Storm van Mataro, 17 Junie 1808

Storm van Mataro, 17 Junie 1808

Storm van Mataro, 17 Junie 1808

Die storm van Mataro op 17 Junie 1808 was 'n geringe Franse oorwinning wat gekom het net voor generaal Duhesme se eerste poging om Gerona in Junie 1808 te verower. op die hoofweg tussen Barcelona en Perpignan. Dit het aanvanklik nie belangrik gelyk nie, maar die begin van die Spaanse opstand in die lente van 1808 het Duhesme gevaarlik geïsoleer laat staan ​​van die belangrikste Franse leërs rondom Madrid, en daarom besluit hy in Junie om Gerona aan te val om sy direkte kommunikasie met Frankryk te verseker. . In die middel van Junie het hy Barcalona aan die hoof van 'n kolom van 5 900 sterk verlaat, met die helfte van sy beskikbare infanterie en die grootste deel van sy kavallerie.

Sy opgang langs die kuspad word weerstaan ​​deur die plaaslike heffings, bekend as die somaties. Die eerste botsing kom vroeg op 17 Junie by Mongat. Daar het Duhesme 'n mag van ongeveer 8 000 raakgeloop somaties, maar 'n vinnige buiging het hulle gedwing om te verdwyn na 'n kort skermutseling. In die namiddag van dieselfde dag bereik die Franse die stad Mataro sonder ommuur. Om die gebrek aan mure te vergoed, het die burgers blokkades oor die hoofstrate gebou en daarin geslaag om twee of drie kanonne bymekaar te maak. Duhesme het sy Italiaanse brigade, onder generaal Milosewitz, gestuur om die stad aan te val, en hulle het die tydelike verdediging gou oorrompel. Duhesme het toe sy troepe toestemming gegee om die stad vir 'n dag te plunder, wat dan as heeltemal aanvaarbaar beskou is na die verowering van 'n verdedigde stad. Die volgende dag, nadat sy troepe die stad ontslaan het, het Duhesme verder gegaan en Gerona op 20 Junie bereik.

Napoleontiese tuisblad | Boeke oor die Napoleontiese oorloë | Onderwerpindeks: Napoleontiese oorloë


Jaar sonder 'n somer

Die jaar 1816 staan ​​bekend as die Jaar sonder 'n somer as gevolg van ernstige klimaatafwykings wat veroorsaak het dat die gemiddelde globale temperatuur met 0,4-0,7 ° C (0,7-1 ° F) gedaal het. [1] Somertemperature in Europa was tussen die jare 1766–2000 die koudste op rekord. [2] Dit het groot voedseltekorte in die hele Noordelike Halfrond tot gevolg gehad. [3]

Bewyse dui daarop dat die anomalie oorwegend 'n vulkaniese wintergebeurtenis was wat veroorsaak is deur die massiewe uitbarsting van Mount Tambora in 1815 in April in Nederlands -Oos -Indië (vandag bekend as Indonesië). Hierdie uitbarsting was die grootste in minstens 1300 jaar (na die veronderstelling dat die uitbarsting die uiterste weerstoestande van 535–536 veroorsaak het), en moontlik vererger deur die 1814 -uitbarsting van Mayon in die Filippyne.


MARITIME Rampe

MARITIME Rampe is aangeteken in Lake Erie -waters buite Cleveland toe die eerste ontdekkingsreisigers die gebied binnekom. Die hoë rotsagtige oewer van net oos van Cleveland wes tot by Cedar Pt. kombineer met vlak water en skielike storms om een ​​van die gevaarlikste stukke water in die Groot Mere te skep. Nie alle wrakke is egter vanweë natuurlike oorsake, maar swak seemanskap en meganiese mislukking het ook hul tol geëis. Meer as 60 groot wrakke het die benaderings na Cleveland besaai voordat verbeterings in navigasiehulpmiddels en veiligheidstoerusting in die 20ste eeu aangebring is.

Die Noord -Amerikaanse Indiane was deeglik bewus van die gevaarlike suidelike oewer van die Erie -meer, en oor die algemeen sou hulle die meer langs die Kanadese kus deurkruis. In 1764 ontmoet 'n Britse vloot onder bevel van kolonel John Bradstreet 'n skielike storm êrens naby ROCKY RIVER by sy terugkeer van die beleg van Ft. Detroit deur Pontiac en sy Indiese bondgenote. Skade aan die bote het 'n deel van die ekspedisie gedwing om na Ft. Niagara te voet. Daar moet op gelet word dat 'n vloot onder bevel van majoor John Wilkins in die vorige jaar ook aan die Rockyrivier gestig het, maar dit word nou geglo dat dit 'n ramp langs die Kanadese kus van die meer ondervind het. In 1771 het die Britte ook die skoener verloor Bever tussen BAY VILLAGE en Lorain.

Die vroeë jare van Amerikaanse vestiging langs die meer het relatief min meerverkeer veroorsaak. Daar was 2 noemenswaardige sinkings. In 1806 het LORENZO CARTER 'n voortvlugtende slaaf met die naam BEN uit 'n skoener langs Cleveland gered. In 1808 het Cleveland se eerste vissersboot, onder leiding van Joseph Plumb van Newburgh en bemanning deur die seun van AMOS SPAFFORD, Adolphus, in 'n storm langs Bay Village gestig. Nuwe vestiging en tegnologiese innovasies, insluitend die kanaal en die stoomboot, het 'n vervoerbedryf geskep wat op Cleveland as 'n spilpunt fokus. Hierdie veranderinge het egter nuwe gevare vir die skepe op die meer verteenwoordig. Botsing, brand en ontploffing het die weer as groot gevare bygevoeg en vinnig hul tol geëis. Die jaar 1850 was besonder afskuwelik. Op 23 Maart, buite Cleveland, en 18 April, buite Vermilion, die ketels van die Troy en die Anthony Wayne bars en 22 en 40 dood. Toe, op 17 Junie, verf wat naby die vuurkas van die G. P. Griffith het in 'n vreesaanjaende vuur uitgebars. Sewe kilometer van Willoughby af het die kaptein 'n desperate wedloop om die wal beveel. 'N Halfmyl uit, die Griffith slaan 'n skaal af. Hardop staan ​​die houtskip aan die brand en 250 sterf. Hierdie rampe het nuwe veilige wetgewing geïnspireer wat die seevaart effens veiliger gemaak het.

Dit was egter onmoontlik om goeie seemanskap te bepaal. Op die oggend van 21 Junie 1868 het die stoomboot Môrester en die skoener Hofland het van Lorain gebots. Die Môrester gesink, met 23 aan boord. Daar is later vasgestel dat die Hofland loop sonder ligte terwyl die lampe aangevul word. Daar was natuurlik wrakke in die tussenliggende jare, maar die pas wat na 1890 aangegee is, was merkwaardig. Vlootvragmotors en passasiersstoomboot wat vinnig uitbrei, het die ou gevare gekonfronteer. Slegs die bekendstelling van moderne navigasiehulpmiddels en radio sal die matrose die voordeel gee. Gales bly die algemeenste oorsaak van sinkings. Tipies was die storm van 10-11 Augustus 1890. Die skoeners Twee Fannies en Fanny L. Jones het 'n entjie van mekaar gesink net wes van Cleveland. Op 28 Junie 1899 het die stoomboot Margaret Olwill gestig in 'n wilde rits naby Lorain, met die kaptein en sy vrou. 'N Ander storm, op 10 September 1900, het die stoomskip geëis John B. Lyon en die skoener Dundee en 3 ander beskadig. Die stoomboot Alex Nimick in Cleveland aangekom minus sy stuurhuis. Verbasend genoeg het nie een van die Groot Storms, 20-22 November 1905 en 9-13 November 1913, skepe naby Cleveland gesink nie, ondanks die verbysterende verliese elders. Teen hierdie tyd het 'n netwerk van weerstasies en vroeë radio -ontvangers egter die kapteins gewaarsku oor slegte weer. Met die waarskuwing kon skepe in die hawe vaar. Die skepe het ook groter en sterker geword en was beter in staat om die storms die hoof te bied. Nietemin was slegte weer die grootste verlies. Die laaste twee noemenswaardige sinkings, die sandsucker Sand handelaar op 16 Oktober 1936 en die sleepboot Admiraal en die boot Cleveco op 3 Desember 1942 was albei te wyte aan storms.

Gure weer was egter nie die enigste oorsaak van rampspoed nie. Sedert die beginjare het onbekwaamheid van die bemanning 'n belangrike rol gespeel. Tipies was die skoener Wahnapitae, wat op 26 Oktober 1890 op die breekmuur van Cleveland opgehoop het. 'n Onversekerde deklading het verskuif toe die stoomboot Heilige Magnus is op 7 Junie 1895 getref deur 'n verbygaande vaartuig in die CUYAHOGA -RIVIER. Brand bly 'n gevaar, ondanks staalkonstruksie. Die C & ampB Lines passasiersstoomboot Stad Buffalo verbrand by die E. 9th St. pier op 20 Maart 1938. Soms stuur blote gebeurtenisse 'n skip na die bodem, soos wanneer die sandsucker Hidro is op 12 September 1939 deur 'n onsigbare voorwerp in die rivierkanaal gehul. 'n Ander aspek van 'n ramp op die mere moet opgemerk word. Baie skepe wat deur Cleveland -maatskappye gebou en bedryf is en deur Clevelanders beman is, is in die waters ver van die huis afgeskryf. Die stoomboot Idaho het op 6 November 1897 in 'n storm aan die oostelike punt van die meer gesink. Twee van die bemanningslede is uit die top van sy mas gered, na 'n nag vol terreur. Verskeie van die skepe wat tydens die Groot Storms van 1905 en 1913 verlore geraak het, was uit Cleveland. Ten slotte, die Edmund Fitzgerald, die mees onlangse wrak op die mere, op 10 November 1975, bestuur deur die OGLEBAY NORTON CO., het 'n vrag ystererts vir J & ampL Steel gedra en is grotendeels beman deur seelui in die Cleveland-gebied.

Marsalek, Daniel E. "Die debat oor die ramp op die Wilkins -ekspedisie," Inland Seas Magazine (1983).


J.M.W. Turner, Sneeustorm

James Mallord William Turner, Snow Storm-Stoomboot uit 'n hawe se mond en maak seine in vlak water en gaan deur die lood. Die skrywer was in hierdie storm op die nag toe die “Ariel ” Harwich verlaat het), 1842, olieverf op doek, 91 cm × 122 cm (Tate Britain, Londen)

'N Perfekte storm

Te midde van 'n hewige sneeustorm sak 'n stoomboot van 200 ton en sy menslike vrag onder 'n golwende golf terwyl hy sukkel om die kus te bereik. Ons siening - wat moontlik van 'n ander boot, of selfs droë land - kan wees, word vervaag deur 'n mengsel sneeu, wind en pekelwater. Intussen word die boot se onstuimige bewegings opgeroep deur 'n spoel swart steenkoolrook wat in die lug opkom, 'n mas wat deur die storm gebuig is en 'n wit vertikale streep-'n nuttelose noodvlam-wat verskeie kere herhaal is asof die na-beeld daarvan verbrand homself op ons netvlies.

James Mallord William Turner, detail, Snow Storm-Stoomboot uit 'n hawe se mond en maak seine in vlak water en gaan deur die lood. Die skrywer was in hierdie storm op die nag toe die “Ariel ” Harwich verlaat het), 1842, olieverf op doek, 91 cm × 122 cm (Tate Britain, Londen)

Dit is 'n verstommende, aggressiewe, deeglik onkonvensionele skildery, en kykers by die British Royal Academy -uitstalling van 1842 - waar dit die eerste keer vertoon is - was verbouereerd en woedend oor die moderne benadering tot 'n standaardgenre. Ons kan empatie hê met die verontwaardiging as ons dit vergelyk Sneeustorm na ander negentiende-eeuse skilderye van rampe op see, soos dié van Théodore Gericault Die Vlot van die Medusa (1819).

In die Turner word duidelikheid verruil vir 'n ekspressiewe, byna abstrakte skilderagtige uitvoering. Die visuele struktuur van die skildery is gebaseer op 'n draaiende draaikolk eerder as 'n stabiele piramidale samestelling. Dit is ook 'n feitlik monochromatiese beeld waar see en lug saamsmelt en moeilik is om ruimtelike diepte te meet. En eerder as om 'n konsekwente tegniek oor die hele skildery te handhaaf, het Turner sy benadering gekap en verander-onderverf met olies gemeng met terpentyn om 'n wasige waterverf-effek te verkry, en dan dik verf gebruik met 'n varkhare-kwas en paletmes om vinnig, gebaarlik te maak en stukkende kleurstrepe bo -oor. In ander skilderye het hy op die oppervlaktes waarop hy gewerk het, gesmeer en gekrap, soms selfs in 'n energieke gejaag na hulle gespoeg. Turner se gewelddadige tegnieke pas goed by die onstuimige onderwerp van hierdie skildery.

Théodore Géricault, Vlot van die Medusa, 1818-19, olieverf op doek, 4,91 x 7,16m (Musée du Louvre, Parys)

Die verband tussen titel en beeld is ook insiggewend. Die naam van die skildery is uitgebrei en hoogs gedetailleerd, wat dui op 'n verslag van 'n baie besondere maritieme gebeurtenis, wat deur die kunstenaar getuig is. Turner se doel is blykbaar om ons te wys dat dit nie bloot artistieke vrystyl is nie, of 'n voorbeeld van kuns ter wille van kuns (soos Théophile Gautier dit in 1835 gestel het), maar eerder 'n ernstige poging om die natuur werklik te sien en skryf dit weer oor. Terselfdertyd nooi ons ons fokus op 'n oomblik van groot gevaar in die lig van die toorn van die natuur om breër temas na te dink, soos die stryd van die mensdom om rasionaliteit en sensoriese sekerheid in 'n wêreld wat deur chaos onderskryf word.

'N Skildery van revolusies

Turner was kundig oor kunsgeskiedenis en wou gedurende sy loopbaan beroemde kunstenaars uit die verlede eer, soos Claude, Titian en Rubens. Terselfdertyd het hy ook nuwe visuele ervarings gesoek, wat hom laat belangstel het in kontemporêre gebeure en moderne tegnologie. Een so 'n nuwigheid was stoombote wat met steenkool aangedryf word, soos die een wat daarin uitgebeeld word Sneeustorm, wat in 1812 wyd gebruik is, wat die gebruik van seile en roeispane vervang het wat die afgelope 4000 jaar van die menslike geskiedenis gebruik is.

Stoom pakkie, 1832, akwatint, 15,4 x 18,9 cm (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Londen)

Hierdie verandering was slegs een wat die Industriële Revolusie gedefinieer het, 'n historiese gebeurtenis wat 'n deurslaggewende verandering in die samelewing en die mens se verhouding met die natuur was. Een openbaring was dat die natuur gevul was met energie, gestoor in materiaal soos steenkool en water, wat ontketen en beheer kan word om die menslike aspirasies te bevorder. Dus Sneeustorm toon 'n moderne waardering vir die landskap waarin alle materie toeneem met dinamiese, maar onontginde kragte. Dit is egter nie 'n triomf nie: Turner het die nuutste tegnologie van die Industriële Revolusie verkleineer deur dit aan die veel groter natuurkrag te onderwerp.

Die filosofie van vrees

Soos 'n rampfilm, verander Turner se skildery 'n natuurramp-met die dood 'n byna sekerheid-in vermaak. 'As gevaar of pyn te naby druk, is hulle nie in staat om vreugde te verskaf nie, en is hulle eenvoudig verskriklik,' het Edmund Burke in 1757 geskryf, 'maar op sekere afstande en met sekere aanpassings is hulle miskien heerlik. ” [1] Hierdie morbiede vreugde het Burke 'n naam gekry: die “sublime, ” 'n toestand van beheerde terreur, veroorsaak deur 'n konfrontasie met die oorweldigende mag van die natuur. Die rede waarom 'n uitstekende kuns aantreklik is, is waarskynlik omdat dit die publiek se eie klein spanning en angs kontekstualiseer deur hulle die omvang van die groter prentjie te wys. Turner was deeglik bewus van Burke se estetiese teorie en het geword een van die bekendste voorstanders van die “sublime ” in die skilderkuns.

James Mallord William Turner, Snow Storm-Stoomboot uit 'n hawe se mond en maak seine in vlak water en gaan deur die lood. Die skrywer was in hierdie storm op die nag toe die “Ariel ” Harwich verlaat het), 1842, Olie op doek, 91 cm × 122 cm (Tate Britain, Londen)

Turner het later in 'n gesprek dit voorgehou voordat hy geskilder het Sneeustorm hy het homself aan die mas van 'n skip vasgemaak en die eienaar gevra om vier uur lank in 'n storm te vaar. Dit, en die aanspraak op eerstehandse ervaring wat in die titel gemaak word, spoor ons aan om Turner te beskou as 'n deurmekaar figuur wat die sublieme in die naam van kuns vreesloos gekonfronteer het. Soos Barry Venning egter aangedui het, was Turner in 1842 65, en volgens historiese rekords het geen skip met die naam Ariel op hierdie tydstip vanaf Harwich gevaar nie.

Alhoewel sy verhaal vals was, is Turner se selfmitologisering steeds van belang, aangesien dit hom verbind met 'n breër kulturele beweging: Romantiek. Hierdie losbandige intellektuele fase in kuns, letterkunde en musiek was in opstand teen Neoklassisisme (wat meer gefokus was op die intellek, kollektiewe verantwoordelikheid en beheerde emosies) en plaas eerder die fokus op emosionele reaksies, individuele gevoelens en die oorweldigende krag van die natuur. Turner se lang verhaal beskryf hom as 'n uitstekende voorbeeld van hierdie selfgerigte en ekspressiewe artistieke neiging.

Nalatenskap

Hierdie skildery, soos baie ander deur Turner, verdeel hedendaagse menings. Dit is beslis onder baie kritici aangeval, waarvan een Snow Storm bloot 'seepblare en afwas' (dws skottelgoed en huisverf) genoem het. Aan die ander kant noem die Engelse kunskritikus John Ruskin die skildery 'een van die wonderlikste verklarings van seebeweging, mis en lig, wat ooit op doek gelê is.' [2] Ruskin noem Turner later die vader van moderne kuns.

'N Positiewe konsensus oor Turner se reputasie het sedert die middel van die negentiende eeu aansienlik gegroei en versterk: die kunstenaar het 'n aparte afdeling in Tate Britain, bekend as die Clore Gallery, toegewy. Brittanje se mees gesogte prys vir kontemporêre kuns - die 'Turner -prys' word ook ter ere van hom genoem, en in Februarie 2020 word hy herdenk aan die agterkant van die nuwe £ 20 -banknoot.

2020 £ 20 biljet ter ere van J.M.W. Turner

Turner se gewaagde, ekspressiewe tegnieke het Frans meer beïnvloed as die Britse kuns in die negentiende eeu, met Claude Monet en die impressioniste wat veral sy baanbrekende en eksperimentele tegnieke en ligvoorstelling bewonder het. In die twintigste eeu is abstrakte ekspressioniste soos Mark Rothko, Jackson Pollock en Barnett Newman direk of indirek beïnvloed deur Turner se hantering van verf en sy betrokkenheid by “sublime ” onderwerp.


Weer in die geskiedenis 1800 tot 1849 nC

120%) val op, alhoewel selfs hierdie nie in die 'top-10' van die natste jare in die reeks verskyn nie. Daar is bewyse uit data uit die Londense gebied dat daar (soos verwag kan word) noemenswaardige plaaslike variasies was. Uit die Greenwich -reeks (LW), byvoorbeeld, het die natste jare in hierdie vier dekades NIE saamgeval met die EWP vir Londen nie, blyk dit dat 1821 (

115% van die hele reeks beteken. Dit was ook 'n merkwaardige nat jaar in die Londense gebied (en in ruwe verlenging, die SE van Engeland), waar Greenwich 34,5 duim (

113% van die hele reeks beteken. Dit was ook 'n besondere nat jaar in die Londense gebied (en in ruwe verlenging, die SE van Engeland), waar Greenwich 36,3 duim (

922 mm) reën, wat minstens 150% van die langtermyngemiddeld verteenwoordig. (LW)
[Sien ook die algemene aantekening aan die begin van die 1800's]
3de Maart: Ernstige skade aangerig deur storm (Londen/Suid).
Herfs: met 'n EWP -waarde van 388 mm (

150% van LTA), hierdie herfs is een van die dosyn of so natste sulke seisoene in daardie reeks. 'N Aantal berigte van oorstromings regoor die land.
Op die aand van die 22 November 1824, 'n sterk depressie, wat byna beslis 'n beduidende stormvloed veroorsaak het, het 'n groot deel van die suidkus van Engeland geraak, en die sterk wind het baie skade ver van die kus af veroorsaak. 'N Seebeampte (andersins aangeteken as in Portland [SW Dorset] of Sidmouth [SE Devon]) vergelyk die windsterkte en die gevolge daarvan in kusgebiede met dié van 'n' Wes -Indiese orkaan ': dit kan een van die die vroegste gebruik van die naam in verband met 'n 'middel-breedtegraad'/buite-tropiese sikloon. In een verslag na die gebeurtenis word volgens hom gesê dat die windsterkte wel was groter as 'n orkaan, hoewel laasgenoemde natuurlik in elk geval veranderlik is, en dit hang af van sy persoonlike ervaring. [Verwys na nog baie meer inligting: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/

12% moderne LTA), dit is die droogste Julie in die Engelse en Walliese neerslag [EWP] -reeks (tot en met 2014 -opdatering), en die 10de droogste enige maand in daardie reeks.
& gt Met die uitgebreide droogte (sien hierbo), is dit nie verbasend dat hierdie maand ook 'n warm tydperk beleef het nie; ons het slegs rekords vir die London & amp Home Counties -gebied, maar in die middel van Londen (Somerset House) was daar 'n reeks dae vanaf die 12de tot 20ste (9 dae) met die maksimum temperatuur & gt = 80degF (& gt = 27degC), met die hoogste waarde op die 19de by 89degF (

32 grade Celsius). By Datchet (destyds Buckinghamshire, nou Berkshire, naby Windsor), op vier dae (15de, 17de, 18de en 19de), is die temperatuur in 'n 'skadelike' gebied van 'n tuin aangeteken tussen 90 en 96degF (laasgenoemde is

-3C) was een van die 'top-10' genoemde maande, terwyl April (4,7 ° C/anom.

-3,2C) was die koudste April in die hele reeks. Mei was ook koud (anom.

417 mm, of ongeveer 70% van die huidige gemiddelde. Februarie, Maart, April, Augustus en Desember was almal droog, Maart en April veral (net 0,09 ins /

2 mm in die laaste maand). Met die groter Engelse en Wallis -reeks was die totaal 801 mm (


Britse weer van 1700 tot 1849

Martin Rowley het 'n wonderlike webwerf saamgestel met inligting oor die weer in Brittanje. Van besondere belang (vir my in elk geval) is die historiese gegewens van 4000BC (!) Tot vandag toe. U kan dit alles vind op: http://booty.org.uk/booty.weather/climate/histclimat.htm.

Met die vrygewige toestemming van Martin het ek die weerdata van 1700 tot 1849 onttrek en hier vertoon. Gegewe die soms informele aard van die historiese bronne, is dit noodwendig 'n bietjie flou, maar dit sorg vir fassinerende lees.

Warm weer gebeurtenis
Koue weer gebeurtenis
Gebeurtenis met droë weer
Nat weer gebeurtenis
Stormagtige weer gebeurtenis
Misweer gebeurtenis
Verwysings: hou die muis oor die prentjie om te sien

-2,5C op die gemiddelde reeks) was die koudste maand met die naam in die reeks (die vroeë deel, waar die rekord slegs tot die naaste 0,5C is, geïgnoreer).
[Dit is gevolg deur 'n koue Junie, met 'n anomalie uit die hele reeks

120%) val op, alhoewel selfs hierdie nie in die 'top-10' van die natste jare in die reeks verskyn nie. Daar is bewyse uit data uit die Londense gebied dat daar (soos verwag kan word) noemenswaardige plaaslike variasies was. Uit die Greenwich -reeks (LW), byvoorbeeld, het die natste jare in hierdie vier dekades NIE saamgeval met die EWP vir Londen nie, blyk dit dat 1821 (

115% van die hele reeks beteken. Dit was ook 'n merkwaardige nat jaar in die Londense gebied (en in ruwe verlenging, die SE van Engeland), waar Greenwich 34,5 duim (

113% van die hele reeks beteken. Dit was ook 'n merkwaardige nat jaar in die Londense gebied (en in ruwe verlenging, die SE van Engeland), waar Greenwich 36,3 duim (

922 mm) reën, wat minstens 150% van die langtermyngemiddeld verteenwoordig. (LW)
[Sien ook die algemene aantekening aan die begin van die 1800's]
3 Maart: Ernstige skade aangerig deur storm (Londen/Suid).
Herfs: met 'n EWP -waarde van 388 mm (

150% van LTA), hierdie herfs is een van die dosyn of so natste sulke seisoene in daardie reeks. 'N Aantal berigte van oorstromings regoor die land.
Op die aand van die 22ste November 1824 het 'n hewige depressie, wat byna seker 'n aansienlike stormvloed veroorsaak het, 'n groot deel van die suidkus van Engeland getref, en die sterk wind het baie skade ver van die kus af veroorsaak. 'N Vlootbeampte (andersins aangeteken as in Portland [SW Dorset] of Sidmouth [SE Devon]) het die windsterkte en die gevolge daarvan in kusgebiede vergelyk met dié van 'n "West -Indiese orkaan": dit kan een van die vroegste gebruike wees van die naam in verband met 'n 'middel-breedtegraad'/buite-tropiese sikloon. In een verslag na die gebeurtenis word inderdaad gesê dat die windsterkte groter was as 'n orkaan, hoewel laasgenoemde natuurlik in elk geval veranderlik is en dat dit afhang van sy persoonlike ervaring. [Verwys na nog baie meer inligting: http://www.southampton.ac.uk/

12% moderne LTA), dit is die droogste Julie in die England & amp; Wales Precipitation [EWP] -reeks (tot en met 2014 -opdatering), en die 10de droogste in 'n maand in die reeks.
& gt Met die uitgebreide droogte (sien hierbo), is dit nie verbasend dat hierdie maand ook 'n warm tydperk beleef het nie; ons het slegs rekords vir die London & amp Home Counties -gebied, maar in die middel van Londen (Somerset House) was daar 'n reeks dae vanaf die 12de tot 20ste (9 dae) met die maksimum temperatuur & gt = 80degF (& gt = 27degC), met die hoogste waarde op die 19de by 89degF (

32 grade Celsius). By Datchet (destyds Buckinghamshire, nou Berkshire, naby Windsor), op vier dae (15de, 17de, 18de en 19de), is die temperatuur in 'n 'skadelike' gebied van 'n tuin aangeteken tussen 90 en 96degF (laasgenoemde is

-3C) was een van die 'top-10' genoemde maande, terwyl April (4,7 ° C/anom.

-3.2C) was die koudste April in die hele reeks. Mei was ook koud (anom.

417 mm, of ongeveer 70% van die huidige gemiddelde. Februarie, Maart, April, Augustus en Desember was almal droog, Maart en April veral (net 0,09 ins /

2 mm in die laaste maand). Met die groter Engelse en Wallis -reeks was die totaal 801 mm (

88% van LTA), met Maart en April baie droog: Maart 1840, met 10 mm (

Bibliografie

Klimaat, geskiedenis en die moderne wêreld H.H. Lamb Methuen 1982

Die Engelse klimaat H.H. Lamb English Universities Press 1964

Weer in Londen J.H. Brazell HMSO (Meteorologiese Kantoor) 1968

Streekklimaat van die Britse Eilande D. Wheeler en J. Mayes Routledge 1997

Die Bude -kanaal Helen Harris en Monica Ellis David & Charles 1972

Weerwys Philip Eden Macmillan 1995 (en opgedateer)

Die weer faktor Erik Durschmied Hodder & Stoughton 2000

Historiese storms van die Noordsee, Britse Eilande en NW Europa H.H. Lamb Cambridge University Press 1991

Sentraal -Engeland Temperatuurreeks (Met Office / Hadley Center)

Engelse en Walliese neerslagreeks (Met Office / Hadley Center)

Bydraers tot die nuusgroep van uk.sci.weather

Tornado en Storm Navorsingsorganisasie http://torro.org.uk/

Vulkane Decker en Decker

Weer Oog Uitgawe 19 Ian Currie

Filosofiese transaksies van die Royal Society [individuele vraestelle en jaarlikse weeropsommings]

'N Verslag van die verskriklike brand op Chatham op Vrydag, 3 Maart 1820 William Jefferys 1821 eksemplaar op Google Books


Historiese gebeure in 1828

    Fransman René Caillié is die eerste nie-Moslem wat Timbuktu binnegaan, keer terug na 'n prys van 10 000 frank van Société de Géographie Rusland verklaar oorlog teen Turkye om Griekeland se onafhanklikheid te ondersteun Zoological Gardens in Regent's Park in Londen open

Gebeurtenis van Rente

19 Mei Amerikaanse president John Quincy Adams onderteken die tarief van 1828/tarief van gruwels in die wet om die nywerheid in die noorde te beskerm

Gebeurtenis van Rente

13 Junie Simon Bolívar uitgeroep tot diktator

    Bouwerk begin aan B & amp O (Baltimore-Ohio) se eerste Amerikaanse passasier RR Bolton en Leigh Railway maak oop vir vragverkeer.

Musiek Première

20 Aug. Gioachino Rossini se opera & quotLe Comte Ory & quot het première in Parys

    Hindi hervormingsbeweging Brahmo Samaj gestig deur Ram Mohan Roy en Dwarkanath Tagore in Calcutta Nederlandse weermag neem Fort Du Bus in Nieu-Guinee Uruguay kry onafhanklikheid tydens vredesgesprekke tussen Brasilië en Argentinië. Die Russe verslaan die Turke in die Slag van Akhalzic. Die Griekse stad Patras word bevry deur die Franse ekspedisiemag in Peloponnesos onder generaal Maison. St Katharine Docks open in Londen, Engeland

Verkiesing van belang

Gebeurtenis van Rente

19 Desember Verslag deur die Amerikaanse vise -president, John C. Calhoun, wat die regte van state verdedig om federale wette te vernietig, word aan die wetgewer van Suid -Carolina voorgelê, maar daar word nie opgetree nie


William Smith-vraestelle, 1785-1860

Hierdie versameling bestaan ​​uit briewe en geskrifte van en na William Smith, asook versamelde gedrukte materiaal wat grootliks verband hou met Smith se werk teen die slawehandel en die afskaffing van slawerny in Britse kolonies in die vroeë 1800's. Uitstaande is die 24 briewe van William Wilberforce (1759-1833) wat onderwerpe bespreek soos: godsdiens, siekte in die gesin, sy siekte wat hom gedwing het om die Laerhuis, sy gesin en sy begeerte na 'n meer privaat lewe saam met hulle te verlaat, sy familielede, politieke teleurstellings, reise en verlowings, uitgewers, misdadigers in Groot-Brittanje en hul straf, resolusies en planne vir die afskaffing van slawerny, die antl-slawerny-samelewing, die Jamaica-wet, Spaanse slawehandel, Spaanse afskaffing, William Pitt, Lord Grenville en sy boedel Dropmore, dr. Channing, Robert Hall en Thomas Buxton.

'N Aantal van die briewe van Smith se talle korrespondente val op. Daar is 'n aantal briewe rondom 1790 van verskillende genootskappe en komitees wat die afskaffing van slawerny bespreek en Smith se optrede goedkeur, en sommige noem ook Wilberforce. 'N Brief van J. Yule in Edinburgh van 13 Augustus 1792 vertel van die arme Skotse kleinboere wat uit hul lande verdryf word om plek te maak vir skape wat meer winsgewend is. Drie briewe van James Muir tussen 1793 en 1797 bespreek die saak van sy seun wat veertien jaar lank verban is omdat hy by die Genootskap vir Parlementêre Hervorming aangesluit het. 'N Brief van John Longley op 31 Januarie 1796 vertel van 'n boek wat hy pas oor parlementêre hervorming gepubliseer het en bespreek verskeie aspekte van die Engelse regering vanuit die oogpunt van 'n hervormer. Thomas Coke skryf op 16 Maart 1809 oor die verskillende slawernywette in Jamaika. 'N Lang brief van 1813 van Andrew Wedderburn, 'n eienaar van die plantasie in Jamaika, bespreek die toestand van die slawe na 'n storm, hul voedselvoorraad, siekte en dood, sy houding teenoor hulle versorging, die verskillende gebruike van die land, die gewasse wat verbou word, die mark vir produkte, die aankoop en huur van slawe. 'N Aantal briewe van Bermuda, Nevis, St. Vincent, Barbados en Berbice bevat soortgelyke besprekings. 'N Buitengewone goeie brief kom van 'n planter in St. Vincent, 4 April 1816. Sommige van hierdie planters se briewe gee in nadruklike terme die geval van die planters teen die afskaffing van slawerny. Daar is 'n afskrif van 'n preek wat in Port Royal, Jamaika, op 7 Junie 1822, op die herdenking van die groot aardbewing (1692) gehou is, wat 'n baie openhartige en kritieke kritiek op die morele lewe van Port Royal bevat.

Een van die belangrikste in die versameling is 'n brief in 'n baie klein handskrif van John Horseman, 15 Julie 1817, wat die teks bevat van Robert Southey se gedig getiteld "To the Exiled Patriots." Die enigste bekende publikasie van die gedig is in Samuel Taylor Coleridge se Essays on His Own Times, (1850) I, 19-20. Ruitersuitgawe van die gedig bevat sestien strofes in vergelyking met die tien van Coleridge. Boonop verskil agt van die reëls in die twee uitgawes.

Verskeie briewe van Thomas Clarkson tussen 1825 en 1827 bespreek die metodes wat gebruik moet word in die stryd om die volledige afskaffing van slawerny. 'N Brief van T. Gisborne in 1829 beskuldig Smith daarvan dat hy 'n pous was. 'N Lang petisie in 1829 onderteken deur 95 inheemse inwoners van Bombay, Indië, protesteer teen die House of Commons teen sekere griewe en vra regstelling. 'N Brief van Gilbert Shelton op Bermuda in 1832 lewer opregte insigte oor die onlangse hervormingswet, oor Ierse onafhanklikheid en oor die soorte Christelike sendelinge in Wes -Indië, later gee briewe van hom aansienlike besonderhede oor die aankoop van 'n lewensversekeringspolis in Engeland. Verskillende briewe in 1833 vertel van die metodes en probleme wat betrokke is by die afskaffing van slawerny. 'N Brief van James Stephen kondig Wilberforce se dood aan, 29 Julie 1833, ook 'n brief van Wilberforce se seun, Robert, vertel van die dood. Daar is 'n afskrif van 'n versoekskrif aan eerwaarde H. W. Wilberforce wat deur 127 lede van albei parlementshuise onderteken is waarin versoek word dat William Wilberforce in die Westminster Abbey begrawe moet word en dat hulle toestemming verleen word om die begrafnis by te woon. Verskeie briewe tussen die Clarksons en William Smith bied kortliks die dood van Wilberforce aan, Robert Wilberforce se voorgestelde lewe van sy vader en sy idees om sommige van Thomas Clarkson se aansprake vir homself in die afskaffingsbeweging aan te val.

Die korrespondente in hierdie versameling sluit in: M. Babington, J. Barham, Richard Bickell, Henry Bright, Richard Brodbelt, Priscilla Buxton, Thomas Powell Buxton, Catherine Clarkson, Thomas Coke, Benjamin Cooper, John Frederick Garling, T. Gisborne, Andrew Grant , Robert Grosvenor, George Hibbert, John Horseman, Robert Harry Inglis, John Longley, Men Leith, Zachary Macaulay, A. Mavrocordato, James Muir, J. Plymley, D. Power, William Rathbone, Gilbert Salton, Philip Sansom, John Scott, B. Shank, Granville Sharp, E. Sharpe, James Stephen, W. Villers, Andrew Wedderborn, James Weeker, Barbara Ann Wilberforce, Robert I. Wilberforce, William Wilberforce, John Wright en J. Yule.

In addition to the letters mentioned above, there is extensive evidence in the miscellaneous papers and the printed material on slavery. It includes Smith's notes and research on: spies in the slave trade, deaths (of crew and captives) on slave ships, food carried on slave ships, methods of obtaining slaves in Africa, conditions of Africans in Africa, British exports to Africa, eyewitness accounts and lists of witnesses, general information on the West Indies, estates and plantations, diseases and epidemics, population, mistreatment of slaves, breeding of slaves versus importation, description of a riot in Barbados in 1823 and the destruction of a Methodist chapel, printed petitions from the West Indies showing the increasingly difficult financial position of the sugar planters due to high taxes, shipping costs, and low prices, lists and copies of British Laws concerning slavery in the colonies, a planter's plan for the emancipation of slaves over a period of 34 years, conditions of slaves in French colonies, papers comparing the raising of sugar cane in the West Indies and in the East Indies and India, letters regarding the abolition of slavery in Ceylon, speeches in Parliament or manuscripts of books, Parliamentary resolutions, printed statements for and against slavery, history of the movement for abolition, newspaper excerpts, and magazine articles.

William Smith (1756–1835) was a leading independent British politician, sitting as Member of Parliament (MP) for more than one constituency. He was an English Dissenter and was instrumental in bringing political rights to that religious minority. He was a friend and close associate of William Wilberforce and a member of the Clapham Sect of social reformers, and was in the forefront of many of their campaigns for social justice, prison reform and philanthropic endeavour, most notably the abolition of slavery. He was the maternal grandfather of pioneer nurse and statistician Florence Nightingale.

Acquisition Information: The William Smith papers were acquired by Duke University between 1954 and 1967. Processing information:

Processed by: Duke University. David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library Staff

Completed ca. 1967. Updated 2018.

Encoded by Stephen Douglas Miller

Rules or Conventions: Describing Archives: A Content Standard


I. A minimal hurricane that passed through the Leeward Islands on August 10 moved through the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico to strike southeast Louisiana on August 18.

II. On August 27 and August 28, a hurricane struck Exuma in the Bahamas.

III. During September 9 and September 10 a hurricane impacted Bermuda. (from Beware the Hurricane)

IV. Between October 2 and October 5, a hurricane lingered across South Carolina. [1]

V. The ship, Galgo, was sunk during a hurricane on October 9 over the southwest Atlantic. All 25 crew members were rescued.

VI. On October 31, a hurricane struck Jamaica before moving onward to Cuba and the southwest Atlantic. During November 4 and November 5, Bermuda experienced this hurricane. A lighthouse begun in 1795 on Wreck Hill was abandoned after this storm, as it was then determined to be an unsuitable site. (from Beware the Hurricane)

I. Nassau, Bahamas experienced a hurricane on July 22. 120 sails were wrecked onshore. The system moved westward into the Gulf of Mexico.

II. On August 15 and August 16, this hurricane made landfall near Mobile, Alabama. [1]

A hurricane was spotted west of Jamaica between October 6 and October 10.

I. In August, a hurricane hit the West Indies. It continued through Jamaica, moved northward, and eventually hit England later in the month. It caused 121 deaths.

II. A hurricane hit near the Chesapeake Bay on August 29, causing at least one death.

III. In addition, a minimal hurricane right on its heels hit near New Bern, North Carolina on August 31 and September 1. This type of tropical cyclone succession up the coast is similar to the Connie/Diane East coast landfalls of 1955.

IV. During October 2 and October 3, a hurricane reportedly impacted Norfolk, Virginia. [1]

I. During August 18 and August 19, a hurricane was noted in Jamaica.

II. A hurricane was first spotted near the Leeward Islands on September 3. It moved northwestward, and hit Georgia as a major hurricane on September 7. It continued slowly through South Carolina and North Carolina, leaving the mainland on the 9th before striking New England on September 12. The hurricane caused 500 deaths.

III. Between September 22 and September 24, a tropical storm tracked from Cuba northward to South Carolina. [1]

Storm of October 1804 Edit

IV. Later in the season, a major hurricane moved northwestward across the Western Atlantic to the north of Puerto Rico. It hit near Atlantic City, New Jersey on October 9, and turned northeastward. As it crossed New England, cool air was entrained in the circulation, and it became extratropical. The storm brought heavy snow across the Northeast, in some areas up to 2–3 feet, and killed 8 people. This was the first observation of snow from a landfalling hurricane, but not the last.

I. Between July 27 and August 1, a hurricane tracked through the southwest Atlantic east of Bermuda.

II. On September 30, a hurricane struck Mantanzas, Cuba then moved northward into Maine by October 3. [1]

I. A tropical cyclone was noted near the northeastern Lesser Antilles on August 17. Moving west-northwest, the cyclone strengthened into a major hurricane which hit the southern North Carolina coast on August 23 and led to 42 deaths. It moved out to sea, disrupting British and French ships involved in the Napoleonic Wars.

II. A tropical cyclone moved through the Mona Passage on August 26 before moving just offshore the East Coast of the United States through September 3.

III. A hurricane hit Dominica on September 9, resulting in 457 casualties. The cyclone subsequently moved through the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico, striking Mississippi by September 18.

IV. On September 15, a hurricane hit northeast Florida, destroying several houses but leading to no deaths.

V. On September 20, another hurricane hit Dominica, causing an additional 165 deaths.

VI. On September 28, a minimal hurricane hit the Outer Banks of North Carolina, destroying one ship.

VII. During October 2, a tropical cyclone was witnessed at Jamaica. Moving northward, it struck South Carolina by October 9. [1]

I. A tropical storm moved through the Lesser Antilles on July 25.

II. On September 1, another tropical cyclone moved through the Lesser Antilles, striking Trinidad de Cuba on September 5.

III. Between October 16 and October 20, this hurricane moved from the extreme southeastern Caribbean Sea to the west of Jamaica. [1]

A minimal hurricane hit the Outer Banks on September 12, damaging the lighthouse there.

I. A tropical cyclone struck Dominica, Guadeloupe, Tortola, and Montserrat between August 1 and August 3, killing 62 people.

II. Another hurricane hit Puerto Rico on August 17. It drifted over the island, and caused a "Great death toll".

III. A tropical storm affected the northern Leeward Islands between October 9 and October 13. [1]


Storm of Mataro, 17 June 1808 - History

compiled by Karl Rohrer for the 175th anniversary of the First Presbyterian Church of Girard — May 2010

Johnston Eaton received his theological training under Dr. John McMillan of Cannonsburg, Pennsylvania who was the nestor of Presbyterian Theology and Seminary training West of the Alleghenies. Mr. Eaton was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Ohio August 22, 1805 and soon after came to the Erie lakeshore area.

In 1806 he came to this very region and preached his first sermon in a small log cabin at the mouth of Walnut Creek owned by Captain Swan and said to be the first house built in Erie county.

Literally this was a wilderness at that time. There were probably only two or three churches in all of Erie county and not a minister of any denomination. Robert Patterson was the first settled minister in Erie county. Johnston Eaton was ordained by the Presbytery of Erie June 30, 1808. That service was held in William Sturgeon’s barn at Fairview at which time he was installed as pastor over the churches he had formed out of pioneer settlers at Springfield and Fairview. He remained pastor at Fairview for more than forty years.

In September of 1806 Johnston Eaton married Elizabeth Cannon from Fayette county whom he had met while they were both in school at Cannonsburg. As the Eatons were about their pastoral duties they often visited the home of James Blair who lived on the bank of Elk Creek. Another who welcomed pastoral visits was Deacon Porter who also had a farm along Elk Creek not far from the Blairs. From these visits grew friendships that lasted many years.

It was during these pastoral visitations that Mr. Eaton came in contact with the pioneer settlers on the banks of Elk Creek which is now West Girard. Many of the members of the churches at Springfield and Fairview lived in this area and at the mouth of Elk Creek.

It was a long journey to attend worship services especially on horseback as there were no roads, only trails and no bridges across streams. The Blairs, Porters and others were compelled to ride or walk to church. They would take as many family to church who could not be left home. It was the custom for the mother to take the youngest child with her. The father would take the next youngest with him. If there were more children one would ride behind the mother and one behind the father. If there were more somebody remained home.

Mr Eaton resigned from the Springfield church November 8, 1814 to give his time to Fairview, Erie and Northeast. From then Springfield was supplied by several pastors who also served the colony at Elk Creek. (October 12, 1836 the name of Elk Creek would be changed to Girard.) On January 16, 1828 the Reverend Pierce Chamberlain was installed pastor of Springfield and was there only a few months because of ill health.

During this time and for the next few years there was only occasional preaching until in 1830 the Reverend Edson Hart became stated supply of Springfield and Girard. At this time the Girard church was known as the East Branch of the Springfield church. About 1832 Robinson S. Lockwood was appointed supply. Sometime between 1830 and 1832 our first church building was constructed on the crest overlooking Elk Creek on The South side of what is now Ridge Road. The property thereafter became the W. C. Kibler property and residence.

In 1832 a larger church, known as the Old Brick Church, was built on the property we now occupy but behind our present church according to an article written by R. S. Battles. The cornerstone from the Old Brick Church is installed inside and above the front doors of our current building.

At a meeting of the Presbytery of Erie held in Mercer, Pennsylvania, October 8, 1834 a petition was presented by seventy five persons of the East Branch of the Springfield Church, "requesting to be set off from that church and organized and constituted a separate and distinct church in the vicinity of Elk Creek in Girard."

May 16, 1835 is the day organized history of this church begins. For some reason the father of the Presbyterian movement in this community the Reverend Johnston Eaton could not be present at the organization and Presbytery April 14, 1835 appointed the Reverend Pierce Chamberlain to organize the congregation.

Messrs James Blair, Robert Porter, and Phillip Bristol were elected elders having been elders in the Springfield church. Mr. John Caughey was elected elder at this time but declined to serve. James Blair was not present because of illness.

Mr. Robinson S. Lockwood, a licentiate of the Presbytery of St. Lawrence was appointed stated supply of the newly organized church. January 11, 1837 he was ordained by the Presbytery of Erie and on the same day installed pastor of the Girard church.

The newly organized church and the newly ordained and installed minister began what should have been a happy ministry. Unfortunately there began to be a fiercely waged theological controversy that disrupted the peace and harmony of the Girard church family. "Articles of Belief" were drawn up and accepted by some. Others did not accept and many left after a lengthy dissension and never returned. In 1838 there was a division throughout the denomination into Old School and New School Presbyterians. The storm brewed for over thirty years before it finally came to a happy and peaceful end.

These were trying times for Girard church but under the leadership of Mr. Lockwood we were led safely through the strife. His salary at the time was four hundred dollars a year and was not always paid, in fact one of the trustees threatened to resign unless the congregation became current with their pledge. Mr. Lockwood was pastor at Girard until June 16, 1841.
Following that the Reverend William Fuller became stated supply for eighteen months. Then came the Reverend Mr. Root who supplied for a brief time.

The Reverend Josiah Vance was installed pastor for Fairview and Girard churches September 2, 1846. Apparently the two congregations met August 17, 1846 at which time Mr. Vance was called to be the pastor, which relationship lasted until September 18, 1854. This was a good period and many were added to the membership of the church.

On October 20, 1854 the Reverend Alexander Porter began as minister in this congregation. This pastoral relationship existed until early in 1863 when the Reverend H. O. Howland on May 1, 1863 began as pastor and was installed in September 1864.

During Mr. Howland’s ministry the congregation enjoyed the evangelistic services of the Reverend E. Payson Hammond. During May and June 1866 the entire community was moved mightily for God under the strong and vigorous preaching of Mr. Hammond. Many were gathered into the church. Mr. Howland was released by the Presbytery on April 9, 1867 at it’s meeting in Springfield.

May 12, 1867 the Reverend Ira Miller Condit became the pastor at Girard. This was a very happy and pleasing relationship. Mr. Condit had just returned from China where he had been a Missionary when called to this field. Few ministers have had such a happy pastorate. Mr. Condit was a "brother well beloved." When he preached his farewell sermon there were few dry eyes in the congregation. Mr. Condit resigned the pastorate in 1870 and returned to California and resumed ministry work among the Chinese along the Pacific coast.

The Reverend Dr. James F. Read supplied the church for a few months after the release of Mr. Condit. It was somewhere about this time that the congregation discovered that some person or persons had entered their building during the night and removed the carpet from the floor. The carpet was never found nor was it discovered who had removed it. Notwithstanding the loss the floor was soon covered with a new green carpet more handsome than the old.

May 7, 1871 the Reverend Mr. W. R. Moore, a licentiate of the Presbytery of Shenango assumed charge. Mr. Moore was ordained and installed August 22, 1871. The Reverend Dr. S. J. M. Eaton presided and preached the sermon. This was the beginning of another happy association. Mr. Moore gathered a great company of young people.

When the bicycle craze hit Girard this Presbyterian minister was among the first to adopt this mode of travel. His was the longest pastorate at this time in the history of the church. Around 1879 Sabbath School work began at Miles Grove and finally in 1885 established a Sabbath School there.

December 2, 1876, it is written in the minutes of session :"only unfermented wine should be used in the administration of the Lord’s Supper." This was a pastorate of much enthusiasm and at the same time fraught with many heart-aches and trials. Mr. Moore was released from the pastorate September 14, 1886.

January 12, 1887 began the pastorate of the Reverend James W. Reese who until now served the longest pastorate ending June 1, 1910.

In 1892 a storm severely damaged the Old Brick Church to the extent it was decided to not repair it. The steeple was toppled an the bell was damaged but later repaired to use in the new building where it serves today. An offer was made by Mr. Kibler for the church to use the Opera House (located near the Universalist church) for worship services while a new church was being built. This created much discussion about holding communion services in such a place. After some time it was decided to use the building during the interim.

In 1892 a new church was built at a cost of $10,500 plus what could be salvaged from the old brick church which at that time was valued at about $350. The 1832 cornerstone from the Old Brick Church was installed inside above the front doors as seen today. This building was dedicated July 13, 1893.

A handsome Felgemacher pipe organ from an Erie company was installed in 1897 to replace a melodian which had provided music for the services. The old notes indicate that a Burdette organ was later installed. During this era organ bellows had to be pumped manually to provide the air to operate it. It would not be electrified until 1950. That organ was indeed the pride of the community as at that time there was no other nearby.

The Ladies’ Aid Society has been one of the great financial forces throughout the early years of this church. The congregation owes to the ladies assisting in payment of the debt on the new church, the pipe organ and the electric lighting system. They helped many times to provide new carpeting, re-finishing the church and in the early 1900’s property for the manse.

The ministry of Mr. Reese continued with Girard and Miles Grove until released by the Presbytery of Erie June 1, 1910. After the release of Mr. Reese the Miles Grove branch petitioned Presbytery to be organized into a separate church which was done June 10,1910. That removed 154 persons from the parent church. Mr. Reese’s death occurred shortly after in February, 1911. Mr. Reese served a lengthy term of twenty three and a half years.

In those early years our meeting houses were rather crude and lacked the luxuries we enjoy today. Many folks had to travel long distances by horseback or wagon on dirt roads. Imagine the winters like some we have today. The only means of heat was a large iron kettle filled with fire in the middle of the meeting house, There was no chimney to let out the smoke so some folks would be overcome and had to be taken out into fresh air and be revived.

In those early years the celebration of the Lord’s Supper was a very important and memorable occasion. The minister was assisted by a neighboring pastor. The service began with a fast day on Thursday and continued until Monday. Saturday was a day for preaching, reception of new members and baptism of children. As folks left the Saturday service each was given a token which entitled the bearer to a seat at the communion table the next day. This was also a time of great vexation in the manse since it was the lodging place for some who came from a distance to the communion. They would stay from Thursday until Monday and often Tuesday as there was always the Monday address.

On November 4,1910 Charles S Beatty began his pastorate of eight years and three months, which ended February 24, 1919. Then in 1919, Mr. Ralph V. Gilbert became pastor and served until November 1,1923. During the term of Reverend Gilbert, in 1922 an addition was built onto the back of our building to provide for a kitchen (which today is our crib room) and a lavatory-probably the first indoor plumbing. Mr. Gilbert served four years and seven months before leaving.

Our next pastor was Mr. J. Wallace Fraser who served two years and four months from 1924 to 1926. Mr. W. Gray Alter then served Girard church two and a half years between December 1926 and June, 1929.

On December 3, 1929 Geo. S. Mott Doremus began his pastorate at Girard. Much was done during his tenure to improve our building. The exterior brickwork was restored. The sanctuary received new carpet , and the chancel was split from a center pulpit. The organ was electrified and renovated. Mr. Doremus was pastor for more than twenty years until September of 1950.

Theodore DeWitt Taylor was installed pastor November 15, 1950 and stayed until August 30, 1954. During his term the men of the congregation decided on their own to excavate beneath the church to create space for Sunday school and a larger kitchen. The men accomplished this fete without benefit of formal plans. Judd Seldon was the engineer who led the work. The entire area was dug by hand one bucket of dirt at a time. When the basement was finished they had to create an entrance to the front of the building as it exists today.

Mr. Taylor’s successor was the Reverend Gregory Gnatuk who came March 18, 1955 and stayed until June 1, 1960. In 1955 Mr. Doremus was elected Pastor Emeritis.

On October 12, 1960 the Reverend Stuart Perrin was installed pastor of Girard church. During his time here many projects were completed. In 1961 talks began about a merger with the Miles Grove Presbyterian Church. There were many meetings between the two churches and representatives from Presbytery. Mr. Perrin became stated supply for Miles Grove in addition to his duties at Girard and continued doing that until April 1963. In March 1963 Girard voted to merge. The count was eighty four in favor and three against. According to the minutes nothing happened beyond that. So the merger never took place.

During the 1960’s many projects happened around and in our building. The exterior brickwork was pointed and coated, the roof was coated again, the portico on the Southeast corner was removed and the door there was closed in. The front porch was enclosed with a new hanging light placed there. The sanctuary was redecorated, the pews were refinished and supplied with badly needed new cushions. The older ceiling lights were replaced with the ones we have today. The Berlin property situated to the West of our boundary became for sale and was purchased to provide the larger parking lot beside the church. Stuart Perrin served Girard church through July, 1966.

Charles Crist was installed pastor in August 1967 and served here until March 1970.

The Reverend Alan Darling became our pastor in September 1970. Mr. Darling was an avid gardener who produced many more fruits and vegetables than he and his wife could ever use. Most folks in our church benefited from his over production. He especially liked experimenting with new varieties. Alan Darling was active throughout the community and also served as Worthy Patron for the local chapter of Eastern Star. When he retired in December 1978 he remained in Girard and served as Stated Supply for Bethel Presbyterian church at Cranesville for several years before moving away. In 1985 Mr. Alan Darling would be elected our Pastor Emeritus.

With the retirement of Mr. Darling, the manse was sold as had been discussed for many years. It seemed the right time to finally do that.

On July 1, 1979 Robert J. Rogers was installed pastor. In 1981 Happy Days Preschool began operating in Blair Hall where they continue today. 1982 began the operation of our food pantry which was located in the closet across the back hall from the secretary’s office. Session minutes indicate that six families were served in December of that year. It would eventually grow considerably over time. Now in 2010 the pantry serves more than three hundred families each month.

During 1983 a craze grasped the country for drilling gas wells, so we did that at an expense of $8300. It served only a portion of our needs but the feeling is that we broke even on that project so it was finally capped. In 1989 the property North of the church became available and it was purchased to utilize for Sunday School use and other meetings. It would eventually become the food pantry when there was a need to expand it. It was known as the Mark J. Adams Christian Youth Center. Mr. Rogers served Girard Church until September 1991.

Dr. James E. Rimmer was installed in January 1993. Soon afterward it was discovered that the exterior walls of our building were buckling and attention was needed. An engineer discovered that the main support beams for the roof were stressed and beginning to crack from the weight of many years of roof coatings adding too much weight to the roof. This was the cause of the problem. A fund raiser was held to repair the beams and replace the roof and related exterior needs. Much of the exterior trim and the cap stones were replaced with stainless steel to eliminate painting and further preserve the building. The exterior bricks were repaired and sealed at the same time.

The next few years were just as busy with the repair of the sanctuary walls, the worn carpeting was replaced in the hallway as well as the sanctuary and the Lecture room. New pew cushions were added around this time. They were purchased with funds raised from many chicken and biscuit dinners.

By 1997 the food pantry client base had outgrown the original space in the hall closet that it was decided to move it to the Adams Center next door. It remains there today but has expanded within the building. The following year we felt the need to replace the old heating system and it seemed the right time to add air conditioning for more comfort in the summer months. Dr. Rimmer resigned in October 1999.

In the year 2000 a beautifully landscaped prayer garden was added to our property. It was a gift to the church from Rich Wallace as a memorial to his wife Barbara who had been so active here until her demise. It was dedicated on October 22, 2000.

The Reverend Keith W. Gallagher was called to Girard and was installed in November 2001. Soon after his arrival was begun the process of restoring and updating our organ. This was quite a process and had been discussed and planned for several months. It was completed in 2001.

Much discussion took place over several years with the final decision to have the stained glass windows completely restored. That work was done by the Tirpak Company of Erie. They moved work trailers into our parking lot so the work could be done on-site. That was a tremendous savings as other companies would have shipped the windows to their facilities and then returned them. Since that work disturbed the interior walls the company repainted at the same time. The windows are now protected outside with clear glass which allows the beauty of the windows to be seen better by the community. They are truly beautiful. During the same time period, Blair Hall was redecorated with a new floor, ceiling, lights and new paint.
The church kitchen received a complete make-over during that year. It was stripped to the bare walls and received all new stainless fixtures to bring it up to modern codes.
In 2009 the food pantry merged with the Red Cross pantry and became incorporated as the Christian Cupboard. It’s now an ecumenical ministry of eight member churches from the area, under the guidance of the Girard-Lake City ministerium.


History of Salem, Massachusetts

Salem is a historic town in Massachusetts. The area was home to native people for thousands of years before being settled by the Massachusetts Bay colonists in the 17 th century.

Salem is most famous for the being the site of the Salem Witch Trials in 1692 but also has a rich maritime history as well.

The following is the history of Salem:

  • An epidemic breaks out in the Native-American villages in New England and hits the Naumkeag tribe hard, greatly reducing their numbers.
    and a group of settlers from the failed colony at Gloucester arrive in the area the natives call Naumkeag, which is modern-day Salem, and settle it. Conant serves as the settlement’s governor.
  • On June 20, John Endecott and a group of settlers from the New England Company for a Plantation in Massachusetts Bay arrive in Naumkeag with a patent to settle the area. Conant peacefully surrenders control of Naumkeag.
  • The Massachusetts Bay Colony charter is confirmed and the New England Company is renamed the Massachusetts Bay Company.
  • Naumkeag is renamed Salem, a hellenized version of the Hebrew word “Shalom” (which means peace) in honor of the peaceful agreement between Endicott and Conant.
  • On June 12, John Winthrop and the Massachusetts Bay Company reach the New World and land in Salem but the village can’t accommodate all of the new settlers so they continue on to Charlestown and eventually settle in Boston.

Pickman House, Salem, Mass
  • The Ingersoll-Turner mansion, now known as the House of Seven Gables, is built by merchant John Turner.
  • Jonathan Corwin purchases a partially constructed house, now known as the Witch House, on Main Street (Essex Street) and completes construction on it.

The Witch House, Salem, Mass, circa November 2015. Photo by Rebecca Brooks
  • On October 11, a group of selectman, John Ruck, John Higginson, Samuel Gardner, Timothy Landall, William Hirst, and Israel Porter, purchase Salem, Danvers and Peabody from the Naumkeag tribe for 20 pounds. Although the tribe had moved to Lowell after King Philip’s War ended, it still returned to Salem on a yearly basis until 1725 and camped on the side of Gallows Hill.
  • On March 1, the Salem Witch Trials begin when three women, Tituba, Sarah Good and Sarah Osbourne, are arrested on charges of witchcraft. Tituba confesses and declares that there are more witches in Salem which sparks a massive witch hunt.
  • On June 1, Bridget Bishop becomes the first person executed during the Salem Witch Trials when she is hanged at Proctor’s Ledge.
  • On July 19, Rebecca Nurse, Susannah Martin, Elizabeth Howe, Sarah Good and Sarah Wildes are hanged at Proctor’s Ledge.
  • On August 19, 1692, John Proctor, George Burroughs, George Jacobs Sr, John Willard and Martha Carrier are hanged at Proctor’s Ledge.
  • On September 19, 1692, Giles Corey is pressed to death in a field on Howard Street after refusing to to continue with his trial.
  • On September 22, 1692, Martha Corey, Margaret Scott, Alice Parker, Ann Pudeator, Samuel Wardwell, Mary Easty, Wilmot Redd and Mary Parker are hanged at Proctor’s Ledge. These are the last executions of the Salem Witch Trials.
  • On May 10, 1717, Judge John Hathorne dies at the age of 76 and is buried in the Charter Street Cemetery.

“Tombstone of Col. John Hathorne, the Witch Judge, ancestor of Nathaniel Hawthorne, Salem, Mass,” color printed postcard, published by the Rotograph Co, circa 1905
  • On June 9, Judge Jonathan Corwin dies in Salem at the age of 78 and is buried in the Corwin family tomb in the Broad Street Cemetery.
  • Philip English donates a section of land on the corner of Brown and St. Peter Street, and a small wooden church, called the St. Peter’s Episcopal Church, is built there.
  • The Salem Courthouse on Washington Street, where the Salem Witch Trials were held, is torn down.
  • Sometime between 1759 – 1760, the Nathaniel Bowditch House is built on North Street.
  • On August 24, 3,000 angry colonists storm Salem after members of the committee of correspondence are arrested for holding a town meeting.
  • On October 6, a fire destroys Judge John Hathorne’s mansion on Washington Street as well as a nearby meetinghouse, seven other homes and 14 stores.
  • General Thomas Gage moves the Massachusetts General Court from Boston to Salem.
  • On February 26, a skirmish known as Leslie’s Retreat takes place in Salem.
  • Fort Lee is established near Fort Avenue at Salem Neck.
  • Merchant Joshua Ward purchases George Corwin’s property on Washington street, razes Corwin’s house and builds a large Federal-style brick mansion, the Joshua Ward House, which still stands today.
  • The city transforms the swamp at Washington Square into a tree-lined park called Salem Common.
  • The Howard Street Cemetery is established on what is now modern day Howard Street.
  • On July 4, Nathaniel Hawthorne is born in Salem.
  • The Gardner-Pingree House is built for John and Sarah Gardner on Essex Street.
  • The Thomas March Woodbridge House is built for tannery owner Thomas March Woodbridge on Bridge Street.
  • On September 21, Sophia Peabody is born in Salem.
  • The Joseph Fenno House is built on Hawthorne Boulevard.
  • Bessie Monroe House is built on Ash Street.
  • The Joseph Story House is built for U.S. Supreme Court Justice Joseph Story on Winter Street.
  • In September, the Friendship is captured by the British warship the HMS Rosamond during the War of 1812.
  • The old Salem jail on Federal Street, where the accused witches were held in 1692, is abandoned and new jail is built on St. Peter Street.

Salem Jail, St. Peter Street, Salem, Mass
  • The Battle of the Chesapeake and the Shannon takes place in Salem Harbor during the War of 1812.
  • Bowker Place is built on Essex Street.
  • On April 6, Captain Joseph White is murdered in his house, the Gardner-Pingree House, on Essex Street.
  • On May 5, 1830, a jury indicts Richard Crowninshield for the murder of Captain Joseph White. Three other men, Richard’s brother George, Frank Knapp and Joseph Knapp, are charged with abetting the crime.
  • On June 15, Richard Crowninshield hangs himself in his jail cell at the Salem jail.
  • In August, Frank Knapp’s trial ends in a mistrial and he is retried two days later and found guilty of hiring Richard Crowninshield to murder White.
  • On September 28, Frank Knapp is hanged in front of the Salem jail.
  • In November, Joseph Knapp is tried and found guilty of murder and George Crowninshield is tried and acquitted in the murder of White.
  • On December 31, Joseph Knapp is hanged in front of the Salem jail.
  • St. Peter’s Episcopal Church is torn down and a stone church is built in its place which still stands today. The stone church is much larger than the wooden church so it is built on top of some of the graves, including Philip English’s grave.
  • Abner Cheney Goodell purchases the old Salem jail, which still has the dungeon in the basement, and remodels it into a home.
  • Alexander Graham Bell holds the first public demonstration of the telephone at the Lyceum building.
  • The St. Nicholas Orthodox Church and Rectory is built on Forrester Street.
  • Caroline Osgood Emmerton purchases the House of Seven Gables and restores it to its original 17 th century appearance.
  • On June 17, a bronze statue of Roger Conant, which was designed by artist Henry H. Kitson and erected by the Conant Family Association, is dedicated on Brown Street.
  • Historian Alfred Putnam Goodell, son of Abner Cheney Goodell, begins running the Old Witch Jail tourist attraction at his home on Federal Street and allows visitors to tour the dungeon where the accused witches were kept.

Interior of the old dungeon, old witch jail, Salem, Mass, circa 1935
  • Historic Salem, Inc. moves the Jonathan Corwin house about 35 feet to its current location, to avoid demolition when North Street is widened, and begins restoring it to its original seventeenth century appearance.
  • On Memorial Day weekend, the Jonathan Corwin house opens to the public as a historic house museum, called the Witch House, on Essex Street.
  • In the spring, playwright Arthur Miller spends a week in Salem researching the Salem Witch Trials court records for his play The Crucible.
  • On July 16, the Coast Guard spots and photographs unidentified flying objects over Winter Island.
  • The New England Telephone Company demolishes the Goodell home on Federal Street to construct its new headquarters and discovers the old dungeon underneath. The company donates two wooden beams from the old dungeon to the Peabody Essex Museum.

Old Salem Jail, Historical Marker, 10 Federal Street, Salem, Mass
  • In June and July, several episodes of the popular television show, Bewitched, are filmed in several locations in Salem, such as the Witch House, the House of Seven Gables and the Hawthorne Hotel. The episodes sparks public interest in the trials and Salem soon becomes a popular tourist destination.
  • The City of Salem declares October 7 “Bewitched Day” in Salem.
  • The Salem Witch Trials Memorial is built on Liberty Street.
  • In October, scenes from the Disney movie Hocus Pocus are filmed in several locations in Salem, such as at the Ropes Mansion, Pioneer Village, Phipps Elementary School and the Old Town Hall.
  • On June 15, the newly built Bewitched Statue on the corner of Essex and Washington Street is dedicated.

Bewitched Statue, Salem, Mass. Photo by Rebecca Brooks.
  • The Gallows Hill Project confirms that Proctor’s Ledge is the site of the Salem Witch Trials executions.

For more info on Salem’s history, check out this article on the Salem Heritage Trail.


Kyk die video: Storm Henri approaches the northeastern shores of the United States