Belegging van Fort Meigs, 1-9 Mei 1813

Belegging van Fort Meigs, 1-9 Mei 1813

Belegging van Fort Meigs, 1-9 Mei 1813

In die beleg van Fort Meigs (1-9 Mei 1813) het 'n Britse mag onder brigadier-generaal Henry Procter nie daarin geslaag om Fort Meigs aan die Maumee-rivier te verower nie, maar 'n oorwinning oor 'n Amerikaanse hulpmag te wen. Die werk aan die bou van Fort Meigs het begin nadat die Amerikaanse nederlaag op Frenchtown op 22 Januarie 1813 'n kans op 'n winterveldtog om Detroit te beëindig, beëindig het. Dit is gebruik as die winterkwartiere vir wat oorgebly het van die generaal-majoor William Harrison se Noordwes-leër nadat die meeste van sy milisie vir die winter huis toe gegaan het. Vir die grootste deel van die winter was dit baie kwesbaar, maar teen die lente van 1813 was die fort baie sterker en Harrison is versterk ter voorbereiding van 'n nuwe veldtog wat op Detroit gemik was.

Die Britse bevelvoerder wat verantwoordelik was vir hierdie versuim om op te tree, was brigadier -generaal Henry Procter, bevorder van kolonel na sy oorwinning in Frenchtown. Ook hy het op versterkings gewag om die manne wat hy in Frenchtown verloor het, te vervang. Einde April is hy versterk deur die twee flankmaatskappye van die 41ste voet uit Niagara, en was hy gereed om te verhuis. Op 28 April beland Procter by die monding van die Maumee -rivier aan die hoof van 'n mag van 550 stamgemeentes, 63 haakplekke, 464 militieë en 1200 Indiërs onder leiding van Tecumseh. Oor die volgende drie dae het die Britte geweerbatterye aan weerskante van die rivier opgerig, en op 1 Mei het hulle op die fort losgebrand. Tecumseh's Indiane het die fort gedeeltelik omring, maar kon nie die kommunikasie van Harrison onderbreek nie.

Die Britse bombardement was ondoeltreffend en dit het gelyk asof die ekspedisie in 'n totale mislukking sou eindig. Op 4 Mei ontvang Harrison nuus wat die kans bied om die Britte 'n ernstige nederlaag te bring. 'N Mag van 1200 Kentuckiërs onder brigadier -generaal Green Clay marsjeer langs die Maumee -rivier na Fort Meigs. 'N Plan is ooreengekom vir 'n gekoördineerde aanval. Negehonderd van die Kentuckiërs sou die Britse posisies noord van die rivier aanval, die gewere stoot, dan terugtrek, terwyl die verdedigers van die fort die gewere op die suidelike oewer sou aanval.

Die aanval het volgens plan begin. Op 5 Mei om 09:00 het die aanval op die noordoewer van die rivier die Britse batterye oorrompel, terwyl die garnisoen 'n battery op die suidelike oewer gevang het. Dinge het toe sleg gegaan. Drie kompagnies van die 41st Foot, met 'n paar van die Kanadese milisie, het hul stand gehou. Die Kentuckians het gebly om te veg, wat die Indiane tyd gegee het om by die stryd aan te sluit. Tussen hulle het die Britse stamgemeentes, Kanadese militante en hul Indiese bondgenote die Kentuckiese magte amper uitgewis. Die uitstappie op die suidelike oewer is ook teruggery.

Die Amerikaners het 1 000 slagoffers in die gevegte gely - 600 gevange geneem en 400 gedood, hetsy tydens die gevegte, óf deur die Indiërs. Britse slagoffers was 15 dood, 46 gewond en 41 gevange geneem tydens die soektog op die suidelike oewer. Ondanks hierdie sukses is Procter op 9 Mei gedwing om die beleg te laat vaar. Die helfte van sy burgermag was reeds huis toe, en die res was op die punt om hulle te volg, terwyl van die 1200 Indiërs slegs Tecumseh en twintig man oorgebly het. Procter het nie daarin geslaag om sy hoofdoel te bereik nie, maar die oorwinning van 5 Mei het die bedreiging van die Britse posisie in Fort Maldon verwyder.

Boeke oor die oorlog van 1812 | Onderwerpindeks: Oorlog van 1812


Die beleg van Fort Meigs: 'n bloedige veldtog Ohio.

Destyds was dit een van die grootste forte wat in Amerika gebou is, en die Britse generaal Henry Proctor was natuurlik huiwerig om 'n aanval daarop aan te bring. Om sy inheemse bondgenote te berus, is Fort Meigs egter aangerand

Op 1 Mei 1813 kyk generaal-majoor Henry Proctor toe soldate van die Royal Artillery hul gewere laai in afwagting van hul aanval op Fort Meigs, 'n massiewe en indrukwekkende installasie van 10 hektaar aan die suidelike oewer van die Maumee-rivier. Terwyl Chiefs Tecumseh en Roundhead daar naby was, het die Britse geweerkapteins hul lenehokke neergeslaan en dodelike 24-ponders geskreeu na die Amerikaners gestuur, net om te sien hoe hulle te kort skiet, onskadelik geabsorbeer deur die sagte modderige berms wat die fort deurkruis.

Terwyl die Amerikaanse generaal -majoor William Henry Harrison die gebeure daardie dag, veilig binne die mure van Fort Meigs, sien afspeel, moes hy by homself geglimlag het. Die houtpalades rondom hom het nie veel slaan nie, en dit lyk asof sy troepe verlig is. Versterkings kom binnekort, Harrison weet dat hy die Britte kan weerhou.

Slegs 'n paar maande tevore het die Amerikaners 'n ontsaglike verlies by Raisinrivier gely, wat die planne om Detroit te herwin, laat ontspoor het en hulle gedwing het om te hergroepeer en hul wonde te lek. Om dit te kan doen, het Harrison besluit om 'n veilige basis te vestig om sy magte op te bou, waarvan die bou van twee forte, Fort Meigs en die kleiner Fort Stephenson, langs die Sandusky -rivier gebou is.

Vir Tecumseh was die bou van hierdie twee forte-op wat as die grond van die Eerste Nasie beskou is-soortgelyk aan 'n been in die keel. Hy het 'n onwillige Britse majoor -generaal Proctor begin druk om die been te verwyder, maar die invloed het die offisier net dieper tussen 'n rots en 'n harde plek ingeklem.

Proctor het Tecumseh se manne nodig, aangesien sy krygers swaarder weeg as sy eie troepe, maar hy twyfel of selfs hul verenigde mag genoeg mannekrag kan oplewer om 'n algehele aanval op die diepgewortelde Amerikaners te begin. Om die saak te vererger, was hy bevrees dat die weiering van Tecumseh op hierdie gronde slegs sou lei tot die leiding van die Chief as 'n belangrike faktor, wat uiteindelik die Britte in gevaar stel om al die Noordweste en gebiede van Wes -Bo -Kanada te verloor.

Uiteindelik het Proctor toegegee aan die druk en politieke invloed van Tecumseh en besluit teësinnig om 'n aanval op Fort Meigs aan te pak, waarvan die voorbereidings ernstig op 26 April 1813 begin het, toe die Britte by die monding van die Maumee aankom met 'n troepe, Kanadese milisie en meer as 1000 inheemse krygers.

Die beleërtrein van Proctor het bestaan ​​uit twee 24-pond, 9 ligter gewere en twee geweerbote wat 9-pond gewere gemonteer het. Dit het 'n paar dae geneem voordat die mag langs die Maumee -rivier op pad was na Fort Meigs, en toe die Britte aankom en hul batterye bou, beveel Harrison beskermende deurkruisings, of walle wat binne die fort gebou is om sy manne verdere beskerming te bied.

Destyds was Fort Meigs een van die grootste forte in die Verenigde State, met agt blokhuise wat elk met houtpalades verbind is. Met die Maumee -rivier wat die noordekant bedek en diep klowe wat grens aan die vesting in die ooste en weste, was Fort Wigs self in 'n sterk posisie om te verdedig.

Ongelukkig loop die Amerikaners die gevaar om nie genoeg troepe te hê om die fort behoorlik te beman nie. Benewens die krimpende grootte van die Amerikaanse garnisoen, van 'n aanvanklike 4000 man tot ongeveer 1100, sou soldate se inskrywings by die burgermag verval, wat hulle sou kon huis toe gaan. Harrision se teenmaatreël hiervoor was om 1200 versterkings by die Kentucky -burgermag onder brig. Genl Green Clay, maar pogings om dit voor die beleg te beveilig sou nie moontlik wees nie.

Op 2 Mei beveel Harrison die krag van Clay om die Britse batterye aan te val wat op die noordelike oewer van die Maumee gestaan ​​het, voordat hy na Fort Meigs terugtrek. Op die oggend van 5 Mei het 'n mag van 761 mans van die 10de Kentucky Detached Regiment of Militia, 60 man van die 13de Kentucky Regiment of Detached Militia en 45 Amerikaanse troepe, onder bevel van kolonel William Dudley, op die Noorde geland Bank en die Britse batterye bestorm en dit tydelik buite werking gestel.

Hulle sukses was van korte duur. Toe Tecumseh 'n weerlegging teen die Amerikaners wat losweg was, weerlê, het Dudley beheer oor sy soldate begin verloor toe 'n deel van sy mag afgebreek het om Tecumseh se manne die bos in te jaag. Toe hy die gevaar hierin besef, het Dudley 'n ander kontingent opgerig om hulle terug te bring na die rivier, maar het sy krag verder verswak toe hulle ook hul gevange batterye meer blootgestel gelaat het. Die Britse majoor Adam Muir het op hierdie foute gebruik gemaak en 'n teenaanval uitgevoer en die oorblywende Kentuckiërs 'n harde slag toegedien en uiteindelik hul bevelvoerder, majoor James Shelby, oorgegee.

Fortune het Dudley en sy herwinningsmag ook nie bevoordeel nie, want hulle was omring en stuk -stuk in die gevegte. Uit 866 mans onder bevel van Dudley het slegs 150 na die fort ontsnap. Die debakel sou bekend staan ​​as 'Dudley's Massacre'.

Op die suidelike oewer was die Amerikaanse aanval gedeeltelik suksesvol. Die Amerikaanse kolonel John Miller, saam met 350 gereelde en vrywilligers, het die battery gevang en 41 gevangenes geneem. Die Britse kaptein Richard Bullock, saam met die flankgeselskappe van die 41ste en twee kompanieërs van die burgermag, benewens 300 krygers, het 'n teenaanval gekry en Miller se manne teruggery na die fort met groot ongevalle. Intussen het die res van Clay se mag Fort Meigs bereik en die garnisoen versterk.

Terwyl die Amerikaners hulle in Fort Meigs terugtrek, het die Britte hul gevangenes saamgevoeg en hulle na die oorblyfsels van die voormalige Britse Fort Miami geneem. Hierdie fort was getuie van die Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 en is in 1796 deur die Britte laat vaar met die ondertekening van die Jay -verdrag. Dit was hier dat First Nations -krygers die Amerikaanse gevangenes begin doodmaak het, net soos in die nasleep van die Slag van die Rivier -rosyntjie. Tecumseh, saam met luitenant -kolonel Matthew Elliott en kaptein Thomas McKee van die Britse Indiese departement, het die krygers oorreed om te stop.

Daar word beweer dat Tecumseh aan Proctor gevra het waarom hy nie die Indiërs beveel het om op te hou nie, waarop Proctor geantwoord het: "Die Indiërs kon nie gedwing word om te gehoorsaam nie." Tecumseh se reaksie hierop het sy gevoelens vir Proctor nie weggesteek nie, toe hy uitgeroep het: "Begin! Jy is onbevoeg om te beveel. Gaan trek onderrokke aan." Ooggetuies sê tussen 12 tot 14 gevangenes is dood.

Op 7 Mei het Proctor en Harrison ooreengekom oor die uitruil van alle gereelde gevangenes en die parool van die Kentucky Militia, wat onder toezegging na Sandusky konvooi was om geen verdere militêre diens te verrig nie, totdat hulle formeel vir Britse gevangenes verruil is.

Proctor, hetsy met min sorg of min kennis van die wil van sy troepe, het die artillerie beveel om die vuur te hervat, maar het gou agtergekom dat sy troepe se aptyt vir oorlog verminder is, aangesien die Kanadese milisie angstig was om terug te keer na hul plase en baie van die Indiane het sedertdien die weermag verlaat.

Nou in getal deur die garnisonale Amerikaanse troepe, en sonder die gesamentlike wil om die gevegte voort te sit, het Proctor die aanval op 9 Mei gestaak, wat 'n totaal van 1 160 Amerikaners gedood, 190 gewond en meer as 600 gevange geneem het.

Alhoewel die aanval op Fort Meigs uiteindelik misluk het en die verhouding tussen Proctor en Tecumseh aansienlik versleg het, het dit die twee nie daarvan weerhou om weer die fort te probeer inneem nie. Twee maande later, in Julie, het Proctor sy bes probeer om meer Amerikaners uit die fort te lok, maar die Amerikaners het hul les geleer en het nie die aas gevat nie.

Nog steeds honger na 'n geveg, het Proctor in Augustus sy aandag gevestig op die kleiner Fort Stephenson en 'n vinnige en swak uitgevoerde aanval geloods uit vrees dat Harrison versterkings van Fort Meigs sou stuur.

Nog steeds honger na 'n geveg, het Proctor sy aandag gevestig op die kleiner Fort Stephenson en 'n vinnige en swak uitgevoerde aanval geloods uit vrees dat Harrison versterkings sou stuur om die Amerikaners van Fort Meigs te help. Terwyl hy Fort Stephenson met artillerie en van die rivier met vuurwapens aangerand het, het Proctor sy infanterie na die fort gevorder en hulle vreeslik blootgestel aan die verdedigende Amerikaanse troepe.

Die Amerikaanse majoor George Croghan, met 160 mans wat binne Stephenson se mure gestaan ​​het, het die vuur van sy troepe vasgehou totdat die Britte op 'n afstand was. Die Britte het geen manier gehad om die mure te vergroot of om die fort binne te gaan nie, en het die maklike doelwitte vir die beskermde Amerikaners geword en hulle gedwing om terug te trek terwyl hulle groot verliese gely het. Proctor het sy manne weer tevergeefs na die fort gestuur, sonder sukses, en 'n verwoestende verlies gely en 26 mans met 41 gewondes en 29 vermis verloor.

Proctor en Tecumseh het na Kanada teruggetrek terwyl Harrison sy voorste posisies gekonsolideer het en gewag het dat Commodore Perry en sy vloot eskader beheer oor die Erie -meer sou kry. Dit is op 10 September 1813 bereik met die oorwinning van die Amerikaanse vloot in die Slag van Put-in-Bay (sien Esprit de Corps Volume 19 uitgawe 7).

Met hierdie laaste daad is Tecumseh se droom van 'n First Nations North West Confederacy ter ruste gelê, en die deur is nou stewig oopgeruk vir Harrison se inval in die westelike Bo -Kanada en die vernietiging van die Britse Westerse Divisie.

Onderskrif: generaal-majoor Henry Proctor se leierskap het meer as net 'n slegte smaak in Tecumseh se mond gelaat. 'N Rits nederlae, wat by Fort Meigs begin het, het die halfhonger manne van die Shawnee-opperhoof almal laat vaar, behalwe om die stryd tydens die Slag van die Teems te laat vaar. Terwyl die Britte in die bos terugtrek, het Tecumseh sy stand gehou en gedood toe die Amerikaners die min weerstand oorweldig. ("DEATH OF TECUMSEH: BATTLE OF THE THAMES, OKTOBER 1813" DEUR JOHN L. MAGEE, MILITARYRE INSAMELING, BRUIN UNIVERSITEIT)

Onderskrif: BO: Fort Meigs, aan die oewer van die Maumee -rivier in Ohio, was een van die grootstes wat destyds in Noord -Amerika gebou is.

Teenoorgestelde bladsy, bo: soldate van die Royal Newfoundland Regiment het in 1813 langs die Maumee -rivier geveg, maar sou selde soos voorgestel verskyn het as gevolg van 'n tekort aan voorraad.

TEGENBLADSBLAD, MIDDEL: 'n Amerikaanse infanterie -offisier, omstreeks 1813. Teen die winter sou hul dun somersdrag amper verslind wees. Beide kante het gedurende die wintermaande gely.

TEGENBLADSBLAD, ONDER: 'n Voorstelling van 'n Shawnee -vegter, teenwoordig tydens Proctor se opmars op Fort Meigs.


Belegging van Fort Meigs, 1-9 Mei 1813 - Geskiedenis


Oorlog van 1812 Tydlyn: 1813

As hierdie tydlyne van die oorlog van 1812 te gedetailleerd is, kyk na die Oorlog van 1812 - Sleutelgebeure , wat 'n opsomming is van die jare 1812-1815.

Vir oorvleuelende gebeure wat verband hou met die Napoleontiese oorloë sien die tydlyne van die Napoleontiese oorloë vir die jare 1812-1815:

18 Januarie 1813
Skermutselinge voor die Slag van Frenchtown. Amerikaners, onder leiding van kolonel William Lewis, verslaan 'n Britse eenheid.

22 Januarie 1813
Slag van Frenchtown , ook genoem Slag van die rivier rosyntjie , Michigan -gebied. Britse oorwinning. Britte en Indiërs, onder leiding van kolonel Henry Procter, verslaan Amerikaners, onder leiding van James Winchester.

23 Januarie 1813
Slagting in Frenchtown . Indiërs vermoor ongeveer. 60 Amerikaanse gevangenes wat gister tydens die Slag van Frenchtown geneem is.

22 Februarie 1813
Slag van Ogdensburg . 'N Britse mag onder leiding van Lt. -kolonel George MacDonnell , vang Ogdensburg, New York.

24 Februarie 1813
USS Hornet teenoor HMS Pou . Aan die kus van Brits -Guyana is die Hornet, onder kapt James Lawrence, sink die Pou, onder kapt William Peake, wat in hierdie geveg vermoor word.

3 Maart 1813
Die twaalfde kongres slaag 'N Wet wat die mag van vergelding aan die president van die Verenigde State bevestig, waarvolgens:

. enige oortreding van die wette en gebruike van oorlog. gepleeg deur diegene wat onder gesag van die Britse regering optree, op enige van die burgers van die Verenigde State. die president van die Verenigde State word hiermee gemagtig om volledige en voldoende vergelding te laat geskied.

Verder mag hy dit doen in die geval van:

. enige verontwaardiging of wreedheid of barbaarsheid. beoefen deur enige Indiër of Indiër, in alliansie met die Britse regering

11 Maart 1813
sekretaris van die staat James Monroe skryf aan Graaf Andrei Daschkoff (Daschkov), wat president Madison se bereidwillige aanvaarding van tsaar Alexander se aanbod om tussen Brittanje en die Verenigde State te bemiddel, meedeel.

12 April 1813
Amerikaanse magte, onder leiding van James Wilkinson, van New Orleans en Fort Stoddert, verskyn by die hekke van Mobile, Mississippi, en is gereed om die Spanjaarde aan te val. Dit is deel van die Kontroversie in Wes -Florida , waarin die VSA beweer dat hierdie gebied deel was van die Louisiana -aankoop van 1803 . Spanje sal Mobile op 15 April 1813 ontruim en sal uiteindelik alle eise in 1819 aan Wes- en Oos -Florida afstaan ​​(sien Transkontinentale verdrag ).

13 April 1813
Spaanse kaptein Don Cayetano Perez gee Mobile oor aan die VSA

15 April 1813
Die Spaanse ontruim Mobile. Amerikaanse beheer oor Mobile sal eers op 14 September 1814 uitgedaag word.

27 April 1813
Slag van York , Ontario, Kanada. Die huidige Toronto. Amerikaanse troepe onder leiding van Henry Dearborn kan 'n Amerikaanse oorwinning opeis. Maar U.S. Brigadier -generaal Zebulon Montgomery Pike en baie ander word dood in die aanval toe 'n Britse tydskrif ontplof. Na die Britse terugtog bly die Amerikaners tot 1 Mei. Hulle plunder die stad en verbrand die parlement en ander openbare geboue. Britse terugbetaling sal volg Augustus 1814 .

1 Mei 1813
Eerste beleg van Fort Meigs begin. Henry Procter het met 1 000 troepe uit Fort Amherstburg aangekom. Hy span kragte saam met Tecumseh en 1200 Indiërs. Saam begin hulle Fort Meigs aanval, wat deur William Henry Harrison en 1100 Amerikaners verdedig word.

Die fort is egter baie goed gebou en die Britse artillerie wat Procter van die noordelike oewer van die Maumee -rivier afgevuur het, is ondoeltreffend.

'N Amerikaanse hulpmag sal op 5 Mei 1813 aankom.

Hierdie beleg eindig op 9 Mei 1813.

Die Tweede beleg van Fort Meigs sal op 21 Julie 1813 plaasvind.

2 - 3 Mei 1813
Britse nagaanval en sak van Havre de Grace, Maryland.

5 Mei 1813
Green Clay en 1200 troepe uit Kentucky arriveer by Fort Meigs. Dit is die Slag van Fort Meigs . Klei gesit Kolonel William Dudley onder bevel van 800 man wat aangewys is om Britse gewere uit te skakel en dan na die fort terug te trek. Eersgenoemde het hulle gedoen, maar in plaas daarvan om na die fort terug te trek, het hulle die vlugtende vyand aangekla, wat 'n lokval was. Tecumseh en sy mans verloof en 80 % van die mag van Dudley is gevang of vermoor.

Indiërs het hul gevangenes begin doodmaak. Ongeveer 40 mans is dood voordat Tecumseh en Matthew Elliott, die Britse Indiese agent, die bloedbad kon keer.

Intussen het Clay en die res van sy eenheid Fort Meigs binnegedring.

9 Mei 1813
Die Eerste beleg van Fort Meigs eindig. Die Amerikaners het die fort suksesvol verdedig danksy die uitstekende konstruksie daarvan. Procter en sy manne trek terug na Kanada.

Slagoffers van die eerste beleg van Fort Meigs: 320 Amerikaners dood of gewond, 550 Amerikaners gevange geneem. 100 Britte dood. Indiese ongevalle is nie bekend nie.

Harrison verlaat Green Clay in bevel van Fort Meigs en marsjeer na Cleveland om met Oliver Hazard Perry te ontmoet.

Die tweede beleg van Fort Meigs vind op 20 Julie 1813 plaas.


Ook op 9 Mei 1813: Sekretaris van die Tesourie Albert Gallatin , en die senator van Delaware James A. Bayard aan boord van die Neptunus en vertrek na St. Petersburg. Saam met John Quincy Adams, wat reeds op die plek is as die Amerikaanse minister van Rusland, beplan hulle om op te tree as 'n spesiale komitee wat met die hulp van die Russiese tsaar as bemiddelaar vrede met Groot -Brittanje sal beding. Hulle land by Revel (vandag se Tallinn, Estland) en gaan oor die land om St. Petersburg te bereik 21 Julie 1813 .

14 Mei 1813
John Adams in 'n brief aan president James Madison:

& quot óf Kanada moet die Verenigde State verower óf die Verenigde State moet Kanada verower. [. ] Seekrag, op die mere en op die see is al wat ons wil hê. Alles anders het ons al. & Quot

27 Mei 1813
Slag van Fort George . Amerikaanse oorwinning. Amerikaners, onder leiding van Henry Dearborn, verower Fort George van die Britse verdedigers, onder bevel van brig. Genl John Vincent. Die Britte ontruim die fort en verhuis na Queenston.

29 Mei 1813
Slag van Sacket (Sackets) se hawe . Britse oorwinning. 'N Britse gesamentlike troepemag, onder leiding van George Prevost en Edward Baynes, en skepe, onder bevel van sir James Lucas Yeo, val aan, maar word afgeweer deur Amerikaanse landmagte onder leiding van Jacob J. Brown en Amerikaanse vlootmagte. deur Isaac Chauncey. Die Britte voel egter dat daar genoeg skade aangerig is, en trek terug.

31 Mei 1813
Om die Senaat se bevestiging te kry, benoem Madison amptelik John Quincy Adams, Albert Gallatin en James A. Bayard as spesiale vredesonderhandelaars. Gallatin en Bayard is reeds op pad om Adams in St. Petersburg te ontmoet. Hulle het op 9 Mei 1813 vertrek, nadat Madison hulle in April 1813 die trekpas gegee het, aangesien die Senaat eers in Mei 1813 in sitting was.

1 Junie 1813
USS Chesapeake vs. HMS Shannon . Britse oorwinning.

Die USS Chesapeake, onder kapt James Lawrence, veg die HMS Shannon, onder kapt Philip Broke. Die Shannon wen ná 'n geveg van 15 minute naby die hawe van Boston. Kaptein Lawrence is dodelik gewond en spreek sy beroemde laaste woorde uit: "Moenie die skip prysgee nie."

Britte dood: 33, gewond: 43. Amerikaners vermoor: 62, gewond: 85. Die Britte neem die skip en wat oorgebly het van die Chesapeake se bemanning (325 man) as gevangenes.


Aksie tussen HMS Shannon en USS Chesapeake - 1 Junie 1813
Olie op doek deur T. Jordan
National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, Londen


6 Junie 1813
Slag van Stoney Creek , Niagara -skiereiland. Britse oorwinning. Die Britte, onder leiding van Lt. -kolonel John Harvey , veroorsaak verwarring in die Amerikaanse kamp deur middel van 'n nagaanval. Beide bevelvoerders van die Amerikaanse magte, Brig. Genl William Winder en Brig. Genl John Chandler , word deur die Britte gevange geneem.

22 Junie 1813
Slag van Craney Island , Virginia. Amerikaanse oorwinning.

24 Junie 1813
Slag van Beaver Dams . Britse oorwinning. Ook genoem Amerikaanse oorgawe by Beaver Dams . Die Amerikaners, onder leiding van Charles G. Boerstler , oorgawe aan die Britte en Indiërs, gelei deur James Fitzgibbon , wat op die punt was om terug te trek toe Fitzgibbon dit reggekry het om hulle te laat glo dat hulle in groot getal was.

25 Junie 1813
Slag van Hampton , Virginia. Britse oorwinning.

26 Junie 1813
Sak Hampton , Virginia. Britse skande.

6 Julie 1813
Die Amerikaanse president Madison verwyder generaal -majoor Henry Dearborn uit sy bevel.

11 Julie 1813
Britse aanval op Black Rock, New York, gelei deur Lt. -kolonel Cecil Bisshopp . Amerikaanse verset, gelei deur Peter B. Porter . Die Britse aanval was suksesvol, maar Bisshopp is dodelik gewond.

19 Julie 1813
Die Amerikaanse senaat bevestig Adams (30 ja, 4 nee) en Bayard (27 ja, 6 nee) as spesiale gesante om vrede te onderhandel met Groot -Brittanje met bemiddeling deur die Russiese tsaar, maar verwerp Gallatin met 'n stem van 18 nee en 17 ja.

Jammer, Bayard en Gallatin het reeds op 9 Mei 1813 die staatsrigting St.

21 Julie 1813
Tweede beleg van Fort Meigs . Na die onsuksesvolle Eerste beleg van Fort Meigs 1-9 Mei 1813 probeer Procter weer sy geluk met Fort Meigs. Hierdie keer het Tecumseh 'n plan bedink om die Amerikaners uit die sterk fort te lok.

Vandag omring hulle die fort en voer hulle 'n skyngeveg met 'n denkbeeldige Amerikaanse hulpmag net op gehoorafstand. Maar ondanks die feit dat hy vals pleidooie na die fort gestuur het om die Amerikaanse hulpmag te help, bly Clay bly. Hy verwag nie 'n hulpverlening nie en hy kom nie uit nie.

Die 500 Britte en hul Indiese bondgenote trek terug en marsjeer na Fort Stephenson, wat hulle op 1 Augustus 1813 sal aanval.


Ook op 21 Julie 1813: Gallatin en Bayard arriveer in St. Hey het die state verlaat 9 Mei 1813 .

27 Julie 1813
Slag van Burnt Corn . Oorwinning van die Indian Red Sticks oor die Mississippi -burgermag en vrywilligers by Burnt Corn Creek. Dit is die openingsgeveg van die Creek -oorlog .

2 Augustus 1813
Slag van Fort Stephenson , Ohio. Amerikaanse oorwinning. Die Amerikaners, onder leiding van George Croghan, verdedig hulself suksesvol teen die Britse aanval. Die Britse Indiese bondgenote het saamgekom, maar kon geen smaak vind om by die aksie aan te sluit nie. Die Britte onttrek.

Die Britte noem die Indiane laf, die Indiërs noem die Britte gek om aan te val as hul gewere nie sterk genoeg is nie.

Ongevalle: Britse troepe dood: 100. Amerikaanse troepe dood: 8.

10 Augustus 1813
Slag van St. Michaels (Michael's) , Maryland. Amerikaanse oorwinning. Die Britte val die stad aan, doen min skade aan en moet terugtrek.

14 Augustus 1813
USS Argus teenoor HMS Pelikaan . Britse oorwinning. Die Pelikaan word gelei deur Kommandant John F. Maples . Die Argus, onder Hoofkommandant William Henry Allen , gee oor na 45 minute se geveg. Allen word in sy linkerbobeen geskiet, verloor baie bloed en word flou. Die Pelikaan neem hom aan boord, amputeer sy been, maar gangreen ontwikkel. Terug in Plymouth neem die Britte hom na 'n hospitaal waar Allen op 18 Augustus 1813 sterf.

19 Augustus 1813
Twee Amerikaanse vlae word by Fort McHenry afgelewer, die werk van mev. Pickersgill, 'n Boston -vlagmaker. Die regering betaal $ 405,90 vir die groot garnisoenvlag en $ 168,54 vir die stormvlag.

30 Augustus 1813
Fort Mims -bloedbad . Red Sticks, onder leiding van William Weatherford, ook bekend as Red Eagle, val die middag op Fort Mims, Alabama, aan. Die fort is onder bevel van majoor Daniel Beasley. Die meeste van die 300 insittendes, waaronder baie vroue en kinders, word doodgemaak. Ongeveer 100 rooi stokkies word doodgemaak.

1 September 1813
Die Britse minister van Rusland, William Schaw Cathcart, skryf aan graaf de Nesselrode dat Brittanje nie bereid is om Rusland se bemiddeling te aanvaar nie, maar tog bereid is om direk met die Verenigde State te onderhandel.

5 September 1813
USS Onderneming teenoor HMS Bokser . Luitenant William Burrows beveel die Onderneming. Kaptein Samuel Blyth beveel die Bokser. Die Bokser oorgee. Beide, Burrows en Blyth, is dodelik gewond.

10 September 1813
Die vloot Slag van Lake Erie , ook genoem Slag van Put-in-Bay , 'n groot Amerikaanse oorwinning, gelei deur hoofkommandant Oliver Hazard Perry teen die Britse kaptein Robert Heriot Barclay. Detroit is terug in Amerikaanse hande.

Gemotiveer deur hierdie beslissende oorwinning, besluit William Henry Harrison om Kanada binne te val, terwyl Procter besluit om ooswaarts terug te trek. Die duisende Indiese krygers en hul gesinne wat saam met die Britte geveg het, stem nie saam met Procter se besluit nie.

13 September 1813
Procter beveel die aftakeling van Fort Malden. Tecumseh is ontsteld en noem Procter 'n lafaard. Baie Indiërs verlaat die Britse magte.

5 Oktober 1813
Die Slag van die Teems , Bo -Kanada, vandag se suide van Ontario. Amerikaanse oorwinning. Hierdie geveg word ook die Slag van Moraviantown .

Die Amerikaners het die Britte en Indiërs agtervolg op hul terugtog ooswaarts. Proctor besluit om 2 myl van Moraviantown aan die Teemsrivier op te staan.

Die Amerikaners, 3 000 troepe, 1/3 van hulle, onder leiding van Harrison, val die Britte aan, 430 gereelde onder leiding van Procter en 600 Indiese krygers onder leiding van Tecumseh. Die Britse troepe is gedemoraliseer en voer nie veel stryd nie, terwyl die Indiërs wreed geveg het. Die Amerikaners wen. Die hoof van die Shawnee, Tecumseh , word in hierdie geveg doodgemaak.

Danksy hierdie oorwinning het William Henry Harrison beheer oor die noordweste.

Danksy hierdie nederlaag is die loopbaan van Henry Procter in wese verby. Hy sal in die hof verskyn.


Slag van die Teems - 5 Oktober 1813
Ter illustrasie: Kol Johnson gewond in stryd met Tecumseh. Tecumseh het sy geweer losgemaak, staan ​​op die punt om sy tomahawk op te lig, ontvang die pistoolbal en driebokkies in sy bors wat die Indiërs sien hoe hul leier val, en vlug.

Generaal Harrison met Commodore Perry en generaal Cass wat as hulpverleners optree.

Generaal Proctor het ontsnap in 'n wa wat deur draakies bygewoon is, nadat hy sy leër wat kort voor lank aan Amerikaanse wapens oorgegee het, laat vaar het.

Lieu. Kol. James Johnson aan die hoof van die berede vrywilligers uit Kentucky op soek na genl.

Majoor Thompson was persoonlik in stryd met die profeet, wat op die punt was om die veteraan Whitely, wat pas geval het, te kopvel.

Die bejaarde veteraan Whitely, wat in die meeste oorloë om onafhanklikheid geveg het, het gesneuwel.

James Mason, 86 jaar oud, veg langs kolonel Johnson.

Mai-pock geskiet deur kapt. Ward. Maj's Sugget en Barry. Malden
John Dorival, litograaf / kongresbiblioteek

26 Oktober 1813
Slag van Ch teauguay . Britse oorwinning. Die Britte slaag daarin om die Amerikaanse opmars in Montreal te stuit.

1 - 2 November 1813
Slag van French Creek . Amerikaanse oorwinning. Die Amerikaners kan hul posisie langs French Creek verdedig teen die aanval op Britse magte.

3 November 1813
Slag van Tallushatchee . Amerikaanse oorwinning. Brig. Genl John Coffee lei 900 ruiters en Indiërs in 'n aanval op die Red Sticks -dorp Tallushatchee. Koffie wen en brand die dorp.

4 November 1813
Die Britse minister van buitelandse sake, Castlereagh, skryf aan die Amerikaanse minister van buitelandse sake, James Monroe, dat

die Britse regering is bereid om met die regering van Amerika in gesprek te tree vir die versoenende aanpassing van die verskille tussen die twee state, met 'n ernstige begeerte van hulle kant om hulle tot 'n gunstige saak te bring, op beginsels van 'n volmaakte wederkerigheid wat nie inkonsekwent is nie met die vasgestelde maksimums van publiek reg, en met die maritieme regte van die Britse Ryk.

Hy stel voor om in Londen of in Göteborg, Swede, te vergader en heg 'n afskrif van die brief van 1 September tussen Cathcart en Nesselrode.

Monroe sal terugskryf 5 Januarie 1814 .

9 November 1813
Slag van Talladega . Amerikaanse oorwinning. Majoor -generaal Andrew Jackson lei 2 000 troepe van Fort Strother om die beleërde stad Talladega te verlig. Besoekers is 1 000 rooi stokke. Jackson wen.

11 November 1813
Die Britte wen die Slag van Crysler se plaas .

18 November 1813
Hillabee -slagting . Genl John Cocke is nie bewus daarvan dat die Hillabee Creeks gister om vredesvoorwaardes gevra het nie. As hy hulle vandag aanval, word hulle heeltemal verras.

29 November 1813
Slag van Autosse . Amerikaanse oorwinning oor die Red Sticks. John Floyd lei 950 Georgia -milisie en 400 vriendelike Creeks teen Autosse, Mississippi -gebied (Alabama). Hy wen hierdie stryd.

10 Desember 1813
Die Amerikaners, onder bevel van brig. Genl George McClure, verlaat Fort George en verbrand Newark, Ontario, Bo -Kanada, om die Britse moontlikhede van skuiling te ontken.

Hierdie roekelose optrede sal gevolge hê. Die Britte sal die guns teruggee en Lewiston (19 Desember 1813), Black Rock en Buffalo (30 Desember 1813) verbrand.

19 Desember 1813
Britse verowering van Fort Niagara . Toe die fort eers veilig was, vernietig die Britte onder genl.maj. Phineas Riall Lewiston, New York en ander klein dorpies daar naby.

23 Desember 1813
Slag van Econochaca . Amerikaners, onder leiding van Ferdinand Claiborne, val die stad Creek, Econochaca, aan en vernietig dit.

30 Desember 1813
Die Britte plunder en verbrand Black Rock en Buffalo.


Leer meer

  • Die versameling, dokumente van die kontinentale kongres en konstitusionele konvensie, 1774 tot 1789, bevat 'n tydlyn, begin in 1764, van gebeure wat gelei het tot die rewolusie.
  • Soek vandag in die geskiedenis op revolusie om meer materiaal te vind. Sien ook die funksie oor die land se eerste daaglikse koerant.
  • Soek op Benjamin Franklin in die Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606 tot 1827 of in die George Washington Papers om korrespondensie tussen Franklin, Jefferson en Washington te vind.
  • Vir beelde van Benjamin Franklin en ander leiers van die Revolusionêre Oorlog, soek na hul name in Foto's, afdrukke, tekeninge op loc.gov.
  • Kom meer te wete oor Benjamin Franklin se werk en lewe. Sien die aanlyn -uitstalling Benjamin Franklin: In His Own Words, wat 'n chronologie van sy lewe en 'n bibliografie bevat. Sien Finding Franklin: A Resource Guide vir nog meer skakels na hulpbronne.
  • Die versameling Benjamin Franklin Papers beklemtoon Franklin se diplomatieke rolle sowel as sy uiteenlopende belangstellings as wetenskaplike, uitvinder en waarnemer van die natuurlike wêreld.
  • View selected images from Cartoon Drawings: Swann Collection of Caricature and Cartoon, which contains 2,085 drawings, prints, and paintings related to the art of caricature, cartoon, and illustration. Read more about cartoon-related research at the Library of Congress.

Siege of Fort Meigs

Print captioned “The attack on Fort Meigs, May 5, 1813,” from the “Hard Cider and Log Cabin Almanac,” 1841. Via Ohio Memory

Since last year, Ohio has been celebrating the bicentennial of the War of 1812 and our state’s role in this important historical event. Early May is a notable time in the story of the war, as it marks the 200th anniversary of the first Siege of Fort Meigs, a bloody conflict that served as a key turning point for American forces.

Letter written by William Johnson to his wife describing the actions of his regiment during the Seige of Fort Meigs, via Ohio Memory

Fort Meigs was a strategic fortification along the banks of the Maumee River in present-day Perrysburg, Ohio. Construction on the fort began in February 1813 with the intention of creating a base from which to invade Canada, but it was soon changed to a defensive checkpoint to prevent any further British advances into American territory. Upon its completion in April of the same year, the installation contained seven blockhouses used for defense, five artillery batteries, two storehouses, and had approximately twenty artillery pieces to help defend the fort.

It was a major target for British troops and their Native American allies, who attacked it twice in an effort to either capture or destroy the fortification. The sieges, in May and July of 1813, led to many American casualties, but U.S. troops managed to maintain possession of the fort and thwart British plans. It was these two victories at Fort Meigs that helped to turn the tide in the western theater of war in favor of the American forces.

Sketch of the plan of Fort Meigs (identified here as Camp Meigs) created by Joseph Larwill, 1813. Via Ohio Memory

After the second siege, the fort was torn down and replaced with a smaller-scale supply depot which stood through the war, but later burnt down. The Ohio Historical Society reconstructed the fort in the 1970s, with renovations in 2003, and today this National Historic Landmark stands as the largest reconstructed, wooden-walled fort in the United States. The blockhouses, artillery batteries and numerous earthworks appear much as they did during the summer of 1813, and exhibits in the blockhouses present the life of a soldier, the building of the fort and dramatic accounts of the two sieges against the fort.

Learn more about the Fort Meigs site in Perrysburg, or visit Ohio Memory to explore the digital materials related to this important piece of military history!

Thanks to Lily Birkhimer, Digital Projects Coordinator at the Ohio History Connection, for this week’s post!


Fort Meigs and the War of 1812

“Our ranks scattered, our brave Colonel slain, and most of the other officers mortally wounded, seems sufficient to have unnerved the bravest hero, but even then many heroic deeds of personal valor were enacted and I still occasionally heard the loud, shrill game cock crowing of one brave spirit who seemed determined to die game and cheer his comrades to the last (1).” This is an excerpt from the address of Thomas Christian who was a volunteer in Colonel Dudley’s Regiment during the Kentucky militia’s attempt to lift the siege of Fort Meigs.

After the American losses in Detroit in August of 1812 and Frenchtown in January of 1813, the frontier in western Ohio was left exposed to attacks by the British and allied Native Americans lead by Tecumseh. To combat this threat, Major General William Henry Harrison ordered Fort Meigs to be constructed on a bluff overlooking the Maumee River in anticipation of an inevitable attack by the enemy (4).

Konstruksie

Initially, Harrison’s intention for the fort was as a potential staging point for a future invasion into Canada that never saw any immediate fruition. Construction began on February 2, 1813 and was completed by late April of that same year. At the time, Fort Meigs was one of the largest forts in the United States, covering 10 acres of land and consisting of 8 blockhouses connected by wooden palisades as walls (6). The fort was originally built as a winter quarters for General Harrison during the early part of the War of 1812. However, the fort was eventually expanded as Harrison intended it to be a supply point for the American forces in the Old Northwest region. Ultimately, Harrison saw the need to expand the fort into a walled defense. The location of Fort Meigs was in a position of tactical advantage as it was constructed on a bluff commanding the view north up the Maumee River. The location of the fort was such that it would be difficult for an enemy approaching from the north to pass it without having to engage in a conflict. Fort Meigs was named in honor of Return J. Meigs, Jr. who was the Governor of Ohio at the time. Return J. Meigs, Jr. played a significant role in supporting General William Harrison along the Old Northwest frontier by providing supplies and militia men. The fort was completed just in time to hinder the advance of 2,000 British regulars and Canadian militia lead by British Brigadier General Henry Proctor, aided by Chief Tecumseh and 1,000 native American warriors (7).

Siege of Fort Meigs

In late March of 1813, General Harrison left Fort Meigs to bring forward some of his reserve troops to reinforce the Fort which he new would play a significant role in the defense of thousands of square miles of territory (3). At the same time Harrison dispatched Captain William Oliver with an order to the Kentucky troops to hastily come and reinforce the fort.

When the ice in Lake Erie broke up, General Proctor moved up the left bank of the Maumee river with all his available forces in order to lay siege to Fort Meigs. According to reports, Proctors force at his initial movement was made up of 500 regulars and Canadian militia and around 1,500 Indians (3). Proctor was accompanied by a train of artillery and two gunboats. The main British camp was setup at Fort Miami further up the river from Fort Meigs.

Learning of Proctor’s arrival, the garrison began building large traverses across the fort, removing the tents and preparing for the siege. The British established three gun batteries and one mortar battery on April 27 th on the opposite shore of Fort Meigs.

Proctor began the siege of Fort Meigs on May 1, 1813 by initiating cannon fire into the fort from gun emplacements on the north bank of the river opposite the fort and one emplacement on the south side of the river. Meanwhile, the native American forces loosely formed to the south of the fort and harassed the American troops with irregular small arms fire (2). Despite persistent fire from the British, the fort absorbed the majority of the cannonballs with its earthen walls Harrison ordered built up inside the outer perimeter.

A.M. Lorraine told an interesting story saying that “One of our militia men took his station on the embankment and gratuitously forewarned us of every shot. In this he became so skillful that he could, in almost every case, predict the destination of the ball (3).”

Meanwhile 1,200 Kentucky militia led by Brigadier General Green Clay were heading north to reinforce the fort against the British (5). When General Harrison heard of the reinforcements he dispatched a messenger to Clay on May 2 to detail a plan to drive off the enemy.

Following Harrisons plan, Clay sent 850 of his men on May 5 lead by Colonel William Dudley to land on the north side of the river to disable the British gun batteries (4). Dudley achieved complete surprise on the British and overwhelmed the enemy batteries. The Kentucky militia used their weapon ramrods to spike the guns but only managed to temporarily disable them as they were soon distracted. At this point one of Dudley’s columns commanded by captain Leslie Combs came under attack by a Native American force (5). Instead of withdrawing back across the river to Fort Meigs as intended in Harrison’s plan, Dudley ordered Combs reinforced. This quickly turned to calamity as the militia were drawn into the woods by the withdrawing Native Americans who massed and turned on the disoriented Kentuckians. Thomas Christian relates that “alas! That aid to the enemy was death for us. They formed an ambush, and securely hid from view, had every advantage. Our futile attempts to dislodge them gave that portion of the enemy upon the opposite side of the river ample time to cross over to the rear, completely hemming us in upon every side (1).” Reinforced by the British, the Native Americans destroyed Dudley’s control over his men and the disoriented militias’ withdrawal to the gun positions was quickly turned into a chaotic retreat (4). Combs comments that “The best disciplined troops in the world are sometimes panic struck – then can it be surprising that militia, under these circumstances, and who had seen scarce thirty days service, should become so (2)?” As the Militia retreated back to the gun positions, they were easily overwhelmed by the British and were either killed or forced to surrender. After the ensuing fighting, Dudley was killed and only 150 of his 850 men managed to escape to the safety of Fort Meigs.

Meanwhile however, on the lower part of the river a group of American soldiers was sent out from Fort Meigs to destroy the lower gun emplacements (7). They were successful in their mission and returned to the fort safely.

After Dudley’s defeat, the remaining forces of the Kentucky militia were forced to march off to Fort Maumee a mile and a half down the river near the British encampment (2). Along the way the militia were robbed of their clothing and belongings while the Indians brutalized the exhausted American soldiers. Proctor, along with his guard and other British officers rode up and down the line and looked on and did nothing to stop the beating and scalping that commenced. Captain Leslie Combs relates in his report that “He who did not instantaneously give up his clothes, frequently payed his life for it.” (2) When the prisoners were brought to Fort Maumee, they were kept in harsh conditions and many of them were killed and brutalized by the Native American warriors. In his description of the events that transpired at Fort Maumee, Leslie Combs states that it was not until Chief Tecumseh arrived and chastised Proctor for being too weak to stop the atrocities imposed on the prisoners that the killing stopped (2). Eventually however, later on in the siege, the prisoners were released at the mouth of the Huron River with little food or clothing to keep them from freezing (1). Many of them wandering through the wilderness in hopes of returning south to their homes and safety.

General Proctor continued the bombardment of the fort but soon found himself in a static siege against a strong American force that was not likely to end quickly. With the pressure from his militia to return home and many of the Native American forces dwindling due to lack of interest in an extended siege, Proctor broke of the siege on May 9, 1813.

After Proctor raised the first siege, General Harrison made quick work of repairing the damage to the fort caused by enemy guns (3). On Harrison’s recommendation the plan for his campaign in the region changed. Vessels were being constructed in Erie and Cleveland, and until they were ready Harrison decided to act on the defensive (3).

Second Siege

On July 21, Proctor returned to Fort Meigs with an even larger force aided by Tecumseh. This time the British infantry positioned themselves in the ravine below the fort while the cavalry remained hidden in the adjacent woods (3). The Native American forces were stationed in the forest about a mile southeast from the fort. Under the cover of darkness, the forces conducted a sham battle by firing their weapons and acting as if they were engaged in an attempt to deceive the Americans stationed in Fort Meigs. Proctor’s hope was that was that the Americans would be drawn out thinking their reinforcements were under attack and could thus be flanked by the British cavalry. “It was a cunning stratagem, and, had it not been met with equal cunning, the result of the war in the Northwest would probably have been different (3).” After this failed ruse to draw the Americans out of garrison into an ambush, Proctor abandoned his second siege and withdrew his forces elsewhere (7). After Proctor’s second failure to capture Fort Meigs, Tecumseh had lost all faith in his British allies. Because of this Tecumseh did not work closely with the British for most of the remainder of the War of 1812 which helped turn the tide in the favor of the United States (4).

Fort Meigs Significance

Fort Meigs marked a significant turning point in the War of 1812 for the Americans. The battles at Fort Meigs and others along the Maumee river ultimately countered the British threat of invasion into Ohio and the rest of the Northwestern frontier (4). If it were not for Fort Meigs during the War of 1812, Ohio might have become part of modern day Canada. By defeating Proctor at Fort Meigs Harrison was able to turn the tide of the war and go on the offensive ultimately defeating Proctor and the British at the battle of Thames in Canada. Fort Meigs carries a significant amount of history not only for Ohio but for the rest of the United States. The brave men who fought and died defending Fort Meigs might not have been able to know the results of their actions. However, their bravery helped to win the War of 1812 and defend the nations territory and freedom from the British.

Map of Fort Meigs Siege Photo From: history.ancestry.com

Primary Sources:

2. Dudley, William (1867). “Col. WM. Dudley’s Defeat Opposite Fort Meigs.” New York Public Library.

3. Averill, James P. (1886). “Fort Meigs.” University of Alberta.

Secondary Sources:

4. Hatfield, Egon (2013). “War of 1812 bicentennial: Fort Meigs.” RDECOM History Office.

6. Hurley, Michael, and Jason McNaught (2013). “The siege of Fort Meigs: a bloody campaign Ohio.” Esprit de Corps p. 32+.


Siege of Fort Meigs: April 23, 1813

. It was now all but certain that the place would soon be invested, for we recieved information that the enemy were assembling in great force at Sandwich [modern day Windsor, ON], and that a large number of Indians had just arrived at Detroit from St. Joseph and the neighborhood of Mackinaw.

Small parties of scattering Indians were constantly round the camp, whose object it seemed to be presumably to take prisoners, as we supposed, for the purpose of obtaining information relative to our strength and situation, and which, as we afterwards learned, was actually the case.

Our block-houses, batteries, magazines and connecting lines of defense were now generally completed and the appearance of the camp, in every direction, was such as to inspire confidence in the minds of those whose duty it had become either to defend, or with it throw themselves into the hands of an English savage.

--from Wood, Eleazer Derby. Journal of the Northwestern Campaign of 1812-13: Under Major-General William H. Harrison. Defiance, O.: Defiance College Press, 1975 pg. 16.

A letter from Captain Daniel L. Cushing, 2nd US Regiment of Artillery to 1st Lt. Joseph H Larwill, 2nd Artillery:


Major Amos Stoddard

Wounded May 1, 1813, on the opening day of the siege of Fort Meigs. Died May 11 of tetanus buried May 12 in front of the "Grand Battery" on the spot where he received the wound that caused his death.

A native of Connecticut, Major Stoddard served in the American Revolution, practiced law in Massachusetts, and became a member of the Massachusetts legislature. He entered the U.S. Army in 1798 as a captain in the Second Regiment of Artillerists and Engineers. Commissioned the first civil and military commandant of Upper Louisiana, he received that territory from the French in 1804 in the name of the United States.

He was promoted to the rank of major in 1807 and commanded the artillery at Fort Meigs when he was wounded.

Onderwerpe. This historical marker is listed in these topic lists: Military &bull War of 1812. A significant historical date for this entry is May 1, 1896.

Ligging. 41° 33.166′ N, 83° 39.151′ W. Marker is in Perrysburg, Ohio, in Wood County. Marker can be reached from the intersection of West Indiana Avenue (Ohio Route 65) and Fort Meigs Road, on the right when traveling south. This historical marker is located at the Fort Meigs State Historical Park, in the interior of the reconstructed Fort Meigs, just east of the site of the Grand Battery. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in this post office area: Perrysburg OH 43551, United States of America. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. At least 8 other markers are

within walking distance of this marker. The Grand Battery (within shouting distance of this marker) Second Fort (within shouting distance of this marker) First Siege (within shouting distance of this marker) Fort Meigs (within shouting distance of this marker) General William Henry Harrison (within shouting distance of this marker) Fort Meigs / Construction (about 300 feet away, measured in a direct line) Lieut. John McCullough & Lieut. Robert Walker (about 300 feet away) In Memory Of Michael Hayes, Timothy Hayes, Thomas Hayes (about 400 feet away). Touch for a list and map of all markers in Perrysburg.


Museum Collection

The museum at Fort Meigs is impressive for a little known fort. Extensive displays, detailing the fort’s role in the War of 1812, are filled with artifacts. The museum also includes several sections detailing individuals, such as Native American chiefs and both British and American soldiers. Near the museum entrance is a large diorama in a conference room, plus a children’s area where kids can dress up in period costumes. Expect to spend an hour for touring, though avid historians could easily peruse for three hours. The museum building features a gift shop well-stocked with books.

Fort Meigs in Perrysburg, Ohio. War of 1812 © Wagon Pilot Adventures


Balls Battlefield

Major Ball's Squadron 2nd Light Dragoons U.S. Army while escorting Col. Wells 17th U.S. Infantry from Major General Harrison's headquarters at Fort Seneca to relieve Major Croghan of the command of Fort Stephenson for alleged insubordination in refusing to evacuate the fort was ambushed by Indians near this spot but gallantly charging them killed seventeen with the sabre. 30th July 1813.

Sandusky-Scioto Trail

The Sandusky-Scioto Trail was one of many Native American trails that crisscrossed the Ohio Territory long before it became a state. This particular trail became an important military asset used by various factions for many years and many conflicts.

George Roger's Colonial Rangers used the trail against the French in1760.

Bradstreet's British army against Pontiac, 1764.

Butler's British Rangers against Col. Crawford, 1782.

After the American invasion of Canada in 1813, the Scioto-Sandusky Trail became known as the "Harrison Trail".


May 9 1813: Siege of Fort Meigs Lifted

On May 9 1813, the British siege of Fort Meigs in Ohio is lifted by General Henry A. Procter. The Americans were receiving reinforcements while the British had a number problems, including deserting militia, lack of supplies and proper siege artillery. Tecumseh leaves disgusted with the British and with General Procter in particular. A victorious General Harrison writes to the Secretary of War John Armstrong on May 9:

SIR-I have the honor to inform you that the enemy having been several days making preparations for raising the siege of this post, accomplished this day the removal of their artillery from the opposite bank, and about 12 o’clock left their encampment below were soon embarked and out of sight. I have the honor to enclose you an agreement entered into between Gen. Proctor and myself for the discharge of the prisoners of the Kentucky militia in his possession, and for the exchange of the officers and men of the regular troops which were respectively possessed by us. My anxiety to get the Kentucky troops released as early as possible, induced me to agree to the dismission of all the prisoners I had, although there was not as many of ours in Gen. Proctor’s possession. The surplusage is to be accounted for and an equal number of ours released from their parole, whenever the government may think proper to direct.

The two actions on this side of the river on the 5th, were infinitely more important & more honorable to our arms, than I had at first conceived. In the sortie made upon the left flank, Captain Waring’s company of the 19th regt. a detachment of 12 months volunteers under Maj. Alexander, and three companies of Kentucky militia under Col. Boswell, defeated at least double the number of Indians and British militia.

The sortie on the right was still more glorious the British batteries in that direction were defended by the grenadier and light infantry companies of the forty-first regiment amounting to 200 effectives and two companies of militia, flanked by a host of Indians. The detachment sent to attack these consisted of all the men off duty belonging to the companies of Croghan and Bradford of the 17th regt. Langham Elliott’s (late Graham’s) and Waring’s of the 19th, about 80 of Major Alexander’s volunteers, and a single company of Kentucky militia under Capt. Sebry, amounting in the whole to not more than 340. Yet the event of the action was not a moment doubtful, and had not the British troops been covered in their retreat by their allies, the whole of them would have been taken.

It is not possible for troops to behave better than ours did throughout all the officers exerted themselves to execute my orders and the enemy, who had a full view of our operations from the opposite shore, declared that they had never seen so much work performed in so short a time.

To all the commandants of corps I feel particular obligations. These were Colonel Miller of the 19th infantry, Col. Mills of the Ohio militia. Maj. Stoddard of the artillery, Maj. Ball of the dragoons, and Maj. Johnson of the Kentucky militia. Captain Gratiot of the engineers having been for a long time much indisposed, the task of fortifying this post devolved upon Captain Wood. It could not have been placed in better hands. Permit me to recommend him to the President, and to assure you that any mark of his approbation bestowed on Capt. Wood, would be highly gratifying to the whole of the troops who witnessed his arduous exertions.

From Major Hukill, acting Inspector General, my aid-de-camp Major Graham. Lieutenant O’Fallon, who has done the duty of assistant Adjutant General in the absence of Major Adams, & my volunteer aid-de-camp John Johnson, Esq. I received the most useful assistance.

I have the honor to enclose you a list of the killed and wounded daring the siege and in the two sorties those of the latter were much greater than I had at first expected.

Want of sleep and exposure to the continued rains which have fallen almost every day for some time past, renders me incapable of mentioning many interesting particulars amongst others a most extraordinary proposition of Gen. Proctor’s, on the subject of the Indians within our boundary-this shall form the subject of a communication to be made to-morrow or next day and for which I will provide a safer conveyance than that which carries this. All the prisoners and deserters agree in saying that the information given to Major Stoddard by Ryland of the British having launched a sloop of war this spring, is incorrect, & the most of them say that the one wich is now building will not be launched for many weeks.


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