Model Funerary Barque van Mersou

Model Funerary Barque van Mersou

3D beeld

Modelbegrafnisblok van Mersou, einde van die eerste tussenperiode of begin van die Middelryk (omstreeks 2000 - 1900 v.G.J.). Musée du Cinquantenaire (Brussel, België). Gemaak met CapturingReality.

Vir meer opdaterings, oorweeg dit om my op Twitter te volg by @GeoffreyMarchal

Ondersteun onsNie-winsgewende organisasie

Ons webwerf is 'n nie-winsgewende organisasie. Vir slegs $ 5 per maand kan u lid word en ons missie ondersteun om mense met 'n kulturele erfenis te betrek en geskiedenisopvoeding wêreldwyd te verbeter.


Georges Braque

Georges Braque ( / b r ɑː k, b r æ k / BRA (H) K , Frans: [ʒɔʁʒ bʁak] 13 Mei 1882-31 Augustus 1963) was 'n belangrike 20ste-eeuse Franse skilder, collagis, tekenaar, drukker en beeldhouer. Sy belangrikste bydraes tot die kunsgeskiedenis was in sy alliansie met Fauvisme van 1905, en die rol wat hy gespeel het in die ontwikkeling van die kubisme. Braque se werk tussen 1908 en 1912 hou nou verband met die van sy kollega Pablo Picasso. Hulle onderskeie kubistiese werke was jare lank ononderskeibaar, maar die stil aard van Braque is gedeeltelik verduister deur die roem en bekendheid van Picasso. [1]


Modelbootstelle

Vir sommige van ons kliënte word hulle meer tevrede met die bou van hul eie skepe, seiljagte en seilbote eerder as om 'n klaargemaakte skeepsmodel aan te skaf. Premier Ship Models maak voorsiening vir beide versamelaars van klaargemaakte modelle en die ywerige stokperdjie wat verkies om hul eie te maak deur die dienste en relevante produkte te voorsien om aan al hul behoeftes te voldoen.

Daar is ook 'n uitgebreide reeks kits met hoë skeepsboukits en modelmodelle vir houtjagte; daar is ook verskillende moeilikheidsgraad om uit te vind dat u die regte een vir u kies. Daar is baie redes waarom iemand hul eie model wil bou. Uit die terugvoer wat ons ontvang het, blyk dit bloot om die bevrediging om iets met u eie hande te maak waarop u trots kan wees.

Ons versameling bevat seilbote, kitsbote vir lang skepe, boottelle vir skaalmodelle, historiese skepe en modelmodelle vir houtjagte. Boonop sal ons probeer om kits vir u te kry as u nie 'n spesifieke een kan vind wat u soek nie. Ons bied ongeveer 200 modelstelle aan, en dit is almal modelstelle van houtskip. Die skipmodelle wat ons aanbied, is noukeurig gekies om te verseker dat hulle van die beste gehalte is, met behulp van die beste hout en materiale.

As gevolg hiervan kom modelmakers terug met positiewe terugvoer na ons, waar hulle tevrede was met die kwaliteit van ons seilbote, seiljagte en lang skepe. Soos hierbo genoem, verkoop ons kits van die beste vervaardigers van kwaliteit modelstelle. Dit is Artesania, Amerang, Billings, Aeronaut, Amati en Mantua om maar net 'n paar te noem. Die soorte modelle is klassieke, historiese, moderne skepe en modelmodelle vir houtjagte, en dit is gewoonlik skepe uit die geskiedenis, verhale en klassieke seiljagte, waaronder HMS Unicorn, HMS Victory, La Sirene, Le Mirage, Reale De France en vele ander .

Deur die jare het ons gevind dat een van ons topverkopers en die gewildste modelskepuitrustings die Skotse Baltiese seiljagmodelstel is. Hierdie spesifieke houtstel word verskaf deur 'n Italiaanse vervaardiger, Corel S.R.L., wat bekend is vir die vervaardiging van houtstelle meer as 40 jaar. Nog 'n gewilde model van houtskepsmodelle deur Corel S.R.L. is die HMS Bellona, ​​'n beroemde 74 -geweer klassieke Britse vlootskip.

Een van die mees elegante skipmodelle in ons produkreeks is die Blue Nose 11 -modelskip, 'n uitstekende fokuspunt in enige kamer of kantoor. Vir diegene onder u wat meer ervare kitebouers is, is die modelbootstel van Smit Rotterdam 'n uitstekende keuse. Hierdie modelskipstel is gebou met 'n gloeilampspuitkop en die toerusting aan boord bevat 'n baie moderne komponent vir navigasie, stuur en radiokommunikasie.

'N Ander moontlikheid vir 'n meer gevorderde kitebouwer is die HMS Bounty -modelskipset met lasersnitonderdele. Dit kan nie makliker wees om 'n bootmodelstel aanlyn te koop nie! Ons maklike en vriendelike aanlynwinkel maak die aankoop van seilbootmodelle, hoë skeepsbou -kits en houtjag -modelstelle maklik en gerieflik.

Om u inkopies makliker te maak, het ons ons kits volgens die vervaardiger en moeilikheidsgraad (beginners, intermediêr en gevorderd) ingedeel. Kits kan wêreldwyd aan u gestuur word. Sien ons kliënte se getuienisse vir al die tevrede kliënte wat tot dusver by ons uit 81 lande regoor die wêreld gekoop het.

By Premier Ship Models voldoen ons aan die unieke voorkeure van elke versamelaar. Ons bied 'n groot verskeidenheid gereedgemaakte skeepsmodelle en modeluitrustings vir diegene wat verkies om hul eie modelle te bou. As u boumodelle ontspan of geniet van die bevrediging om iets met u eie hande te bou, bied ons ingewikkelde boot- en skeepsmodelle wat u met trots in u huis kan vertoon.

By Premier Ship Models het ons 'n uitgebreide keuse met meer as 200 houtmodelle bootstelle. Ons beskik oor modelstelle van die bekendste handelsmerke in die bedryf. Ons bied slegs die beste produkte met hout en materiaal van die beste gehalte aan om 'n aangename ervaring vir beginners sowel as ervare modelbouers te verseker. Kies skeepsuitrustings van Artesania, Aeronaut, Billings, Amati, Mantua en ander bekende en gerespekteerde handelsmerke.

Modelle vir elke vaardigheidsvlak en rente

Hou jy van 'n sekere tipe skip of tydperk in militêre of nautiese geskiedenis? Ons voorraad bevat skipmodelle vir klassieke, historiese en moderne skepe. U vind modelstelle vir alle soorte vaartuie, insluitend lang skepe, houtjagte, historiese skepe, seilbote, skaalmodelbootstelle en meer. Of u nou op soek is na 'n model uit 'n spesifieke tydperk, tipe skip of moderne bote, u sal dit hier vind.

Kies altyd 'n model wat geskik is vir die vaardigheidsvlak en ervaring van die persoon wat dit bou. 'N Kit wat te maklik of te moeilik is, sal afbreuk doen aan die genot van die aktiwiteit. Ons het modelseilbootstelle vir elke moeilikheidsgraad om beginners sowel as gevorderde stokperdjies te bevredig. Lees die produkbeskrywing van elke kit om meer te wete te kom oor elke skip, insluitend die materiaal wat in die kit ingesluit is, foto's en moeilikheidsgraad om seker te maak dat die skip by u pas.

Sommige modelboot -entoesiaste neem die stokperdjie na die volgende vlak met radiobeheerde bote. Ons bied voorafgeboude modelle en RC -bootstelle vir groot RC -bote, skaalbote, gasbote, PC -rompbote, ren- en snelbote. RC -bootmodelle word gebruik vir ontspanning of mededingende wedrenne, afhangende van die belangstellings van die individu. Blaai deur ons webwerf om houtmodelskepe, seilbote, historiese skepe en moderne modelskepe te vind wat geskik is vir beginners, intermediêre en gevorderde modelbou. Ons bied vinnige bestelverwerking en wêreldwye aflewering aan.


Inhoud

Wat die hedendaagse gehoor geskok het, was nie die naaktheid van Olympia of die teenwoordigheid van haar bediende nie, maar haar konfronterende blik en 'n aantal besonderhede wat haar as 'n demi-mondaine of prostituut. [1] Dit sluit die orgidee in haar hare, haar armband, pêreloorbelle en die oosterse sjaal waarop sy lê, simbole van rykdom en sensualiteit in. Die swart lint om haar nek, in skrille kontras met haar bleek vlees, en haar afgetrekte pantoffel onderstreep die wulpse atmosfeer. 'Olympia' was 'n naam wat verband hou met prostitute in Parys van die 1860's. [2]

Die skildery is gemodelleer na Titian's Venus van Urbino (c. 1534). [3] Terwyl die linkerhand van Titiaan se Venus gekrul is en blykbaar lok, blyk dit dat Olympia se linkerhand blokkeer, wat vertolk word as simbolies van haar rol as 'n prostituut, wat toegang verleen of beperk tot haar liggaam in ruil vir betaling. [4] Manet het die hondjie (simbool van getrouheid) in Titian se skildery vervang met 'n swart kat, 'n wese wat verband hou met nagtelike losbandigheid. [4] Die gewekte houding van die kat was uitlokkend in Frans, gesels (kat) is 'n slang vir vroulike geslagsdele. [5] Olympia ignoreer minagtend die blomme wat haar bediende haar voorgehou het, waarskynlik 'n geskenk van 'n kliënt. [5] Sommige het voorgestel dat sy in die rigting van die deur kyk, terwyl haar kliënt onaangekondig inbars. [5]

Die skildery wyk af van die akademiese kanon in sy styl, gekenmerk deur breë, vinnige kwashale, ateljeebeligting wat middeltone, groot kleuroppervlaktes en vlak diepte uitskakel. Anders as die gladde geïdealiseerde naak van Alexandre Cabanel La naissance de VénusOlympia, ook in 1863 geskilder, is 'n regte vrou wie se naaktheid beklemtoon word deur die harde beligting. [1] Die doek alleen is 51,4 × 74,8 duim, wat redelik groot is vir hierdie skildery in genre-styl. Die meeste skilderye van hierdie grootte het historiese of mitologiese gebeure uitgebeeld, sodat die grootte van die werk, onder andere, verras was. Ten slotte is Olympia redelik dun volgens die artistieke standaarde van die tyd en haar relatief onontwikkelde lyf is meer meisjesagtig as vroulik. Charles Baudelaire het gedink dat dunheid meer onwelvoeglik as vet was. [6]

Die model vir Olympia, Victorine Meurent, sou deur die kykers van die skildery erken word omdat sy bekend was in die kringe van Parys. Sy het begin modelleer toe sy sestien jaar oud was, en sy was ook 'n bekwame skilder in eie reg. [7] Sommige van haar skilderye is in die Paryse salon uitgestal. Die vertroudheid met die identiteit van die model was 'n belangrike rede waarom hierdie skildery vir kykers as skokkend beskou is. 'N Bekende vrou wat tans in die huidige Parys woon, kon nie gelyktydig 'n historiese of mitologiese vrou verteenwoordig nie. [8]

Alhoewel Manet Die middagete op die gras (Le déjeuner sur l'herbe) het in 1863 omstredenheid veroorsaak, sy Olympia het 'n nog groter opskudding opgewek toe dit die eerste keer in die Paryse salon van 1865 uitgestal is. Konserwatiewes het die werk as 'immoreel' en 'vulgêr' veroordeel. [1] Joernalis Antonin Proust onthou later: "As die doek van die Olympia nie vernietig is nie, is dit slegs as gevolg van die voorsorgmaatreëls wat die administrasie getref het." Die kritici en die publiek veroordeel die werk gelyk. Selfs Émile Zola het tot onbedoelde kommentaar gelewer op die formele eienskappe van die werk, eerder as om die onderwerp te erken: "U wou 'n naak hê, en u het Olympia gekies, die eerste wat daarby gekom het". [9] Hy het egter eer gebring aan Manet se eerlikheid: "As ons kunstenaars ons Venusse gee, korrigeer hulle die natuur, hulle lieg. Édouard Manet het homself afgevra hoekom lieg, waarom nie die waarheid vertel wat hy ons aan Olympia voorgestel het nie, dit vyl van ons tyd, wat u op die sypaadjies ontmoet. "[10]

Olympia se diensmeisie Edit

Alhoewel dit oorspronklik oor die hoof gesien is, het die figuur van die diensmeisie in die skildery, gemodelleer deur 'n vrou met die naam Laure, 'n onderwerp geword van bespreking onder hedendaagse geleerdes. Soos T. J. Clark vertel van 'n vriend se ongeloof in die hersiene weergawe van 1990 Die skildery van die moderne lewe: "jy het al vyftig bladsye en meer oor die wit vrou op die bed geskryf, en skaars die swart vrou langs haar genoem." [11] Olympia is geskep 15 jaar nadat slawerny in Frankryk en sy ryk afgeskaf is, maar negatiewe stereotipes van swart mense het onder sommige elemente van die Franse samelewing bestaan. In sommige gevalle is die wit prostituut in die skildery beskryf met behulp van rasgelaaide taal. Volgens Maria Rutledge het "verwysings na Swartheid dus die beeld van die wit Olympia binnegedring en haar verander in die karikatuurlike en groteske dier wat swart mense gereeld in die negentiende eeu voorstel." [12]

Baie kritici het Manet toegejuig in sy gebruik van wit en swart in die skildery, 'n alternatief vir die tradisie van chiaroscuro. Charles Bernheimer het geantwoord:

Die swart bediende is nie. bloot 'n donker gekleurde eweknie van Olympia se witheid, maar eerder 'n embleem van die donker, dreigende, afwykende seksualiteit wat net onder Olympia se hand skuil. Ten minste is dit die fantasie wat Manet se knegfiguur moontlik by die manlike toeskouer van 1865 sou opgewek het. [13]

Volgens Timothy Paul het sommige swart feministe, waaronder Lorraine O 'Grady, aangevoer dat Manet Laure nie vir 'n artistieke konvensie ingesluit het nie, maar om 'n ideologiese binêre tussen swart en wit, goed en sleg, skoon en vuil en as sodanig te skep " herformuleer onvermydelik die Cartesiese perspektieflogika wat toelaat dat witheid as die enigste onderwerp van oorweging kan funksioneer ". [14] Die swart vroulike model, gekoppel aan 'n ligter velkleur, is 'n teken van alle rasse -stereotipes van die Weste.

Konfronterende blik en opposisionele blik Redigeer

In die opstel van Lorraine O'Grady met die titel "Olympia's Maid: Reclaiming Black Female Subjectivity", [15] beweer sy, "Olympia's meid, net soos alle ander 'perifere negers', is 'n robot wat maklik in die agtergrondgordyn kan verdwyn. Hoewel die konfronterende blik van Olympia dikwels die toppunt van uittarting na die patriargie genoem word, word die opposisionele blik van Olympia se diensmeisie geïgnoreer.

O'Grady wys daarop dat ons weet dat sy 'Jesebel en Mammy' verteenwoordig "en die beste van alles: sy is nie 'n regte persoon nie", maar is eerder beswaar teen die geobjektiveerde en uitgesluit van seksuele verskil volgens die Freudiaanse teorie. [15] Terwyl Olympia direk na die kyker kyk, kyk haar diensmeisie ook terug. [16] In haar opstel "Mammy, Jezebel, Sapphire and Their Homegirls: Developing a Oppositional Gaze towards the Images of Black Women", kom Catherine West tot die gevolgtrekking dat ons 'n opposisionele blik kan opeis, kritiseer, weerstaan ​​en transformeer hierdie en ander onderdrukkende beelde van swart vroue. [17]

Gebeurtenisse wysig

In Januarie 2016 het 'n Luxemburgse uitvoerende kunstenaar, Deborah De Robertis, op die vloer voor die skildery gelê en die pose van die onderwerp nageboots. Sy is gearresteer vir onsedelike blootstelling. [18]

Deels is die skildery geïnspireer deur Titian's Venus van Urbino (ongeveer 1534), wat weer afkomstig is van Giorgione's Slaap Venus (c. 1510). Die Titiaan het twee volledig geklede vroue, vermoedelik bediendes, op die agtergrond. Léonce Bénédite was die eerste kunshistorikus wat die ooreenkoms met die Venus van Urbino in 1897. [19] Daar is ook 'n mate van ooreenkoms met dié van Francisco Goya La maja desnuda (ongeveer 1800). [20]

Daar was ook beeldende presedente vir 'n naakte wit wyfie, dikwels met 'n swart vroulike bediende, soos Léon Benouville Ester met Odalisque (1844), Ingres ' Odalisk met 'n slaaf (1842), en Charles Jalabert's Odalisk (1842). [21] Vergelyking word ook getref met Ingres se Grande Odalisque (1814). Manet het nie 'n godin of 'n odalisk uitgebeeld nie, maar 'n hoë-klas prostituut wat op 'n kliënt wag en daar word gereeld beweer dat Titiaan dieselfde gedoen het.

Giorgione, Slaap Venus (c. 1510), ook bekend as die Dresden Venus


Model Funerary Barque of Mersou - Geskiedenis

Die woordelys bestaan ​​nie meer nie, of die webwerf bestaan ​​nie meer nie. Op hierdie bladsy kan u 'n afskrif van die oorspronklike inligting vind. Die inligting is moontlik vanlyn geneem omdat dit verouderd is.

Abtu
Die Grieke het hierdie plek Abydos genoem. Dit was die setel van aanbidding van Osiris. Dit word ook Busiris genoem, 'die huis van Osiris'. Egiptiese tradisie sê dat die son sy daaglikse reis by Abydos beëindig het en die onderwêreld hier binnegegaan het, deur 'n gaping in die berge, 'peq' genoem. In die 12de dinastie is geglo dat die siele van die dooies die hiernamaals binnegekom het.

Aker
Die dubbele leeugod, gaurdian van die sonsopkoms en sonsondergang. Gaurdian van die pieke wat die lug ondersteun het. Die westelike piek is Manu genoem, terwyl die oostelike piek Bakhu genoem is.

Akh
Die akh was die aspek van 'n persoon wat by die gode in die onderwêreld sou aansluit as onsterflik en onveranderlik. Dit is na die dood geskep deur die gebruik van begrafnisteks en spreuke, wat ontwerp is om 'n akh te bring. Sodra dit bereik is, was die individu verseker dat hy nie ''n tweede keer sterf' ''n dood wat die einde van 'n mens se bestaan ​​sou beteken.

Akhet
Dit was die horison waaruit die son opgekom en verdwyn het. Die horison vergestalt dus die idee van sonsopkoms en sonsondergang. Dit is soortgelyk aan die twee pieke van die Djew- of bergsimbool met 'n sonskyf in die middel. Die begin en die einde van elke dag is bewaak deur Aker, 'n dubbele leeugod. In die Nuwe Koninkryk het Harmakhet ('Horus in die horison') die god geword van die opkomende en ondergaande son. Hy is voorgestel as 'n valk, of as 'n sfinx met die liggaam van 'n leeu. Die Groot Sfinx van Giza is 'n voorbeeld van 'Horus in the Horizon'.

Amarna
Die naam wat gegee word aan die historiese tydperk onder die bewind van Amenophis IV /Akhenaten. Gedurende hierdie tydperk was daar ongekende veranderinge in die regering, kuns en godsdiens.

Amenta
Die onderwêreld. Oorspronklik die plek waar die son sak, is hierdie naam later toegepas op die Wesoewer van die Nyl waar die Egiptenare hul grafte gebou het.

Ammut
As 'n vroulike demoon, word sy aangetref in The Book of the Dead. Sy speel 'n belangrike rol in die Hall of Maat.

Amulet
'N Sjarme, dikwels in die vorm van hiërogliewe, gode of heilige diere gemaak van edelgesteentes of fajance. Hulle is gedra soos juweliersware gedurende die lewe en is ingesluit in die mummie -omhulsels vir die hiernamaals.

Amun
'N God wat 'n kultusentrum was, was die tempel van Amun in Karnak. Hy word beskou as die koning van al die gode en die skepper van alle dinge.

Ankh
'N Simbool van lewe wat lyk soos 'n luskruis. Dit is later deur Koptiese Christene aangepas as hul kruis. Word wyd gebruik as 'n amulet.

Anrosphinx
Een van die drie soorte Egiptiese sfinx, met die kop van 'n man.

Antropoïde
'N Griekse woord wat mensvormig beteken. Hierdie term word gebruik vir kiste wat in die vorm van 'n mens gemaak is.

Anubis
'N Jakkalshoof. Bewaker van die nekropolis.

Apis Bull
Die Apisbul was heilig vir Osiris. Dit is vereer vanaf die vroegste tye, deur die Grieks-Romeinse tydperk.

Aquert
'N Naam vir die land van die dooies.

Atef Crown
Die atef -kroon is deur Osiris gedra. Dit bestaan ​​uit die wit kroon van Bo -Egipte en die rooi vere verteenwoordig Busiris, Osiris se kultus sentrum in die Delta.

Aten
Die god wat sy bekendheid verwerf het tydens die bewind van Akhenaten, wat die tradisionele kultusse van Egipte afgeskaf en met die Aten vervang het. Dit het die eerste monoteïstiese kultus ter wêreld geskep.

BA
Die ba kan die beste beskryf word as iemand se persoonlikheid. Soos 'n persoon se liggaam, was elke ba 'n individu. Dit het 'n persoon se liggaam binnegedring met die asem van die lewe en dit het vertrek ten tye van die dood. Die ba word geassosieer met goddelikheid en krag. Dit het die vermoë om verskillende vorme aan te neem; in hierdie opsig het die gode baie bas. Die ba van die oorledene kan vrylik beweeg tussen die onderwêreld en die fisiese wêreld. Die ba is soortgelyk aan die ka.

Bakhu
Die mitiese berg waaruit die son opkom. Die gebied van die oostelike horison. Een van die twee berge wat die lug omhoog hou, die ander is Manu. Hierdie pieke is bewaak deur die dubbelleeu -god, Aker.

Barque
'N Boot waarin die gode gevaar het. Die raam van Ra dra elke dag 'n magdom gode oor die lug.

Barque -heiligdom
In hierdie tempels is modelbakke gehou. Hierdie modelbakke is gebruik om gode tydens die optogte uit die tempels te vervoer.

Bastet
'N Kat met die hoof godin. As songodin verteenwoordig sy die warm, lewegewende krag van die son.

Benben
'N Klip wat lyk soos 'n obelisk, verteenwoordigend van 'n sonstraal

Bennu
'n aspek van Ra-Atum in die vorm van 'n feniks. Die beskermheer van die afrekening van tyd. Die draer van ewige lig van die woonplek van die gode na die wêreld van mense.

Geboortehuis
Dit was klein tempels, verbonde aan die hooftempels van die laat- en Grieks-Romeinse tydperke. Hierdie klein tempels is waar die god van die hooftempel gebore is, of as die hooftempel aan 'n godin opgedra is, is dit waar sy haar kinders gebaar het.

Book Of The Dead
Dit is 'n versameling towerkuns en formules wat geïllustreer en geskryf is, gewoonlik op papirus. Dit het ongeveer 1600 vC in Egiptiese grafte begin verskyn. Die teks was bedoel om deur die oorledene tydens hul reis na die onderwêreld gepraat te word. Dit het die oorledene in staat gestel om struikelblokke in die hiernamaals te oorkom. Dit het dit gedoen deur wagwoorde te leer waarmee die oorledene in mitiese wesens kon verander om gevare te navigeer, terwyl hulle die hulp en beskerming van die gode verleen en die oorledene se identiteit met die gode verkondig. Die tekste sit die tradisie van die piramiedtekste en doodskisteks voort. Daar is ongeveer 200 spreuke bekend en die keuse van spel kan van kopie tot kopie wissel.

Canopiese potte
Vier potte wat gebruik word om die bewaarde interne organe van die oorledene te stoor. Elke pot is verteenwoordigend van een van die vier seuns van Horus. Die term kom van die Grieks, Canopus, 'n halfgod wat vereer word in die vorm van 'n kruik met 'n menslike kop.

Cartonnage
Papirus of linne geweek in gips, gevorm om 'n liggaam. Word gebruik vir mummies en kiste.

Cartouche
'N Sirkel met 'n horisontale balk aan die onderkant, verleng tot 'n ovaal waarbinne die name van die konings geskryf is. Die teken verteenwoordig 'n toulus wat nooit eindig nie.

Senotaaf
Van die Griekse woord wat 'leë graf' beteken. 'N Graf wat vir seremoniële doeleindes gebou is, wat nooit bedoel was om vir die begrafnis van die oorledene gebruik te word nie.

Kistekste
Tekste in kiste van die Middelryk wat geskryf is om die siele van die dooies te verby die gevare en gevare wat op die reis deur die hiernamaals ondervind word. Meer as 1 000 spreuke is bekend.

Kolos
'N Meer dan lewensgrootte standbeeld, dikwels van 'n koning, maar ook van gode en selfs privaat individue. Hierdie groot beelde omring gewoonlik die hekke of pilare van tempels. Daar word geglo dat hulle as tussengangers tussen mense en die gode optree.

Criosphinx
Een van die drie soorte Egiptiese sfinx, met die kop van 'n ram.

Wanhoop
Die rooi kroon. Dit was die kroon wat Neder -Egipte (noordelik) verteenwoordig het.

Goddelike Adoratrice
Hoofpriesteres van Amun in Thebe, 'n kantoor wat uit die Nuwe Koninkryk tot in die laat tydperk bekend was. Die kantoor was 'n belangrike instrument van politieke beheer.

Djed -kolom
Daar word geglo dat die Djed 'n weergawe van 'n menslike ruggraat is. Dit verteenwoordig stabiliteit en sterkte. Dit is oorspronklik verbind met die skeppingsgod Ptah. Hy word self die 'Noble Djed' genoem. Namate die Osiris -kultusse posgevat het, het dit bekend geword as die ruggraat van Osiris. 'N Djed -kolom word gereeld op die bodem van kiste geverf, waar die ruggraat van die oorledene sou lê, dit identifiseer die persoon met die koning van die onderwêreld, Osiris. Dit dien ook as 'n teken van stabiliteit vir die oorledene se reis na die hiernamaals.

Dromos
'N Reguit, geplaveide laan omring deur sfinkse.

Duat
Die land van die dooies. Dit lê onder die aarde en kom deur die westelike horison.

Elektrum
'N Mengsel van goud en silwer.

Ennead
'N Groep van 9 gode wat verband hou met 'n belangrike kultus sentrum. Die bekendste is die groot ennead van Heliopolis, dit bestaan ​​uit Atum, Shu, Tefnut, Geb, Nut, Osiris, Isis, Seth en Nephthys.

Faience
'N Geglasuurde materiaal, met 'n basis van gesnyde seepsteen of gegote klei, met 'n deklaag van blou/groen gekleurde glas.

Valse deur. .
'N Deur wat op 'n muur gesny of geverf is. Die ka sou hierdie deur gebruik om aan begrafnisaanbiedings deel te neem.

Fekunditeitsfiguur
Soort aanbiedingsdraer gelewer aan die voet van die tempelmure. Daar word gewys dat hulle offers in die tempel bring. Die manlike figure word gereeld getoon met swaar hangende borste en bultende mae, wat die volheid simboliseer van die oorvloed van die aanbiedinge wat hulle bring.

Fetisj
'N Diervel wat aan 'n stok hang. Dit is gebruik deur die kultusse van Osiris en Anubis.

Flagellum
'N Oes of sweep wat gebruik word om bose geeste af te weer.

Vlam
Hierdie simbool verteenwoordig 'n lamp of vuurherd op 'n staander waaruit 'n vlam opkom. Vuur was beliggaam in die son en in sy simbool die uraeus wat vuur gespoeg het. Vuur speel ook 'n rol in die Egiptiese konsep van die onderwêreld. Daar is een skrikwekkende aspek van die onderwêreld wat soortgelyk is aan die Christene -konsep van die hel. Die meeste Egiptenare wil hierdie plek met sy vurige mere en riviere wat deur vuurduiwels bewoon word, vermy.

Begrafnisskegels
Kleikegels bo die ingang van die graf met die naam en titel van die oorledene.

Begrafnisaanbiedings
Brood, bier, wyn en ander voedsel wat deur rouklaers of op 'n magiese manier verskaf word, deur inskripsies en foto's in die graf.

Geb
'N God wat soms met die kop van 'n gans afgebeeld word. Geb is 'die Groot Cackler' genoem en is as sodanig as 'n gans voorgestel. Dit is in hierdie vorm dat hy gesê het dat hy die eier gelê het waaruit die son uitgebroei het. Daar word geglo dat hy die derde goddelike koning van die aarde was. Die koninklike troon van Egipte was bekend as die 'troon van Geb' ter ere van sy groot bewind.

Hapi
Die god van die Nyl, veral die oorstroming. Hy word afgebeeld as 'n bebaarde man in blou of groen, met vroulike borste, wat sy voedingsvermoë aandui. As god van die Noord -Nyl dra hy papirusplante op sy kop, en as god van die suidelike Nyl dra hy lotusplante.

Hathor
Hathor was die godin van vreugde, moederskap en liefde. Hathor is oorspronklik in die vorm van 'n koei aanbid, soms as 'n koei met sterre op haar. Later word sy voorgestel as 'n vrou met die kop van 'n koei, en uiteindelik met 'n menslike kop, die gesig breed en rustig, soms word sy uitgebeeld met die ore of horings van 'n koei.

Hedjet
'N Wit kroon. Dit was die kroon van Bo -Egipte (suidelike).

Hieracosphinx
Een van die drie soorte Egiptiese sfinx, met die kop van 'n valk.

Hiëraties
Van die Griekse woord wat 'heilig' beteken, hoewel hierdie vorm van die geskrewe taal deur die Egiptiese geskiedenis gebruik is, kom die naam uit die latere tydperke toe dit slegs in godsdienstige tekste gebruik is.

Hiëroglief
Die Egiptiese prentetaal. Van die Griekse woord wat 'heilige snywerk' beteken. Die simbole is individuele prente wat nie bymekaar pas nie.

Hoëpriester
Die hoof van die plaaslike priesterskap.

Horus
'N Valk met die hoof van God. Horus was so belangrik vir die staatsgodsdiens dat Farao's as sy menslike manifestasie beskou is en selfs die naam Horus aangeneem het.

Naam Horus
'N Koning se naam. Dit identifiseer die koning met 'n vorm van die god Horus.

Hypostyle Hall
Van die Griekse woord wat 'pilare dra' beteken. Dit is 'n term wat gebruik word om die grootste, buitenste sale te beskryf. Daar word vermoed dat hulle 'n bos bome verteenwoordig.

Ibu
Die tent van suiwering. Dit is die plek waar mummifikasie vooraf gevorm is.

Ieb
Dit is die hart. Die Egiptenare het geglo dat die hart die middelpunt van alle bewussyn is, selfs die middelpunt van die lewe self. Toe iemand gesterf het, is gesê dat hulle 'hart wyk'. Dit was die enigste orgaan wat nie tydens die mummifikasie uit die liggaam verwyder is nie. In die Boek van die dooies was dit die hart wat teen die veer van Maat geweeg is om te sien of 'n individu waardig is om by Osiris aan te sluit in die hiernamaals.

Isis
Isis was 'n groot towenaar, die godin van towery. Sy word dikwels voorgestel as 'n vrou wat die hiërogliewe simbool van haar naam op haar kop dra, wat 'n troon of sitplek verteenwoordig.

Ithyfallies
Van die Griekse woord wat 'met regop penis' beteken. Verskeie gode word in hierdie vorm voorgestel. Veral Min en Amun.

Ka
Die ka word gewoonlik vertaal as 'dubbel', dit verteenwoordig 'n persoon se dubbel. Dit is wat ons 'n gees of 'n siel sou noem. Die ka is op dieselfde tyd as die fisiese liggaam geskep. Daar word geglo dat die god met 'n ramkop, Khnum, die ka op sy pottebakker se wiel gemaak het tydens die geboorte van 'n persoon. 'N Persoon kan lewe nadat hul liggaam gesterf het. Daar is gedink dat 'iemand hul dood ontmoet' toe iemand sterf. Die ka bestaan ​​in die fisiese wêreld en woon in die graf (House of the Ka). Dit het dieselfde behoeftes as wat die persoon in die lewe gehad het, naamlik om te eet, te drink, ens.

Khepresh
Die blou kroon was 'n seremoniële kroon.

Khepri
'N God met 'n skarabee. Die Egiptenare het geglo dat Khepri die son op dieselfde manier deur die lug gedruk het as 'n miskruier (skarlak) wat 'n bal mis oor die grond gestoot het.

Khet
Dit is 'n vlam of vuur. Vuur was beliggaam in die son en in sy simbool die uraeus wat vuur gespoeg het. Vuur speel ook 'n rol in die Egiptiese konsep van die onderwêreld. Daar is een skrikwekkende aspek van die onderwêreld wat soortgelyk is aan die Christene -konsep van die hel. Die meeste Egiptenare wil hierdie plek met sy vurige mere en riviere wat deur vuurduiwels bewoon word, vermy.

Khnum
'N Ram met die hoof van god. Sy naam beteken om te skep. Hy was die skepper van alle dinge wat is en alle dinge wat sal wees. Hy het die gode geskep en hy het die mensdom op 'n pottebakkerswiel gevorm.

Khu
'N Geestelike entiteit wat dikwels genoem word in samewerking met die ba. Dit word beskou as 'n heeltemal geestelike en absoluut onsterflike wese.

Lektor Priester
Vertaal as 'Een wat die rituele boek dra'. Hierdie priesters se funksie was om uit die rituele tekste voor te skryf.

Lotus
Daar word vermoed dat dit 'n simbool van geboorte en dagbreek was die wieg van die son op die eerste oggend van die skepping, wat uit die oerwater opkom. Die lotus was 'n algemene argitektoniese motief, veral in hoofletters

Maat
Die konsep van orde, waarheid, gereeldheid en geregtigheid wat vir die ou Egiptenare belangrik was. Dit was die farao se plig om maat te handhaaf.

Mammisi
Sien GEBOORTEHUIS

Manu
Die mitiese berg waarop die son sak. Die gebied van die westelike horison. Een van die twee berge wat die lug omhoog hou, die ander een BAKHU. Hierdie pieke is bewaak deur die dubbelleeu -god, AKER.

Mastaba
Die Arabiese woord wat 'bank' beteken. Word gebruik om grafte uit die vroeë dinastiese tydperk en ou koninkryk te beskryf. Die basiese vorm lyk soos 'n bank.

Menat
'N Beskermende amulet wat die goddelike guns aanroep. Dit is gewoonlik op 'n string krale agter in die nek gedra, waarskynlik as 'n teenstelling tot juweliersware wat voor gedra is. Baie van hierdie amulette is in grafte gevind. Hulle was veronderstel om vrugbaarheid vir vroue te bring en viriliteit vir mans.

Menhed
'N Skrifgeleerde palet. Skryf was 'n baie belangrike vaardigheid vir die ou Egiptenare. Dit is beoefen deur 'n groep met die naam van skrifgeleerdes. Die skryftoerusting wat deur skrifgeleerdes gebruik word, bestaan ​​uit 'n palet met swart en rooi pigmente, 'n waterkruik en 'n pen. Om 'n skriba te wees, was 'n gunstige posisie; selfs 'n paar konings en edeles vertoon trots skrywerpalette.

Min
In die vroeë tye was Min 'n hemelgod wie se simbool 'n donderbol was. Sy titel was Chief of Heaven. Hy word ook gesien as 'n reengod wat die vrugbaarheid van die natuur bevorder het, veral in die verbouing van graan.

Meesteres Van Die Huis
Huisvrou, titel gegee aan getroude dames vanaf die Middelryk.

Lykhuis
met betrekking tot die begrafnis van die dooies.

Mortuary Cult
Mense wat begrafnisaanbiedings verskaf het vir die voeding van die oorledene.

Lykhuis Priester
Die 'dienaar van die ka' genoem. Dit was 'n persoon wat aangestel is om daaglikse offergawes na 'n graf te bring.

Mammie
Van die Persiese woord 'moumiya'. 'N Bewaarde lyk op natuurlike of kunsmatige wyse. Mummifikasie het behels dat die liggaam deeglik gedroog is om die bron van verval te verwyder.

Mut
Mut was die goddelike moedergodin, die koningin van alle gode. Sy word uitgebeeld as 'n vrou met 'n aasvoëlhoofdoek, met die dubbele kroon (Pshent) van bo- en onder -Egipte.

Naos
Heiligdom waarin goddelike standbeelde gehou is, veral in tempels. Normaalweg is 'n klein houtnaos in 'n monolitiese een in harde klip geplaas, laasgenoemde is tipies van die laat tydperk en soms uitgebrei versier. Also used as a term for temple sanctuary.

Natron
A naturally occurring salt used as a preservative and drying agent during mummification. It is a mixture of four salts that occur in varying proportions: sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.

Nebu
This is the Egyptian word for gold, which was considered a divine metal, it was thought to be the flesh of the gods. Its polished surface was related to the brilliance of the sun. Gold was important to the afterlife as it represents aspects of immortality. By the New Kingdom, the royal burial chamber was called the 'House of Gold.'

Necropolis
The Greek word meaning 'city of the dead' normally describes large and important burial areas that were in use for long periods.

Neith
A goddess of the hunt. She may have also been a war goddess. Neith was pictured as a woman wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt, holding a bow and crossed arrows. Her cult sign was a shield and crossed arrows.

Nekhbet
A goddess portrayed as a vulture. Protectress of Upper Egypt.

Nemes
A striped headcloth worn by Pharaohs.

Nephthys
A goddess, the twin sister of Osiris, Isis and Seth. She plays an important role in the Osiris legend. Her name means 'Lady of the House' it's thought to be referring to Osiris' Palace.

Neter
This seems to be the egyptian word for the forces that are god or a group of gods, although the exact meaning is unknown.

Neter-Khertet
This translates as 'divine subterranean place'. A name for the land of the dead.

Nilometer
Staircase descending into the Nile and marked with levels above low water used for measuring, and in some cases recording, inundation levels. The most famous are on Elephantine island and on Roda island in Cairo.

Nomarch
The chief official of a nome. In the late Old Kingdom, and early Middle Kingdom nomarchs gained their office as hereditary rulers. They governed their nomes more or less independently of any central authority. During periods of highly centralized government, nomes ceased to have much political importance.

Nome
From the Greek, nomos this is an administrative province of Egypt. The nome system started in the Early Dynastic Period. During some periods, when there was a highly centralized government the nomes had little political importance.

Nu
A swirling watery chaos from which the cosmic order was produced. In the begining there was only Nu. See also the creation myths

Moer
Nut was originally a mother-goddess who had many children. The hieroglyph for her name, which she is often seen wearing on her head is a water pot, but it is also thought to represent a womb. As the sky goddess, she is shown stretching from horizon to horizon, touching only her fingertips and toes to the ground.

Obelisk
From the Greek word meaning 'a spit'. It is a monumental tapering shaft usually made of pink granite. Capped with a pyramidion at the top. Obelisks are solar symbols similar in meaning to pyramids, they are associated with an ancient stone called BENBEN in Heliopolis. They were set in pairs, at the entrances of temples, and to some Old Kingdom tombs.


The Khufu Ship, One of the Oldest, Largest & Best Preserved Vessels from Antiquity

Model of Khufu's solar barque, from the boat museum at the base of the Great Pyramid.

Measuring 43.67 m (143 ft.) long and 5.9 m (19.5 ft) wide, the funerary boat of King Cheops (Khufu, Khêops), the second pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, is one of the oldest, largest, and best-reserved vessels from antiquity. Around 2500 BCE the boat was sealed into a pit in the Giza Necropolis at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza.

"The ship was one of two rediscovered in 1954 by Kamal el-Mallakh &ndash undisturbed since it was sealed into a pit carved out of the Giza bedrock. It was built largely of Lebanon cedar planking in the 'shell-first' construction technique, using unpegged tenons of Christ's thorn. The ship was built with a flat bottom composed of several planks, but no actual keel, with the planks and frames lashed together with Halfah grass, and has been reconstructed from 1,224 pieces which had been laid in a logical, disassembled order in the pit beside the pyramid" (Wikipedia article on Khufu ship, accessed 01-18-2013)

Though the Khufu ship is categorized as a solar barge or sun boat, intended for use in the afterlife, perhaps to allow the king to cross the sky every day with Re (Ra), the sun-god, it seems to have been used at least once&mdashperhaps to carry the funeral cortêge of the king by river or canal to the pyramid complex for burial.

Having been restored over many years, the Khufu ship is preserved in the Giza Solar Boat Museum.


Alien Explorations

Exploring the "Alien" Movies and HR Giger.
All entries are continuously edited and altered.
Articles are published not by actual date.

Alien : Evolution of Space Jockey via the Egyptian Book of the Dead: The Henu Barque (AKA The Sokar Funerary Barque)


a.ii) If there was a mysterious sculpture or design to know about from the Ancient Egyptian traditions I didn't know about it.

Perhaps Giger's painting Necronom IV featuring the creature that inspired the main structure of the final alien life form design in the movie was also loosely inspired by the same images of the funerary barque.

On January 14th 2011 , I went to see "The Egyptian Book of the Dead" exhibition at the British Museum

When I looked at the section displaying the the Papyrus of Ani, a very curious detail jumped out at me as it if were a strange creature with a rib cage extending behind it and a long legless trunk like body and an animal head at the top of the body supported by a cradle with three pillars.

I immediately thought that this could easily be the inspiration for a Giger biomechanoid.

This small image was in fact a depiction of a Henu Barque that was a sacred bark/ barge dedicated to the funerary god Sokar.


Welsh History Month: Why I'm in ore of the copper barque

There was nothing showy about this object. The copper barque – the sailing vessel that linked Swansea to the wider world in the 19th century – was a workaday affair. It lacked the sleek lines of the tea clipper and therefore the speed that gave clippers their blue-riband glamour. The copper barque was more lumbering it was sturdily built to carry Welsh coal on its outward passage and copper ore on the homeward leg. Elegant it was not, but the three-masted barque was an object that embodied Wales’ articulation with the world economy in the early Victorian Age.

Copper barques were once a very familiar sight in Swansea Bay. They stood off the mouth of the Tawe, waiting for a tide that would carry them over the bar and float them upstream towards the copper works. Yet most barques spent relatively little time in Welsh waters. Indeed, most of them were built elsewhere, very often in boatyards on the opposite side of the Bristol Channel, in Bideford and Barnstaple, where shipbuilders were used to making tough little ships of shallow draught, capable of being beached in the small harbours and coves of the West Country. Vessels of this sort, made of local oak, had long been employed in the coasting trade that linked together the ports of south-west England and South Wales. In the 18th century they were incorporated into the trade that was carrying larger and larger volumes of Cornish copper ore to the smelters of the Swansea district. By the 1820s there were more than 100 such vessels sailing out of Swansea, mostly running to places like Portreath and Hayle on Cornwall’s north coast or Devoran and Fowey on the south.

Moment copper went global

The 1830s saw a major expansion in the number of copper barques serving Swansea. This was a moment when Swansea’s copper industry went global, drawing on ores from all around the world, from Cuba, Australia and Chile. In 1827 ore imports to Britain scarcely registered by 1847 more than 51,000 tons of high-grade foreign ores were landed at British ports (80% of it at Swansea). There were new challenges here. Home waters could be treacherous, especially around the Cornish coast, but seafarers from South Wales now had to cover greater distances – immense distances, in fact – and venture into enormously threatening environments. Copper barques had to clear the Caribbean before the hurricane season began. They had to negotiate the howling southern oceans. Worst of all, they had to fight their way around Cape Horn if they were to load with Chilean ore.

Copper barques grew bigger and became more elaborate to cope with these strains. They were “Swansea-fitted”. Copper ore was dense it was also a loose material that could shift about in transit. These factors made ore-carriers potentially unstable. If the ore was packed down in the depths of the hold it would lower the vessel’s centre of gravity. In heavy weather the ship could become unmanageable. The hull would sit too low in the water with the masts and rigging yawing about wildly. A Swansea-fitted barque was equipped with trunks to counteract this. These were silos within the hold into which the mineral would be packed. The trunks would raise the centre of gravity, keep the ore in its proper place and head off the danger of capsizing.

Seabed littered with wreckage

Barques were made for steadiness rather than speed. Even so, crews had to contend with terrifying conditions. A Cape-Horner had to dip below 56° south if it was to pass into the Pacific. Rounding the Cape could sometimes take weeks as the ship beat into towering seas and westerly gales. It was a gruelling ordeal for professional seafarers for passengers – smelters and miners on their way out to Chile – it was worse. The diary account of John Chellew, a furnace man who sailed from Swansea on the Florence Nightingale in 1857, tells of days spent battling against wind and currents. Making headway past the Cape, which appeared through the snow flurries as “a huge chain of dark mountains”, seemed impossible.

Of course, it was possible to founder in far calmer waters than those of Cape Horn. Indeed, the seabed around Swansea is still littered with the wreckage of copper barques. The Brechin Castle went down off the Gower Peninsula in February 1847. She was carrying 520 tons of copper ore from the newly opened Burra Burra mine in South Australia and 120 bales of wool. The 15 crew members and the passengers were all lost. The crew of the Arrieta was more fortunate. The ship ran aground in rough seas off the Mumbles in December 1848 the crewmen, with the exception of the second mate, were all rescued. Her cargo of Cuban ore went to the bottom, however.

The run to Cuba was a busy one at this time. The mines at El Cobre, high in the sierra behind Santiago de Cuba, were refurbished with British capital in the 1830s and became the most important source of overseas ore for Welsh smelters. Indeed, the main companies at El Cobre were closely connected with Swansea smelting companies. The Cobre Mining Association, the largest of the mining operations, was associated with the Grenfell family which owned works at Middle Bank and Upper Bank in the lower Swansea valley. The association was reflected in the barques that left for the Caribbean. The Pascoe Grenfell, named for the family patriarch, was a regular visitor to Santiago.

Yellow fever a deadly scourge

Shipwreck was not the only threat facing Cuba-bound Swansea mariners. Santiago was a notoriously unhealthy city where yellow fever was a deadly scourge: “Scarcely a vessel arrives in our port from Cuba but has one, two, three or even four hands dead on board”, Swansea’s Cambrian newspaper noted. Ship owners had to offer a special premium to get mariners to undertake the high-risk voyage. When owners tried to introduce a standard wage rate for all routes in 1856 they met with determined resistance on the part of the sailors: “This has been most resolutely opposed by a large number of the seamen of our port, who on Tuesday last paraded the principal streets of the town, accompanied by three or four flags and headed by a Scotchman playing the bagpipes”.

By the 1850s the Cuban mines had gone into decline. Chilean ore remained prominent, however. Copper barques continued to anchor in the bay at Valparaíso others headed north to Coquimbo, the main port of Chile’s fast-growing Norte Chico mining district. Other barques were dispatched to completely new areas of mineral exploitation. Port Nolloth in Namaqualand, on South Africa’s arid Atlantic coast, became familiar to Swansea seamen, so too Tilt Cove in Newfoundland.

Life became cosmopolitan

The copper trade introduced a cosmopolitan note to Welsh life. Swansea barques were carrying coal around the world well before Cardiff began its ascent as the world’s busiest coal exporter. The places to which coal was carried and from where ore was fetched have left their imprint on Swansea’s landscape. Cuban ore was landed at the Cobre wharf and sailors home from Santiago no doubt drank in the Cuba Inn on the town’s North Dock. The world came to Swansea and the copper trade turned Wales outwards. Seafarers from small maritime centres in West Wales like Aberaeron were recruited to serve on the barques despatched to the remotest locations.

Work for a staunch ship

Coal out and ore in: that was how Joseph Conrad described the Swansea trade, “deep-loaded both ways, as if in defiance of the great Cape Horn Seas – a work, this, for staunch ships”. But copper barques were not restricted to this. They carried a variety of materials on their outward leg: fire bricks, steam engine parts (entire steam engines, in fact, manufactured at the Neath Abbey ironworks or Harvey & Co’s foundry in Hayle), winding gear and explosives. There were passengers too: hard-rock miners and other industrial specialists who could earn high wages in mining districts overseas. Cornish miners boarded barques that operated locally, shuttling between Portreath and Swansea Bay, and then transfer to vessels bound for further afield. This was the path followed by James Whitburn, a Cornish engine man, who sailed from Swansea in June 1836, accompanied by his uncle, another engine man, and his 15-year-old son. They boarded a barque belonging to the Cobre Mining Association and landed at Santiago six weeks later.

Welsh miners head abroad

Others migrants were Welsh, seeking opportunities elsewhere in the Hungry Forties: “30 miners and 2 blacksmiths left Merthyr on the 3rd instant”, a local paper reported in March 1842, “for the Island of Cuba, in the employ of Mr Alderman Thompson. With one or two exceptions they are single men, and their stipulation is for three years, or to be returned to Swansea should the climate not agree with them. They are to work in the Copper mines, the blacksmiths at £9 a month each, and the miners at £6”. (Alderman William Thompson, the Merthyr ironmaster, was also a leading shareholder in the Royal Santiago Mining Company at El Cobre).

Other Welsh migrants ventured even further. The barque Richardson departed Swansea in June 1848, bound for Port Adelaide.

She carried over 70 passengers, the Cambrian reported, “chiefly parties from this neighbourhood who are engaged to be employed in a smelting establishment in Australia”. Some were from Cwmavon, some from Llanelli, but a good many more were workers from the Patent Copper Company’s Spitty copper works at Loughor, for the company had entered into an arrangement with the proprietors of the Burra Burra mine to erect a Welsh-style smelter adjacent to the mine. The Richardson took out not only the personnel needed to run a smelting works but everything needed for its construction: 48,100 fire-bricks, 40 tons fire clay, 300 furnace slabs, 200 furnace doors, 120 furnace bearers, 10 tons sand, 45 tons castings’ (and so on and so forth). The works was quickly into production, a kind of Swansea down under.

To add to the Welsh flavour, the workers were accommodated in a dormitory settlement alongside named Llwchwr.

Golden age of copper barque

The golden age of the Swansea copper barque began in the 1830s when the long-distance routes to Cuba, Chile and Australia were opened up. By 1870 that golden age was coming to a close. Swansea was no longer the dominant force in the international copper industry. New fuel-efficient technologies made it less and less necessary to carry ores across huge stretches of ocean to coal-rich Wales it made more sense to move fuel by rail to ore deposits.
Rich ores continued to make their way to Swansea Bay in the last decades of the 19th century, but the local copper industry was increasingly focused on high-end refining operations, not high-volume smelting.
The oceanic model of copper production that had been introduced at Swansea was now obsolete.
The new frontier of the international copper industry was to be found in the Rocky Mountain West: Montana, Utah and Colorado.
This was a continental model: the copper barque no longer had a role to play.

Today, it is hard to believe that such a vessel could have had much importance in 19th century Wales. Compared to the container ships of the present day, the barque seems laughably puny.

It is tempting, therefore, to romanticise the barque fleet and those who manned it.

Sure enough, copper barques and their sailors are memorialised in shanties and a rich anecdotal literature.

Yet the copper barque made possible a globally integrated industry, arguably the first of its kind. It is therefore worth commemorating as a key element in 19th century globalisation, a process in which industrial Wales played a key part.

WHAT EXACTLY WAS A BARQUE?

Loosely defined, a barque (the word is borrowed from the French) was simply a modestly sized ship, usually three-masted (although barques with more sail were known). They were bulk carriers of robust construction. Most were made in British yards although some were made in maritime Canada, on Prince Edward Isle. Local softwoods lacked the durability of English oak but their superior buoyancy had countervailing advantages in a ship intended for so dense a cargo.

The shallow keel that characterised the barque was well-suited to the port of Swansea. Before the 1850s there were no docks at the mouth of the Tawe that were permanently in water, so when the tide ebbed barques were left sitting on the mud. A flat bottom was essential.

The classic copper barque of the mid 19 century was of between 400 and 500 tons – witness the 430-ton Copiapo or the 460-ton Guayacan, both laid down at Bideford in the 1860s and clearly intended for the Chilean run. A wooden hull was almost always preferred. Iron-hulled vessels could be bigger but that was not necessarily an advantage in smaller ports with limited dock facilities on the Pacific coast. Besides, copper ore could have a corrosive effect on iron hulls. Likewise, steamers seldom featured in the copper trade. In fact, they rarely featured in trades where speed was not essential. The earliest steamers were too inefficient and therefore too expensive for bulk carrying. It was not until the 1870s that steam navigation gained a decisive edge over sail. Before then the reliable and relatively lightly-manned barque held its own.

We have a good idea of what the classic copper barque looked like in its heyday, not least because the barque was one of the earliest objects in Wales to be photographed. Swansea was a home to many of photography’s early pioneers, among them the Reverend Calvert Richard Jones. Jones took a number of riverside scenes in the 1840s, many of them showing barques lying on the mud, waiting for the tidal flow that would refloat them.


The Old Cape Horners of Mumbles

In the nineteenth century, many Mumbles men worked in the main local industries of oysterdredging, quarrying and farming. However, not all the seafarers were employed locally, indeed Mumbles was known for its contribution to the Swansea copper-ore trade with Chile and for voyages to other distant parts of the world.

With industrialization in the 1800s, Swansea had become a thriving centre both for coal and shipping, but it was in copper smelting that it excelled. Een van die Kambrium Newspaper's reporters, John Lewis in his The Swansea Guide, 1851 revealed that out of the 200,000 tons of copper smelted annually in the UK, 90% was manufactured in Swansea. The works themselves were employing some 10,000 men out of a rapidly expanding population of 15,000 early in the nineteenth century and by the 1880s, the Vivians had 3,000 in their works. Logically, as it took four tons of coal to smelt one ton of copper, it was cheaper to bring the copper to the coal of which Swansea had plenty, rather than the reverse.

To supply the works, sailing ships known as Barques (pictured) embarked from Swansea's new North and South Docks on long arduous voyages round South America via Cape Horn (before the Panama Canal was made) to Chile and south to South Africa, bringing back the copper ore, for processing in the twenty or so works in the lower Swansea Valley, a journey often taking more than a year. There were several main copper-barque-owning families involved in the area, the RICHARDSONS originally from the South Shields area and the BATHS, Quakers from Falmouth in Cornwall, who settled in 'Rosehill' in Mumbles.

The barques were three-masted ships, square rigged on the foremast and mainmast and fore and aft rigged on the mizzen while below decks ore was carried in trunks and not on the bottom of the ship. Barques such as the 'Cuba', the 'Elizabeth George' and the 'Jessie' made the long voyage and many such as the 'Fleetwood' and the 'Annie Baker' were lost due to the weather, while others such as the 'Golondrina' carrying coal, foundered off Cape Horn due to fire on board.

Many men did not survive and were buried at sea or in Santiago, which became known by the dubious name of the 'Swansea Graveyard' In 1869, Mumbles man, JOHN DAVIES fell overboard from the barque, the 'Bertha' and drowned, the location of his death being recorded as ཭º.52 South and 81º.51 West'. (i.e. off the coast of Chile)

Those of the crews who did survive the tempestuous seas, cramped conditions, disease and poor food, which might consist of a daily ration of ' a pound (of meat) and a pint (of water)' plus some bread if the weather was good enough for baking, gained the accolade of 'Swansea Cape Horners.' Swansea boasted more 'Horners' than any other British port and counted amongst its crews, a generous sprinkling of Mumbles names.

George Tucker lived in the cottage next door to Mumbles Methodist Church, pictured around1880, when the sea came up the road.

It was said in the Mumbles Methodist Church, that if the Preacher were to close his eyes and throw his bible into the congregation, it would be bound to hit a ship's captain, as so many of them attended his church'. Among these was Cape Horner, GEORGE TUCKER, holder of master certificate number 11167, the grandson of its founder, 'a large man with a stately presence but a curious modesty of carriage and a shrinking and nervous speech.' Among his many voyages, he captained the barque, the 'Vigil' on two occasions, one from Iquique to Plymouth in 1876.and the other from Pisagua back to Glasgow in 1877. A deeply religious man, he often told his fellow members of how throughout all the perils on the sea, he was conscious of Divine protection. He eventually settled down in the cottage next door to the Church.

The Methodist Church, is pictured on the seashore, c1880.

Another was CAPTAIN DAVID MORGAN, 'a man of medium height and compact build', who first sailed the Cape Horn in 1861 and made thirty-three voyages, crossing 'that stormy headland sixty-six times' and ten times around the Cape of Good Hope. During his career, he became captain and commanded the copper barques, the 'Huasco' (named after the port and mine in Chile of that name) the 'Serena', the 'Langland' and the 'Gamma', where among his crew on a voyage in 1878 from Iquique, Chile to Liverpool, were two Mumbles men, THOMAS LEWIS, aged 28 and SOLOMON HIXSON, 23. He retired from the sea in 1892 and in February 1930, the 'Mumbles Press' reported that 'he was still alive, aged ninety-four.' He passed away later that year on 4 September.

Other Mumbles 'Cape Horners' included ABRAHAM ACE, born 1841 at Mumbles Lighthouse, who was a crew member on board the barque, the 'Pathfinder' on her voyage back home from Caldera in Chile to Swansea in 1864. The barque, the 'Emily Waters', sailed from Swansea to Valparaiso in 1876 with JOHN PERRY, 23, RICHARD HULLIN, 22 and WILLIAM MICHAEL, 27 as part of her crew. WILLIAM LLEWELLYN, 20 went on the 'Glynwood', from Swansea to Santa Vincento and to the West Indies, North and South America in 1880. BENJAMIN BEVAN, 21 went to Antofagasta in northern Chile on board the 'Zeta,' finishing back at Swansea in 1880.

Valparaiso was the destination for brothers, THOMAS 46 and JOHN MICHAEL, 37 (sons of Thomas and Eleanor) and JAMES GAMMON, 21 (son of William and Margaret) on board the barque, the 'Vigil' in 1875. WILLIAM GAMMON, his brother, a ship's carpenter voyaged from Lota, Chile to Swansea on the same ship in 1880. JOHN KNIGHT CLEMENT was an apprentice on the 'Serena' on her voyage back from Carrizal Bajo to Swansea in 1877. DAVID JONES, who lived at Forgefield Terrace, Norton and was eventually father to five children, made at least six voyages around the Horn on the 'Hinda', the 'Ocean King' and the 'Tacna'. He died in his eighty-second year at home in July 1928.


Model Funerary Barque of Mersou - History

Large-scale farming along the river banks coupled with the routine use of boats created the world's oldest known maritime trade routes along the Nile, the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. At the center of this vast trading network, Kush (also known as Ethiopia or Nubia) and Kemet (Egypt) became extremely wealthy and powerful empires--and the world's oldest documented maritime civilizations. Although it is uncertain precisely when Nilotic Africans began using ships for trade or in everyday life, preliminary evidence suggests they were boating at least 10,000 years ago.

Archaeozoological work at sites along the Atbara River (a Nile River tributary in Central Sudan) revealed evidence that suggests the early use of boats for fishing. At the El Damer (8050-7800 BC) and Aneibis (7900-7600 BC) sites, evidence of the large-scale consumption of fish that do not typically come ashore suggests the use of fishing boats. Combined with the development of large-scale agriculture on the banks of the Nile, ships became the primary mode of trade and transportation.

Early Representations of Ships

Evidence of the use of large ships can be found at the El Salha Archaeological Project, located to the west of Khartoum in Central Sudan (at the confluence of the Blue and White Niles), where the image of a typical "Dynastic Egypt" style vessel is etched on a granite pebble dating between 7050 and 6820 BC (Khartoum Mesolithic Group).

Dozens of petroglyphs that depict more elaborate large ships with tall sailing masts, large oars, covered superstructures and chairs have been found in central Sudan at Sabu Jaddi (4500 BC) and Egypt's Central Eastern Desert at Wadis Abu Subeira, Abu Wasil, Baramiya, Gharb Aswan, Hajalij, Hammamat, Kanais, Mineh, Nag el-Hamdulab, Qash, and Salam (early Naqada I period, 4400-3500 BC). Pottery and linen with representations of ships bearing large sails and multiple oars also appeared during the so-called "Naqada II Period" (3600 - 3250 BC).


A large ship with oars depicted on pottery (3600-3250 BC), at the British Museum
Petroglyphs of early large ships at Sabu Jaddi, Sudan (4500 BC) (credit: Clemens Schmillen)

A large ship with multiple rowers and oars on linen, from a tomb in Gebelein near Waset (3600 BC), at the Torino Museum
A sailboat on pottery found in Hu near Waset (3600 BC), at the British Museum

Ships as Early Cultural Symbols

In the same period, models of boats were buried in predynastic tombs at Hu and Gebelein near Waset, a cultural practice that would continue for thousands of years--and a testament to the importance of the boat in everyday life. While some models and paintings of boats clearly represented actual ones used for fishing, sporting or for ceremonial purposes, others were apparently symbolic representations of the solar barque called "Atet", which ferried the Nilotic solar deity Ra through the sky over the 12 hours of the day. Ra also took the form of the rising sun deity Khepri and was often depicted as a scarab accompanied by two people on a boat. This depiction closely resembles older representations on predynastic pottery, such as the one shown below from the Naqada II Period, featuring a human figure with arms raised next to two others on a ship.

A model boat (4400-4000 BC) that may have represented Atet from a tomb at Abadiyeh near Hu (credit: Petrie Museum)
A model boat (3600-3250 BC) that likely represents an actual hunting or sporting boat from a tomb at Gebelein near Waset (credit: Sandstein)

Khepri on Atet at the tomb of Ay near Waset (1327-1323 BC) (credit: kairoinfo4u)
Likely an early representation of Atet and Khepri on pottery (3600-3250 BC) (credit: Brooklyn Museum) compare to the image on the right

Khufu's ship at Giza (2580 BC) (credit: Bradipus)
Early Large Ships & Shipbuilding

Actual large ships dating back 5,000 years have been found buried along the Lower Nile as well. Archaeologists uncovered 14 wooden vessels that measure as much as 75 feet long and 10 feet wide and were buried in long brick enclosures near Abydos. While the ships are located at the tomb of Khasekhemwy (2nd Dynasty, 2675 BC), they were likely buried many years earlier during the reign of Aha (1st Dynasty, 2920-2770), making them the world's oldest wooden boats that are not dugout canoes (such as the 8,500-year-old Dufuna canoe found in Nigeria). Other wooden ships of the same era were found buried at tombs near Saqqara and Menefer. But the remains of the largest ancient seafaring vessel ever discovered was buried next to Khufu's (4th Dynasty, 2586-2566 BC) "Great Pyramid" at Giza.

A depiction of shipbuilding from the Tomb of Ti at Saqqara (2492-2345 BC) (credit: Berthold Werner)
Generally believed to be mere funerary symbols like some model boats, as mentioned above, some scholars agree that such ships were used for various practical purposes, including making actual pilgrimages and for holding ceremonies, as further explained below. Indeed, archaeologists successfully reassembled the 1,224 timber pieces of Khufu's ship (shown at right), which measures 143 ft (44 m) by 19.5 ft (6 m), or more than twice as long as Christopher Columbus' longest vessel. The ship's cedar timbers were likely imported from the Levant, attesting to Khufu's trading ties overseas and further corroborated by the fact that Khufu's name is reportedly etched on ancient alabaster vases found at the Temple of Balaat at the ancient port city of Byblos, Lebanon. To no surprise, the building of such wooden ships was thoroughly documented. For example, on the mastaba of Ti at Saqqara (2494-2345 BC), there are numerous depictions of ship building, with multiple workers using the hand axe and other tools in the construction and/or repair and maintenance of ships.

Not far from Khufu's ship, archaeologists uncovered the ruins of an extensive port dating to at least 2500 BC. Moreover, the evidence of juniper, pine and oak trees, which are not native to Egypt, confirms trade with regions of the Levant and Western Asia. At Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea, archaeologists also discovered evidence of a port that dates to the same era. There are numerous ancient docks, or galleries carved into stone, that contain ropes, anchors covered with writing, pieces of ship sails and oars, food storage jars, and the world's oldest known papyrus documents. And farther south at Wadi Gawasis, archaeologists discovered an ancient port with Dynastic stelae dating as far back as the Twelfth Dynasty (1991-1802 BC), docks, ship timbers, ropes, anchors and in-tact oars, and pottery (1400-1500 BC). It is worth noting that this port is near the closest point on the Red Sea to the ancient capital city of Waset (Thebes).

Oldest Documented Trading Expeditions by Sea

Historical documents from the same era attest to overseas trade voyages made by Old Dynasty leaders. The so-called "Palermo Stone" (2500 BC) describes such an expedition by Sneferu (4th Dynasty, 2613-2589 BC) that brought back 40 ships from the Levant full of cedar logs, which were nonexistent in the arrid Lower Nile but heavily used for shipbuilding.

King Sahure, who made the first documented voyage to Punt (2580 BC)
Sahure (5th Dynasty, 2487-2475 BC) also documented his trade missions with the Levant. Inscriptions in his pyramid at Abusir show sailors raising a tall mast on a large sailing ship, as well as large shipments of timber, jugs and even brown bears, which are not native to Africa. Archaeologists even found an ancient axe head attributed to Sahure's sailing crew that docked at the coastal Lebanese city of Nahr Ibrahim.

Historical documents also suggest trade with the southern Land of Punt was just as strong. The Palermo Stone describes Sahure's trade missions that returned large quantities of myhrr, timber and precious metals from Punt.

Sailors raising the ship's mast, Sahure's pyramid (2475 BC) (credit: Miguel Hermoso Cuesta)
Bears and jugs imported from the North, Sahure's pyramid (2475 BC) (credit: Agyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung)

Perhaps the largest and most famous trading voyage to Punt, however, was taken by Queen Hatshepsut (18th Dynasty, 1507-1458 BC), as well documented in her temple at Deir el-Bahri. Inscriptions detail Hatshepsut's crew carrying potted trees and what appear to be branches from the boswellia tree, which produces frankincense and is native to Somalia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Oman and the Yemen--suggesting the Land of Punt was in this region. However, the depictions of Punt include animals native only to Africa, such as the giraffe, two-horned rhinoceros, baboon and hippopotamus, confirming Punt was in Africa. Furthermore, researchers from the University of California determined that a mummified baboon brought from Punt and found buried at Queen Hatshepsut's tomb was similar to species from Eritrea/Ethiopia, as opposed to Somalia. Punt is shown with palm trees and dome-roofed buildings on stilts, with apparently female and male leadership. It's also worth noting that scholars generally assume that Hatshepsut's voyage to Punt embarked from Wadi Gawasis, the southernmost ancient port discovered on the Red Sea.

Hatshepsut's crew carrying boswellia from Punt, temple at Deir el-Bahri (1450 BC) (credit: &Sigma&tau&alpha&upsilon&rho&omicron&zeta)
Hatshepsut's crew rowing oars of ship bound for Punt, temple at Deir el-Bahri (1450 BC) (credit: Agyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung)

A depiction of Punt, temple at Deir el-Bahri (1450 BC) (credit: Hans Bernhard)
Hatshepsut's crew carrying a tree from Punt, temple at Deir el-Bahri (1450 BC)

At the same port, archaeologists located the stela of Khentkhetwer who served under Amenemhat III (12th Dynasty, 1860-1814 BC), which specifically mentions safely returning to this port (called "Saww") from the Land of Punt. Archaeologists also located dozens of ancient cargo boxes specifically labeled with Amenemhat IV's (12th Dynasty, 1990-1800 BC) name and as containing products from Punt.

The longest known voyage, and the world's first to circumnavigate Africa, was taken by Necho II (26th Dynasty, 610-595 BC). According to early Greek historian Herodotus (Histories 4.42), Necho II sent a fleet of ships from a port on the Red Sea, south around the continent of Africa, to the Nile. Herodotus also reported that unlike in the northern hemisphere, the sun rose and set in a different part of the sky as the sailers sailed around southern Africa, lending credence to Herodotus' account.

Nile Commerce and Trade

As imports of foreign goods like timber expanded, the trade of Nile Valley staples such as wheat, papyrus, wine, cattle, textiles and precious metals flourished. Scenes on the walls of the tomb of Khaemwaset, west of Waset (1500 BC), show grape cultivation, winemaking, bottling and transporting via ships. At the nearby tomb of Unsu (1450 BC), there are detailed depictions of farmers seeding and tilling the soil, and harvesting and loading grain onto a boat. In the same region, at the tomb of Amenhotep Huy (1400 BC), large groups of people are seen shipping gold, furniture, shields made of animal skin, cattle, giraffes and what appear to be horses or donkeys on well decorated ships (contrary to popular misinformation, the people atop the ship are not "captives", as their hands clearly are not tied behind their backs).

Shipping horses and other products (1400 BC) (credit: kairoinfo4u)
Offloading wine shipments, from the tomb of Khaemwaset west of Waset (1500 BC)

Shippers pour grain into a container on a ship, from the tomb of Unsu at Waset (1450 BC) (credit: Nadine Guilhou)

Sporting, Fishing and Hunting

Boats were not only used for major commercial trading but for various practical uses in everyday life. Fifth Dynasty paintings from an unknown tomb at Saqqara, show men standing on small reed boats participating in a fighting sport involving small balls and spears. Nearby, at the mastaba of Nikauisesi near Saqqara (2500 BC) show organized trips on reed boats to hunt fowl and fish. Such elaborate hunting scenes became common in tombs in Saqqara and were portayed in a similar manner in tombs elsewhere, especially at the so-called Theban necropolis centuries later. Famous examples are seen on the walls of the tomb of Nebamun near Waset (1350 BC) and the tomb of Menna. Other high officials created model boats (in addition to models of other scenes) portraying fishing and hunting expeditions, such as the one found in Meketre's tomb near Waset (1981-1975 BC). This depiction better demonstrates how nobles lived, with Meketre, who served under Mentuhotep II (2010-1998 BC), and his son riding in a covered part of the ship while others row the oars and catch fish and fowl.

Hunting fowl and fishing, mastaba of Nikauisesi (2500 BC) (credit: Semhur)
Playing sports on reed boats, temple of an unknown at Saqqara (2500 BC) (credit: Agyptisches Museum und Papyrussammlung)

Model of a transit ferry from the 11th or 12th Kemetic Dynasty (2134-1784 BC), at the Art Institute of Chicago, c. Mary Harrsch (no changes)
A model nobleman's fishing and hunting boat from the tomb of Meketre (1981-1975 BC)

As aforementioned, ships were often used for ceremonial purposes. A model from Meketre's tomb shows a pilgrimmage to the predynastic capital of Abydos, the original mecca where the tomb of Asar (Osiris) is located. Noticeable differences in this ship versus those merely used for sporting or fishing/hunting are that the ship used for pilgrimmages is larger, decorated and features a tall sailing mast, obviously used for faster travel over longer distances and to travel south against the Nile's current. Such ships also served as ancient limousines and hearses for the oldest documented funeral processions. Particularly in the era of the so-called New Kingdom, elaborate scenes of riparian funeral processions became common in tombs of nobles througout the Theban necropolis. For example, the tombs of Nebamun (1350-1300 BC) and Kyky (1292-1189 BC) feature numerous, well appointed ships carrying people, including professional wailers, and one larger ship carrying the sarcophogus.

Professional wailers on a ship in Nebamun's riparian funeral procession (1350-1300 BC)
A model of Meketre's sailboat making a pilgrimmage to Abydos (1981-1975 BC)


Foreign soldiers and their ship of war, in the tomb of Ramesses III at Medinet Habu (1186-1155 BC)
Oldest Naval Warfare

Nilotic people also documented their use of ships in battle. In fact, the world's oldest known representation of what could be considered naval warfare was carved on a knife found at Gebel El-Arak near Abydos (3300-3200 BC). The object features hand-to-hand combat above several ships, suggesting a representation of a naval battle. However the style of the engravings and the inclusion of a bearded figure, with a hat on the reverse seem more similar to ancient artifacts found in Iraq, specifically from Ur. Perhaps this was an imported piece or simply styled after such artifacts from Ur. More detailed documentation of early naval warfare, however, can be found at the tomb of Ahmose, Son of Ebana at El Kab (17-18th Dynasty, 1560-1520 BC), who describes leading the navy on ships to defeat the foreign Hyksos at their capital of Avaris in the Nile Delta. And at the tomb of Ramesses III (20th Dynasty, 1186-1155 BC) at Medinet Habu near Waset, the written description of the Battle of Djahy is the longest Medu Neter (hieroglyphic) inscription ever found. It details Ramesses III defeating the so-called "Sea People" (a broad term used to refer to the 7 groups of people named in the inscription: Denyen, Peleset, Shekelesh, Sherden, Teresh, Tjekker, Weshesh) on ships.


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