Die Glastonbury -reus: aan wie het die geheimsinnige bene van 'n nege voetskelet behoort?

Die Glastonbury -reus: aan wie het die geheimsinnige bene van 'n nege voetskelet behoort?

By die ondersoek na die werklikheid van reuse in die verlede, is een verhaal wat die eeue oorleef het, die skynbare ontdekking van die 'Glastonbury Giant' wat na bewering in 1190 op bevel van koning Henry II opgegrawe is na gerugte dat die legendariese koning Arthur in was feit begrawe op die spesifieke plek. Hier, tussen twee ou piramidevormige pilare in Glastonbury in Somerset, Engeland, het werkers tot op 'n diepte van sewe voet afgegrawe waar hulle 'n loodkruis met die opskrif gevind het:

HIC JACET SEPULTUS INCLYTUS REX ARTURUS IN INSULA AVALLONI
Dit kan vertaal word as "Hier lê die beroemde koning Arthur begrawe op die eiland Avalon."

Glastonbury Cross. (Kiyoweap / openbare domein)

Hierdie ontdekking het die graafmachines geïnspireer om nog verder te grawe in die hoop om 'n goeie bewys van die bestaan ​​van die legende te vind, en op sestien voet diep het hulle uiteindelik 'n groot kis getref wat uit die stam van 'n ou eikeboom was. Binne ontdek hulle die skeletoorblyfsels van 'n man wat vroeër byna nege voet lank was, langs die geraamte van 'n gemiddelde vrou, wat destyds aangeneem is as Arthur's Queen, Guinevere. Soos in detail gedek in Die mite van die mens deur JP Robinson, is skelette van nege voet lank oor die hele wêreld gevind, met baie voorbeelde wat veral in die Verenigde State ontdek is.

Glastonbury se vereniging met King Arthur

Daar word gesê dat hul bene ongeveer 'n eeu later weer in die kerk daar aangebring is, reg voor die altaar en in die teenwoordigheid van koning Edward I. Dit is van daardie tyd af dat Glastonbury se lang verbintenis met die Arthur -legendes in die geskiedenis vasgehou is, ondanks die opponerende argumente wat beweer dat die ingeskrewe loodkruis baie later daar moes geplaas gewees het as die oorspronklike graf, aangesien dit nege voet bo die werklike kis begrawe was .

Die plek waar die graf van koning Arthur en koningin Guinevere sou wees op die terrein van die voormalige Glastonbury Abbey, Somerset, UK. (Thor NL / CC BY-SA 3.0)SML

Baie het geglo dat die kruis 'n bedrog moet wees, wat moontlik deur die monnike in die nabygeleë Benediktynse abdij daar gelaat is, in 'n poging om roem op die abdij en die gebied te verkry deur die adel aan te moedig om donasies aan te bied ter ondersteuning van so 'n heilige plek waar die liggaam van een van Engeland se grootste legendes ooit is ter ruste gelê.

Is die kruis 'n bedrog?

Die Encyclopedia Britannica ondersteun hierdie teorie: 'Die identifikasie van Avalon met Glastonbury was waarskynlik 'n poging van Glastonbury -monnike om die prestige van die Arthur -legendes te ontgin ten bate van hul eie gemeenskap, net soos later die gewildheid van die Graal -legende het hulle laat beweer dat Josef van Arimathea homself in Glastonbury gevestig het. 'Ander het voorgestel dat die lyke waarskynlik van Keltiese oorsprong was, aangesien uitgeholde eikestamkiste 'n metode was wat die Kelte in die verlede gebruik het.

  • Top tien reuse -ontdekkings in Noord -Amerika
  • Geheime Stonehenge: heuwels, artefakte en intrige
  • Argeoloë het moontlik die geboorteplek van koning Arthur ontdek: legendes kom tot lewe?

Middeleeuse houtkiste - 9de -10de eeu. (Erica Guilane-Nachez / Adobe)

Die teenwoordigheid van 'n reus word nie betwis nie

Ten spyte van die opvallende ontdekking van die vermeende grafsteen van Arthur, is die werklike vonds van 'n reuse figuur nie regtig betwis nie, soos die gerespekteerde historikus Giraldus Cambrensis het die massiewe bene in 1194 persoonlik ondersoek en hy het dit as eg uitgespreek. Honderde jare later, in 1962-63, bestudeer die argeoloog dr. Ralegh Radford die ou reuse-oorblyfsels na bykomende opgrawings van die terrein en 'bevestig dat 'n prominente persoon in die betrokke tyd wel begrawe is.'

Of dit nou die bene van die legendariese koning Arthur was of nie, dit blyk dat die skeletreste van 'n nege voet lange man byna 1000 jaar gelede in Glastonbury opgegrawe is, wat die reuse mitologie weer lewendig maak.
Wie weet watter ander merkwaardige vondste begrawe lê onder die grond en wag om ontdek te word?


Reuse menslike geraamtes ontdek in Wisconsin?

Dit is onbekend waarom wetenskaplikes geswyg het oor die ontdekking van 18 reuse menslike geraamtes wat in Mei 1912 in begraafplase in die staat Wisconsin gevind is. Hulle was in hope naby Lake Delavan, Wisconsin. Die opgrawingsplek is onder toesig van die Beloit College. Die beweerde massiewe grootte van die geraamtes en verlengde skedels pas nie by enige wetenskaplike konsep wat in die destydse handboeke was nie. Hulle was massief en word nie geglo dat dit 'n normale mens is nie.

Hierdie beweerde bevindings is die eerste keer aangemeld op 4 Mei 1912. Daar word gesê dat hierdie geraamtes hoogtes het wat wissel van 7,6 voet tot 10 voet en dat die skedels baie groter was as die koppe van enige tipe persoon wat vandag in Amerika gewoon het. Die verhaal vertel ook dat die skedels dubbele rye tande gehad het, ses tone aan elke voet en ses vingers aan elke hand. Daar is ook berig dat hierdie bene aan wesens behoort wat selfs aliens kon wees.

Sedertdien was daar minstens 200 grawe wat beweer dat ander 'reuse' ontdek is. Sulke vondste het egter sedert die 1950's meestal nie die nuus gekry nie. Dit lyk asof die meerderheid mense net nie in hierdie tipe dinge glo nie, want dit klink soos 'n nonsens. Daar is egter foto's geneem om die vondste op te neem, soos die prentjie in hierdie artikel toon.

In 2002 het National Geographic verslag gedoen oor 12 geraamtes wat vermoedelik in Griekeland ontdek is. Hulle is gemeet op hoogtes tussen 12 en 15 voet lank. Was hierdie sowel as die vonds in Wisconsin 'n soort grap? Mense wat aandag wil trek vir die pers? Die waarheid is dat niemand die antwoord weet nie. Die vonds in Wisconsin was slegs een uit vele dosyne vondste wat in 1850 in nasionale en plaaslike koerante berig is, van vandag af. Dit was nie eens die eerste stel skeletreuse wat in Wisconsin ontdek is nie.

In Augustus 1891 is berig dat wetenskaplikes van die Smithsonian Institution talle piramides gevormde grafheuwels naby Madison, Wisconsin, gevind het. Die graafmachines het 'n uitgebreide ou fort gevind wat hulle Aztalan genoem het. Om dit ontdek hulle die geraamte van 'n man wat 'n 'reus' genoem is. Daar word beweer dat die bene meer as nege voet lank is en goed bewaar is.

Daar was ook groot geraamtes en skedels van 'n ras reuse wat al meer as 100 jaar lank gereeld in die Midde -Westelike state ontdek is. Die groot geraamtes is ontdek in Iowa, Indiana, Minnesota, Ohio, Illinois, New York en Kentucky.

As wetenskaplikes van die Smithsonian Institution werklik geraamtes van reuse -grootte gevind het, waarom word dit dan nie vertoon nie? Sommige samesweringsteoretici sê dat Smithsonian Institution eintlik daarvan beskuldig word dat hy 'n poging aangewend het om die reuse geraamtes wat hul wetenskaplikes gevind het, iewers opgesluit te hou. Hulle sê dat die hedendaagse argeologie en antropologie die deur van die ware verlede wil verseël, en elke interpretasie van die Noord -Amerikaanse verlede wil weerhou van iets ongewoons.

As u op soek is na werklike wetenskaplike kennis oor hierdie onderwerp, is daar basies niks oor die onderwerp wat bespreek word nie. Op die dag dat 'n wetenskaplike 'n kreasionis in 'n museum bespreek, sal dit interessant wees om te weet wat die wetenskaplike kant van hierdie verhaal is. Opdaterings sal volg indien en wanneer dit gevind word. Dit is onbekend waarom wetenskaplikes bly swyg het oor die ontdekking van reuse menslike geraamtes.

Reuse menslike geraamtes ontdek in Wisconsin? bygevoeg deur Kimberly Ruble op 4 Februarie 2014
Bekyk alle plasings deur Kimberly Ruble & rarr


Was die 9ft Knocksedan -reus 'n ware Viking -vegter?

WIE WAS hy en waar kom hy vandaan? Honderde jare later bly die raaisel van die nege voetige Knocksedan -reus 'n raaisel met baie mense wat verskillende sienings oor die onderwerp het. Dit is een van die vreemdste verhale in die geskiedenis van Fingals en dateer uit die sommige glo dat dit die slag van Clontarf self is, wat die verhaal ongeveer 1000 jaar oud sou laat!

WIE WAS hy en waar kom hy vandaan?

Honderde jare later bly die raaisel van die Knocksedan -reus van nege voet 'n raaisel, met baie mense wat verskillende sienings oor die onderwerp het.

Sommige glo dat dit een van die vreemdste verhale in die geskiedenis van Fingal is en dateer uit die slag van Clontarf self.

Dit sou die verhaal ongeveer 1000 jaar oud laat!

Daar is inderdaad 'n baie duidelike plaaslike verband met die geveg, die lyke van die gesneuwelde Brian Boru en sy seun Murragh is eintlik op Goeie Vrydag, 1014, na Swords geneem op pad na 'n laaste rusplek in Armagh.

Maar die verhaal van die Knocksedan -reus word baie minder vertel.

Knocksedan is 'n historiese gebied. In 1916 het die vrywilligers hier ontmoet voordat hulle na die geveg gegaan het, maar eeue tevore het dit 'n herberg en pragtige huise gehuisves.

Die gebied het sy naam gekry van 'n grag wat uitkyk oor die Ward -rivier 'die snawel van die dryfsand', en daar is deur die jare heen 'n groot aantal bene gevind.

In 'n stadium het mans wat gruis van die werf af werk, die bene van die reus gevind.

Van die enkelbeen tot bo -op die kop word berig dat die man 8 voet 5 duim was en met die lengte van die enkel en 'n sekere hoeveelheid vleis, het kenners geglo dat die reus 9 voet of meer was!

Sy tone was twee sentimeter lank en die skedel meer as 'n kwart duim dik.

Die lyk is naby 'n grafheuwel gevind, 'n aanduiding dat die reus moontlik in 'n plaaslike geveg gesterf het of uit Clontarf gebring is.

Dit is ook 'n moontlikheid dat die heuwels deur die Dene gebou is wat die gebied verskeie kere toegeslaan het, wat die moontlikheid geïnspireer het dat die reus 'n groot Viking was.


Inhoud

In 1959 word 'n groep gevorm vir 'n ski -ekspedisie oor die noordelike Oeral in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Sowjetunie. Volgens aanklaer Tempalov dui dokumente wat in die tent van die ekspedisie gevind is aan dat die ekspedisie vernoem is na die 21ste kongres van die Kommunistiese Party van die Sowjetunie en moontlik deur die plaaslike Komsomol -organisasie gestuur is. [4] Igor Dyatlov, 'n 23-jarige student in radioingenieurswese aan die Ural Polytechnical Institute (nou Ural Federal University) was die leier wat 'n groep van nege ander bymekaargemaak het vir die reis, waarvan die meeste medestudente en eweknieë was universiteit. [5] Elke lid van die groep, wat uit agt mans en twee vroue bestaan ​​het, was 'n ervare graad II-stapper met ervaring in ski-toere en sou by hul terugkeer graad III-sertifikaat ontvang. [6] Destyds was dit die hoogste sertifisering wat in die Sowjetunie beskikbaar was, en kandidate moes 300 kilometer ver ry. [6] Die roete is deur die groep van Dyatlov ontwerp om die verre noordelike streke van die Sverdlovsk-oblast en die bo-strome van die Lozva-rivier te bereik. [7] Die roete is goedgekeur deur die Sverdlovsk stadsroetekommissie. Dit was 'n afdeling van die Sverdlovsk -komitee vir fisiese kultuur en sport en hulle het die groep van 10 mense op 8 Januarie 1959 bevestig. [7] Die doel van die ekspedisie was om Otorten (Отортен) te bereik, 'n berg van 10 kilometer ) noord van die plek waar die voorval plaasgevind het. Hierdie roete wat in Februarie onderneem is, word geskat as 'n kategorie III, die moeilikste tyd om te ry.

Op 23 Januarie 1959 het die Dyatlov -groep hul roeteboek uitgereik waarin hulle koers die nommer 5 volg. In daardie stadium het die Sverdlovsk -stadskomitee vir fisiese kultuur en sport goedkeuring vir 11 mense gelys. [7] Die 11de persoon wat gelys is, was Semyon Zolotaryov, wat voorheen gesertifiseer was om met 'n ander ekspedisie van soortgelyke probleme te gaan (die Sogrin -ekspedisiegroep). [7] Die Dyatlov -groep het die stad Sverdlovsk (vandag Jekaterinburg) verlaat op dieselfde dag as wat hulle die roeteboek ontvang het.

Lede van die ekspedisie
Naam (Romanisering) Russiese naam Geboortedatum Ouderdom Seks Vermoedelik oorsaak van dood Verw.
Igor Aleksejevitsj Dyatlov Игорь Алексеевич Дятлов 13 Januarie 1936 23 Manlik Hipotermie [8]
Yuri Nikolajevitsj Doroshenko Юрий Николаевич Дорошенко 29 Januarie 1938 21 Manlik Hipotermie [8]
Lyudmila Alexandrovna Dubinina Людмила Александровна Дубинина 12 Mei 1938 20 Vroulik Interne bloeding as gevolg van ernstige bors trauma [9] [8]
Georgiy (Yuri) [a] Alexeyevich Krivonischenko Георгий (Юрий) Алексеевич Кривонищенко 7 Februarie 1935 23 Manlik Hipotermie [8]
Alexander Sergejevitsj Kolevatov Александр Сергеевич Колеватов 16 November 1934 24 Manlik Hipotermie [8]
Zinaida Alekseevna Kolmogorova Зинаида Алексеевна Колмогорова 12 Januarie 1937 22 Vroulik Hipotermie [8]
Rustem Vladimirovich Slobodin Рустем Владимирович Слободин 11 Januarie 1936 23 Manlik Hipotermie [8]
Nikolai Vladimirovich Thibeaux-Brignolles Николай Владимирович Тибо-Бриньоль 5 Julie 1935 23 Manlik Dodelike skedelbesering [b]
Semyon (Alexander) [c] Alekseevich Zolotaryov Семён (Александр) Алексеевич Золотарёв 2 Februarie 1921 38 Manlik Erge bors trauma [11]
Yuri Yefimovich Yudin Юрий Ефимович Юдин 19 Julie 1937 21 Manlik Die ekspedisie op 28 Januarie weens siekte is op 27 April 2013 op 75 -jarige ouderdom oorlede [12]

Die groep het in die vroeë oggendure van 25 Januarie 1959 per trein by Ivdel (Ивдель), 'n stad in die middel van die noordelike provinsie Sverdlovsk Oblast, aangekom. [13] Daarna het hulle 'n vragmotor na 'n vragmotor na Vizhai (Вижай) geneem dorp wat die laaste bewoonde nedersetting in die noorde is. [14] Terwyl hulle in Vizhai oornag, het die skiërs brood gekoop en geëet om hul energievlakke op te hou vir die volgende dag se staptog. [15]

Op 27 Januarie begin hulle trek na Gora Otorten. Op 28 Januarie draai een lid, Yuri Yudin, wat aan verskeie gesondheidskwale ly (insluitend rumatiek en 'n aangebore hartafwyking) terug as gevolg van knie- en gewrigspyn wat hom nie in staat was om die staptog voort te sit nie. [16] [17] Die oorblywende nege stappers het die trek voortgesit.

Dagboeke en kameras wat rondom hul laaste kampterrein gevind is, het dit moontlik gemaak om die groep se roete op te spoor tot die dag voor die voorval. [18] Op 31 Januarie het die groep aan die rand van 'n hoogland gekom en begin voorberei vir klim. In 'n beboste vallei het hulle oortollige kos en toerusting geberg wat vir die terugreis gebruik sou word. Die volgende dag het die stappers deur die pas begin beweeg. Dit wil voorkom asof hulle beplan het om oor die pas te kom en kamp te maak vir die volgende nag aan die teenoorgestelde kant, maar as gevolg van verslegtende weerstoestande - sneeustorms en afnemende sigbaarheid - het hulle hul rigting verloor en weswaarts afgewyk, na die top van Kholat Syakhl. Toe hulle hul fout besef, het die groep besluit om daar kamp op te sit teen die helling van die berg, eerder as om 1,5 kilometer bergaf te beweeg na 'n beboste gebied wat 'n bietjie beskerming teen die weer sou bied. [17] Yudin bespiegel: "Dyatlov wou waarskynlik nie die hoogte wat hulle opgedoen het, verloor nie, of hy het besluit om te oefen op die berghelling." [17]

Voordat hy vertrek het Dyatlov ingestem dat hy 'n telegram na hul sportklub sou stuur sodra die groep na Vizhai terugkeer. Daar word verwag dat dit nie later as 12 Februarie sou gebeur nie, maar Dyatlov het, voordat hy uit die groep vertrek het, aan Yudin gesê dat hy verwag dat dit langer sou wees. Toe die 12de slaag en geen boodskappe ontvang is nie, was daar geen onmiddellike reaksie nie, aangesien vertragings van 'n paar dae gereeld by sulke ekspedisies voorkom. Op 20 Februarie het die reisigers se familielede 'n reddingsoperasie geëis en die hoof van die instituut het die eerste reddingsgroepe gestuur, bestaande uit vrywillige studente en onderwysers. [17] Later het die weermag en militsiya -magte betrokke geraak, met vliegtuie en helikopters wat beveel is om by die operasie aan te sluit.

Op 26 Februarie het die soekers die groep se verlate en erg beskadigde tent op Kholat Syakhl gevind. Die kampterrein het die soekgeselskap verbaas. Mikhail Sharavin, die student wat die tent gevind het, het gesê "die tent was half afgebreek en bedek met sneeu. Dit was leeg, en al die besittings en skoene van die groep is agtergelaat." [17] Ondersoekers het gesê die tent is van binne oopgesny. Nege stelle voetspore, gelaat deur mense wat net sokkies of 'n enkele skoen dra of selfs kaalvoet, kan gevolg word, wat afloop na die rand van 'n nabygeleë bos, aan die teenoorgestelde kant van die pas, 1,5 kilometer (0,93 myl) na die noorde -oos. [19] Na 500 meter (1600 voet) was hierdie spore bedek met sneeu. Aan die rand van die woud, onder 'n groot Siberiese denne, het die soekers die sigbare oorblyfsels van 'n klein vuurtjie gevind. Daar was die eerste twee lyke, dié van Krivonischenko en Doroshenko, sonder skoene en geklee in net onderklere. Die takke aan die boom was tot vyf meter hoog gebreek, wat daarop dui dat een van die skiërs opgeklim het om iets te soek, miskien die kamp. Tussen die denne en die kamp het die soekers nog drie lyke gevind: Dyatlov, Kolmogorova en Slobodin, wat in poses gesterf het wat daarop dui dat hulle probeer om na die tent terug te keer. [17] Hulle is gevind op afstande van 300, 480 en 630 meter (980, 1,570 en 2,070 voet) van die boom.

Dit het meer as twee maande geneem om die oorblywende vier reisigers te vind. [19] Hulle is uiteindelik op 4 Mei onder vier meter sneeu in 'n kloof 75 meter (246 voet) verder in die bos van die denneboom gevind. Drie van die vier was beter geklee as die ander, en daar was tekens dat sommige klere van diegene wat eers gesterf het, verwyder is vir gebruik deur die ander. Dubinina het Krivonishenko se verbrande, geskeurde langbroek aangehad, en haar linkervoet en been was toegedraai in 'n geskeurde baadjie. [20]

'N Regsondersoek het begin onmiddellik nadat die eerste vyf lyke gevind is. In 'n mediese ondersoek is geen beserings gevind wat moontlik tot hul dood gelei het nie, en die gevolgtrekking is gemaak dat hulle almal aan hipotermie gesterf het. Slobodin het 'n klein skeurtjie in sy skedel gehad, maar dit was nie 'n dodelike wond nie. [21]

'N Ondersoek na die vier lyke wat in Mei gevind is, het die verhaal van die voorval verskuif. Drie van die stappers het noodlottige beserings opgedoen: Thibeaux-Brignolles [21] het groot skedelskade opgedoen, en Dubinina en Zolotaryov het groot borsbreuke gehad. [22] Volgens Boris Vozrozhdenny sou die krag wat nodig was om sulke skade te veroorsaak uiters hoog gewees het, vergelykbaar met die van 'n motorongeluk. Die liggame het veral geen eksterne wonde wat verband hou met die beenbreuke nie, asof dit aan 'n hoë druk blootgestel is. [19]

Al vier die lyke wat onder in die spruit in 'n lopende waterstroom gevind is, het kop- en gesigskade beskadig. Byvoorbeeld, Dubinina ontbreek haar tong, oë, deel van die lippe, sowel as gesigweefsel en 'n fragment skedelbeen, [23] terwyl Zolotaryov sy oogballe ontbreek, [24] en Aleksander Kolevatov sy wenkbroue. [25] V. A. Vozrozhdenny, die forensiese deskundige wat die nadoodse ondersoek uitgevoer het, het geoordeel dat hierdie beserings nadoods gebeur het weens die ligging van die liggame in 'n stroom.

Daar was aanvanklik bespiegelinge dat die inheemse Mansi -mense, rendierherders in die omgewing, die groep aangeval en vermoor het omdat hulle hul land binnegedring het. Verskeie Mansi is ondervra, [26], maar die ondersoek het aangedui dat die aard van die sterftes nie hierdie hipotese ondersteun nie: slegs die voetspore van die stappers was sigbaar, en dit het geen teken van hand-aan-hand-stryd getoon nie. [17]

Alhoewel die temperatuur baie laag was, ongeveer −25 tot −30 ° C (−13 tot −22 ° F) met 'n storm wat waai, was die dooies slegs gedeeltelik aangetrek. Sommige het net een skoen gehad, terwyl ander net sokkies gedra het. [17] Sommige is gevind toegedraai in stukke geskeurde klere wat blykbaar afgesny was van diegene wat reeds dood was.

Joernaliste wat oor die beskikbare dele van die geregtelike doodsondersoeke verslag doen, beweer dat dit lui:

  • Ses van die groeplede is dood aan onderkoeling en drie aan noodlottige beserings.
  • Daar was geen aanduidings van ander mense in die omgewing op Kholat Syakhl nie, behalwe die nege reisigers.
  • Die tent is van binne af oopgeruk.
  • Die slagoffers is ses tot agt uur na hul laaste maaltyd dood.
  • Spore uit die kamp het getoon dat alle groeplede uit eie beweging die kampterrein te voet verlaat het.
  • 'N Paar stralingsvlakke is op die slagoffer se klere gevind. [27]
  • Om die teorie van 'n aanval deur die inheemse Mansi -mense te verdryf, het Vozrozhdenny gesê dat die dodelike beserings van die drie liggame nie deur mense veroorsaak kon word nie, 'omdat die krag van die houe te sterk was en geen sagte weefsel beskadig was nie ". [17]
  • Uitgereikte dokumente bevat geen inligting oor die toestand van die skiërs se interne organe nie.
  • Daar was geen oorlewendes nie.

Destyds was die amptelike gevolgtrekking dat die groeplede gesterf het as gevolg van 'n dwingende natuurlike krag. [28] Die geregtelike doodsondersoek het in Mei 1959 amptelik gestaak as gevolg van die afwesigheid van 'n skuldige. Die lêers is na 'n geheime argief gestuur. [17]

In 1997 is onthul dat die negatiewe van die kamera van Krivonischenko in die privaat argief van een van die ondersoekers, Lev Ivanov, gebêre is. Die filmmateriaal is deur Ivanov se dogter aan die Dyatlov -stigting geskenk. Die dagboeke van die stappartytjie het in 2009 in die openbare domein van Rusland geval.

Op 12 April 2018 is die oorskot van Zolotarev opgegrawe op inisiatief van joernaliste van die Russiese poniekoerant Komsomolskaya Pravda. Teenstrydige resultate is verkry: een van die kenners het gesê dat die karakter van die beserings lyk soos 'n persoon wat deur 'n motor neergestort is, en die DNA -analise toon geen ooreenkoms met die DNA van lewende familielede nie. Daarbenewens het dit geblyk dat Zolotarev se naam nie op die lys was van diegene wat op die Ivanovskoye -begraafplaas begrawe is nie. Die rekonstruksie van die gesig uit die opgegrawe skedel stem nietemin ooreen met die naoorlogse foto's van Zolotarev, hoewel joernaliste die vermoede uitgespreek het dat 'n ander persoon na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog onder die naam van Zolotarev skuil. [29] [30] [31]

In Februarie 2019 heropen die Russiese owerhede die ondersoek na die voorval, hoewel slegs drie moontlike verklarings oorweeg is: 'n stortvloed, 'n stortvloed of 'n orkaan. Die moontlikheid van 'n misdaad is verdiskonteer. [32]

  • Die twaalfjarige Yury Kuntsevich, wat later die hoof van die Dyatlov-stigting in Yekaterinburg geword het, het vyf van die stappers se begrafnisse bygewoon. Hy onthou dat hul vel 'n "diep bruin bruin kleur" het. [17] [33]
  • 'N Ander groep stappers (ongeveer 50 kilometer suid van die voorval) het berig dat hulle die aand van die voorval vreemde oranje bolle in die lug in die noorde gesien het. [17] Soortgelyke sfere is deurlopend in die periode van Februarie tot Maart 1959 in Ivdel en aangrensende gebiede waargeneem deur verskillende onafhanklike getuies (insluitend die weerkundige diens en die weermag). Hierdie waarnemings is nie in die 1959 -ondersoek opgemerk nie, en die verskillende getuies het jare later na vore gekom. [17]

Anatoly Gushchin (Анатолий Гущин) het sy navorsing in die boek opgesom Die prys van staatsgeheime is nege lewens (Цена гостайны - девять жизней, Sverdlovsk, 1990) [28] Sommige navorsers het die werk gekritiseer omdat dit konsentreer op die spekulatiewe teorie van 'n Sowjet -geheime wapeneksperiment, maar die publikasie daarvan het gelei tot openbare bespreking, gestimuleer deur belangstelling in die paranormale. Baie van diegene wat al dertig jaar lank geswyg het, het nuwe feite oor die ongeluk gerapporteer. Een van hulle was die voormalige polisiebeampte, Lev Ivanov (Лев Иванов), wat die amptelike geregtelike doodsondersoek in 1959 gelei het. In 1990 publiseer hy 'n artikel waarin hy erken dat die ondersoekspan geen rasionele verduideliking vir die voorval gehad het nie. Hy het ook gesê dat, nadat sy span berig het dat hulle vlieënde sfere gesien het, hy direkte bevele van hooggeplaaste streekamptenare ontvang het om hierdie eis af te wys. [34] [35]

In 2000 het 'n plaaslike televisiemaatskappy die dokumentêre film vervaardig Die raaisel van Dyatlovpas (Тайна перевала Дятлова). Met die hulp van die filmspan het 'n skrywer uit Jekaterinburg, Anna Matveyeva (Анна Матвеева), 'n gelyknamige docudrama -roman gepubliseer. [36] 'n Groot deel van die boek bevat breë aanhalings uit die amptelike saak, dagboeke van slagoffers, onderhoude met soekers en ander dokumentêre films wat deur die filmmakers versamel is. Die verhaallyn van die boek beskryf die daaglikse lewe en gedagtes van 'n moderne vrou ('n alter ego van die skrywer self) wat probeer om die saak op te los. Ondanks die fiktiewe vertelling, bly Matveyeva se boek die grootste bron van dokumentêre materiaal wat ooit aan die publiek beskikbaar gestel is rakende die voorval. Die bladsye van die dossiere en ander dokumentêre programme (in fotostate en transkripsies) word ook geleidelik op 'n webforum vir entoesiastiese navorsers gepubliseer. [37]

Die Dyatlov -stigting is in 1999 gestig in Jekaterinburg, met die hulp van die Ural State Technical University, onder leiding van Yuri Kuntsevitch (Юрий Кунцевич). Die doel van die stigting is om die saak voort te sit en die Dyatlov -museum in stand te hou om die geheue van die dooie stappers te bewaar. [38] Op 1 Julie 2016 is 'n gedenkplaat in Solikamsk in die Perm -streek van Ural ingewy, toegewy aan Yuri Yudin (die enigste oorlewende van die ekspedisiegroep), wat in 2013 gesterf het. [39]

Lawine wysig

Op 11 Julie 2020 kondig Andrey Kuryakov, adjunkhoof van die direktoraat van die Federale Distrik van die Oeral van die kantoor van die Aanklaer-generaal, 'n stortvloed aan om die 'amptelike oorsaak van dood' vir die Dyatlov-groep in 1959 te wees. [40] Later onafhanklike rekenaarsimulasie en ontleding deur Switserse navorsers dui ook op 'n stortvloed as oorsaak. [2]

Oorspronklike verduideliking Redigeer

Die Amerikaanse skeptiese skrywer Benjamin Radford, wat 'n sensasionele 'Yeti' -hipotese hersien het, stel 'n stortvloed as meer aanneemlik voor:

dat die groep wanhopig wakker word (.) en uit die tent kom, óf omdat 'n stortvloed die ingang van hul tent bedek het, óf omdat hulle bang is dat 'n stortvloed op hande is (.) (beter om 'n moontlik herstelbare spleet te hê) in 'n tent as die risiko om lewendig daarin begrawe te word onder ton sneeu). Hulle was swak geklee omdat hulle geslaap het, en het gehardloop na die veiligheid van die nabygeleë bosse waar bome sou help om die komende sneeu te vertraag. In die donker duisternis het hulle in twee of drie groepe geskei, een groep het 'n vuur gemaak (vandaar die verbrande hande) terwyl die ander na die tent probeer terugkeer het om hul klere te herstel, aangesien die gevaar verbygegaan het. Maar dit was te koud, en hulle het almal doodgevries voordat hulle hul tent in die donker kon opspoor. Op 'n stadium is sommige van die klere moontlik herwin of uit die dood omgeruil, maar die groep van vier wie se lyke die ernstigste beskadig is, is in 'n stortvloed vasgevang en onder 4 meter sneeu begrawe ( meer as genoeg om rekenskap te gee van die 'dwingende natuurlike krag' wat die mediese ondersoeker beskryf het). Dubinina se tong is waarskynlik verwyder deur aasdiere en gewone predasie. [41]

Teenstrydige bewyse Redigeer

Bewyse wat die lawine -teorie weerspreek, sluit in: [42] [43]

  • Die ligging van die voorval het geen duidelike tekens gehad van 'n stortvloed nie. 'N Stortvloed sou sekere patrone en puin oor 'n wye gebied versprei het. Die lyke wat binne 'n maand na die gebeurtenis gevind is, was bedek met 'n baie vlak sneeulaag, en as daar 'n stortvloed van genoeg krag was om die tweede party weg te vee, sou hierdie liggame ook meegesleur gewees het. en verskillende beserings in die proses en sou die boomlyn beskadig het.
  • Sedert die voorval is meer as 100 ekspedisies na die streek gehou, en nie een van hulle het ooit toestande aangemeld wat 'n stortvloed kan veroorsaak nie. 'N Studie van die gebied met behulp van die nuutste terreinverwante fisika het aan die lig gebring dat dit heeltemal onwaarskynlik was dat so 'n stortvloed sou plaasvind. Die 'gevaarlike toestande' wat in 'n ander nabygeleë gebied gevind is (wat aansienlik steiler hellings en kroonlyste gehad het) is in April en Mei waargeneem toe die sneeuval van die winter gesmelt het. Gedurende Februarie, toe die voorval plaasgevind het, was daar nie sulke voorwaardes nie.
  • 'N Ontleding van die terrein en die helling het getoon dat selfs al sou daar 'n baie spesifieke sneeustorting gekom het, die pad verby die tent sou gegaan het. Die tent het van die kant af ingestort, maar nie in 'n horisontale rigting nie.
  • Dyatlov was 'n ervare skiër en die veel ouer Zolotaryov studeer vir sy meestersertifikaat in ski -onderrig en bergwandel. Nie een van hierdie twee mans sou waarskynlik êrens op die pad van 'n moontlike sneeustorting kampeer nie.
  • Voetspoorpatrone wat van die tent af weg was, was in stryd met iemand, wat nog te sê van 'n groep van nege mense, wat in paniek van werklike of verbeelde gevaar hardloop. Al die voetspore wat van die tent en na die bos gelei het, was in ooreenstemming met individue wat in 'n normale tempo geloop het.

Herhaalde ondersoek van 2015 Wysig

'N Oorsig van die 1959 -ondersoek se getuienis wat in 2015–2019 voltooi is deur ervare ondersoekers van die Ondersoekkomitee van die Russiese Federasie (ICRF) op versoek van die gesinne, bevestig die stortvloed met verskeie belangrike besonderhede bygevoeg. In die eerste plek het die ICRF -ondersoekers (een van hulle 'n ervare alpinis) bevestig dat die weer op die nag van die tragedie baie erg was, met windsnelhede tot orkaankrag, 20-30 meter per sekonde (45-67 mph 72– 108 km/h), 'n sneeustorm en temperature wat −40 ° C bereik. Hierdie faktore is nie in ag geneem deur die 1959 -ondersoekers wat drie weke later by die ongelukstoneel aangekom het toe die weer baie verbeter het en die oorblyfsels van die sneeubal gesak het en bedek was met vars sneeuval. Die harde weer speel terselfdertyd 'n kritieke rol in die gebeure van die tragiese nag, wat soos volg gerekonstrueer is: [44] [45]

  • Op 1 Februarie arriveer die groep by die Kholat Syakhl-berg en rig 'n groot 9-persoons tent op 'n oop helling op, sonder natuurlike hindernisse soos woude. Op die dag en 'n paar voorafgaande dae het 'n swaar sneeuval voortgeduur, met sterk wind en ryp.
  • Die groep wat die helling deurkruis en 'n tentterrein in die sneeu grawe, het die sneeubasis verswak. Gedurende die nag het die sneeuveld bokant die tent stadig begin gly onder die gewig van die nuwe sneeu, en geleidelik op die tentstof gestoot, vanaf die ingang. Die groep word wakker en begin paniekbevange ontruim, met net 'n paar wat warm klere kan aantrek. Terwyl die ingang geblokkeer is, ontsnap die groep deur 'n gat wat in die tentstof gesny is en daal die helling af om 'n plek te vind wat veilig is van die sneeustorting slegs 1500 m onder, by die bosgrens.
  • Because some of the members have only incomplete clothing, the group splits. Two of the group, only in their underwear and pajamas, were found at the Siberian pine tree, near a fire pit. Their bodies were found first and confirmed to have died from hypothermia.
  • Three hikers, including Dyatlov, attempted to climb back to the tent, possibly to get sleeping bags. They had better clothes than those at the fire pit, but still quite light and with inadequate footwear. Their bodies were found at various distances 300–600 m from the campfire, in poses suggesting that they had fallen exhausted while trying to climb in deep snow in extremely cold weather.
  • The remaining four, equipped with warm clothing and footwear, were trying to find or build a better camping place in the forest further down the slope. Their bodies were found 70 m from the fireplace, under several meters of snow and with traumas indicating that they had fallen into a snow hole formed above a stream. These bodies were found only after two months.

According to the ICRF investigators, the factors contributing to the tragedy were extremely bad weather and lack of experience of the group leader in such conditions, which led to the selection of a dangerous camping place. After the snow slide, another mistake of the group was to split up, rather than building a temporary camp down in the forest and trying to survive through the night. Negligence of the 1959 investigators contributed to their report creating more questions than answers and inspiring numerous conspiracy theories. [46] [45]

Support from 2021 model Edit

In 2021, a team of physicists and engineers led by Alexander Puzrin and Johan Gaume published in Communications Earth & Environment [47] a new model that demonstrated how even a relatively small slide of snow slab on the Kholat Syakhl slope could cause tent damage and injuries consistent with those suffered by the Dyatlov team. [48] [49] [50]

Katabatic wind Edit

In 2019, a Swedish-Russian expedition was made to the site, and after investigations, they proposed that a violent katabatic wind was a plausible explanation for the incident. [51] Katabatic winds are somewhat rare events and can be extremely violent. They were implicated in a 1978 case at Anaris Mountain in Sweden, where eight hikers were killed and one was severely injured in the aftermath of katabatic wind. [52] The topography of these locations were noted to be very similar according to the expedition. [51]

A sudden katabatic wind would have made it impossible to remain in the tent, and the most rational course of action would have been for the hikers to cover the tent with snow and seek shelter behind the treeline. [51] On top of the tent, there was also a torch left turned on, possibly left there intentionally so that the hikers could find their way back to the tent once the winds subsided. The expedition proposed that the group of hikers constructed two bivouac shelters, one of which collapsed, leaving four of the hikers buried with the severe injuries observed. [51]

Infrasound Edit

Another hypothesis popularised by Donnie Eichar's 2013 book Dead Mountain is that wind going around Kholat Syakal created a Kármán vortex street, which can produce infrasound capable of inducing panic attacks in humans. [53] [54] According to Eichar's theory, the infrasound generated by the wind as it passed over the top of the Holatchahl mountain was responsible for causing physical discomfort and mental distress in the hikers. [53] Eichar claims that, because of their panic, the hikers were driven to leave the tent by whatever means necessary, and fled down the slope. By the time they were further down the hill, they would have been out of the infrasound's path and would have regained their composure, but in the darkness would have been unable to return to their shelter. [53] The traumatic injuries suffered by three of the victims were the result of their stumbling over the edge of a ravine in the darkness and landing on the rocks at the bottom.

Military tests Edit

In one speculation, the campsite fell within the path of a Soviet parachute mine exercise. This theory alleges that the hikers, woken by loud explosions, fled the tent in a shoeless panic and found themselves unable to return for supply retrieval. After some members froze to death attempting to endure the bombardment, others commandeered their clothing only to be fatally injured by subsequent parachute mine concussions. There are indeed records of parachute mines being tested by the Soviet military in the area around the time the hikers were there. [55] Parachute mines detonate while still in the air rather than upon striking the Earth's surface and produce signature injuries similar to those experienced by the hikers: heavy internal damage with relatively little external trauma. The theory coincides with reported sightings of glowing, orange orbs floating or falling in the sky within the general vicinity of the hikers and allegedly photographed by them, [56] potentially military aircraft or descending parachute mines. This theory (among others) uses scavenging animals to explain Dubinina's injuries. [57] Some speculate that the bodies were unnaturally manipulated, on the basis of characteristic livor mortis markings discovered during an autopsy, as well as burns to hair and skin. Photographs of the tent allegedly show that it was erected incorrectly, something the experienced hikers were unlikely to have done. [58]

A similar theory alleges the testing of radiological weapons and is based partly on the discovery of radioactivity on some of the clothing as well as the descriptions of the bodies by relatives as having orange skin and grey hair. However, radioactive dispersal would have affected all, not just some, of the hikers and equipment, and the skin and hair discoloration can be explained by a natural process of mummification after three months of exposure to the cold and wind. The initial suppression by Soviet authorities of files describing the group's disappearance is sometimes mentioned as evidence of a cover-up, but the concealment of information about domestic incidents was standard procedure in the USSR and thus far from peculiar. And by the late 1980s, all Dyatlov files had been released in some manner. [59]

Paradoxical undressing Edit

International Science Times posited that the hikers' deaths were caused by hypothermia, which can induce a behavior known as paradoxical undressing in which hypothermic subjects remove their clothes in response to perceived feelings of burning warmth. [60] It is undisputed that six of the nine hikers died of hypothermia. However, others in the group appear to have acquired additional clothing (from those who had already died), which suggests that they were of a sound enough mind to try to add layers.

Ander Edit

Keith McCloskey, who has researched the incident for many years and has appeared in several TV documentaries on the subject, traveled to the Dyatlov Pass in 2015 with Yury Kuntsevich of the Dyatlov Foundation and a group. At the Dyatlov Pass he noted:

  • There were wide discrepancies in distances quoted between the two possible locations of the snow shelter where Dubinina, Kolevatov, Zolotarev, and Thibault-Brignolles were found. One location was approximately 80 to 100 meters from the pine tree where the bodies of Doroshenko and Krivonischenko were found and the other suggested location was so close to the tree that anyone in the snow shelter could have spoken to those at the tree without raising their voices to be heard. This second location also has a rock in the stream where Dubinina's body was found and is the more likely location of the two. However, the second suggested location of the two has a topography that is closer to the photos taken at the time of the search in 1959. [61]
  • The location of the tent near the ridge was found to be too close to the spur of the ridge for any significant build-up of snow to cause an avalanche. Furthermore, the prevailing wind blowing over the ridge had the effect of blowing snow away from the edge of the ridge on the side where the tent was. This further reduced any build-up of snow to cause an avalanche. This aspect of the lack of snow on the top and near the top of the ridge was pointed out by Sergey Sogrin in 2010. [62]
  • Lev Ivanov's boss, Evgeny Okishev (Deputy Head of the Investigative Department of the Sverdlovsk Oblast Prosecution Office), was still alive in 2015 and had given an interview to former Kemerovo prosecutor Leonid Proshkin in which Okishev stated that he was arranging another trip to the Pass to fully investigate the strange deaths of the last four bodies when Deputy Prosecutor General Urakov arrived from Moscow and ordered the case shut down. [63]
  • Evgeny Okishev also stated in his interview with Leonid Proshkin that Klinov, head of the Sverdlovsk Prosecutor's Office, was present at the first post mortems in the morgue and spent three days there, something Okishev regarded as highly unusual and the only time, in his experience, it had happened. [63]

Donnie Eichar, who investigated and made a documentary about the incident, evaluated several other theories that are deemed unlikely or have been discredited: [59]

  • They were attacked by Mansi or other local tribesmen. The local tribesmen were known to be peaceful and there was no track evidence of anyone approaching the tent.
  • They were attacked and chased by animal wildlife. There were no animal tracks and the group would not have abandoned the relative security of the tent.
  • High winds blew one member away, and the others attempted to rescue the person. A large experienced group would not have behaved like that, and winds strong enough to blow away people with such force would have also blown away the tent.
  • An argument, possibly related to a romantic encounter that left some of them only partially clothed, led to a violent dispute. About this, Eichar states that it is "highly implausible. By all indications, the group was largely harmonious, and sexual tension was confined to platonic flirtation and crushes. There were no drugs present and the only alcohol was a small flask of medicinal alcohol, found intact at the scene. The group had even sworn off cigarettes for the expedition." Furthermore, a fight could not have left the massive injuries that one body had suffered.

Amateur aviation historian Andrey Shepelev considers that the group could die due to a photoflash bomb dropped by a US spy plane, and a declassified US document confirms that in the first half of 1959 there was such a secret mission near Nizhnyaya Salda. According to Shepelev, the US plane could drop a photoflash bomb, which, due to the mountainous area, exploded closer to the ground than expected. The explosion could frighten the tourists, so they left the tent and froze to death. Some of the tourists could be injured directly by the explosion. [64]


Sensational claims require sensational evidence

In the words of Vine Deloria, a Native American author, and professor of law:

“Modern day archaeology and anthropology have nearly sealed the door on our imaginations, broadly interpreting the North American past as devoid of anything unusual in the way of great cultures characterized by a people of unusual demeanor. The great interloper of ancient burial grounds, the nineteenth century Smithsonian Institution, created a one-way portal, through which uncounted bones have been spirited. This door and the contents of its vault are virtually sealed off to anyone, but government officials. Among these bones may lay answers not even sought by these officials concerning the deep past.”

On May 4, 1912, the New York Times published a surprising news: Archaeological excavations near Lake Delavan in Wisconsin had found skeletons of extraordinary dimensions.

In other words, they looked like giants.

Their heads were elongated and larger than normal. According to news of the time, the skeletons found by a group of archaeologists of the University Beloit College of Wisconsin measured between 2𔃽 and 3 meters.

These were just some of the many skeletons that were discovered around the globe.

However, the mystery started after the discovery was made as nothing more was known about the skeletons. Where did the skeletons end up? Were they deliberately hidden from the public? Interestingly, the area where the Giant skeletons were found is known for giant-sized skeletons which do not seem to correspond to the characteristics of ordinary people or natives to the area.

In 1891, scientists from the Smithsonian Foundation found a giant skeleton in the excavations of the pyramidal tombs in the Madison area, curiously also in Wisconsin.

All skeletons allegedly disappeared as well.

The Smithsonian states they do not know anything about them, or any kind of oversized skeletons. However, there is evidence in the press for nearly 100 years of huge skeletons findings throughout the American Midwest.

In Minnesota, Ohio, Iowa, Indiana, Kentucky and Illinois the discovery of this type of skeletons is well documented.

“Conspiracy theorists” believe that the American Government is hiding something and has no interest whatsoever to talk about a possible race of giants that inhabited the United States centuries ago.

But the America’s aren’t the only continent where such discoveries have been made.

In other parts of the world, researchers have also found human remains that seem to belong to a race of giants.

Despite all the evidence, it must be mentioned that many similar discoveries were nothing but elaborate hoaxes which regrettably discredit authentic discoveries made around the planet.

Another fascinating example is the 38-centimeter long finger found in ancient Egypt.

The remains of this finger are impressive it is a huge mummified humanoid finger that has 38 centimeters in length. Researchers from Egypt believe it had to belong to a creature that was over 5 meters height. Only a few people got to take images of this incredible artifact in 1988.

The images displayed were taken in 1988 and were published by one of Europe’s leading newspaper, BILD.de

Wat dink jy? Is there evidence that giants lived on Earth? Or are all of these discoveries nothing more than elaborate hoaxes?


Kommentaar

I have read some about giant sakelotons found in burial mounds in America. Also about Indians doing battle with giant red haired peoples. Why has there been no research about this published. Also very disappointed with the show America Unearthed. They say nothing of this mystery but beat the dead horse over Templars. It would be so exciting if they (the producers of the show) and archeologist would study this and publish their findings. Thanks for making this info available for those who would like to know all of history and not just the bits that all fit perfectly together and are very easily explained.


If you know your idioms you understand the language like a native speaker.

    - a list of hundreds of the proverbs that give meaning to our language like no other form of expression. - Divided by a common language? Not when you understand the phrases that were born in the USA. - The Bard of Avon, he gave us more words and expressions than anyone else. Ahoy there, me hearties, here's the language that came from our nautical friends. - the single book that has given more sayings, idioms and proverbs to the English language than any other. - expressions and sayings grouped under topic headings.

Do Coconut Crabs Move Bones?

The claim that coconut crabs were responsible for dismembering and removing portions of the skeleton comes from Gallagher himself, who wrote in his report:

All small bones have been removed by giant coconut crabs which have also damaged larger ones. Difficult to estimate age bones owing to activities of crabs but am quite certain they are not less than four years old and probably much older.

"He didn't have much experience at all with coconut crabs," points out Richard Gillespie, Executive Director of The International Group for Historic Aircraft Recovery (TIGHAR) . "He probably only knew about coconut crabs from his experience on Gardner Island, on Nikumaroro, and he had only been living there for about a month when he reported that. Now the locals may have told him, 'Oh, coconut crabs will do that,' but whether they're right or not, I don't know."

In their effort to learn more about the Nikumaroro remains, the folks at TIGHAR have staged an experiment to determine whether coconut crabs—or any other wildlife on the island—move bones. During TIGHAR's Niku V expedition, forensic anthropologist Karen Ramey Burns and her team laid out a pig carcass near the site of the Gardner Island colonial village and filmed the results. The video below is a little gruesome, but it's also fascinating:

The light-colored animals swarming and stripping the meat from the carcass are strawberry hermit crabs, while the occasional dark shapes are coconut crabs. Incidentally, Gillespie says that Nikumaroro's strawberry hermit crabs tend to be shier around humans in places that once housed human villages—not so near the castaway site, where they will swarm anyone who lies down. At one point, in order to speed up the experiment, the researchers disarticulated the bones to see if any of the wildlife would carry the bones away. No coconut crabs were seen trying to carry off bones. In fact, the only crab that even attempted to lug a bone away from the carcass was a lone land crab:

Other literature on coconut crabs also fails to support the hypothesis that they carried off the castaway's bones. "We can't find any documented accounts of them actually taking things and leaving with them," Gillespie says. "We don't know that Gallagher was right when he made that assumption [that coconut crabs moved the Nikumaroro remains]. We don't know that he was wrong, either."


Epilogue for the Ancestors

Today the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History (NMNH) cares for collections made by the American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land of 1948. A collaboration among Australian institutions, the Smithsonian and National Geographic, the ten-month venture yielded thousands of biological specimens and cultural items, which are still being studied today. The Aboriginal bark paintings commissioned by the researchers sparked global awareness of this art form. For decades the remains of over 40 Aboriginal individuals were kept at NMNH. By 2010, the museum, working with officials and indigenous groups in Australia, had returned the Arnhem Land remains on loan from the Australian government, and the museum is working closely with Aboriginal groups to repatriate remains collected from other places in Australia. Returning the Arnhem Land remains to Australia, says Joshua A. Bell, curator of globalization, “helped us establish more formal guidelines for engaging in international repatriation.”

But it was Bowler’s discovery of Mungo Man five years later that made world headlines. On February 26, 1974, by now doing his PhD, he was again at Lake Mungo when unusually torrential summer rains hit. “There was a pristine new surface on the dunes,” he recalls. He went back to where he had found Mungo Lady and followed the same geological “horizon.” He spotted white bone. “I brushed away the sand and there was a mandible, which meant the rest of the body might be in the ground.” He rushed to find a telephone in the nearby homestead. “Happily, it worked! We were 100 miles from any other building.”

This time, ANU archaeologists hurried to the scene. They only had to smooth the sand away to find an intact male skeleton. He had been ceremoniously buried his hands were folded over the pelvis and traces of red ocher enveloped him from cranium to loin. The ocher had been carried a great distance—the nearest source was over 130 miles away—and had been either painted onto the body or sprinkled over the grave. “We suddenly realized this was a ritual site of extraordinary significance,” Bowler recalled. “It was a shock. You’re sitting in the sand and suddenly realize that something beyond you has happened.” The next surprise came when carbon dating put “Mungo Man” at 40,000 to 42,000 years old—some 5,000 years older than the Cro-Magnon sites in Western Europe. The researchers retested Mungo Lady the new data showed that she had lived around the same time as Mungo Man.

The news revolutionized the timeline of human migration, proving that Homo sapiens had arrived in Australia far earlier than scientists imagined as part of the great migration from East Africa across Asia and into the Americas. Post-Mungo, the most conservative starting date is that our species left Africa to cross the Asian landmass 70,000 years ago, and reached Australia 47,000 years ago. (Others suggest the Aboriginal arrival in Australia was 60,000 years ago, which pushes the starting date of migration back even further.)

Just as revolutionary was what Mungo Man meant for the understanding of Aboriginal culture. “Up until Mungo, Aboriginals had been frequently denigrated,” Bowler said bluntly. “They were ignorant savages, treacherous. Suddenly here was a new indication of extraordinary sophistication.” The reverent treatment of the body—the oldest ritual burial site ever found—revealed a concern for the afterlife eons before the Egyptian pyramids. Two of Mungo Man’s canine teeth, in the lower jaw, were also missing, possibly the result of an adolescent initiation ceremony, and there were the remains of a circular fireplace found nearby. “It took me a long time to digest the implications,” Bowler said. Today, Aboriginal people still use smoke to cleanse the dead. “It’s the same ritual, and there it was 40,000 years ago.” All the evidence pointed to a spectacular conclusion: Aboriginal people belong to the oldest continuous culture on the planet.

News of Mungo Man’s discovery, presented as a triumph by scientists, provoked outrage in the Aboriginal communities they were furious that they had not been consulted about their ancestor’s removal from his homeland. “I read about it in the newspaper like everybody else,” recalls Mary Pappin, a Mutthi Mutthi elder. “We were really upset.” The first quiet protests over archaeological work had begun years earlier over Mungo Lady, led by her mother, Alice Kelly, who would turn up with other women at new digs and demand an explanation, carrying a dictionary so she could understand the jargon. “My mum wrote letters,” recalls her daughter. “So many letters!” Removing Mungo Man seemed the height of scientific arrogance. Tensions reached such a point by the end of the 1970s that the 3TTs placed an embargo on excavation at Lake Mungo.

Far left, the unique landscape of Mungo National Park known as “The Walls of China,” a combination of sand dunes and lunettes resulting from the trapping of shifting sand by vegetation. Right, Mary Pappin, an elder with the Mutthi Mutthi tribe, campaigned for the repatriation of Mungo Man. (David Maurice Smith)

Mungo Man surfaced precisely at a time when Australia was wrestling with a crisis in race relations that dates back to the colonial era. The first British settlers had mistakenly dismissed the Aboriginal people as rootless nomads, ignoring their deep spiritual connection to the land based on the mythology of the Dreamtime. An undeclared frontier war followed, involving massacres and enforced removals. Whites “harvested” Aboriginal skeletons, often by pillaging grave sites or even after bloodbaths, for study and display in museums in Britain, Europe and the States, in some cases to “prove” that indigenous races were lower on the evolutionary scale than Anglo-Saxons. The macabre trade continued in Australia until the 1940s (as it did for Native American remains in the U.S.) the last official expedition, a joint Australian-U.S. effort involving the Smithsonian Institution and others that would become controversial, occurred in 1948. Aboriginal people felt each removal as a visceral affront.

This bleak situation began to change in the 1960s when, influenced by the civil rights movement and Native American campaigns in the States, Aboriginal activists demanded that they be given citizenship, the vote and, by the 1970s, ownership of their traditional homelands. The standoff between the 3TTGs and scientists began to thaw in 1992, when ANU agreed to return Mungo Lady to the traditional owners. Relations improved as young Aboriginal people were trained as rangers, archaeologists and heritage officials, and in 2007, the 3TTGs gained joint management of the parks. But an impasse remained over the fate of Mungo Man.

It was support from Jim Bowler that tipped the balance. In 2014, he wrote in a widely publicized editorial that he felt a responsibity to help Mungo Man go home. “I was clobbered!” he laughs now. “They said, ‘Bowler’s gone off tilting at windmills! He’s out there like Don Quixote.’” Scientists argued that the skeleton should be kept safe, since future developments in DNA research and improved X-ray tests might one day reveal new insights about the diet, life expectancy, health and cultural practices of early humans, or about mankind’s origins. (Did Homo sapiens evolve from a single “African Eve” or develop in separate locations? Did our species overwhelm the other known human species such as Homo neanderthalensis en Homo erectus, or interbreed with them?)

The process of returning Aboriginal remains sped up in 2002, when the Australian government recommended that repatriations be “unconditional.” Unlike in the U.S., where federal laws govern the return of Native American remains, the directive had no legal force nevertheless, Australian institutions responded with arguably more energy. A network of heritage officers began systematically connecting with Aboriginal communities all over Australia to empty museum collections. “We try to be proactive,” says Phil Gordon, project manager for repatriation at Sydney’s Australian Museum. “People also do contact us. They call you up on the phone: ‘Hey! You got any of my ancestors?’”

A display at the visitor center at Mungo National Park shows objects that people had taken from the park and then returned, along with a letter of apology, after having second thoughts about removing them from Aboriginal land. (David Maurice Smith)

Mungo Man’s return was the climax of this anti-colonial shift. “It’s about righting the wrongs of the past,” says Aboriginal heritage officer Kelly, who wrote the formal letter asking for Mungo Man’s return. Michael Pickering in Canberra was one of many older white Australian museum workers who have seen a complete reversal of attitudes in their lifetimes. “If you’d asked me at age 22,” he admitted, “I would have said it was a crime against science. But now I’m older and wiser. Science is not a bad thing. But society benefits from other forms of knowledge as well. We learn so much more from repatriation than letting bones gather dust in storage.”

All these emotions came together in November 2017 as the hand-carved casket was laid out at Lake Mungo and covered with leaves. As the smoking ceremony began, recalls Jason Kelly, a willy willy (dust devil) swept from the desert and across the casket. “It was the spirit of Mungo Man coming home,” he said. “It felt like a beginning, not an end. It was the beginning of the healing, not just for us, but for Australia.”

Today, Mungo Man, whose bones were returned to the Aboriginals, lies in an interim “secret location” awaiting reburial, which will probably occur sometime next year. When I went to the park visitor’s center, a ranger pointed to a door marked “Staff Entrance Only.” “He’s down the back,” he confided. “But don’t worry, mate, he’s safe. He’s in a bank vault.” When he started showing visitors on a map the spot where the bones were found by Jim Bowler, the ranger next to him rolled his eyes and muttered, “You’re not supposed to tell people that!”

The human presence may have elements of an Aussie sitcom, but the landscape is among the eeriest in the outback. At dusk, I climbed the Walls of China, crossing the rippling Sahara-like dunes and skirting the ribs of a wombat and shards of calcified tree trunk among the craggy spires. Although only 130 feet high, the dunes tower over the flat desert. Peering to the south, where Mungo Man and Mungo Lady had both emerged from the sand, I tried to grasp what 42,000 years actually meant. The Roman Empire ended roughly 1,500 years ago, Troy fell 3,200 years ago, the Epic of Gilgamesh was written around 4,000 years ago. Beyond that, time unraveled.

A cast replica of a 21,000-year-old footprint found with others near Lake Mungo in 2003. They are the largest set of ice age footprints in the world. (David Maurice Smith)

I finally made the mental leap into prehistory when I found myself on a hunt with an ice age family. In 2003, a young Aboriginal ranger, Mary Pappin Jr. (granddaughter of the activist Alice Kelly), made an astounding discovery near Lake Mungo: more than 560 footprints, later shown to be around 21,000 years old. This miraculous snapshot of Pleistocene life featured 12 men, four women and seven children who had walked across the soft clay around the lake, which dried like concrete in the sun. The foot impressions were then immersed in drifting sands and preserved.

The footprints look as if they were made yesterday. Analysis by expert trackers reveals that the group, presumably an extended family, was moving at the steady pace of long-distance runners. The men were mostly on the outside of the group, perhaps in hunting formation at one point, they paused and rested their spears. The tallest male, the forensic analysis suggests, was 6-foot-6 with size 12 feet. It seems that one man had lost a leg and hopped without the aid of a crutch. Another of the adults was walking at a slower pace with children—one wonders what they were talking about. Suddenly the millennia evaporated.

If even a casual visitor can have cosmic flashes in this otherworldly setting, Jim Bowler has come to feel he was guided by a higher force to Lake Mungo. “The unlikely probability of being there just when Mungo Man’s skeleton was starting to appear—and find things thoroughly intact!” he laughs. “It’s one in a million.” As he approaches 90, he is racing to complete a book that will connect his personal narrative to larger issues. “Mary Pappin told me: ‘Mungo Man and Mungo Lady, you didn’t find them. They found you!’” he says. They had messages to deliver, such as telling white Australians that the time has come to acknowledge the injustices inflicted upon Aboriginal people.

Bowler, the doctor of geology and the lapsed Jesuit, also wants Western culture to appreciate the indigenous worldview: “Do we have something to learn from Aboriginal people?” he asks. “And if so, what?” On sleepless nights he asks for guidance from Mungo Man himself. “Aboriginal people have a deep spiritual connection to the land. The ocher Mungo Man was buried in was a link to the cosmos. Western culture has lost these connections.” The use of stories and myths by Aboriginal people, Native Americans and other indigenous groups also satisfies deep human longing for meaning. “Science has trouble explaining mysteries. There’s an entire reality beyond the scientific one.”

Oor die skrywer: David Maurice Smith is a photographer based in Australia. His work has appeared in several publications, including the New York Times Magazine en die Washington Post. Read more articles from David Maurice Smith Oor die skrywer: Tony Perrottet is a contributing writer for Smithsonian magazine, a regular contributor to the New York Times en WSJ Magazine, and the author of six books including ¡Cuba Libre!: Che, Fidel and the Improbable Revolution that Changed World History,The Naked Olympics: The True Story of the Ancient Games en Napoleon's Privates: 2500 Years of History Unzipped. Follow him on Instagram @TonyPerrottet.
Read more articles from Tony Perrottet

A giant mystery: 18 strange giant skeletons found in Wisconsin: Sons of god Men of renown

Here's one for your "Forbidden Archaeology" file.Scientists are remaining stubbornly silent about a lost race of giants found in burial mounds near Lake Delavan, Wisconsin, in May 1912. The dig site at Lake Delavan was overseen by Beloit College and it included more than 200 effigy mounds that proved to be classic examples of 8th century Woodland Culture. But the enormous size of the skeletons and elongated skulls found in May 1912 did not fit very neatly into anyone's concept of a textbook standard. They were enormous. These were not average human beings.

Their heights ranged between 7.6ft and 10 feet and their skulls "presumably those of men, are much larger than the heads of any race which inhabit America to-day." They tend to have a double row of teeth, 6 fingers, 6 toes and like humans came in differant races. The teeth in the front of the jaw are regular molars. Heads usually found are elongated believed due to longer than normal life span.

" One must wonder how much can they lift if twice the size of a average human today? Are these the Giants the Bible & many other civilizations have in their history and painted on their walls. The Bible in Genisis 6:4 " There were giants in the earth in those days and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old men of renown. " Now this is faulty logic to any scientist out there because I am using religous/cultural history to fill a hole in science.

Over 200 Giant digs have been found in recent years. Giant skeleton finds have not made the local/national news since the 1950's for the most part. It seems in most peoples opinion do to the fear that people would question evolution . If anything a de-evolution.

In 2002, National Geographic reported a dozen Cyclops skeletons found in Greece that stood 12-15 1/2 Ft tall. That is 3 humans tall. One eye socket. Giants in history are typically cannibalistic in nature. The reason why I am bringing up giants will all tie into politics, and word happenings. Look at a basketball hoop and add 5 feet. That tall. Greek Mythology talks about war with cyclops learning they had to bring down by taking out their legs rendering them slow and helpless. American Giants (Red Hair Giants) where found with egyptian writing on their tombs have been found in multiple locations.

Mystery of The Wisconsin Giants

Was this some sort of prank, a hoax played by local farm boys or a demented taxidermist for fun and the attention of the press? Die antwoord is nee.

The Lake Delavan find of May 1912 was only one of dozens and dozens of similar finds that were reported in local newspapers from 1851 forward to the present day. It was not even the first set of giant skeletons found in Wisconsin.

On 10 August 1891, the New York Times reported that scientists from the Smithsonian Institution had discovered several large "pyramidal monuments" on Lake Mills, near Madison, Wisconsin. "Madison was in ancient days the centre of a teeming population numbering not less than 200,000," the Tye gesê. The excavators found an elaborate system of defensive works which they named Fort Aztalan.

"The celebrated mounds of Ohio and Indiana can bear no comparison, either in size, design or the skill displayed in their construction with these gigantic and mysterious monuments of earth -- erected we know not by whom, and for what purpose we can only conjecture," said the Tye.

On 20 December 1897, the Tye followed up with a report on three large burial mounds that had been discovered in Maple Creek, Wisconsin. One had recently been opened.

"In it was found the skeleton of a man of gigantic size. The bones measured from head to foot over nine feet and were in a fair state of preservation. The skull was as large as a half bushel measure. Some finely tempered rods of copper and other relics were lying near the bones."

Giant skulls and skeletons of a race of "Goliaths" have been found on a very regular basis throughout the Midwestern states for more than 100 years. Giants have been found in Minnesota, Iowa, Illinois, Ohio, Kentucky and New York, and their burial sites are similar to the well-known mounds of the Mound Builder people.

The spectrum of Mound builder history spans a period of more than 5,000 years (from 3400 BCE to the 16th CE), a period greater than the history of Ancient Egypt and all of its dynasties.

There is a "prevailing scholarly consensus" that we have an adequate historical understanding of the peoples who lived in North America during this period. However, the long record of anomalous finds like those at Lake Delavan suggests otherwise.

The Great Smithsonian Cover-Up

Has there been a giant cover-up? Why aren't there public displays of gigantic Native American skeletons at natural history museums?

The skeletons of some Mound Builders are certainly on display. There is a wonderful exhibit, for example, at the Aztalan State Park where one may see the skeleton of a "Princess of Aztalan" in the museum.
But the skeletons placed on display are normal-sized, and according to some sources, the skeletons of giants have been covered up.

Specifically, the Smithsonian Institution has been accused of making a deliberate effort to hide the "telling of the bones" and to keep the giant skeletons locked away.

In the words of Vine Deloria, a Native American author and professor of law:

Two Giant Skeletons Near Potosi, WI

The January 13th, 1870 edition of the Wisconsin Decatur Republican reported that two giant, well-preserved skeletons of an unknown race were discovered near Potosi, WI by workers digging the foundation of a saw mill near the bank of the Mississippi river. One skeleton measured seven-and-a-half feet, the other eight feet. The skulls of each had prominent cheek bones and double rows of teeth. A large collection of arrowheads and "strange toys" were found buried with the remains.

Giant Skeleton Discovered in Maple Creek, WI

On December 20th, 1897 the New York Times reported that three large burial mounds had been discovered near Maple Creek, WI. Upon excavation, a skeleton measuring over nine feet from head to toe was discovered with finely tempered copper rods and other relics.

Giant Skeleton in West Bend, WI

A giant skeleton was unearthed outside of West Bend near Lizard Mound County Park and assembled by local farmers to a height of eight feet. More about this can be found in Washington County Paranormal: A Wisconsin Legend Trip by local author and investigator J. Nathan Couch.

While a normal-sized skeleton of a supposed mound builder (the "Princess of Aztalan") is on display at the site of several large pyramidal monuments near Madison called Aztalan State Park, the goliath remains of Wisconsin's giants have vanished along with the hundreds of others discovered throughout the midwest.

Many have accused the Smithsonian Institution of covering up these discoveries, locking the giant skeletons away and depriving the public of their findings.

The news no longer reports these discoveries.I am doing research and investigation. Dankie.


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