat op kampeerplekke gebruik word, wissel na gelang van die beoogde aktiwiteit. By oorlewingskampe bestaan ​​die toerusting byvoorbeeld uit klein items wat die kampeerder help om voedsel, hitte en veiligheid te verskaf. Die toerusting wat in hierdie kampplek gebruik word, moet lig wees en is beperk tot die verpligte items. Ander kampeertipes, soos winterkampe, behels spesiaal ontwerpte toerusting ten opsigte van tente of klere wat sterk genoeg is om die liggaam van die kampeerder teen wind en koue te beskerm.

Oorlewingskampe behels sekere items wat kampeerders aanbeveel om saam te neem as iets verkeerd loop en dit moet gered word. 'N Oorlewingsuitrusting bevat verpligte items wat klein is en in u sak moet pas, of wat andersins op u persoon gedra kan word. Hierdie kit is in hierdie omstandighede nutteloos as dit in die rugsak wat in die kamp gelaat word, gebêre word. So 'n stel moet 'n klein metaalhouer bevat wat gebruik kan word om water oor 'n kampvuur te verhit, 'n klein lengte band wat in baie situasies nuttig kan wees, en 'n noodkombers. Hierdie komberse is spesiaal ontwerp om minimale ruimte in beslag te neem en is ideaal om noodskuilings te maak om die kampeerder warm te hou. Vanweë die aluminiumagtige kleur is hierdie kombers weerkaatsend, wat beteken dat dit maklik vanuit 'n vliegtuig gesien kan word. Kersblokkies is goed om 'n vuur aan te steek, sowel as om 'n omheinde ruimte warm te maak. Een of twee pleisters is verpligtend in hierdie tipe kampeerplekke. Elke kampeerder, en nie net die oorlewendes nie, benodig waterdigte vuurhoutjies of 'n aansteker en 'n groot veiligheidspennetjie of vishaak wat vir visvang gebruik kan word. Rubberhandskoene, antiseptiese doeke, tinfoelie, mes, of halasoon -tablette (wat die water suiwer) moet ook in 'n oorlewingskissie ingesluit word. Alhoewel dit te veel items lyk om op een persoon gedra te word, is dit eintlik klein, liggewig en beslis nuttig.

Winterkampe kan gevaarlik wees sonder om die basiese reëls te respekteer wat hierdie spesifieke aktiwiteit betref.

  • Eerstens word die koue beskerm teen die volgende klere van drie soorte lae: 'n voeringlaag teen die vel van die kampeerder (longjohns), 'n isolasielaag (fleece) en 'n water- en windbestande buitenste dop. [8] Alhoewel katoen een van die beste kwaliteit materiaal is, word dit nie aanbeveel om dit op die winterkamp te dra nie, want as dit nat word, droog dit baie stadig uit en kan die draer vries. In plaas van katoen, moet winter kampeerders wol of sintetiese materiaal dra. Die stewels moet waterdig wees en die kop moet teen die koue beskerm word. Alhoewel dit 'n goeie keuse lyk, word kampeerders aangeraai om nie te veel sokkies te dra nie, aangesien dit die bloedvloei na die voete kan beperk, wat koue voete tot gevolg kan hê. Gaiters moet ook gedra word om te voorkom dat sneeu en reën die stewels benat.
  • Tweedens moet koolhidrate by hul dieet ingesluit word om hul liggaam warm te hou en energie te verskaf. Hidrasie is baie belangrik, daarom moet winterkampeerders baie water drink om hulself goed gehidreer te hou, en let op dat waterstore nie vries nie.
  • Ten derde moet die tent sorgvuldig gekies word om dit teen die wind te beskerm.

Lys van algemene toerusting Redigeer

Die volgende is 'n lys van algemeen gebruikte kampeertoerusting:

Baie van die oorblywende kamptoerusting is algemeen beskikbaar in die huis, insluitend: skottelgoed, potte en panne, maar baie mense verkies om nie hul huisartikels te gebruik nie, maar gebruik eerder toerusting wat beter aangepas is vir kampeer. Hierdie geriewe sluit in tafelgerei van plastiek en sout- en peperbottels met blikke wat toemaak om die skudders teen reën te beskerm. Ou kombuistoerusting wat in tweedehandse winkels of motorhuise verkoop word, kan ook in plaas van huishoudelike items gebruik word as 'n alternatief vir die aankoop van gespesialiseerde (en duurder) kampeertoerusting. Rugsakreisigers gebruik ligte en draagbare toerusting. [9]


Hoe 'n somerkamp in Noord -Carolina met Kersfees in Julie begin het

Kampdirekteur Fannie Hold het die vakansie in 1933 bedroom.

Page Ives Lemel het grootgeword en elke somer 'n week lank elke kuns en kunsvlyt gebruik om 'n geskenk te maak vir 'n mede -kampeerder in die Keystone -kamp in Noord -Carolina. Miskien was dit 'n kussing met 'n monogram of 'n tennisbalhouer wat in 'n potloodhouer verander het, of 'n teddiebeer met knoppies wat nie ooreenstem nie. Aan die einde van die week het Page en haar mede -kampeerders, geklee in flanel -pyjamas en bekers warm kakao, gewag op die aankoms van Kersvader agterop 'n onderhoudsvragmotor wat deur Page se pa bestuur is. Die enigste manier om die man in rooi te ontbied, onthou Page, was om kersliedere bo -op jou longe te sing.

Eers 'n paar jaar gelede het die voormalige Keystone -kampeerder besef dat haar slaap -ervaring in die 1970's nie tipies was nie. 'Ek het nooit gedink dit is uniek aan ons nie,' sê sy. 'Dit lyk asof iets ander kampe sou doen.' Nou is die direkteur van Keystone Camp in Brevard, Noord-Carolina, 35 myl suid van Asheville, Page die vierde geslag in haar gesin wat die titel beklee het, wat deur haar oupagrootjie Florence Ellis oorgedra is.

Verlede jaar, ter herdenking van sy 100ste bestaansjaar, het die kamp sy geskiedenis in 'n nuwe boek beskryf. Deur 'n vroeë konsep te blaai, het Page verneem dat die eerste keer dat iemand ooit 'Kersfees in Julie' gevier het en 'n mdasha-frase wat ontstaan ​​het uit 'n opera uit 1892 in Keystone, in opdrag van die kamp stigter Fannie Holt.

"Juffrou Fannie was so 'n karakter: 'n grillerige, droomende, kreatiewe tipe wat al hierdie uniekheid by die program gevoeg het," sê Page. "Die meeste kampe tel die hutte om hulle te identifiseer. Hier het ons byvoorbeeld Crabapple, Skylark en Crow's Nest. In plaas van junior en senior kampeerders het ons Elwe, Pixies en Dryads."

Die eerste midsomer Noel begin 84 jaar gelede op 24 en 25 Julie 1933, met gaste wat bymekaar gekom het om 'n versierde verhoog. "Toe die gordyne oopgaan, kyk ons ​​na 'n groep karolers wat by die kersboom staan," het kampeerder Blanche Ulmer Pavlis gesê oor 'n viering in 1935. "Wie moet dan aankom behalwe Kersvader self? Reg uit die bokant van die skoenhuis op die wysie van 'Jingle Bells'. Nadat hy vir almal 'Hallo' gesê het, het hy die geskenke begin uitdeel. Toe gooi die kerslieders katoen -nagemaakte sneeu. En diegene wat nog nooit sneeu gesien het nie, het baie opgewonde geraak. "

Teen die tyd dat Page se ouers in die sewentigerjare oorgeneem het, het die jaarlikse viering tot 'n behoorlike produksie ontwikkel. Kampeerders sou die vorige aand wasgoedtasse buite hul hutte neersit en wakker word om te sien dat hulle vol lekkergoed was. Almal, insluitend personeel, het aan die geskenkuitruil deelgeneem. 'Dit was intimiderend vir die arme 12-jarige wat Bill Ives se naam getrek het,' onthou sy. "My pa het een keer 'n versierde toiletplunjer gekry wat met vere en glinster versier is."

Elwe, rendiere en mevrou Claus het Old Saint Nick begin vergesel, wat altyd sy knus rooi pak gedra het, ondanks die temperatuur van 86 grade wat standaard is vir die somers in Noord-Carolina. 'Die feit dat ons nie Kersvader aan 'n hitte beroerte verloor het nie, was baie gelukkig,' sê Page. Om 'n geskenk in die meer te gaan swem, het standaard geword. 'N Paar jaar gelede het die kamp sy uitgedinkte vakansie omskep in 'n meer inklusiewe viering, wat Hanukkah-, Halloween- en Paasrituele bygevoeg het.

Vroeg in haar ampstermyn het iemand van Greensboro gebel om navraag te doen oor Kersfees in Julie wat hulle wou bywoon, net vir 'n dag. Keystone maak natuurlik nie sulke toegewings nie, alhoewel daar 'n stad 150 myl noord is wat soortgelyke feeste bied. West Jefferson, Noord -Carolina, het vroeër hierdie maand sy 31ste jaarlikse Kersfees in Julie gehou. Natuurlik is daar ook baie son-deurdrenkte Yuletide-gejuig wat hierdie maand elders te vinde is, insluitend die Hallmark Channel se weeklikse Kersfilmreeks vanaf 14 Julie.


4. Fisiese en virtuele toegang

'N Kamp is die bindplek van 'n nomade. Hy mag dit vir 'n seisoen of slegs vir 'n enkele nag gebruik, volgens die webwerf en sy omgewing, al dan nie, die wil van die swerwer. As die vis nie byt nie, of die wild wegbeweeg, of as daar onaangename bure inbreek, of as iets anders verkeerd loop, is dit net 'n uur se werk om die stokke op te tel en weg te gaan, op soek na die besonder goeie plek wat gewoonlik lê buite die rand van die horison.
- Horace Kephart 13

Die eerste kampeerplek is om aanspraak te maak op die terrein. Maar die verleidelike beeld van die kampeerder wat sy tent opslaan, 'n geërfde simbool van hoë avontuur, en#8221 vang nie regtig die eerste gebaar van besetting vas nie. 14 'n Mens sou byvoorbeeld kon redeneer dat die motor - en nie die kampeerder nie - die eerste insittende van die skoongemaakte terrein is (die geïmmobiliseerde groot deel van die motorvoertuig is 'n baie kragtiger verklaring van voorneme as die stoftent). Ander verwys moontlik na die kaart van die kampterrein met sy vlek met vars ink, of selfs na die besonderhede van 'n aanlyn bespreking wat maande vooruit gemaak is, as alternatiewe bewys.

Toegang is 'n komplekse verskynsel wat binne en buite die webwerf self voorkom. Om seker te wees, behels toegang die teenwoordigheid van fisiese infrastruktuur (paaie) wat die kampeerder na die drumpel van die werf lei. Die plantpatoloog Emilio Meinecke, wat die kommer oor die oormatige gebruik in ekologies sensitiewe gebiede van nasionale parke in die twintigerjare uitgedruk het, was die eerste om die potensieel vernietigende rol van die motor te kodifiseer: die mens beseer slegs die kleiner plante wat hy eintlik onder sy voet trap. Die motor, baie onhandiger om te hanteer, verpletter struike en vee bome af, spoor lewende bas af en beseer dit ernstig. Olie, 'n dodelike gif vir plante, drup uit die geparkeerde motor. ” 15 Meinecke se volgehoue ​​bydrae tot die ontwerp van die kampterrein was om verder te gaan as die idee van die individuele erf en eenrigtingluspaaie voor te stel wat motors na individuele parkeergeleenthede gelei het langs elke kampplek. In hierdie lig gaan die plot soos ons dit vandag ken net soveel oor die oprigting van 'n gebied vir die kampeerder as om die motor in die landskap te huisves. Die opkoms van die swaarder, meer gesofistikeerde sleepwaens in die dertigerjare sal 'n nog meer vrygewige herontwerp vereis van Meinecke se aftrekstang en die implementering van verskillende infrastruktuurverbindings (bv. Elektrisiteit, riool), sowel as die progressiewe segregasie van RV- en tentpersele. Hier is John Steinbeck op die sleepwa: hulle is wonderlik geboude huise, aluminiumvelle, dubbelwandig, met isolasie, en dikwels met houtfineer. Soms tot veertig voet lank, met lugversorgers, toilette, baddens en altyd televisie. ... 'n Stacaravan word na die sleepwa -park getrek en op 'n oprit aangebring, 'n swaar rubber rioolpyp word vasgebout, water en elektriese krag aangeskakel, die televisie -antenne opgelig en die gesin woon. ” 16

Dit sou aanloklik wees om die kwessie van toegang tot kampplekke tot fisieke infrastruktuur te beperk. Maar net soos in die geval van die kaart van die kampeerplek, impliseer toegang ook toenemend die teenwoordigheid van 'n virtuele infrastruktuur, wat die verbeelding vereis om 'n leemte in die ervaring op te maak. Deur na 'n kaart te wys, besluit ons voor die aankoms van watter erf ons moet beset, voordat ons die webwerf gesien het. In die twintigerjare van die vorige eeu is Meinecke se nuutgemaakte infrastruktuurriglyne geïmplementeer in reaksie op die groeiende aantrekkingskrag van motortoerisme. Die vermaning van Horace Kephart om in die natuur te gaan, om die belange op te tel en na 'n ander plek te beweeg, is vinnig omhels deur vroeë motoriste, wat die tirannie van organisasie en die kunsmatige kenmerke van laat 19de-eeuse treintoere verwerp het van die nasionale parke: “Jy is jou eie meester, die pad lê voor, jy eet soos jy wil, kook jou eie maaltye oor 'n oop vuur en slaap as jy onder die sterre gaan, wakker word met die dagbreek swem in 'n bergmeer as jy sal, en altyd die pad vorentoe. Thoreau teen 29 sent per liter. ” 17


Bo: Parkeerplek vir motors wat gewild geword het deur Emilio Meinecke, kampterrein Longmire Village, Mount Rainier National Park. [Met vergunning van die National Park Archives] Onder: Overland Park munisipale kampterrein. [Met vergunning van Denver Public Library, Western History and Genealogy Collection]

'N Mens vermoed dat Kephart - gefokus op nie net individualisme nie, maar ook op eensaamheid - heel moontlik skrikwekkend geraak het oor die massas motortoeriste wat die Amerikaanse pad aflê. Deur gesamentlik die hoogs georganiseerde bedrywighede van die spoorwegtoerusting te laat vaar, het hierdie nuwe motor kampeerders die behoefte aan 'n ander stel regulasies geskep. Treintoere was beperk tot die ryk, bekostigbare motors, soos die Ford Model T vir die groeiende middelklasse ontspanningsgeleenthede sou bied. Die opwindende retoriek oor wat 'buite die rand van die horison lê,' het die koms van outokamping vinnig nuwe logistieke probleme gebied. Waar moet ek gaan? Sal daar genoeg spasie wees? Hoe lank kan ek bly? Kan ek besluit voordat ek aankom? Dit is miskien ironies, indien nie verbasend nie, dat hierdie nuwe vryhede gepaard gaan met 'n diepe gevoel van angs, wat die kampeerplek weer 'n soort virtuele goedere sou maak wat vergelyk, verkry en verhandel kan word buite die fisiese grense van die kampterrein.

Hoofstuk XIII van Motorkamp deur J.C. en J.D. Long (1923), is miskien die eerste ware maatstaf van die kampterrein as 'n pleklose handelsware. Deur die versameling van inligting oor meer as 2000 munisipale, staats- en federale fasiliteite, het die skrywers die eerste gids van Amerikaanse kampeerplekke gepubliseer. Die doel was nie om elke kampeerterrein aan te bied in terme van sy unieke eienskappe (bv. Die natuurlike omgewing) nie, maar om elke aparte eenheid in verhouding tot 'n groter stelsel uit te beeld. Deur die staat volgens staat in 'n matriks van ses kolomme opgestel, stel die skrywers rigiede kriteria (byvoorbeeld koste, teenwoordigheid of afwesigheid van toilette, drinkwater, kaggel of stoof, ligte, bad of stort) wat kampeerders kan vergelyk voor aankoms die relatiewe verdienste van potensiële kampeerplekke.

Onverwags sou 'n vergelykende beskrywing generatief sowel as argiefgewend wees: die kampplekmatriks sal as voorraadrekord en as veranderingsagent dien. Die Overland Park, Denver ’s, wat prominent verskyn in die Long-gids, was een van die eerste kampeerplekke wat hierdie nuwe nut-gebaseerde beskrywende styl geoptimaliseer het. En deur die ongeëwenaarde reeks dienste wat sy gewilde reputasie verseker het, energiek te bevorder, sou Overland Park in die 1960's die model word vir korporasies soos KOA. Terwyl nasionale en staatsparke, en selfs munisipale fasiliteite soos Overland Park, as 'n stelsel van landskappe beskou is, het Kampgrounds of America 'n visie van kampeer bevorder as 'n dig verpakte stel dienste, soortgelyk aan dié wat deur ander ondernemings in die gasvryheidsbedryf aangebied word (bv. , McDonald's, Holiday Inn, Howard Johnson). Teen die middel van die eeu het kampeer 'n groot onderneming geword, en die groei van KOA was voortstuwend: van 'n enkele kampeerterrein in 1961 tot 829 landwyd teen 1979. 18 Teen die middel van die 1960's het dit die National Park Service reeds oortref in die aantal individuele kampeerplekke . 19


KOA Directory, 1970-71, met 'n resep vir geroomde beesvleis op die kampings. Klik op die prent om te vergroot. [Met vergunning van Kampgrounds of America]

'N Belangrike komponent van die inligtingstrategie van KOA was die eksklusiewe, jaarlikse gids wat die beeld van sy kampeerplekke as 'n selfonderhoudende stelsel van fasiliteite in werking gestel het. Aan die kampeerder het die gids belowe dat die kwaliteit van die kampervaring gerusstellend sal wees: Reis sonder kommer oor waar u elke aand gaan bly. ” 20 Met hierdie inligting tot hul beskikking, kan kampeerders nou hul volgende beplan stop en bel selfs 'n bespreking om die beskikbaarheid te verseker. Waarom elders soek? En meer nog: deur elke franchise te koppel aan 'n individuele familie van eienaars/operateurs, het KOA 'n vriendelike gesig op sy korporatiewe bestuur gesit: die logistiek kan hoogs georganiseerd en abstrak wees, maar daar is 'n werklike persoon op die grond. Hierdie kombinasie verseker feitlik herhaalde sake van tevrede kliënte iewers onderweg.

'N Kykie na 'n reeks jaarlikse gidsbeskrywings vir 'n enkele KOA -franchise in Fort Myers, Florida, onthul veranderende style en prioriteite. Net soos die diagrammatiese abstraksies van die kaart, word 'n snelskrif met spesifikasies gebruik om die kampeerterrein te beskryf.

FORT MYERS (1967) HELE JAAR $ 3,00 per motor vir twee persone oop. 25 ¢ elke ekstra persoon. 10 myl suidwes op State Hwy. 867 (Beach Road) na Iona. Dan 1 myl suidwaarts op Fort Myers Beachweg (San Carlos Boulevard). Kampterrein slegs 5 km van die veiligste strand van die wêreld, Thomas A. Edison Home and Laboratory van ons bekendste burger. Vars en soutwater visvang. Gladiola en mamma groei in die wêreld se hoofstad. Dit is tropiese Florida op sy beste. EIENAAR: Iona Kampground, Inc., Fort Myers, Florida, P.O. Box 1502. Telefoon: MO 4-9642.

FT. MYERS (1969) HELE JAAR OOP Gesluit vir vakansie 10 tot 25 September. $ 3,00 per motor vir 2, 50 ¢ elke ekstra persoon. Geleë tussen Ft. Myers en strand op State Rd. 865. 128 ruimtes - volledige geriewe met parkeerplek, TV -voorportaal met lugversorging, 24 yskassies. Troeteldiere aan die leiband. Besienswaardighede: alle soorte visvang, Amerika se beste seeskil, die veiligste strand ter wêreld, slegs 2 ½ myl en baie gholfbane. Eienaar, besprekingsadres: Iona Kampground Inc., Box 1502, Ft. Myers, Fla. 33902. Telefoon: (813) 664-9642. FLITS - nog 10 ruimtes met 'n paar direkte rioolverbindings teen 10 Desember.

FORT MYERS (1970) OOP DIE HELE JAAR $ 3,50 per nag vir twee, 50 ¢ elke ekstra persoon. Geen ekstra koste vir water, elektriese aansluitings nie. Deur parkeerplek, TV -voorportaal met lugversorging, wassery, 24 yskassies, troeteldiere aan die leiband. Alle soorte visvang. Amerika se beste seeskil, gholfbane, veilige strand 3 myl daarvandaan. Kleurvolle uitstappies, insluitend die oerwoud en diere in Florida, tropiese tuine, watershowe, goeie restaurante. Geleë tussen Ft. Myers en Mount Myers Beach. Take 867, turn on beach road, one mile south. Iona KOA, Rt. #3, Box 462. Ft. Myers, Florida, 33901. (813) 664-9642

FORT MYERS BEACH (1976) OPEN ALL YEAR Loc between Ft Myers & Ft Myers Bch, on Rt 865 1 mi S Jct 867. S bound on US 41 take dntn exit turn R on 867. Pull-thrus, A CTV lbby, shflbd, vlybl, grills, pool, free coffee. Pets on leash. Beach 4 mi. Fish, golf, America’s best sea shelling. Restaurant close by. Scenic trips: Jungle Safari, Edison home Shell Factory, 3hrs to Disney World, paved sts. BBGMPSV $6 per nite for 2 (7 12 thru 4 21) 75¢ ea add’l 2 thru 18 yrs. Adults $1. No chg for hkups. Fort Myers Beach KOA, Box 2819, Fort Myers Beach, FL 33931. Hosts: Jack & Shirley Patterson. (813) 481-0655

FORT MYERS BEACH (1979) OPEN ALL YEAR Loc. between Ft Myers and Ft Myers Beach, on rt 865 1 mi S jct 867. S bound on US 41 take dntn Exit turn R on 867. Pull-thrus, A/C TV lobby, grills. Free coffee. Pets on leash. Beach 4 mi. Fish, golf, America’s best sea shelling. Restaurant near. Scenic trips: Jungle Safari, Edison Home, Shell Factory. 3 hrs from Disney World. Paved Streets. BLMSV Rates: $8 per nite for 2. $1 ea add’l persons 2 yrs & over. ( $9 12/1 thru 4/21) no chg for hkups. Fort Myers Beach KOA, Box 2819, Fort Myers Beach, FL 33931. Hosts: Jack & Shirley Patterson.

FT MYERS / PINE ISLAND (2004) OPEN ALL YEAR. INFO (239) 283-2415 PAST KOA CAMPGROUND OF THE YEAR RES (800) 562-8505 I-75 or Rt 41 turn W Rt 78. Turn L at Stringfellow Rd. Secluded camp in tropical setting of exotic wildlife, mango groves & unparalleled fishing. Serene oasis with free seasonal bus to beach, sights & shops. Deluxe sites, free cable TV, clubhouse, pool, spa, exercise room & tennis. Park model. Golf, nature tours, island cruises, fishing charters. Grp pkgs. KOA 5120 Stringfellow Rd, St James City, FL 33956. [email protected] www.pineislandkoa.com

In many ways, KOA’s appeal lay in homogenizing the camping experience and smoothing out the endearing kinks that make each campsite and experience unique. The company’s telegraphic descriptions underscore its standardization, the consistency of utilities (BBGMPSV) and ease of access from interstates and other major roadways (on rt 865 1 mi S jct 867. S bound on US 41 take dntn Exit turn R on 867). Among the more curious and revealing descriptions of the Fort Myers campground is the characterization of the campsite as a ruimte, acknowledging the importance of the automobile (parking ruimte) over the quality of the encampment itself. The campsite is no longer a prized destination — die end of the road — but rather a brief pause on the way to someplace else.

Like the hotel chains it emulated, KOA created its own virtual access infrastructure mass mailings, credit card reservations and a toll-free phone number contributed to its success. And in the 1980s, following in KOA’s footsteps, third-party entities like ReserveAmerica sought to appropriate this virtual access model by offering to match campers and campgrounds (for a fee) through a sophisticated phone reservation system and later a web-based service. The sale of the company in 2001 to Interactive Corp., which also manages Ticketmaster, Expedia, and hotels.com, further underscored the new reality that camping was now mass recreation, and could be bundled along with other forms of entertainment. 21


Carl Fleischhauer, Boys Playing Football in Campground West of Arena (1983). [Courtesy of Library of Congress American Memory Project, Omaha Indian Music collection]

This increasingly pervasive and sophisticated access infrastructure has in effect democratized the camping experience. Online information duplicates and enhances information once available only on the ground, at the site: on the web, you can browse campground maps of tens of thousands of private and public facilities (often on the same website) and click through to find detailed specs and photographs. YouTube videos, blogs, tweets, and photographs on Flickr and Facebook detail personal vacations at popular facilities. 22 Payments are transacted online. To ensure fair access, some national park campgrounds now accept online reservations up to six months in advance. For the avid practitioner, camping has thus become a year-round activity, one continuous season, real and virtual, on the ground and in the imagination. 23 Web surfing, like camping, is at once a consequence and an expression of the democratic ideal of access — nature commodified and à la carte.

And the Internet is altering the experience of camping as well. Wireless access to the World Wide Web is becoming standard at many campgrounds campers can now post and read blogs and send and receive email from their tent in the wilderness. Satellites orbiting high above the earth make cell phone communication possible nearly anywhere even in the remotest regions of the American West, the camper can link to the outside world. 24 The growing presence — or intrusion — of ubiquitous media certainly takes us yet further away from the old idealization of the nature campground as wild place.

Camping as a cultural proposition is, I would argue, most interesting when we approach the prospect of failure — that critical point along a continuum of experience at which this labor of imagination — the conviction that we have ventured into the wild — no longer becomes possible, necessary or even desired. It is at this point that the adventure of camping, over-freighted by the quotidian, blurs into an experience altogether more ordinary, more familiar it’s at this point that long-cherished ideals are tested, and that lines in the sand between what camping is, and what it is not, are revealed.

Drawing these lines might be largely a matter of perception. Modern comforts have long been part of the wilderness campsite. Early on the installation of electric lights in municipal campgrounds meant that campers could stay on the road until night they no longer had to set up camp in daylight. Nowadays, purists might gasp at the availability of flush toilets or at the presence of neighbors for the night, while others might draw the line at the necessity of driving to the campsite, or the opportunity of overnighting an RV in a shopping mall parking lot. 25 The ability to watch a nationally televised baseball game from the concrete pad outside a late-model RV using campground-provided cable, or to send emails wirelessly from the campsite picnic table — standard amenities at most KOAs — bespeaks the near total elimination of boundaries between the home and weg. Is this the point at which the labor of camping — or, rather, the absence of it — ceases to hold any of its old, once almost mythical power? Or maybe our denial is a new kind of labor, as we work to ignore, in the face of mounting evidence and increasing comfort, the parody of camping that takes places at so many modern campgrounds. But this is camping as well.


The Origins of Summer Camps - HISTORY

HISTORY: The camp is one of the oldest scout summer camps in the United States. According to David Eby, "Scouthaven was purchased in 1918 but was first called Camp Crystal as it was located on Crystal Lake it was not called Scouthaven until 1923. It is a 400 acre camp and in the early years Scouts got to it by riding a "milk" train which went by the camp. Eby goes on to state, "It is rather unique as it was a turn of the century amusement park that was converted into a Scout camp. The dining hall is the former dance hall from the park and the Camp Rangers office is the railroad depot that was used at the park to drop off and pick up passengers."

The camp was originally owned by Buffalo Council (BC). In 1949, Erie County Council (ECC) merged with Buffalo Council and the camp became part of the Buffalo Area Council (BAC). The camp was still being used as a summer camp when the Buffalo Area Council merged in 1967 with the Niagara Frontier Council (NFC). The Greater Niagara Frontier Council (GNFC) countinued to use Scouthaven as a summer camp for Boy Scouts until the late 1980s. The camp closed as a Boy Scout summer camp after the 1988 season.

However, in the mid 1990s Camp Scouthaven became the GNFC's primary camp for Cub Scouts during the summer months. According to the GNFC web page, "Camp Scouthaven is the perfect environment for introducing Cub Scouts to the challenges of Scouting and the outdoors. Spanning the entire north shore of Crystal Lake, Scouthaven is located about 8 miles southeast of the Village of Arcade in Cattaraugus County on Route 98. It encompasses more than 732 acres of rolling hills and trees on beautiful Crystal Lake. The main campground is flat and open. The lake is small and calm so even beginners can safely learn to swim and navigate rowboats, canoes, and 'funyaks'."

ADDRESS: Scouthaven is located at 10784 Route #98, Freedom, NY 14065-9763. Phone 716-492-4429. Web http://www.gnfc-bsa.org/



Places To Visit!


Michael Hulsizer's Patch Page


Summer (n.1)

"hot season of the year," Old English sumor "summer," from Proto-Germanic *sumra- (source also of Old Saxon, Old Norse, Old High German sumar , Old Frisian sumur , Middle Dutch somer , Dutch zomer , German Sommer ), from PIE root *sm- "summer" (source also of Sanskrit sama "season, half-year," Avestan hama "in summer," Armenian amarn "summer," Old Irish sam , Old Welsh ham , Welsh haf "summer").

As an adjective from c. 1300. Summer camp as an institution for youth is attested from 1886 summer resort is from 1823 summer school first recorded 1810 theatrical summer stock is attested from 1941 (see stock (n.2)). Old Norse sumarsdag , first day of summer, was the Thursday that fell between April 9 and 15.

"horizontal bearing beam," late 13c., from Anglo-French sumer , Old French somier "main beam," originally "pack horse," from Vulgar Latin *saumarius , from Late Latin sagmarius "pack horse," from sagma "packsaddle" (see sumpter).

"to pass the summer," mid-15c., from summer (n.1). Related: Summered summering .


History of the Summer Vacation

For many students, September means the sad end to summer vacation.

Related Links

Why does the American school year start in September and end in June? It's something of a mystery. Did children once "bring in the harvest" on the family farm all summer in the distant rural past?

Historians at Old Sturbridge Village, a living history museum that recreates an 1830s New England farming village, say not. According to the web site and schoolmistress there, farm children went to school from December to March and from mid-May to August. Adults and children alike helped with planting and harvesting in the spring and fall.

Working Families: Then and Now

Urban schools in the 1800s also lacked the long summer vacation modern Americans take for granted. Like working families today, new immigrant families needed a safe and affordable place for children to stay while parents worked. In large cities, children of parents who worked in factories, shops, or mills learned English and other subjects during an 11-month school year.

Vacations Around the World

Short school years with long vacations are not the norm in Europe, Asia, or South America either. Children in most industrialized countries go to school more days per year and more hours per day than in America. While just sitting in a classroom longer does not necessarily ensure children will learn more, many American teachers spend weeks every fall just reminding kids of what they forgot over the summer.

A Round of Vacations

Some teachers, principals, parents, and children believe strongly that a three-month summer vacation hurts children, fragments education, and wastes tax money. Since the early 1900s, school districts around the country have offered a longer school year or a school calendar of multiple short terms interspersed with many short vacations. Other parents feel just as strongly that short school years and long summer vacations are essential to growing up.

One popular alternative calendar is the "45-15" type, by which nine-week terms alternate with three-week vacations throughout the year. Kids start school in "waves", rather than all on the same day. In this system, one group is always on vacation during any given week. Schools are less crowded, with fewer students on campus at once, but still serve the same number of children.

What Worked, What Didn't

Successful programs have coordinated the school calendar with the schedules of employers, recreation, and child care providers. The scheduling for "45-15" can be complicated, but some school districts have flourished with multiple short vacations spread throughout the year.

Much less popular historically has been a system that keeps the long vacation, but cycles it through the calendar year. Many parents shivered at the thought of having their children home for three months in the middle of winter. The prospect of frigid vacations effectively froze this option out of most school districts.

Ladies of Leisure and Busy Families

Wealthy ladies of the last century were often sent off, together with their children and servants, to summer homes for months at a time. They were free to take lengthy vacations without worrying about after school programs or days off from work.

Most modern American fathers and mothers work year round and scramble to find fun, safe, affordable programs during summer vacations, winter vacations, spring vacations, snow days, and the seemingly endless parade of holidays that schools take but employers do not.

A Scrap Bag of Time

Often, the schedules of schools, day camps, child care, and after school programs are not coordinated with each other, and don't match the average work day or year either. Parents can end up with a year-round job that ends at 6:00, an after school program that ends at 5:45, and an hour drive between the two. Families can face hours every day and weeks every year with few safe places for their kids to go. Some families would welcome a shorter school vacation. Others would prefer the long vacations available to whole families in European countries.

The current American system is like a scrap bag of time. Perhaps schools and employers can better match vacations and hours to create a quilt to cover kids and families.


Enter Denominations

Services at Camp Solomon Schechter, a Conservative overnight camp, 2002. (Zion Ozeri/Jewish Lens)

The 1940s saw great growth &mdash and a shift. According to Jerry Silverman, former president of the Foundation for Jewish Camping, Conservative movement leaders &mdash with Reform leaders quickly following &mdash began looking for ways to develop future leaders. That was the start of the movement of Camp Ramah &mdash the camping arm of Conservative Judaism &mdash and the rise of denominational camps.

In an essay in Lorge and Zola&rsquos book, Brandeis University professor Jonathan Sarna explains that before 1940, about two-thirds of all new Jewish camps were either philanthropic or community based. From 1940 to 1960, that number dropped to less than a quarter, while 40% had explicit educational and religious missions.

Many of these camps initially provided transformative experimental and experiential religious programs for teenagers. By the mid-1950s, however, the denominational camps were extending their programs to younger children in efforts not only to &ldquotransform&rdquo but also to &ldquomold.&rdquo

Ninety new Jewish camps opened during the 1960s, but then growth stopped abruptly. &ldquoThere was stagnation of new camps from the late 1960s to the early 1970s until the mid-1990s,&rdquo Silverman said. There are no clear explanations for these trends. Some speculate that the stagnation was related to the push to build congregations and day schools, and that the subsequent new growth is related to the redirection of resources to Jewish summer camping after studies suggested that camps are good investments for the Jewish future because they are effective at making Jewishness &ldquostick&rdquo to kids.


Camp Songs — History and Traditions

Harriet Lowe, editor of Camping Magazine, and Rita Yerkes, historical series editor, were kind enough to invite me to write about the history and traditions of camp songs. However, you should know I failed history class in grades ten and eleven and I can't read a note of music. Besides, I have only been around for eighty-four of the one hundred years of the American Camp Association's existence! Perhaps ninety-four-year-old "Pop" Hollandsworth would be a preferable choice for this assignment, although it is somewhat questionable whether he can, veritably, carry a tune (even in one of his ample packsacks). Now that the cats are out and scrambling helter skelter, it might bring credence to the vital roles played by others, especially The Boys' Camp Band (Mark Baldwin, Jim Knowlton, Tom Knowlton, and Peter Rasberry), Jane McCutcheon, and Joanne Bender. Without them, camp songs and singers of camp songs would not have nearly as rich a tradition or composition.

When and Where Did It All Begin?

When Pete Seeger was a keynote speaker at the 1987 International Camping Congress in Washington, D.C., he expressed the notion that, perhaps, camp singing had its early beginnings in the Camp Gospel Revival Meetings. Rev. Larry Eisenberg, one of camp history's most influential songleaders (and the person who brought "Kum Bah Yah" to camps) tended to agree with Pete.

When Shelley Posen, Ph.D. (a camp song and folk song expert, writer, performer, and researcher) was asked when camp singing began, this was his response:

In the late 1800s / early 1900s, the confluence of the wilderness movement and establishment of National and Provincial (State) Parks, produced the drive to get kids out of the city and into the natural environment. And there was the amazing phenomenon of singing in early movie theaters ("Follow the bouncing ball . . ."), and, of course, in parlours around the home piano. But more than a mere pastime, song was widely seen as a means, in many different settings, of uniting people in action and inculcating certain values. So, you have singing at "camp meetings" to channel singers into religious fervor, singing in union halls and picket lines, singing in Sally Ann soup kitchens. England was alive with communal song: joining in with the performers in the halls singing in the upper levels of the theatre ("The Gods") before a Gilbert and Sullivan performance mass choral concerts at Victoria's Jubilee.

Someone would have to look at the camps, and their very ephemeral literature, to see whether and how and when group singing preceded camps at the city YMCA and other community groups who, later, established the camps. That said, camp offered the perfect conditions for group singing and it is quite likely that whatever singing came to camps, the camps gave back more than they received, in repertoire, vocabulary, songleading techniques and providing singing experiences for youngsters. (Personal communication, 2009)

What Do We Sing?

At camp, we sing songs that are fun, upbeat, harmonious, or inspiring. Most of all, the songs are easy to sing and remember.

We sing folk songs spirituals patriotic songs religious songs fun, nonsense, novelty, action songs melodious (rounds, partner songs) popular songs that are "catchy" songs that we write (or adapt) ourselves.

Spirituals

These African-American songs hold a special place in the history of folk songs their influence in the beginning of camp singing and their continued popularity is without equal. They are melodious, easy to sing, and their simple tunes combine with compelling rhythms to exactly suit the mood and needs of a group singing around a campfire.

They began in the days of slavery on Southern plantations. Owners permitted their slaves to attend church services, although usually they stayed outside just listening or looking through a window. When the service was finished, they did some singing on their own. Their religious beliefs often incorporated traditions brought from Africa and their singing used tunes and harmonies based on their remembered traditions.

They embraced the Christian message with its emphasis on the spiritual equality of rich and poor, reward or punishment in the afterlife. They especially related to the Old Testament Israelites and their Godordained escape from slavery into Egypt and attainment of a Promised Land. Many spirituals sung at camps today celebrate these beliefs.

  • "Deep River" (". . .That promised land where all is peace")
  • "Do Lord" ("I've got a home in glory land")
  • "Joshua Fit The Battle of Jericho" ("Israelites triumphant")
  • "When The Saints Go Marching In" ("I want to be in that number")
  • "One More River — to the Promised Land" ("There's one more river to cross")

Frederick Douglass, an escaped slave and leading abolitionist, claimed that some spirituals were used as codes to notify the time and place of escape attempts or to convey "how to" instructions (University of Denver, 2004):

  • "Steal Away": Escape attempt coming soon
  • "Good News Chariot's a-Comin'" and "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot": Help, guidance to escape North is coming
  • "Wade in the Water": Wade to throw off scent dogs on your trail

Some authorities have cast doubt on this claim, but in some cases, it seems hard to deny.

Many spirituals appear simply to express joy or despair or the hope of salvation: "Balm in Gilead" "Didn't My Lord Deliver Daniel" "Every Time I Feel the Spirit" "I Got Shoes, You Got Shoes, All God's Children Got Shoes" "He's Got the Whole World in His Hand" "Nobody Knows the Trouble I Seen."

Whatever these songs mean, they are a delight to sing around a fire at night among comrades. The number of them, still popular, is the best testimony to their value and place in tradition.

My deepest gratitude to my friend, Gary Schofield, who searched out these spirituals (and many, many more), as well as most of the war songs that follow. I worked with Gary when he was the Boys' Work secretary at the Ottawa Canada YMCA. Gary later succeeded me as the director of the Ottawa YMCA's Camp On-Da-Da-Waks, and we've recently reunited on the executive committee of the Canadian Fellowship of YMCA Retirees.

Songs from the Wars

Every armed conflict has produced folk songs. Surprisingly, many of them from distant wars are still sung at camp or by well-known performers of folk songs and music. For example, the Clancy Brothers and Paul Robeson performed "The Minstrel Boy," which dates back to the Irish Rebellion (1800). Peter, Paul & Mary performed "The Cruel War," from the American Revolution (1775).

Have you sung these songs from World Wars I and II and Vietnam? "It's a Long Way to Tipperary" "Pack Up Your Troubles" "Mademoiselle from Armentieres" "Over There" "Li ly Marlene" "We' l l Meet Again" "White Cliffs of Dover" "Wing and a Prayer" "There'll Always Be an England" "Blowin' in the Wind" "Give Peace a Chance" "Universal Soldier" "Where Have All the Flowers Gone" "Loch Lomond" "Rule Britannia" "Marine Hymn" "We Shall Overcome." And how about this adaptation of the Navy fight song, "Anchors Aweigh" (Zimmerman & Miles, 1936)?

Anchors aweigh, from camp,
Anchors aweigh.
Farewell to camping joys,
We leave at break of day, day, day, day
Though our last night at camp,
We'll never roam.
Until we meet again,
Here's wishing you a happy journey home.

Last summer, the board of our local Big Brothers / Big Sisters Camp McGovern was invited to camp for a hamburger / chips / soft drink evening with staff. Much to my delight, the staff broke into spontaneous song. The first song they sang was "There was Butter, Butter Running down the Gutter in the Corner Market Store." Isn't that great? The terminology in the song really gave away its wartime era origins. Who ever heard of a "Quartermaster"? Marvelous!

In 1861, Frederick and Abigail Gunn founded the first organized American Camp. Their Gunnery school was, reputedly, begun to teach boys, too young to enter the Civil War, how to hike and camp out as their older brothers were doing in battle. At the same time, a New Hampshire musician, Walter Kittredge, was called up to join the Union Army. He was a member of a musical group that entertained the troops to boost morale. The night before he was supposed to report, he wrote a song expressing how he felt about the war. Things were going badly for the north and casualties were extremely high. When he reported for duty the next day, he was rejected because he had had rheumatic fever as a child and wasn't robust enough. He and his group proceeded to sing the song and lost their employment because the song lowered morale, even though the song laid no blame and named no villains. It simply conveyed that where once people pitched their tents for the gospel revival camps, men now fought and died people were tired of the war and wanted it to stop.

In my very early years as a camper, I recall my father teaching us a slightlyaltered version. The song? "Tenting Tonight on the Old Camp Ground."

Folk Songs and Folk Singers

Songs passed down from generation to generation songs passed down orally songs with no known author songs of the ordinary people: These characteristics are the ones most often used to define folk songs. Those that have endured are easy to sing, easy to remember, and usually have some other attractive feature or features. Folk songs form the base of camp singing. They were sung, and indeed, composed around campfires long before there were camps as we have defined them. Soldiers gathered around fires in their encampments pioneers came together on their treks into the vast new lands they settled slaves gathered outside after the church service or secretly in the woods. Many of the songs sung at camp from the earliest days to nowadays grew out of these scenes.

Each individual song, any song, has its own story. Ergo, it behooves us to "zipper" in, as Pete Seeger would say, the songs we know and love that fit the category. And speaking of Pete, for the past many decades, camp singing has benefitted, enormously, from the myriad of folk singers and folk song writers. Here are some of my favorites with a few of their notable contributions to the camp singing scene. For certain, there are many others of each (songs and singers). However, these in particular get our toes tapping and nostalgic juices circulating:

Woody Guthrie: "This Land is Your Land" "So Long, it's Been Good to Know You"

Pete Seeger: "Where Have Al l the Flowers Gone" "Turn, Turn, Turn" "We Shall Overcome" "If I Had a Hammer" (with Lee Hays) "Wimoweh" (with Solomon Linda and the Weavers)

Peter, Paul & Mary: "Puff, the Magic Dragon" "Lemon Tree" "Leaving on a Jet Plane" Seeger's "If I Had a Hammer" Dylan's "Blowin' in the Wind"

Bob Dylan: "Blowin' in the Wind"

Lomax Family: We must salute the unequalled contribution to the folk world by John Lomax, the ultimate folk song collector, along with his son, folklorist and ethnomusicologist, Alan, and daughter Bess, who performed in the Almanac Singers (1940s), with Pete Seeger, Woody Guthrie, Lee Hays, and others. Bess is most famous for cowriting "Charlie on the MTA," later a Kingston Trio hit.

Universality of Song

When we had our children's television show, Jack-in-the-Box, where we sang songs, played games, and had special guests on music, art, dance, sport, etc., we did some research on games around the world. We discovered not only the universality of games, but also that every game had its genesis in "hide-and-seek" or "tag." At the time, we didn't look into songs. However, in recent years, we have had some opportunity to observe singing, in many parts of the world, through the International Camping Fellowship (I.C.F.), and guess what? There is universality in songs, too.

Some years ago, a delegation of German dignitaries was invited to visit Canada. They stayed at the Prime Minister's summer residence. I was asked to lead singing for the group. In planning for it, I reasoned that, the simpler the song, the easier to teach and learn. I chose "My Hat, It Has Three Corners." When I began to lead the song, they responded lustily, "Mein Hut, er hat drei Ecken." Magnificent!

When we were planning for the fourth Internat ional Camping Congress in Toronto, we decided to have "Kum Bah Yah" as our theme, having found, unquestionably, the "universality" of that beautiful song. There were five official languages for the Congress, so we sang the verses as follows:

English: "Kum Bah Yah, My Lord, Kum Bah Yah"

French: "Venez par ici, mon ami"

Spanish: "Venaca, amigo, venaca"

Russian: "Prihadi, moi druk, prihadi"

Japanese: "Wareno, motoni, kitare"

We ended each verse with "All the world, Kum Bah Yah."

Non-History Side Notes

The best songleaders are bound to be entertaining, but they should not be entertainers first and foremost. A songleader's raison d'etre is to enable the group singing to be pleasurable, meaningful, and memorable. Many times people have said to us that they wished they could lead singing or they didn't have singsongs at camp because they didn't have piano players, guitar players, or anybody who knew how to lead.

So in 1981 at the ACA Nat iona l Conference in Houston, we were determined to prove that anybody could lead group singing. We were on the stage ready to go, with Betty VanderSmissen at the end of the head table behind us, and Tom Curtin and Ted Cavins in the front row, when I said, "Anyone has the capability to lead singing, and to prove our point, we are going to invite the closest president or board member to come up and lead a song." After everyone nearby blanched, I signaled to Nelson Wieters, who bounced up on stage. Unbeknownst to everyone, Nelson had been bugging us for quite a while, declaring his prowess as a songleader. You see, Pete Seeger had been to Kansas City and taught "Wimoweh." Nelson had learned (and claimed he had mastered) the first part of the song. Glory be, he did it and The Boys' Camp Band bailed him out with the remainder of the song.

Well, this prompted others to get into the act. The next year at New York City, Morry Stein's friends, camp staff, family, and Morry himself extolled the excellence of Morry's leading his signature, "The Song of the Sewer," from the Honeymooners star Art Carney (who played Ed Norton). Jane McCutcheon and I finally got around to rehearsing with Morry in 1984 at San Diego. Then, he was featured at our 125th at Kansas City in 1986. He was sensational, although he missed parts of the second verse. The Boys' Camp Band bailed him out, too.

When Nelson was the chair of the Fund for Advancement of Camping, he invited us to a meeting at the George Williams College Campus on Lake Geneva. We went to dinner at a restaurant nearby (I think it was in a silo). Nelson and I were sitting opposite each other when an album of the Weavers came on through the speakers. A waitress appeared and said to me, "I understand you are one of the Weavers." I looked at Nelson and knew immediately that he had spread this false rumor. I said, "Who told you something like that?" She returned to the kitchen and came out, again, to ask, "Which one are you?" As you may be aware the Weavers were made up of Pete Seeger, Lee Hays, Fred Hellerman, and Ronnie Gilbert. My answer? "Ronnie Gilbert." Before long the kitchen door was ajar with the kitchen staff all peeking out. I guess none of them knew that Ronnie Gilbert was the female vocalist of the Weavers. What a pleasure it was to, at long last, get back at that wily scallywag Wieters!

"Kum Bah Yah" Has a Special Place of Its Own

"Kum Bah Yah" has come to stand as an icon for camp singing. In the early 1950s, when Chuck Kujawa, John Ledlie, and I were the Executive of the YMCA's North American Association of Youth Work Secretaries, we held a National Conference at Green Lake, Wisconsin. Larry Eisenberg was our Conference's incomparable songleader and he introduced "Kum Bah Yah" to us. What an exciting time that was! An African folk song, "Kum Bah Yah"!

As a campfire song, "Kum Bah Yah" has to rank right at the top for popularity. Many people assume the song began as a Negro Spiritual when, in truth, it was written by an American Minister, Norman Frey, in New York City in the 1930s. The original words were "Come by Here, My Lord." The song was taken to Africa by missionaries, and upon their return, the lyrics had transformed into "Kum Bah Yah," and had circulated around the United States. In the 1960s, the song became a very popular part of the Civil Rights Movement, and since that time, it has been deeply ingrained into camp song repertoires all over the world (Criswell, 2007).

"What is Past is Prologue" — William Shakespeare

You may have seen the fellow on TV that said, "I quote Shakespeare a lot. He is a great author. I read all his books. In fact, every time a new one comes out, I buy it right away." Sir Winston Churchill said, "The farther backward we can look, the farther forward we are likely to see."

History is only useful, I submit, if we continue to make it. What do you say we resolve to respect the past and promise to build on it in order to perpetuate the wonderful tradition of camp singing and camp songs.

Mark Baldwin has written some of the most singable and beautiful camp songs — none more singable nor more beautiful than "Let There Always be a Song." If you haven't already sung it, it is featured on page 36. Methinks you will agree.

The sign-off is reserved for the consummate master, Pete Seeger. This is how Pete closes out the vibrant musical film Pete Seeger — The Power of Song.

Once upon a time, wasn't singing a part of everyday life as much as talking, physical exercise, and religion? Our distant ancestors, wherever they were in the world, sang while pounding grain, paddling canoes, or walking long journeys. Can we begin to make our lives, once more, all of a piece? Finding the right songs and singing them over and over is a way to start. And as one person taps out a beat while another leads into the melody, or when three people discover a harmony they never knew existed, or a crowd joins in on a chorus as though to raise the ceiling a few feet higher, then they also know there is hope for the world.

Verwysings
Brown, J., Cohl, M., Eigen, W. (Producers), & Brown, J. (Director). (2007). Pete Seeger: The power of song [Motion picture]. United States: Shangri-La Entertainment.
Criswell, C. (2007). Campfire songs: Sing a song of summer camp. Retrieved from http:// musicappreciation.suite101.com/article.cfm/ campfire_songs
Frey, Rev. M. V. (1936). Come by here (now Kum bah yah). Revival Choruses of Marvin V. Frey [lyric sheet]. Portland, OR.
University of Denver. (2004). Sweet chariot: The story of the spirituals. Retrieved from http:// ctl.du.edu/spirituals/Freedom/coded.cfm

Jack Pearse is senior director of world-renowned Camp Tawingo, Canada. He was president of the Canadian and Ontario Camping Associations, Association of Independent Camps, International Camping Fellowship, and a Distinguished Service Award recipient. Contact the author at 705-789-5612 or e-mail [email protected]

Originally published in the 2010 July/August issue of Camping Magazine.


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