Pickering, Timothy - Geskiedenis

Pickering, Timothy - Geskiedenis

Pickering, Timothy (1745-1829) minister van buitelandse sake, minister van oorlog: Timothy Pickering is gebore op 17 Julie 1745 in Salem, Massachusetts. Nadat hy in 1763 aan Harvard studeer het, studeer hy regte en word in 1768 tot die balie toegelaat. Desondanks beoefen Pickering baie min regte en behaal hy geen onderskeiding as advokaat nie. Hy dien as register van aktes vir die Essex County, terwyl hy belangstel in militêre aangeleenthede. Hy het sy militêre studies toegepas terwyl hy in die Revolusionêre Oorlog gedien het. Pickering het ''n maklike plan van dissipline vir 'n militie' gepubliseer, wat in die kontinentale leër gebruik is tot Baron von Steuben se 'Blue Book'. Nadat hy in verskillende regsposisies gedien het, word Pickering adjudant-generaal in 1776, onder generaal Washington. Ongeduldig en krities oor die versigtigheid en selfbeheersing van Washington, het Pickering verkeerdelik voorspel dat die oorlog oor 'n jaar verby sou wees. Hy was teenwoordig in die Battles of Brandywine en Germantown, en is verkies tot lid van die Board of War. Hy was in 1780 as kwartiermeester-generaal van die weermag teenwoordig by die oorgawe van Cornwallis. Pickering was grootliks verantwoordelik vir die doeltreffende werking van die kwartiermeestersafdeling. Saam met Alexander Hamilton en Patrick Henry protesteer hy teen die wrede behandeling wat baie voormalige lojaliste uit die land verdryf het ná die Patriot -oorwinning. Toe hy die leër in 1785 verlaat, word Pickering handelaar in Philadelphia. Twee jaar later verhuis hy en sy gesin na Wyoming. Hy het betrokke geraak by onrus wat verband hou met die arrestasie van John Franklin, leier van opstandige setlaars in Connecticut. Pickering se huis is deur oproeriges aangeval, maar hy het ontsnap om as gyselaar geneem te word deur in die bos te ontsnap. Hy het teruggekeer na Philadelphia, waar hy verkies is om die konstitusionele konvensie van 1787 by te woon. Hy was egter nie een van die ondertekenaars van die dokument nie. Toe hy teen die einde van 1788 na Wyoming terugkeer, is hy ontvoer deur 'n groep gemaskerde mans en is hy vir 3 weke gevange gehou. Hy kon hom nie oortuig om 'n brief te skryf om die vrylating van John Franklin aan te vra nie, en hy was bewus daarvan dat milisies hulle agtervolg; die ontvoerders het hom vrygelaat met die belofte dat Pickering vir hulle sou intree.

Nadat hy by die konvensie gedien het om 'n grondwet vir die staat Pennsylvania op te stel, is Pickering deur president Washington aangestel om 'n verdrag met die Seneca -Indiane te beding. In Julie 1791 het hy daarin geslaag om 'n belangrike verdrag tussen die Verenigde State en die Sesnasies aan te gaan. Pickering word in 1791 as posmeester-generaal aangestel, 'n amp wat hy beklee het tot 1795, die jaar waarin hy as oorlogsekretaris aangestel is. Op daardie stadium het die Departement van Oorlog die Departement van die Vloot en die Buro vir Indiese Sake ingesluit. Pickering was 'n belangrike rol in die stigting van die Amerikaanse Militêre Akademie by West Point. Nadat hy as waarnemende minister van buitelandse sake gedien het, is hy amptelik in die pos aangestel. In Mei 1800 is Pickering egter uit sy amp ontslaan; na die meningsverskille tussen president Adams en sy kabinet oor die 'XYZ -saak'. Pickering keer terug na 'n huis aan die grens naby Pennsylvania. Hy was baie skuldig verlig toe sommige inwoners van Boston van sy grond gekoop het. Dit het hom op 'n veiliger finansiële basis geplaas, en hy het besluit om na Massachusetts te verhuis. Daar word hy hoofregter van die Common Pleas, en 'n Amerikaanse senator. Hy is bekend as 'n ekstreme federalis en is in 1809 in 'n beeld in Philadelphia gehang; die daaropvolgende jaar aangekla van verduistering en formeel deur die senaat vir 'n tegniese oortreding bekragtig. Hy is vrygespreek van die aanklagte en die oortreding, aangesien albei op politieke vyandigheid berus het. Na afloop van sy termyn tree hy terug na sy plaas in Massachusetts. Hy keer terug na die kongres en dien daarna in die Uitvoerende Raad van Massachusetts. Pickering het die res van sy lewe in pensioen in Salem, Massachusetts, deurgebring, waar hy op 29 Januarie 1829 oorlede is.


Timothy Pickering

'N Federalistiese politikus, Timothy Pickering, is aangestel in verskeie federale poste deur president George Washington, veral postmeester -generaal, oorlogsekretaris en minister van buitelandse sake. Hy dien later in die Senaat en in die Huis van Verteenwoordigers.

Pickering, gebore in 1745 in Salem, Massachusetts, studeer aan Harvard College in 1763 en werk as klerk by John Higginson, die Essex County Register of Deeds. Hy studeer regte en word in 1768 in die Massachusetts -kroeg toegelaat, maar hy oefen nie.

Geïnteresseerd in militêre strategie, word Pickering uiteindelik kolonel van die Essex County -milisie in 1775. 'n Jaar later publiseer hy 'N Maklike plan van dissipline vir die burgermag, 'n handleiding vir koloniale milisie en offisiere van die kontinentale weermag wat gebruik is om nuwe rekrute op te lei. Tydens die Onafhanklikheidsoorlog het Pickering hoofsaaklik 'n administratiewe rol gespeel, alhoewel hy die leër van die Essex County gelei het om die Britse terugtog na die Slag van Concord te blokkeer. In 1777 stel generaal Washington Pickering -adjudant -generaal van die Kontinentale Weermag aan en die Kontinentale Kongres verkies hom tot die Raad van Oorlog. Generaal Washington, wat Pickering en rsquos se vermoë beklemtoon het, beskryf hom as 'n groot militêre genie, gekweek deur 'n ywerige aandag aan die studie van oorlog, en as 'n heer van liberale onderwys, 'n vooraanstaande ywer en 'n uitstekende metode en aktiwiteit in die sakewêreld. & Rdquo [1] Na sy aandrang oor die noodsaaklikheid van die hervorming van die departement van kwartiermeesters en kwessies, word hy in 1780 deur die kongres as kwartiermeester -generaal aangestel.

Aan die einde van die oorlog verhuis Pickering na Philadelphia en begin 'n handelsbedryf met sy vriend Samuel Hodgdon, 'n handelaar. Gedurende hierdie tyd het Pickering grond gekoop in die destydse noordwestelike Pennsylvania, wat hy gehelp het om in 1786 as Luzerne County te organiseer. Die Pennsylvania State Assembly het Pickering gevra om grondgeskille te bemiddel, veral tussen Pennsylvania en Connecticut-eisers. In die hoop om Pickering te oortuig om hul bewerings te erken, het lede van die Connecticut -faksie hom twintig dae lank as gyselaars in die bos gehou. Hy verteenwoordig Luzerne County tydens die konvensie van 1787 wat die Grondwet van die Verenigde State en die grondwetlike konvensie van die staat Pennsylvania van 1789 tot 1790 bekragtig het.

President Washington het Pickering gevra om te onderhandel en verskeie verdragte met inheemse Amerikaners te onderhandel, veral met die hoofde van die Sesnasies in Tioga in November 1790 en in Newtown Point in Julie 1791. Ter erkenning van Pickering en rsquos se pogings in hierdie onderhandelinge, het president Washington hom aangestel as posmeester -generaal in 1791. Selfs in hierdie rol het Pickering steeds 'n aktiewe rol gespeel in onderhandelinge met inheemse Amerikaners, veral in die 1794 -verdrag van Canandaigua met die Iroquois -konfederasie.

'N Jaar later het Washington Pickering se oorlogsekretaris aangestel. In hierdie pos het hy toesig gehou oor generaal Anthony Wayne en onderhandelinge vir die Verdrag van Greenville en die bou van die fregatte Verenigde State, Grondwet, en Konstellasie. Nadat Edmund Randolph, minister van buitelandse sake, bedank het, het Washington Pickering aangestel ad tussentyds Buitelandse Sekretaris op 20 Augustus 1795 en daarna Staatssekretaris.

Pickering & rsquos se termyn as minister van buitelandse sake is oorheers deur konflik met Frankryk. Hy het simpatie met Groot-Brittanje en onderhandelinge oor die Jay & rsquos-verdrag het sy anti-Franse opvattings verder verskerp. Hy het die Franse in die & ldquoXYZ -saak teengestaan, en toe die versendings gepubliseer is, het hy die oorlog met Frankryk ten sterkste onderskryf. Pickering was ook 'n voorstander van die Wet op vreemdeling en sedisie. Toe die federaliste breek, beskuldig president Johns Adams Pickering daarvan dat hy saam met Alexander Hamilton oor homself gaan staan. Adams het Pickering in Mei 1800 uit die amp ontslaan.

In 1803 word Pickering verkies tot die Senaat en word hy herkoos in 1805. Angstig oor die moontlike gevolge van president Thomas Jefferson & rsquos -administrasie en die afname van die mag van die federaliste, stel Pickering voor om 'n Noordelike konfederasie te skep wat kwytskeldelik sou wees van die korrupte en korrupte invloed en onderdrukking van die aristokratiese demokrate van die Suide. [2] Uiteindelik het hierdie plan nooit tot stand gekom nie. Terwyl hy in die kongres was, het Pickering sterk gekant teen die twaalfde wysiging van die grondwet en die koop van Louisiana, aangesien hy van mening was dat hulle albei die mag van die Republikeine sou vergroot ten koste van die New England -federaliste. In 1811, nadat hy 'n vertroulike dokument openlik gelees het tydens 'n debat in die Senaat, het hy die eerste senator geword wat onder kritiek gelê is. Hy het sy bod vir herverkiesing en 'n jaar terug na sy plaas verloor. Pickering is toe verkies tot die Huis van Verteenwoordigers en dien vir twee termyne.

[1] George Washington aan die president van die kongres, 24 Mei 1777, in The Writings of George Washington uit die oorspronklike manuskripbronne 1745-1799 red. John C. Fitzpatrick, vol. 8 1 Mei 1777-31 Julie 1777 (Washington, Amerikaanse regering se drukkantoor, 1939), 115.

[2] Timothy Pickering aan Richard Peters, 24 Desember 1803 en aan George Cabot, 29 Januarie 1804 in Octavius ​​Pickering en Charles Wentworth Upham, Die lewe van Timothy Pickering vol. 3 (Boston, Little, Brown en Company, 1867), 154.

Bibliografie

Clarfield, Gerard H. Timothy Pickering en die Amerikaanse Republiek. Pittsburgh: Universiteit van Pittsburgh Press, 1980.

Gannon, Kevin M. & ldquoEscaping & lsquoMnr. Jefferson & rsquos Plan of Destruction & rsquo: New England Federalists and the Idea of ​​a Northern Confederacy, 1803-1804. & Rdquo Journal of the Early Republic 21, nee. 3 (2001): 413 & ndash43.

McLean, David. Timothy Pickering and the Age of the American Revolution. New York: Ayer Co Pub, 1982.

Pickering, Octavius ​​en Charles Wentworth Upham. Die lewe van Timothy Pickering. 4 vols. Boston, Little, Brown en Company, 1867.


Kolonel Timothy Pickering

Kolonel Timothy Pickering

Kunstenaar: Charles Wilson Peale
Onafhanklikheid NHP

Pickering, Timothy. 1745-1829.

Timothy Pickering is gebore in 'n vyfde generasie New England -gesin in Salem, Massachusetts. Hy studeer aan die Harvard -universiteit in 1763 en slaag by die balie en word advokaat. Hy het minimale dienste as prokureur verrig, en verkies om sy tyd in verskillende stadsposte in die stad te bestee. As offisier in die Massachusetts -milisie skryf en publiseer hy riglyne vir militêre operasies met die titel "'n Maklike plan van dissipline vir 'n burgermag". Hierdie wyd gewilde boek is tydens die uitbreek van die Amerikaanse rewolusie in die hele kolonies gebruik.

Pickering, nou 'n kolonel, het in die burgermag gebly en het nie onmiddellik voltyds by die Amerikaanse weermag aangesluit nie. In Mei 1777 sou dit verander toe hy op versoek van George Washington adjudant -generaal in die weermag geword het. Pickering het Nathanael Greene in 1780 as kwartiermeester -generaal van die weermag opgevolg.

As kwartiermeester -generaal was Pickering baie besorg oor die welstand van die gewone soldaat. Hy was altyd kwaad vir diegene wat volgens hom nie hul bes gedoen het om die soldate te help nie. Hy verwys na sy pos as kwartiermeester -generaal as ''n kantoor wat so swaar is en 'n diens so ondankbaar'. Hy bly egter in die pos tot 1785 toe hy uiteindelik bedank.

Pluk het tydelik teruggekeer na die privaat lewe. In 1795 beklee hy die poste van oorlogsekretaris en minister van buitelandse sake. Hy het in 1800 van laasgenoemde posisie ontslaan, en later dien hy in die Amerikaanse senaat en huis van verteenwoordigers.


Pickering, Timothy - Geskiedenis

Pickering, Timothy (1745-1829) minister van buitelandse sake, minister van oorlog: Timothy Pickering is gebore op 17 Julie 1745 in Salem, Massachusetts. Nadat hy in 1763 aan Harvard studeer het, studeer hy regte en word in 1768 tot die balie toegelaat. Desondanks beoefen Pickering baie min regte en behaal hy geen onderskeiding as advokaat nie. Hy dien as register van aktes vir die Essex County, terwyl hy belangstel in militêre aangeleenthede. Hy het sy militêre studies toegepas terwyl hy in die Revolusionêre Oorlog gedien het. Pickering het 'n maklike plan van dissipline vir 'n milisie gepubliseer, wat in die kontinentale weermag gebruik is tot Baron von Steuben se 'Blue Book'. Ongeduldig en krities oor die versigtigheid en selfbeheersing van Washington, het Pickering verkeerdelik voorspel dat die oorlog oor 'n jaar verby sou wees. Hy was teenwoordig in die Battles of Brandywine en Germantown, en is verkies tot lid van die Board of War. Hy was in 1780 as kwartiermeester-generaal van die weermag teenwoordig by die oorgawe van Cornwallis. Pickering was grootliks verantwoordelik vir die doeltreffende werking van die kwartiermeestersafdeling. Saam met Alexander Hamilton en Patrick Henry protesteer hy teen die wrede behandeling wat baie voormalige lojaliste uit die land verdryf het ná die Patriot -oorwinning. Toe hy die leër in 1785 verlaat, word Pickering handelaar in Philadelphia. Twee jaar later verhuis hy en sy gesin na Wyoming. Hy het betrokke geraak by onrus wat verband hou met die arrestasie van John Franklin, leier van opstandige setlaars in Connecticut. Pickering se huis is deur oproeriges aangeval, maar hy het ontsnap om as gyselaar geneem te word deur in die bos te ontsnap. Hy het teruggekeer na Philadelphia, waar hy verkies is om die konstitusionele konvensie van 1787 by te woon. Hy was egter nie een van die ondertekenaars van die dokument nie. Toe hy aan die einde van 1788 na Wyoming terugkeer, is hy ontvoer deur 'n groep gemaskerde mans en is hy vir 3 weke gevange gehou. Hy kon hom nie oortuig om 'n brief te skryf om die vrylating van John Franklin aan te vra nie, en bewus daarvan dat die burgermag hulle agtervolg het, het die ontvoerders hom vrygelaat met die belofte dat Pickering vir hulle sou intree.

Nadat hy by die konvensie gedien het om 'n grondwet vir die staat Pennsylvania op te stel, is Pickering deur president Washington aangestel om 'n verdrag met die Seneca -Indiane te beding. In Julie 1791 het hy daarin geslaag om 'n belangrike verdrag tussen die Verenigde State en die Sesnasies aan te gaan. Pickering is in 1791 aangestel as posmeester-generaal, 'n amp wat hy beklee het tot 1795, die jaar waarin hy as oorlogsekretaris aangestel is. Op daardie stadium het die Departement van Oorlog die Departement van die Vloot en die Buro vir Indiese Sake ingesluit. Pickering was 'n belangrike rol in die stigting van die Amerikaanse Militêre Akademie by West Point. Nadat hy as waarnemende minister van buitelandse sake gedien het, is hy amptelik in die pos aangestel. In Mei van 1800 is Pickering egter uit sy amp ontslaan ná die meningsverskille tussen president Adams en sy kabinet oor die & quotXYZ -saak. & Quot Pickering keer terug na 'n huis aan die grens naby Pennsylvania. Hy was baie skuldig verlig toe sommige inwoners van Boston van sy grond gekoop het. Dit het hom op 'n veiliger finansiële basis geplaas, en hy het besluit om na Massachusetts te verhuis. Daar word hy hoofregter van die Common Pleas, en 'n Amerikaanse senator. Hy is bekend as 'n ekstreme federalis, en is in 1809 in Philadelphia in die tronk gehang, aangekla van verduistering, en formeel deur die senaat afgemaak vir 'n tegniese oortreding. Hy is vrygespreek van die aanklagte en die oortreding, aangesien albei op politieke vyandigheid gebaseer was. Na afloop van sy termyn tree hy terug na sy plaas in Massachusetts. Hy keer terug na die kongres en dien daarna in die Uitvoerende Raad van Massachusetts. Pickering het die res van sy lewe in pensioen in Salem, Massachusetts, deurgebring, waar hy op 29 Januarie 1829 oorlede is.


Ближайшие родственники

Oor Timothy Pickering, Amerikaanse minister van buitelandse sake

Timothy Pickering. Hy is gebore, 17 Julie 1745, Salem, Mass., En sterf 29 Januarie 1829, Salem, Mass. Amerikaanse Revolusionêre offisier en federalistiese politikus wat (1795-1800) met onderskeiding in die eerste twee Amerikaanse kabinette gedien het. Tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog dien Pickering in verskeie hoedanighede onder genl George Washington, onder wie kwartiermeester-generaal (1780-85). In 1786, nadat hy in Philadelphia gaan woon het, het hy gehelp om die geskil met setlaars in Connecticut op te los oor aansprake op die Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, en het hy gehelp om die stad Wilkes-Barre te ontwikkel. Pickering dien as Indiese kommissaris (1790-95), posmeester-generaal (1791-95), oorlogsekretaris (1795) en staatsekretaris (1795-1800). Hy is uit sy amp ontslaan deur pres. John Adams na 'n beleidsgeskil. Tydens die administrasies van Jefferson en Madison het Pickering die federale opposisie in die kongres gelei, as senator van Massachusetts (1803-11) en as lid van die Huis van Verteenwoordigers (1813-17). Omdat hy vriendelik teenoor Engeland was en uit vrees vir die mag van Napoleon was, het hy die oorlog van 1812 bitter gekant. Na sy uittrede uit die kongres het hy hom toegewy aan landbou -eksperimentering en opvoeding.

Gebore op 6 Julie 1745 in Salem, Essex, Massachusettsbaai

Seun van Timothy Pickering en Mary (Wingate) Pickering

Broer van Sarah Pickering, Mary Pickering, Elizabeth (Pickering) Gardner, Lois (Pickering) Goole, Eunice (Pickering) Wingate en Lydia Pickering (Williams) Lyman

Man van Rebecca (White) Pickering — trou op 8 April 1776 in Bradford, Essex, Massachusetts

Vader van John Pickering, Henry Pickering, Charles Pickering, William Pickering, Edward Pickering, George Pickering, Octavius ​​Pickering, Elizabeth Pickering en Mary (Pickering) Nichols

Oorlede 29 Januarie 1829 in Salem, Essex, Massachusetts, Verenigde State

Profiel laas op 9 Mei 2019 gewysig | Geskep op 10 Junie 2014

Timothy Pickering is opvallend.

Voorafgegaan deur 2de sekretaris Edmund Randolph

Voorafgegaan deur 1ste sekretaris Henry Knox

Voorafgegaan deur die eerste posmeester -generaal Samuel Osgood

Voorafgegaan deur Dwight Foster Timothy Pickering 3de minister van buitelandse sake van die Verenigde State, departement 1795 �

2de Amerikaanse minister van oorlog, Amerikaanse minister van oorlog 1795

2de posmeester van die Verenigde State, seël van die Amerikaanse poskantoor, afdeling 1791 �

Amerikaanse senator (klas 2) van Massachusetts seël van die Amerikaanse senaat 1803 � Opgevolg deur 4de sekretaris John Marshall

Opgevolg deur 3de sekretaris James McHenry

Opgevolg deur 3de posmeester -generaal Joseph Habersham

Opgevolg deur Joseph Bradley Varnum Biografie

Timoteus is gebore op 6 Julie 1745. [1] Hy is op 8 April 1776 getroud. [2] Hy was die 2de Amerikaanse minister van oorlog, 2de Amerikaanse posmeester -generaal en 3de Amerikaanse minister van buitelandse sake

↑ The Essex Institute, Vital Records of Salem, Massachusetts to the End of the Year 1849 Volume II - Births M - Z (Salem, Mass. 1918) (Free e -book) (Records are also available at ma -vitalrecords. org) bl. 173 ↑ The Essex Institute, Vital Records of Salem, Massachusetts to the End of the Year 1849 Volume IV - Marriages M - Z (Salem, Mass. 1924) p. 194 Find A Grave: Memorial #20978 Timothy Pickering op Wikipedia Biografiese Gids van die Amerikaanse Kongres

'N Patriot van die Amerikaanse rewolusie vir MASSACHUSETTS met die rang van KOLONEL. DAR Voorvader #: A091047

Timothy Pickering 1745-1829

Ouers: Timothy Pickering 1703-1778 en Mary Wingate 1708-1784

Vrou Rebecca White 1754-1828

Die Pickering House (omstreeks 1651) is 'n koloniale huis, besit en besit deur tien opeenvolgende geslagte van die Pickering -gesin, waaronder kolonel Timothy Pickering. Daar word geglo dat hierdie huis die oudste huis in die Verenigde State is wat deur een gesin deurlopend bewoon word.

Timothy Pickering:

  • Massachusetts Militia, Kontinentale Weermag, Revolusionêre Oorlog
  • Amerikaanse senator van Massachusetts 4 Maart 1809- 4 Maart 1811
  • Lid van die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers uit Massachusetts, 3de Distrik 4 Maart 1813-4 Maart 1815
  • Lid van die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers uit Massachusetts, 2de Distrik 4 Maart 1815-4 Maart 1817
  • 2de Amerikaanse posmeester -generaal
  • 2de Amerikaanse minister van oorlog
  • 3de Amerikaanse minister van buitelandse sake

Timothy Pickering (17 Julie 1745 – 29 Januarie 1829) was 'n politikus uit Massachusetts wat in verskillende rolle gedien het, veral as die derde minister van buitelandse sake van die Verenigde State, wat in die amp van 1795 tot 1800 onder president George Washington en John Adams.

Pickering is gebore in Salem, Massachusetts, vir diaken Timothy en Mary Wingate Pickering. Hy was een van nege kinders en die jonger broer van John Pickering (om nie te verwar met die New Hampshire -regter nie), wat uiteindelik as speaker van die Massachusetts House of Representatives sou dien. Hy het die laerskool in Salem bygewoon en studeer aan die Harvard -universiteit in 1763. William Bentley, minister van Salem, het op Pickering opgemerk: "Van sy jeug af verklaar sy stedelinge hom aanneemend, onstuimig en hardkoppig."

Nadat hy afgestudeer het aan Harvard, keer Pickering terug na Salem, waar hy begin werk vir John Higginson, die stadsklerk en die register van dade in Essex County. Pickering is in 1768 in die Massachusetts Bar opgeneem en in 1774 volg hy Higginson op as register van aktes. Kort daarna is hy verkies om Salem in die Massachusetts Court te verteenwoordig en dien as regter in die Essex County Court of Common Pleas. Op 8 April 1776 trou hy met Rebecca White van Salem.

In Januarie 1766 is Pickering aangestel as luitenant in die Essex County -milisie. Hy is drie jaar later tot kaptein bevorder. In 1769 publiseer hy sy idees oor die boor van soldate in die Essex Gazette. Hierdie is in 1775 gepubliseer as ''n maklike plan vir 'n militie.'

In Desember 1776 het hy 'n goed geboorde regiment van die Essex County-burgermag na New York gelei, waar generaal George Washington kennis geneem het en Pickering die pos van adjudant-generaal van die kontinentale leër in 1777 aangebied het. In hierdie hoedanigheid het hy toesig gehou oor die bou van die Groot ketting wat by die Stirling Iron Works gesmee is. Die ketting het die Royal Navy verhinder om die Hudsonrivier verby West Point op te loop en die belangrike fort teen die duur van die konflik teen aanval beskerm. Hy is wyd geprys vir sy werk om die troepe tydens die res van die konflik te voorsien. In Augustus 1780 het die Kontinentale Kongres Pickering Quartermaster General verkies.

Na die einde van die Amerikaanse rewolusie het Pickering verskeie mislukte pogings tot finansiële sukses aangewend. In 1783 het hy 'n handelsvennootskap met Samuel Hodgdon aangegaan wat twee jaar later misluk het. In 1786 verhuis hy na die Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania, waar hy 'n reeks kantore aan die hoof van Luzerne County neem. Toe hy probeer om koloniste uit Connecticut wat in die gebied woon, te verdryf, is Pickering gevange geneem en negentien dae lank as gyselaar gehou. In 1787 was hy deel van die Pennsylvania -konvensie wat gehou is om die bekragtiging van die Grondwet van die Verenigde State te oorweeg.

Na die eerste van Pickering se twee suksesvolle pogings om geld te spekuleer in die grensgebied van Pennsylvania, het die huidige president hom aangestel as kommissaris van die Iroquois-Indiane en Pickering verteenwoordig die Verenigde State in 1794 in die onderhandeling van die Verdrag van Canandaigua met die Iroquois.

Washington het Pickering as posmeester -generaal in 1791 by die regering ingebring. Hy bly nege jaar in die kabinet van Washington en daarna die van John Adams, dien as posmeester -generaal tot 1795, minister van oorlog vir 'n kort tydjie in 1795, daarna minister van buitelandse sake van 1795 tot 1800. As minister van buitelandse sake word hy die meeste onthou vir sy sterk verbintenis van die Federalistiese Party aan Britse sake, selfs bereidwilligheid om oorlog te voer met Frankryk ten behoewe van hierdie sake tydens die Adams -administrasie. In 1799 het Pickering Joseph Dennie as sy privaatsekretaris aangestel.

Na 'n rusie met president John Adams oor Adams se plan om vrede met Frankryk te sluit, word Pickering in Mei 1800 ontslaan. In 1802 probeer Pickering en 'n groep federaliste, ontsteld oor die gebrek aan ondersteuning vir federaliste, steun kry vir die afstigting van New England uit die Jeffersonian Verenigde State. Die ironie van 'n federalis wat teen die nasionale regering optree, het nie onder sy andersdenkendes verlore gegaan nie. Hy is in 1803 in die Amerikaanse senaat aangewys as senator van Massachusetts as lid van die Federalist Party. Hy verloor sy senaatsitplek in 1811 en word verkies tot die Amerikaanse Huis van Verteenwoordigers tydens die Amerikaanse Huisverkiesing, 1812, waar hy tot 1817 bly. Sy kongresloopbaan word die beste onthou vir sy leierskap van die New England -afskeidingsbeweging (sien Essex Junto en die Hartford -konvensie).

Later jare en daarna

Nadat Pickering in 1816 herverkiesing geweier is, het hy teruggetrek na Salem, waar hy tot sy dood in 1829 as boer gewoon het, in die ouderdom van 83 jaar. In 1942 is 'n Amerikaanse Liberty-skip genaamd die SS Timothy Pickering gelanseer. Sy is verlore van Sicilië in 1945. Tot in die negentigerjare was Pickering se voorvaderhuis, die omstreeks 1651 Pickering House, die oudste huis in die Verenigde State wat deur dieselfde gesin voortdurend besit was.

Revolusionêre Oorlog -generaal, Amerikaanse kongreslid, senator, sekretaris van die presidensiële kabinet


Timothy Pickering, Jr. aan Richard Devens, 19 Maart 1776

Die keurders van Salem het vandag tweehonderd pond poeier aan John [Jeremiah] Obrien afgelewer vir die gebruik van die privaat persone Ywerig & amp; Machias Liberty in diens van hierdie kolonie, soos die bygevoegde kwitansie sal blyk. Die genoemde Obrien het ons 'n brief van Francis Abbot aan u gestuur as kommissaris -generaal, aan Richd Derby jr Esqr waarin hy hom versoek om die hoeveelheid poeier te voorsien, maar toe die stad die hele vaartuig wat hy huis toe gebring het, gekoop het, het Obrien by ons aansoek gedoen en Aangesien die noodsaaklikheid dringend blyk te wees, het ons hom voorsien op 'n sekere verwagting om dieselfde hoeveelheid van u te ontvang op versoek, om by Salem afgelewer te word sonder om die stad te betaal, of betaal te word teen die prys in die kwitansie, soos die keurders . terg. Van alles wat hulle u vroegtydig in kennis stel en bid dat daar voorsiening gemaak kan word vir die vervanging van die poeier op die kortste kennisgewing, as hulle dit nodig ag vir die veiligheid van die stad. Ek is, meneer, [& ampc.]


Van Timothy Pickering

Ek verneem dat Hammond herroepingsbriewe ontvang het en dat hy verwag om binne drie weke te vertrek. die voorwaarde waarop die advies van die senaat vir die bekragtiging van die verdrag opgeskort is en moontlik om die uitvoering van die deel daarvan wat die poste respekteer, te bespoedig.

Die hooggeregshof sit volgende week hier, en miskien kom die heer wat na die hoofregter vernoem is. Privaat inligting sowel as publikasies van sy onlangse optrede met betrekking tot die verdrag, het my mening bepaal dat die kommissie wat vir hom bedoel is, weerhou moet word.

Oor die onderwerp van die verdrag bely ek dat ek uiters versigtig is en om 'n spesiale rede wat u slegs persoonlik kan meedeel. Ek smeek u daarom dat u met alle gemaklike spoed na die setel van die regering terugkeer. Om die rede hierbo genoem, bid ek u intussen om oor geen belangrike politieke maatreël te besluit nie, in watter vorm dit ook al aan u voorgehou word.3

Mnr Wolcott en ek (mev. Bradford stem saam) wag op mnr. Randolph en dring by sy skrywe aan om u terugkeer te versoek. Hy het in ons teenwoordigheid geskryf: maar ons het 'n brief van een van ons afgereken wat ook nuttig was.

(Hierdie brief is slegs vir u eie oog).

1. Die Britse minister George Hammond het op 17 Augustus vanaf New York na Groot -Brittanje gevaar.

2. Op 1 Julie het GW John Rutledge aangestel om John Jay te vervang as hoofregter van die Hooggeregshof.

Pickering verwys na die onlangse byeenkoms van Suid -Carolina -burgers om hul reaksie op die Jay -verdrag te bespreek (sien Charleston, SC, Citizens to GW, 22 Julie). By die vergadering het Rutledge 'n toespraak 'van aansienlike lengte' gehou en 'op 'n baie opvallende wyse gedemonstreer dat die verdrag afbreuk doen aan die eer, vernietigend vir die handel en hoogs skadelik vir die landboubelange van die Verenigde State' (City Gazette & Daily Advertiser [Charleston], 17 Julie, sien ook Edmund Randolph aan GW, 29 Julie, n.1).

Die hooggeregshof het op Maandag 3 Augustus vergader. Rutledge het eers op 10 Augustus in Philadelphia aangekom, toe hy in die hof gaan sit het (sien The Philadelphia Gazette & amp Universal Daily Advertiser, 12 Aug.). Op 10 Desember het GW die naam van Rutledge aan die Senaat voorgelê vir 'n amptelike benoeming. Vyf dae later verwerp die liggaam sy aanstelling met 'n stemming van 14 tot 10 (sien Senaat Uitvoerende Tydskrif, beskrywing begin Journal of the Executive Proceedings of the Senate of the United States of America: From the beginning of the First, to the termination of the First Negentiende kongres, Deel 1. Washington, DC, 1828. beskrywing eindig 1: 194–96).

3. Pickering verwys na die onderskepte gestuur van die destydse Franse minister Jean-Antoine-Joseph Fauchet. Op 28 Maart het 'n Engelse fregat die Jean Bart gevange geneem, wat versendings van Fauchet na die Franse regering vervoer het, insluitend nommer 10, geskryf op 31 Oktober 1794. Die volgende Mei het die Britse ministerie van buitelandse sake 'n opsomming gestuur en daarna die oorspronklike van die gestuur na George Hammond. Die Britse minister het die versendings aan die einde van Julie ontvang, met die sekretaris van die tesourie, Oliver Wolcott Jr., kontak gemaak en op 26 Julie 'n gedeelte van die vertaalde versending aan hom voorgelees. Twee dae later gee hy Wolcott die oorspronklike (sien Affidavit, 28 Julie, en die ongedateerde "Notes relative to Fauchet's Letter", beide in CtHi: Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Papers). Wolcott het geen tyd gemors om die boodskap met die minister van oorlog Pickering te deel nie, wat sy eie vertaling gemaak het.

Die versending, soos vertaal deur Pickering en in die aantekeninge wat GW daaroor geneem het, het aangedui dat die minister van buitelandse sake Edmund Randolph met Fauchet -nuus gedeel het oor die opstand in die weste van Pennsylvania en die impak daarvan op party -alliansies, en het 'n sterk verband tussen Gov. Thomas Mifflin, sy minister van buitelandse sake, Alexander J. Dallas, en Randolph as invloedryke Republikeinse leiers in Pennsylvania. Fauchet verwys na 'n gesprek met Randolph, opgeteken in versending nr. 3, gedateer 3 Junie 1794, oor die administrasie se beleid ten opsigte van die protes teen die aksyns in die weste van Pennsylvania. Op grond van kommentaar wat hy aan Randolph toegeskryf het, het Fauchet afgelei dat die administrasie van GW 'die plaaslike uitbarsting bespoedig het om 'n voordelige afleiding te maak, en om die meer storm te sien wat dit sien vergader' (GW se aantekeninge oor Fauchet -versending, DLC: GW) . Fauchet noem ook sy versending nr. 6, geskryf op 5 September 1794, wat besonderhede bevat van Randolph se besoek aan Fauchet kort voordat GW sy proklamasie van 7 Augustus 1794 uitgereik het om die opstand te onderdruk. Volgens die Franse minister het Randolph tydens daardie besoek probeer om geld te bekom om die beleid van GW ten gunste van Frankryk te beïnvloed.

Pickering en Wolcott het die Amerikaanse prokureur Gneral William Bradford op 29 Julie geraadpleeg, en die drie mans het ingestem om GW se terugkeer na Philadelphia te versoek. Vir verskillende verslae van versending nr. 10, sien Wolcott aan John Marchall, 9 Junie 1806, CtHi: Oliver Wolcott, Jr., Papers Hamilton Papers, beskrywing begin Harold C. Syrett et al., Reds. The Papers of Alexander Hamilton. 27 vols. New York, 1961–87. description ends 18:527–29 Pickering and Upham, Life of Pickering, description begins Octavius Pickering and Charles W. Upham. The Life of Timothy Pickering . 4 vols. Boston, 1867–73. description ends 3:209–17 Reardon, Edmund Randolph, description begins John J. Reardon. Edmund Randolph: A Biography . New York, 1974. description ends 367–80 Irving Brant, “Edmund Randolph Not Guilty!,” WMQ, description begins The William and Mary Quarterly: A Magazine of Early American History . Williamsburg, Va. description ends 3d. ser., 7 (1950): 182–83 and Mary K. Bonsteel Tachau, “George Washington and the Reputation of Edmund Randolph,” Journal of American History, 73 (1986): 24–26.

4. On this date at 10 P.M., Randolph penned the following letter to GW: “The secretaries of the treasury and war departments are now with me and we concur in thinking it expedient, that, if possible, you should return for a few days to the seat of government. Nothing, but the general crisis of public affairs, leads to this recommendation and it may be important, that you should do some act in consequence of the communications, expected from Mr Hammond, who will sail shortly” (ALS , DNA : RG 59, Miscellaneous Letters [third letter] DNA : RG 59, GW’s Correspondence with His Secretaries of State).


From John Adams to Timothy Pickering, 6 August 1822

Your favour of the 2d instant has prescribed a dismal plan, which I was never very well calculated to execute, but am now wholly incapable. I can write nothing which will not be suspected of personal vanity, local prejudice or Provincial & State partiality. However, as I hold myself responsible, at this age, to one only tribunal in the Universe, I will give you a few hints at all hazards.

As Mr: Hancock was sick and confined Mr Bowdoin was chosen at the head of the Massachusetts delegation to Congress. His relations thought his great fortune ought not to be hazarded. Cushing, too Adams’s and Paine, all destitute of fortune four poor Pilgrims, proceeded in one Coach were escorted through Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York and New Jersey into Pennsylvania. We were met at Frankfort by Dr Rush, Mr Mifflin, Mr Bayard and several others of the most active Sons of Liberty, in Philadelphia, who desired a conference with us. We invited them to take Tea with us in a private apartment. They asked leave to give us some information and advice, which we thankfully granted. They represented to us that the friends of Government in Boston and in the Eastern States, in their correspondence with their friends in Pennsylvania and all the Southern States, had represented us as four desperate adventurers. Mr Cushing was a harmless kind of man, but poor and wholly dependent upon his popularity for his subsistence. Mr Samuel Adams was a very artful designing man, but desperately poor and wholly dependent on his popularity with the lowest vulgar for his living. John Adams and Mr Paine were two young Lawyers of no great talents reputation or weight, who had no other means of raising themselves into consequence but by courting popularity. We were all suspected of having Independence in view. Now, said they, you must not utter the word Independence, nor give the least hint or insinuation of the idea, neither in Congress or any private conversation if you do you are undone for the idea of Independence is as unpopular in Pennsylvania and in all the middle and Southern States as the Stamp Act itself. No Man dares to speak of it. Moreover, you are the Representatives of the suffering State. Boston and Massachusetts are under a rod of Iron. British fleets and Armies are tyranizing over you you yourselves are personally obnoxious to them and all the friends of government.

You have been long persecuted by them all:—Your feelings have been hurt your passions excited you are thought to be too warm, too zealous, too sanguine, you must be therefore very cautious. You must not come forward with any bold measures you must not pretend to take the lead. You know Virginia is the most populous State in the Union. They are very proud of their antient Dominion, as they call it they think they have a right to take the lead, and the Southern States and middle States too, are too much disposed to yield it to them. This was plain dealing, Mr Pickering, and I must confess, that there appeared so much wisdom and good sense in it, that it made a deep impression on my mind, and it had an equal effect on all my Colleagues. This conversation and the principles facts and motives suggested in it, have given a colour complection and character to the whole policy of the United States, from that day to this. Without it, Mr: Washington would never have commanded our armies, nor Mr: Jefferson have been the Author of the declaration of Independence, nor Mr: Richard Henry Lee the mover of it nor Mr: Chase the mover of foreign connections.

If I have ever had cause to repent of any part of this policy, that repentance ever has been and ever will be unavailing. I had forgot to say nor had Mr: Johnston ever have been the nominator of Washington for General.

Although this advice dwelt deeply on my mind, I had not in my nature prudence & caution enough always to observe it. When I found the members of Congress, Virginians & all, so perfectly convinced that they should be able to perswade or terrify Great Britain into a relinquishment of her policy, and a restoration of us to the State of 1763, I was astonished, and could not help muttering in Congress and sometimes out of doors, that they would find, that the proud domineering spirit of Great Britain their vain conceit of their own Omnipotence their total contempt of us, and the incessant representations of their friends and instruments in America, would drive us to extremities and finally conquer us transport us to England for trial, there to be hanged, drawn and quartered for Treason, or to the necessity of declaring Independence, however hazardous and uncertain such a desperate measure might be.

It soon became rumoured about the City that John Adams was for Independence the Quakers & Proprietary Gentlemen, took the alarm represented me as the worst of men, the true-blue Sons of Liberty pitied me all put me under a kind of Coventry. I was avoided like a man infected with the Leprosy. I walked the streets of Philadelphia in solitude, born down by the weight of care and unpopularity. But every ship for the ensuing year, brought us fresh proof of the truth of my prophesies and one after another became convinced of the necessity of Independence. I did not sink under my discouragements I had before experienced enough of the Wantonness of popularity in the trial of Preston and the Soldiers, in Boston.

You enquire why so young a man as Jefferson was placed at the head of the Committee for preparing a declaration of Independence? I answer, it was the Frankfort advice, to place Virginia at the head of everything. Mr: Richard Henry Lee, might be gone to Virginia, to his sick family, for aught I know, but that was not the reason of Mr: Jefferson’s appointment. There were three Committees appointed at the same time. One for the declaration of Independence another for preparing Articles of Confederation and another for preparing a Treaty to be proposed to France. Mr Lee was chosen for the Committee of confederation, and it was not thought convenient that the same person should be upon both. Mr Jefferson came into Congress in June 1775. and brought with him a reputation for literature, science, and a happy talent at composition. Writings of his were handed about remarkable for the peculiar felicity of expression. Though a silent member in Congress, he was so prompt, frank, explicit and decisive upon Committees, not even Saml Adams was more so, that he soon seized upon my heart, and upon this occasion I gave him my vote and did all in my power to procure the votes of others. I think he had one more vote than any other, and that placed him at the head of the Committee. I had the next highest number and that placed me the second. The Committee met, discussed the subject, and then appointed Mr: Jefferson & me to make the draught I suppose, because we were the two highest on the list. The Sub-Committee met Jefferson proposed to me to make the draught. I said I will not You shall do it. Oh No! Why will you not? You ought to do it. I will not. Hoekom? Reasons enough. What can be your reasons? Reason 1st. You are a Virginian, and Virginia ought to appear at the head of this business. Reason 2d. I am obnoxious, suspected and unpopular You are very much otherwise. Reason 3d: You can write ten times better than I can. “Well,” said Jefferson, “if you are decided I will do as well as I can.” Very well, when you have drawn it up we will have a meeting. A meeting we accordingly had and conn’d the paper over. I was delighted with its high tone, and the flights of Oratory with which it abounded, especially that concerning Negro Slavery, which though I knew his Southern Bretheren would never suffer to pass in Congress, I certainly never would oppose. There were other expressions, which I would not have inserted if I had drawn it up particularly that which called the King a Tyrant. I thought this too personal, for I never believed George to be a tyrant in disposition and in nature I always believed him to be deceived by his Courtiers on both sides the Atlantic, and in his Official capacity only, Cruel.

I thought the expression too passionate and too much like scolding for so grave and solemn a document but as Franklin and Sherman were to inspect it afterwards, I thought it would not become me to strike it out. I consented to report it and do not now remember that I made or suggested a single alteration. We reported it to the Committee of Five. It was read and I do not remember that Franklin or Sherman criticized any thing. We were all in haste Congress was impatient and the Instrument was reported, as I believe in Jefferson’s hand writing as he first drew it. Congress cut off about a quarter part of it, as I expected they would, but they obliterated some of the best of it and left all that was exceptionable, if any thing in it was. I have long wondered that the Original draft has not been published. I suppose the reason is the vehement Phillipic against Negro Slavery. As you justly observe, there is not an idea in it, but what had been hackney’d in Congress for two years before. The substance of it is contained in the declaration of rights and the violation of those rights, in the Journals of Congress in 1774. Indeed, the essence of it is contained in a pamphlet, voted and printed by the Town of Boston before the first Congress met composed by James Otis, as I suppose—in one of his lucid intervals, and pruned and polished by Saml: Adams.

If there is any other Question, that you wish to ask me, as long as my memory lasts, and I can procure an Amanuensis as good as the present, to answer you will give great pleasure to him, who is your Friend & Humble Servt:


Pickering, Timothy - History


Sinking on July 13, 1943 the " S.S. Timothy Pickering " lost " 158 " men !

The steam tanker " S.S. Timothy Pickering " (Hull Number 246) was built in 1942 by the Permanente Metals Corporation, Richmond, California. The ship was named after Timothy Pickering, third United States Secretary of State.

On July 13, 1943 the " S.S. Timothy Pickering ", while anchored offshore at Avola, Sicily, was hit by an Italian Ju 87 Stuka which caused the ship to explode and quickly sink with the loss of " 127 " British servicemen, " 22 " Merchant seamen, and " 9 " U.S. Navy Armed Guards. Only one British serviceman survived the explosion.

The names of the " 127 " British servicemen is currently unknown !

If anyone can help with the names of these British Servicemen
please let me know at " [email protected] " so they can be listed here!

Found for the below listing are however:

All " 22 " of the Merchant Marines lost !

" AND "

" 6 " of the " 9 " Navy Armed Guards lost !

If anyone knows who the other " 3 " Armed Guards were
please also let me know at " [email protected] " and they will be listed here!


The following below list was created in the memory of those who "Gave Their All" on the " S.S. Timothy Pickering ". There are personal "online memorials" for each of these honored men that were created for them by using the "Find A Grave" website. You will see a blue " Yes " behind their names and by clicking on the " Yes " you will see a personal memorial that has been created for them by myself or someone else.

" For his great photos and research work in the Epinal American Cemetery, France "
" Anne Cady "

" For her great help locating burials and record updates For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! "
" Dan Phelan "

" For his great help locating burials, record updates, and taking photos for Maryland en helping in researching the Merchant Marines for Maryland ! "
" Dennis Healy "

" For all his photo's in Maryland "
" Frogman "

" For his great photos in multiple American Cemeteries in France "
" Janice Hollandsworth "

" For her great help locating burials and record updates For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide "
" John C. Anderson "

" For his valuable help with documenting soldiers in Arlington National Cemetery "
" John Dowdy "

" For his great help with the Army Air Force, locating burials and flight crew reports For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! "
" Patricia O'Neal "

" For her valuable help with documenting and creating records For Merchant Marines Nationwide ! "
" Shaneo "

" For his great help locating burials and record updates For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! "
" Tim Cook "

" For his great help with the Army Air Force, locating burials, taking photos, and flight crew reports For Soldiers & Sailors Nationwide ! " -->

Key to Abbreviations and Notes

MM = Awarded the " Mariner's Medal "

( Awarded to the Merchant Mariners for being wounded, Missing or Killed In Action )

MM * = Awarded the " Combat Bar "

( Awarded to those who are under combat conditions )

MM ** = Awarded the " Combat Star "

( Awarded to those who are forced to abandon ship when attacked or damaged )

MM-DSM = Awarded the Mariner's " Distinguished Service Medal "

( Awarded for " Heroism Beyond the Call of Duty " )

PH = Awarded the "Purple Heart"

( Awarded to soldiers & sailors for being Wounded and/or Killed in action )

Other Medals = Such as Good Conduct Medals, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medals, American Defense Service Medals, etc. " Are Not " included in this listing.

= Picture of person shown on online memorial

= Picture of tombstone shown on online memorial

Cenotaph = A memorial stone only

Interred somewhere unknown.

" Special Thanks " go to the " Remarkable Website " :

Please visit this great site for more by clicking above !

Quick Link by first letter of Last Name for the S.S. Timothy Pickering

( Those letters shown below in " Maroon " had no known crew members on this ship )


Timothy Pickering

Timothy Pickering (July 17, 1745January 29, 1829) was a politician from Massachusetts who served in a variety of roles, most notably as the third United States Secretary of State, serving in that office from 1795 to 1800 under Presidents George Washington and John Adams.

Pickering had previously served in the Massachusetts militia and Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is often remembered for his Anglophile attitudes, and pushed for pro-British policies during his political career. Pickering famously describing the country as “The World’s last hope – Britain’s Fast-anchored Isle” during the Napoleonic Wars. He later became involved with the Hartford Convention, and along with many other Federalists opposed the War of 1812.

Pickering was born in Salem, Massachusetts to Deacon Timothy and Mary Wingate Pickering. He was one of nine children and the younger brother of John Pickering (not to be confused with the New Hampshire judge) who would eventually serve as Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. He attended grammar school in Salem and graduated from Harvard University in 1763. Salem minister William Bentley noted on Pickering: “From his youth his townsmen proclaim him assuming, turbulent, & headstrong.”

After graduating from Harvard, Pickering returned to Salem where he began working for John Higginson, the town clerk and Essex County register of deeds. Pickering was admitted to the Massachusetts Bar in 1768 and, in 1774, he succeeded Higginson as register of deeds. Soon after, he was elected to represent Salem in the Massachusetts General Court and served as a justice in the Essex County Court of Common Pleas. On April 8, 1776, he married Rebecca White of Salem.

In January 1766, Pickering was commissioned a lieutenant in the Essex County militia. He was promoted to captain three years later. In 1769, he published his ideas on drilling soldiers in the Essex Gazette. These were published in 1775 as “An Easy Plan for a Militia.” The manual was used as the Continental Army drill book until replaced by Baron von Steuben’s Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States

==American Revolutionary War==

In February 1775 men under Pickering’s command were involved in a bloodless confrontration with a detachment of British regulars under Alexander Leslie who had been despatched from Boston to search Salem for contraband artillery. Two months later, Pickering’s troops marched to take part in the Battle of Lexington and Concord but arrived too late to play a major role. They then became part of the New England army assembling outside Boston to lay siege to the city.

In December 1776, he led a well-drilled regiment of the Essex County militia to New York, where General George Washington took notice and offered Pickering the position of adjutant general of the Continental Army in 1777. In this capacity he oversaw the building of the Great chain which was forged at the Stirling Iron Works. The chain blocked the Royal Navy from proceeding up the Hudson River past West Point and protected that important fort from attack for the duration of the conflict. He was widely praised for his work in supplying the troops during the remainder of the conflict. In August 1780, the Continental Congress elected Pickering Quartermaster General.

After the end of the American Revolution, Pickering made several failed attempts at financial success. In 1783, he embarked on a mercantile partnership with Samuel Hodgdon that failed two years later. In 1786, he moved to the Wyoming Valley in Pennsylvania where he assumed a series of offices at the head of Luzerne County. When he attempted to evict Connecticut settlers living in the area, Pickering was captured and held hostage for nineteen days. In 1787, he was part of the Pennsylvania convention held to consider ratification of the United States Constitution.

After the first of Pickering’s two successful attempts to make money speculating in Pennsylvania frontier land, now-President Washington appointed him commissioner to the Iroquois Indians and Pickering represented the United States in the negotiation of the Treaty of Canandaigua with the Iroquois in 1794.

Washington brought Pickering into the government, as Postmaster General in 1791. He remained in Washington’s cabinet and then that of John Adams for nine years, serving as postmaster general until 1795, Secretary of War for a brief time in 1795, then Secretary of State from 1795 to 1800. As Secretary of State he is most remembered for his strong Federalist Party attachments to British causes, even willingness to wage war with France in service of these causes during the Adams administration. In 1799 Pickering hired Joseph Dennie as his private secretary.

After a quarrel with President John Adams over Adams’s plan to make peace with France, Pickering was dismissed from office in May 1800. In 1802, Pickering and a band of Federalists, agitated at the lack of support for Federalists, attempted to gain support for the secession of New England from the Jeffersonian United States. The irony of a Federalist moving against the national government was not lost among his dissenters. He was named to the United States Senate as a senator from Massachusetts in 1803 as a member of the Federalist Party. Pickering opposed the American seizure and annexation of Spanish West Florida in 1810, which he believed was both unconstitutional and an act of aggression against a friendly power. He lost his Senate seat in 1811, and was elected to the United States House of Representatives in the 1812 election, where he remained until 1817. His congressional career is best remembered for his leadership of the New England secession movement (see Essex Junto and the Hartford Convention).

After Pickering was denied re-election in 1816, he retired to Salem, where he lived as a farmer until his death in 1829, aged 83. In 1942, a United States Liberty ship named the SS Timothy Pickering was launched. She was lost off Sicily in 1945. Until the 1990s, Pickering’s ancestral home, the circa 1651 Pickering House, was the oldest house in the United States to be owned by the same family continually.


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