Kuns, medisyne en brandstof - die verrassende historiese gebruike van antieke mummies

Kuns, medisyne en brandstof - die verrassende historiese gebruike van antieke mummies

Deur Liz Leafloor | Epoch Times

Mummies is 'n bekende beeld in die moderne Westerse kultuur, wat soms stilweg in glasmuseumhouers rus, of ander kere op twee vervloekte voete skuifel, kreunend en gedrapeer in vodde linne in Hollywood -films. Dit was egter nie te lank gelede nie dat mummies op onkonvensionele maniere gebruik is - as dwelms, as vermaaklikheidsbediening en miskien selfs as brandstof.

Alhoewel mummies op elke kontinent regoor die wêreld gevind kan word, word dit dikwels met antieke Egipte verbind. Die vroeë bronne van die bewaarde oorskot van mense en diere was grafrowers wat grafte en begraafplase geplunder het, op soek na goud, juweliersware en waardevolle items. Soms word die liggame verkoop namate hulle mistiek en waarde kry.

In die vroeë 19 ste eeu was die argeologiese wetenskap nog in sy kinderskoene, maar ekspedisies het baie gewild geword ná Napoleon se veldtog na Egipte en Sirië. Wetenskaplike opgrawings in Egipte was goed bedoel, maar nie altyd gelei deur geleerdes of kundiges nie, en was dikwels opportunistiese opgrawings deur ryk, nuuskierige amateurs. Dit het daartoe gelei dat terreine, artefakte en kennis beskadig of vernietig is. Mediese disseksies van mummies was meer teater as forensies.

Die Egiptiese ekspedisie onder bevel van Napoleon Bonaparte. Léon Cogniet, vroeg in die 19de eeu. (Publieke domein)

Mummies word nie beskou as die oorblyfsels van geliefdes nie, maar word eerder as 'n handelsware, 'n nuuskierigheid en 'n oorblyfsel van 'n antieke tyd beskou - waarvan die eienskappe misties en kragtig was. Hulle speel nie net 'n rol in die kunste, wetenskappe en kultuur van Europa, Amerika en ander plekke regoor die wêreld nie, maar hulle het ook baie verrassende (en twyfelagtige) historiese gebruike gehad:

Mammie verf

Ou Egiptiese mummies is in die 16de jaar opgemaak en in 'n bruin olieverf gemaak ste en 17 ste eeue. Die ryk pigment, bekend as Caledonian Brown, Egyptian Brown of selfs net Mummy Brown, is gemaak van die oorblyfsels van menslike en katlike liggame. Ondanks die neiging om te kraak, was dit 'n baie gewilde pigment - totdat kunstenaars uiteindelik ontdek het waaruit dit gemaak word. Die Britse kunstenaar Edward Burne-Jones sou sy buis verf 'n seremoniële begrafnis in sy agtertuin gegee het nadat hy die oorsprong daarvan besef het.

Verf is gemaak met Mummy Brown -verf. 'Interieur van 'n kombuis', Martin Drolling, 1814. (Public Domain)

Daar word beweer dat een mummie genoeg verf kan lewer om twintig jaar lank verskeie kunstenaars te hou. Uiteindelik het die aanbod van mummies vir gebruik in verf afgeneem (net soos die aantal kunstenaars wat lyke in hul verf wou hê), en Mummy Brown word nou gemaak met die mineraal hematiet.

MEER:

Mammie medisyne

Volgens Smtihsonian.com het Europese oortuigings en gebruike (en dié van kulture regoor die wêreld) in die 16 ste en 17 ste eeue ingesluit eet en drink menslike oorskot - gemaalde bene, bloed en vet - as medisyne om siektes te behandel; dit was geneesmiddels vir alles, van hoofpyn tot geestesongesteldhede en dodelike siektes. Dit was dus geen sprong om die 'magiese en kragtige' mummies vir dieselfde doeleindes te gebruik nie.

Die Britse monarg Charles II sou mummiestof op sy vel vryf om die 'grootheid' op te neem.

'N Studie in die Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine toon aan dat mummies honderde jare lank in Europa wyd as medisyne of medisyne gebruik is. Reeds in die Middeleeue is antieke mummies uit Egipte geneem en in poeier gemaal. Dit moet ingesluk of plaaslik toegedien word, en daar word gesê dat die Britse monarg Charles II mummiestof op sy vel sou vryf om die 'grootheid' op te neem. Hierdie 'lykmedisyne' het uiteindelik gesterf namate wetenskap en moderne medisyne wins gemaak het, maar voorbeelde van die gebruik van mummies as medisyne verskyn nog in die katalogusse in Europa so laat as die 20 ste eeu.

Mummiepapier

Daar word gesê dat die linne -omhulsels en papirusvesels van mummies in die Verenigde State drukpapier gemaak het. Dit is meer 'n stedelike legende as 'n feit. In die 1850's bereik Amerika 'n dilemma in die maak van papier. Omdat dit meer koerante vervaardig het as in enige ander land, het dit grondpapier nodig gehad om tred te hou met die produksie. Die bewering dat mummies en hul omhulsel gebruik is om aan hierdie vereiste te voldoen, is nie bewys nie, maar dit was 'n idee wat wyd bespreek is, en dit is in 'n 1847 -uitgawe van Scientific American gerapporteer.

Argeoloog dr. Isaiah Deck het in 1855 geskryf oor die beskikbaarheid van begraafplase vir mummies as hulpbronne: 'Op talle plekke is hulle so talle uit die gewone spore van die meeste reisigers dat na die periodieke storms hele gebiede van sand gestroop kan word, en laat fragmente en ledemate blootgestel word in so 'n groot verskeidenheid. "

Mammie brandstof

Net soos die verhale van mummiepapier, is mummies as brandstof waarskynlik net 'n stedelike legende, maar dit spruit uit verslae van die Amerikaanse skrywer Mark Twain. Die humoris het hierdie idee gewild gemaak toe hy geskryf het oor die eerste spoorlyn wat oor Egipte gebou is in "The Innocents Abroad". Hy het beweer dat as gevolg van 'n gebrek aan bome in die woestyn, mummies as treinbrandstof gebruik is, en skryf: "Die brandstofverbruik vir die lokomotief bestaan ​​uit mummies wat drie duisend jaar oud is, gekoop deur die ton of deur die begraafplaas vir die doel. ” Hy (oënskynlik tong-in-die-kies) het tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat hulle waarskynlik goed verbrand het, aangesien hulle in harse en bitumen bedek was en soos koordhout gestapel kon word.

Mammie partytjies

In die 1800's was mummies, Egiptiese kultuur en alles wat daarmee verband hou (bekend as Egyptomania) woedend, en koninklike en hoë samelewing in Europa het gesê dat mummie -uitpak -partytjies as sosiale geleenthede gehou sou word. Soos die naam aandui, is mummies aangeskaf en onthul tot die vreugde van 'n gehoor. Hierdie uitpakkinge of "afrolings" was egter dikwels nie uitsluitlik vir partytjies nie, maar het akademies plaasgevind, al was dit in die openbare omgewing.

Die Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History skryf van die bekendste voorstander van mummie-uitpakwerk, die Victoriaanse ouderdom-chirurg Thomas Pettigrew. Hy sou lykskouings of 'afrolpartytjies' hou waar die Britse sosiale elite sou vergader om te kyk. Hierdie morbiede nuuskierighede het die publiek aangetrek en was grootliks 'n bril, maar gedetailleerde kennis van antieke balsemingstegnieke is deur middel van hierdie anatomiese studies versamel.

Examination of a Mummy - A priestess of Ammon, Paul Dominique Philippoteaux c 1891. Credit: Peter Nahum at The Leicester Gallery, London

Vandag

Mummies is nog steeds opgewonde en fassineer moderne navorsers en die breë publiek, en ons gaan voort met ons mummie-“uitpak-partytjies” deur gebruik te maak van hoëtegnologiese skanderingstegnologieë, gevorderde ondersoeke en forensiese tegnieke en museum-mummie-uitstallings. Deur 'n moderne lens gesien, is die manewales van vroeë mummie -fanatici en die historiese gebruike van die oorskot verrassend en oneties, maar destyds het die doeleindes perfek en prakties sin gemaak.

Hopelik vind ons nageslag nie ons waardering vir en behandeling van ou oorblyfsels so treurig en onopgelos soos ons almal wat in Egyptomania toegedraai was nie!

Voorgestelde foto: Egiptiese mummie in die British Museum, Londen. Krediet: Quintanilla / BigStockPhoto

Die artikel ' Kuns, medisyne en brandstof - die verrassende historiese gebruike van antieke mummies is oorspronklik gepubliseer op The Epoch Times en is met toestemming herpubliseer.


Roomys

Terwyl BiteLabs ’ menslike wors net 'n konsep is, het ware menslike roomys in 2011 by die Icecreamists-restaurant in Londen op die mark gekom. Die Baby Gaga ” met verwysing na die beroemde popsangeres Lady Gaga en die tipe melk, en die roomys is toegedien met regte borsmelk van donateurs. Volgens The National Post het een van die skenkers gesê van die roomysproduk: Dit was glad nie indringend om te skenk nie-net 'n eenvoudige bloedtoets. Wat kan natuurliker wees as vars melk uit 'n vrylopende moeder in 'n roomys? ”

Die roomys met vanielje is na 'n kort tydjie uit die rakke verwyder en is deur die gesondheidsamptenare vir toetse in beslag geneem om te sien of dit veilig is vir menslike gebruik.


Inhoud

Sommige van die vroegste bekende verslae van versagte lyke kom van die Griekse historikus Herodotus (4de eeu v.G.J.) wat opgeteken het dat die Assiriërs hul dooies met heuning gebalsem het. [3] 'n Eeu later is die liggaam van Alexander die Grote na bewering in 'n heuninggevulde sarkofaag bewaar, en daar is ook aanduidings dat hierdie praktyk nie aan die Egiptenare onbekend was nie. [4] [5]

'N Ander rekord van versagting word gevind in die Bencao Gangmu (artikel 52, "Die mens as medisyne") onder die inskrywing vir munaiyi (木乃伊 "mamma"). Dit haal die Chuogeng lu (輟 耕 錄 "Praat terwyl die ploeg rus", ongeveer 1366) deur die geleerde van die Yuan -dinastie Tao Zongyi (陶 宗儀) en Tao Jiucheng (陶九成).

Volgens [Tao Jiucheng] in sy [Chuogenglu], in die lande van die Arabiere is daar mans 70 of 80 jaar oud wat bereid is om hul liggame te gee om ander te red. So 'n mens neem nie meer kos of drank nie, net om te bad en 'n bietjie heuning te eet, totdat sy uitskeiding na 'n maand niks anders is as heuning nie, dan kom die dood. Sy landgenote plaas die lyk in 'n klipkis vol heuning, met 'n opskrif wat die jaar en maand van die begrafnis aandui. Na honderd jaar word die seëls verwyder en die sous wat gevorm is, gebruik vir die behandeling van wonde en breuke van die liggaam en ledemate - slegs 'n klein hoeveelheid intern is nodig vir die genesing. Alhoewel dit in hierdie dele skaars is, noem die gewone mense dit 'versmelte mens' [miren 蜜 人], of, in hul vreemde toespraak, "mu-nai-i". Dus meneer [Tao], maar ek weet self nie of die verhaal waar is of nie. Ek voeg dit in elk geval by vir die oorweging van die geleerdes. [6]

Volgens Joseph Needham en Lu Gwei-djen was hierdie inhoud Arabies, maar Li Shizhen het die storie deurmekaar gemaak met 'n Birmaanse gewoonte om die lyke van abonne en hoë monnike in heuning te bewaar, sodat "die Westerse idee van 'n geneesmiddel gemaak van permanent. menslike vlees is gekombineer met die kenmerkende Boeddhistiese motief van selfopoffering vir ander. " [7] In haar boek Styf: Die nuuskierige lewens van menslike kadavers, skrywer Mary Roach merk op dat die teks daarop wys dat dit nie die waarheid van die versagtende manverhaal ken nie. [1]

Bencao Gangmu noem die konkoksie miren (蜜 人), vertaal as "heuningpersoon" of "versmelte man". Miziren (蜜 漬 人 "heuningversadigde persoon") is 'n moderne sinoniem. Die plek waarvandaan dit kom, is tianfangguo, 'n ou naam vir Arabië of die Midde -Ooste "). Die Chinese munaiyi (木乃伊), saam met 'mummie' leenwoorde in baie ander tale, kom uit Arabies mūmīya (mummie) of van Persies mūmiyâyī (مومیایی, "mummie"), self van my "was".

Mellifikasie is 'n meestal verouderde term vir die vervaardiging van heuning, of die proses om iets te versuur, uit die Latyn mellificāre ("Om heuning te maak"), of mel ("Heuning"). Die antieke Griekse woord mélissa (μέλισσα) beteken "byheuningby (poëtiese) heuning".

Heuning is in baie verskillende kulture in begrafnispraktyke gebruik. Birmese priesters het die gewoonte om hul hoof abbette in kiste vol heuning te bewaar. [8] Die reputasie daarvan vir medisinale gebruike en duursaamheid is lank reeds gevestig. Vir ten minste 2700 jaar is heuning deur mense gebruik om verskillende siektes deur middel van aktuele toediening te behandel, maar eers onlangs is die antiseptiese en antibakteriese eienskappe van heuning chemies verduidelik. Vanweë sy unieke samestelling en die ingewikkelde verwerking van nektar deur die bye wat die chemiese eienskappe daarvan verander, is heuning geskik vir langdurige berging en word dit maklik geassimileer, selfs na lang bewaring. Die geskiedenis ken voorbeelde van heuningbewaring vir dekades, eeue en selfs millennia. [9]

Die antibakteriese eienskappe van heuning is die gevolg van die lae wateraktiwiteit wat osmose, waterstofperoksied -effek, [10] en hoë suurgehalte veroorsaak. [11] Die kombinasie van hoë suurheid, higroskopiese en antibakteriese effekte het gelei tot heuning se reputasie as 'n aanneemlike manier om 'n menslike kadawer te mummifiseer, ondanks die gebrek aan konkrete bewyse.

Beide Europese en Chinese farmakope gebruik medisyne van menslike oorsprong, soos urineterapie, of selfs ander medisinale gebruike vir borsmelk. In haar boek sê Roach dat die medisinale gebruik van mummies en die verkoop van vals "goed gedokumenteer" is in chemieboeke van die 16de tot die 18de eeu in Europa, "maar nêrens buite Arabië was die lyke vrywilligers nie". [12] [13] [14] [15]

Mummies was tot ten minste die agtiende eeu 'n algemene bestanddeel in die Middeleeue, en nie net as medisyne nie, maar as kunsmis en selfs as verf. Die gebruik van lyke en liggaamsdele as medisyne strek ver terug - in die Romeinse Ryk is die bloed van dooie gladiators as behandeling vir epilepsie gebruik. [16]

In sy boek stel Bernard Read 'n verband voor tussen die Europese middeleeuse praktyke en dié van die Midde -Ooste en China:

Die onderliggende teorieë oor die gebruik van menslike middels vind baie gemeen tussen die Arabiere, verteenwoordig deur Avicenna, en China deur die [Bencao]. Liggaamshumor, lewenskragtige lug, die sirkulasies en talle dinge word duideliker begryp as 'n uitgebreide studie gedoen word van Avicenna of die Europeërs wat hul geskrifte op Arabiese medisyne gebaseer het. Die verskillende gebruike wat in die algemeen in die beskaafde wêreld algemeen voorkom, [Nicholas] Lemery het ook vrouemelk vir ontsteekte oë aanbeveel, ontlasting word op sere aangebring, en die menslike skedel, brein, bloed, naels en "al die dele van die mens", is in die sestiende-eeuse Europa gebruik. [17]


Beenbouillon vandag

Ons sien 'n groot oplewing in die gewildheid van beenbouillon: dit is een van die nuutste gesondheidsvoedsel wat daar is.

Mense begin die aankoop van massa-vervaardigde, kommersieel verwerkte "voedselprodukte" wat deur groot ondernemings gemaak word, verwerp. Hulle stel meer en meer daarin belang om terug te keer na hul wortels: vir organies gegroeide kos het hulle grootouers en grootouers grootgeword.

Gesondheidsbewuste mense stel nie meer daarin belang om bloot die goedkoopste opsie by die kruidenierswinkel te gaan haal nie. Nou wonder hulle hoe hulle slow cookers kan gebruik om hul eie sous te maak. Hulle blaai deur boere en markte om plaaslike beenverskaffers te vind. Hulle wil koop by betroubare ondernemings wat sous maak met slegs die beste bestanddele.


Hier is 10 feite oor die eertydse Egiptiese koningin Nefertiti.

Nefertiti was 'n tienerkoningin.

Nie verbasend vir die era nie, was Nefertiti vyftien toe sy met die sestienjarige trou Amunhotep IV. Vyf jaar in sy bewind het die farao sy godsdienstige beweging begin en homself herdoop Akhenaten.

Akhenaten en Nefertiti het 'n nuwe stad gebou.

Met die grondslag van hul nuwe monoteïstiese godsdiens die songod Aten, Nefertiti en Akhenaten aanbid, het hulle verder van die ou regering van die ou Egipte geskei en 'n nuwe hoofstad gebou met die naam Amarna.

Nefertiti was moontlik van koninklike erfenis.

Die stamboom van Nefertiti bestaan ​​meestal uit twee teorieë. Sommige historici glo dat haar pa dit is Ai, wat 'n belangrike raadgewer was vir verskeie farao's, waaronder Nefertiti se toekomstige man. (Ay het selfs farao geword ná die dood van koning Tut in 1323 vC.) Ander akademici bespiegel dat Nefertiti 'n prinses uit die Mittani koninkryk in die noorde van Sirië.

Ons weet wel dat Nefertiti 'n suster gehad het Mutbenret (of Mutnodjemet), wat genoem word in die oorlewende kuns van Amarna.

Standbeeld van Nefertiti en Akhenaten (Foto: Rama via Wikimedia Commons)

Sy het baie titels gehad.

Soos die meeste koninklikes, het Nefertiti tydens haar bewindstyd baie titels gehad, waaronder:

  • Oorerflike prinses
  • Groot lof
  • Lady of Grace
  • Soet van liefde
  • Lady of the Two Lands
  • Koning se vrou
  • Sy geliefde
  • Groot Koningsvrou
  • Dame van alle vroue
  • Meesteres van Bo- en Neder -Egipte

Staande figuur van Nefertiti (Foto: Andreas Praefcke via Wikimedia Commons)

Nefertiti het haar naam gestand gedoen.

Nefertiti is in 1370 vC in die Egiptiese stad Thebe gebore. Haar naam in Engels beteken dat die pragtige vrou gekom het. Toe sy en haar man Akhenaten die verskuiwing in die godsdiens van Egipte begin het, het Nefertiti die bykomende naam aangeneem Neferneferuaten. Altesaam beteken haar volle naam: 'Mooi is die skoonheid van Aten, 'n pragtige vrou het gekom.'

Nefertiti aanbid Aten (Foto: Jon Bodsworth via Wikimedia Commons)

Sy regeer oor die rykste tydperk in die antieke Egiptiese geskiedenis.

Akhenaten en Nefertiti het geheers oor die moontlik rykste tydperk in die antieke Egiptiese geskiedenis en mdash, wat miskien die brandstof was vir Akhenaten se visie. Tydens sy bewind het die nuwe hoofstad Amarna 'n artistieke oplewing behaal, anders as enige ander era in Egipte. Die Amarna styl beweging en figure van meer oordrewe verhoudings, met langwerpige hande en voete. Die uitbeeldings van Akhenaten gedurende hierdie tyd gee hom duidelik vroulike eienskappe met wye heupe en prominente borste.

Sy was 'n kragtige vrou.

Nefertiti was die gunsteling gemeen, oftewel Groot koninklike vrou, van Akhenaten vanaf die begin van sy bewind. Volgens historiese verslae het Nefertiti ses dogters by Akhenaten gehad met die name Meritaten, Meketaten, Ankhes-en-pa-aten, Neferneferuaten-tasherit, Neferneferure en Setepenre. Alhoewel hulle geen seuns het nie, beeld die kuns van Amarna die koninklike egpaar uit as 'n sterk, liefdevolle verhouding. Nefertiti word ook in a verskeidenheid rolleinsluitend die bestuur van strydwaens, die bywoning van seremoniële dade met Akhenaten en die verslaan van vyande.

'N Huisaltaar met Akhenaten, Nefertiti en drie van hul dogters. (Foto via Wikimedia Commons)

Sy was geliefd en verafsku.

Alhoewel Nefertiti en Akhenaten oor die ou Egipte regeer het in 'n tyd van ongekende rykdom, het hul nuwe godsdiens die ryk ontwrig. As koningin was Nefertiti deur sommige lief vir haar charisma en genade. Sy was egter ook grootliks gehaat as gevolg van haar aktiewe leierskap in die songerigte godsdiens van Akhenaten.

Nefertiti het moontlik as farao regeer ná haar man se dood.

Die omstandighede rondom Nefertiti se dood is 'n raaisel, want haar naam verdwyn uit die historiese rekord op ongeveer die 12de jaar van Akhenaten se 17-jarige bewind. 'N Gewilde teorie dui daarop dat Nefertiti op daardie stadium haar ou titel laat vaar het en amptelik geword het mede-regent onder die naam Neferneferuaten.

Sommige stel ook voor dat Nefertiti eintlik die farao is om Akenaten se bewind te volg deur haarself te hernoem Smenkhkare. As dit waar was, het Nefertiti 'n soortgelyke standpunt ingeneem as die vroulike farao Hatshepsut, wat in die mode van 'n koning Egipte regeer het, selfs met die seremoniële vals baard.

Sy is verwant aan King Tut (maar nie met bloed nie).

Aangesien Nefertiti geen eie seuns gehad het nie, die opvolgende farao Toetanchamon (of “King Tut ”) was die seun van Akhenaten en een van sy onderste konsorties.

Begrafnismasker van Toetanchamon (Foto: Roland Unger, via Wikimedia Commons)


Inhoud

Die Engelse woord mammie is afgelei van die Middeleeuse Latyn mammie, 'n leen van die Middeleeuse Arabiese woord mūmiya (مومياء) en van 'n Persiese woord my (was), [6] wat 'n gebalsemde lyk beteken, sowel as die bitumineuse balsemingsmiddel, en ook 'bitumen' beteken. [7] Die Middeleeuse Engelse term "mummie" is omskryf as "mediese voorbereiding van die stof van mummies", eerder as die hele lyk, met Richard Hakluyt in 1599 nC wat kla dat "hierdie lyke die mummie is wat die Phisistians en Apothecaries doen teen ons wil laat ons sluk ". [8] Hierdie stowwe is gedefinieer as mummie.

Die OED definieer 'n mummie as 'die liggaam van 'n mens of dier wat gebalsem is (volgens die ou Egiptiese of 'n soortgelyke metode) as 'n voorbereiding vir die begrafnis', met verwysing na bronne vanaf 1615 nC. [9] Chamber's Cyclopædia en die Victoriaanse dierkundige Francis Trevelyan Buckland [10] definieer 'n mummie soos volg: "'n Menslike of dierlike liggaam wat uitgedroog is deur blootstelling aan son of lug. Ook toegepas op die bevrore karkas van 'n dier wat in prehistoriese sneeu ingebed is".

Wespies van die genus Aleiodes staan ​​bekend as "mummie -wespe" omdat hulle hul ruspe -prooi as "mummies" toedraai.

Alhoewel die belangstelling in die studie van mummies tot in Ptolemaïese Griekeland strek, begin die mees gestruktureerde wetenskaplike studie aan die begin van die 20ste eeu. [11] Voor dit is baie herontdekte mummies verkoop as nuuskierighede of vir gebruik in pseudowetenskaplike nuwighede soos mummia. [12] Die eerste moderne wetenskaplike ondersoeke na mummies het in 1901 begin, uitgevoer deur professore aan die Engelssprekende Government School of Medicine in Kaïro, Egipte. Die eerste X-straal van 'n mummie kom in 1903, toe professore Grafton Elliot Smith en Howard Carter destyds die enigste röntgenmasjien in Kaïro gebruik het om die gemummifiseerde liggaam van Thutmose IV te ondersoek. [13] Die Britse chemikus Alfred Lucas het gedurende dieselfde tydperk chemiese ontledings op Egiptiese mummies toegepas, wat baie resultate gelewer het oor die tipes stowwe wat in balseming gebruik word. Lucas het ook beduidende bydraes gelewer tot die ontleding van Tutankhamun in 1922. [14]

Patologiese studie van mummies het verskillende vlakke van gewildheid gedurende die 20ste eeu gesien. [15] In 1992 is die Eerste Wêreldkongres vir Mummiestudies in Puerto de la Cruz op Tenerife op die Kanariese Eilande gehou. Meer as 300 wetenskaplikes het die kongres bygewoon om byna 100 jaar se versamelde data oor mummies te deel. Die inligting wat tydens die vergadering aangebied is, het 'n nuwe toename in belangstelling in die onderwerp veroorsaak, met een van die belangrikste resultate as die integrasie van biomediese en bioargeologiese inligting oor mummies met bestaande databasisse. Dit was nie moontlik voor die kongres nie as gevolg van die unieke en hoogs gespesialiseerde tegnieke wat nodig is om sulke data te versamel. [16]

In meer onlangse jare het CT -skandering 'n van onskatbare waarde geword in die studie van mummifikasie deur navorsers toe te laat om mummies digitaal uit te pak sonder om die liggaam te beskadig. [17] Die detailvlak by sulke skanderings is so ingewikkeld dat klein linne wat in klein gebiede soos die neusgate gebruik word, digitaal in 3D kan herbou word. [18] Sulke modellering is gebruik om digitale lykskouings op mummies uit te voer om die oorsaak van dood en lewenstyl te bepaal, soos in die geval van Toetankamen. [19]

Mummies word tipies verdeel in een van twee verskillende kategorieë: antropogeen of spontaan. Antropogene mummies is doelbewus deur die lewendes geskep om 'n aantal redes, die algemeenste vir godsdienstige doeleindes. Spontane mummies, soos Ötzi, is onbedoeld geskep as gevolg van natuurlike toestande soos uiters droë hitte of koue, of anaërobiese toestande soos dié wat in moerasse voorkom. [16] Terwyl die meeste individuele mummies uitsluitlik tot die een of ander kategorie behoort, is daar voorbeelde van beide tipes wat met 'n enkele kultuur verbind is, soos dié uit die antieke Egiptiese kultuur en die Andes -kulture van Suid -Amerika. [20] Sommige van die later goed bewaarde lyke van die mummifikasie is onder Christelike kerke gevind, soos die gemummifiseerde predikant Nicolaus Rungius wat onder die St. Michael-kerk in Keminmaa, Finland, gevind is. [21] [22]

Tot onlangs is geglo dat die vroegste antieke Egiptiese mummies natuurlik geskep is as gevolg van die omgewing waarin dit begrawe is. [1] [23] In 2014 het 'n 11-jarige studie deur die Universiteit van York, die Macquarie-universiteit en die Universiteit van Oxford voorgestel dat kunsmatige mummifikasie 1500 jaar vroeër plaasvind as wat eers gedink is. [24] Dit is bevestig in 2018, toe toetse op 'n 5600-jarige mummie in Turyn aan die lig gebring het dat dit doelbewus gemummifiseer is met linnedoeke en balsemingsolies gemaak van naaldhars en aromatiese plantekstrakte. [25] [26]

Die behoud van die dooies het 'n diepgaande uitwerking op die ou Egiptiese godsdiens gehad. Mummifikasie was 'n integrale deel van die rituele vir dooies wat reeds in die 2de dinastie begin (ongeveer 2800 vC). [20] Egiptenare het die behoud van die liggaam na die dood gesien as 'n belangrike stap om goed te leef in die hiernamaals. Namate Egipte meer welvaart verkry het, het begrafnispraktyke ook 'n statussimbool geword vir die rykes. Hierdie kulturele hiërargie lei tot die skepping van uitgebreide grafte en meer gesofistikeerde balsemingsmetodes. [20] [27]

Teen die 4de dinastie (ongeveer 2600 v.C.) het Egiptiese balsemers 'ware mummifikasie' begin bereik deur 'n proses van ontbinding. Baie van hierdie vroeë eksperimente met mummifikasie in Egipte is onbekend.

Die paar dokumente wat die mummifikasieproses regstreeks beskryf, dateer uit die Grieks-Romeinse tydperk. Die meerderheid papiere wat oorleef het, beskryf slegs die seremoniële rituele wat betrokke is by balseming, nie die werklike chirurgiese prosesse nie. 'N Teks bekend as Die ritueel van balseming beskryf sommige van die praktiese logistieke van balseming, maar daar is slegs twee afskrifte wat bekend is en elkeen is onvolledig. [28] [29] Met betrekking tot mummifikasie wat in beelde getoon word, is daar blykbaar ook baie min. Die graf van Tjay, aangewys as TT23, is een van slegs twee bekendes wat die toedraai van 'n mummie toon (Riggs 2014). [30]

'N Ander teks wat die prosesse beskryf wat in laasgenoemde periodes gebruik is, is Herodotus se geskiedenis. Geskryf in Boek 2 van die Geskiedenisse is een van die mees gedetailleerde beskrywings van die Egiptiese mummifikasieproses, insluitend die vermelding van die gebruik van natron om lyke te dehidreer vir bewaring. [31] Hierdie beskrywings is egter kort en redelik vaag, sodat geleerdes die meerderheid van die tegnieke kan aflei wat gebruik is om mummies wat opgegrawe is, te bestudeer. [29]

Deur die huidige tegnologiese vooruitgang te benut, kon wetenskaplikes 'n magdom nuwe inligting ontdek oor die tegnieke wat gebruik word by mummifikasie. 'N Reeks CT-skanderings wat in 2008 op 'n 2400-jarige mummie uitgevoer is, onthul 'n hulpmiddel wat in die skedelholte agtergelaat is. [32] Die werktuig was 'n staaf, gemaak van organiese materiaal, wat gebruik is om die brein uitmekaar te breek sodat dit uit die neus kon dreineer. Hierdie ontdekking het gehelp om die bewering in Herodotus se werke dat die staaf 'n haak van yster was, uit die weg te ruim. [31] Vroeëre eksperimentering in 1994 deur navorsers Bob Brier en Ronald Wade ondersteun hierdie bevindings. Terwyl hulle probeer om die Egiptiese mummifikasie te herhaal, het Brier en Wade ontdek dat die verwydering van die brein baie makliker was as die brein vloeibaar gemaak is en toegelaat word om met behulp van swaartekrag te dreineer, in plaas daarvan om die orgaan stuk-vir-stuk uit te trek met 'n haak. [29]

Deur verskillende studiemetodes oor dekades heen het moderne egiptoloë nou 'n akkurate begrip van hoe mummifikasie in antieke Egipte bereik is. Die eerste en belangrikste stap was om die ontbinding te stop, deur die interne organe te verwyder en die liggaam af te was met 'n mengsel van speserye en palmwyn. [20] Die enigste orrel wat agtergebly het, was die hart, want tradisie was dat die hart die setel van gedagtes en gevoelens was en daarom nog steeds nodig sou wees in die hiernamaals. [20] Na reiniging is die liggaam met natron in die leë liggaamsholte sowel as buite op die vel uitgedroog. Die interne organe is ook gedroog en in individuele flesse verseël, of toegedraai om in die liggaam te vervang. Hierdie proses het gewoonlik veertig dae geduur. [29]

Na dehidrasie was die mummie toegedraai in baie lae linne. Binne die lae het Egiptiese priesters klein amulette geplaas om die oorledene teen die bose te beskerm. [20] Nadat die mummie heeltemal toegedraai was, was dit bedek met 'n hars om die bedreiging van klam lug weg te hou. Hars is ook op die kis aangebring om dit te verseël. Die mummie is toe in sy graf verseël, saam met die wêreldse goedere wat vermoedelik sou help om dit in die hiernamaals te help. [28]

Aspergillus niger, 'n geharde swamspesie wat in verskillende omgewings kan leef, is gevind in die mummies van antieke Egiptiese grafte en kan ingeasem word wanneer dit versteur word. [33]

Mummifikasie en rang

Mummifikasie is vandag een van die bepalende gebruike in die antieke Egiptiese samelewing. Daar word geglo dat die praktyk om die menslike liggaam te bewaar 'n kenmerk van die Egiptiese lewe is. Tog het selfs mummifikasie 'n ontwikkelingsgeskiedenis en was dit gedurende verskillende tydperke op verskillende maniere op verskillende maniere toeganklik. Daar was ten minste drie verskillende prosesse van mummifikasie volgens Herodotus. Dit wissel van 'die mees volmaakte' tot die metode wat gebruik word by die 'armer klasse'. [34]

'Die mees perfekte' metode

Die duurste proses was om die liggaam te bewaar deur uitdroging en beskerming teen plae, soos insekte. Byna al die aksies wat Herodotus beskryf het, dien een van hierdie twee funksies.

Eerstens is die brein deur die neus uit die skedel verwyder, die grys stof is weggegooi. Moderne mummie -opgrawings het getoon dat in plaas van 'n ysterhaak wat deur Herodotus deur die neus gesteek is, 'n staaf gebruik is om die brein deur die skedel te vloeibaar, wat dan deur swaartekrag uit die neus uitloop. Die balsemers spoel die skedel dan af met sekere middels wat meestal enige oorblyfsels van breinweefsel verwyder het en ook bakterieë doodmaak. Daarna het die balsemers 'n insnyding langs die flank gemaak met 'n skerp lem uit 'n Ethiopiese klip en die inhoud van die buik verwyder. Volgens argeologiese bewyse bespreek Herodotus nie die afsonderlike bewaring van hierdie organe en hul plasing nie in spesiale potte of in die holte, 'n proses wat deel was van die duurste balseming.

Die buikholte is daarna met palmwyn gespoel en 'n infusie van fyngedrukte, geurige kruie en speserye, die holte is daarna gevul met speserye, insluitend mirre, kassia, en, Herodotus, "elke ander spesery behalwe wierook", ook om die persoon.

Die liggaam is verder ontwater deur dit sewentig dae lank in natron, 'n natuurlike sout, te plaas. Herodotus dring daarop aan dat die liggaam nie langer as sewentig dae in die natron gebly het nie. Korter tyd en die liggaam word nie meer heeltemal ontwater nie, en die liggaam is te styf om in posisie te kan beweeg om dit toe te draai. Die balsemers was dan weer die liggaam en draai dit toe met linnebande. Die verbande is bedek met 'n tandvleis wat moderne navorsing getoon het dat dit 'n waterdigte middel en 'n antimikrobiese middel is.

Op hierdie stadium is die lyk aan die gesin teruggegee. Hierdie 'perfekte' mummies is dan in 'n mensgemaakte houtkas geplaas. Ryker mense het hierdie houtkaste in steensarkofae geplaas wat verdere beskerming gebied het. Volgens Herodotus het die gesin die sarkofaag in die graf regop teen die muur geplaas. [35]

Vermy uitgawes

Die tweede proses wat Herodotus beskryf, is gebruik deur middelklas mense of mense wat 'onkoste wil vermy'. In hierdie metode is 'n olie afkomstig van sederbome met 'n spuit in die buik ingespuit. 'N Rektale prop het verhoed dat die olie ontsnap. Hierdie olie het waarskynlik die dubbele doel gehad om die interne organe vloeibaar te maak, maar ook om die buikholte te ontsmet. (By liquefying the organs, the family avoided the expense of canopic jars and separate preservation.) The body was then placed in natron for seventy days. At the end of this time, the body was removed and the cedar oil, now containing the liquefied organs, was drained through the rectum. With the body dehydrated, it could be returned to the family. Herodotus does not describe the process of burial of such mummies, but they were perhaps placed in a shaft tomb. Poorer people used coffins fashioned from terracotta. [34]

Inexpensive method

The third and least-expensive method the embalmers offered was to clear the intestines with an unnamed liquid, injected as an enema. The body was then placed in natron for seventy days and returned to the family. Herodotus gives no further details. [36]

In Christian tradition, some bodies of saints are naturally conserved and venerated.

Afrika

In addition to the mummies of Egypt, there have been instances of mummies being discovered in other areas of the African continent. [37] The bodies show a mix of anthropogenic and spontaneous mummification, with some being thousands of years old. [38]

Libië

The mummified remains of an infant were discovered during an expedition by archaeologist Fabrizio Mori to Libya during the winter of 1958–1959 in the natural cave structure of Uan Muhuggiag. [39] After curious deposits and cave paintings were discovered on the surfaces of the cave, expedition leaders decided to excavate. Uncovered alongside fragmented animal bone tools was the mummified body of an infant, wrapped in animal skin and wearing a necklace made of ostrich egg shell beads. Professor Tongiorgi of the University of Pisa radiocarbon-dated the infant to between 5,000 and 8,000 years old. A long incision located on the right abdominal wall, and the absence of internal organs, indicated that the body had been eviscerated post-mortem, possibly in an effort to preserve the remains. [40] A bundle of herbs found within the body cavity also supported this conclusion. [41] Further research revealed that the child had been around 30 months old at the time of death, though gender could not be determined due to poor preservation of the sex organs. [42] [43]

Suid-Afrika

The first mummy to be discovered in South Africa [44] was found in the Baviaanskloof Wilderness Area by Dr. Johan Binneman in 1999. [45] [46] Nicknamed Moses, the mummy was estimated to be around 2,000 years old. [44] [45] After being linked to the indigenous Khoi culture of the region, the National Council of Khoi Chiefs of South Africa began to make legal demands that the mummy be returned shortly after the body was moved to the Albany Museum in Grahamstown. [47]

The mummies of Asia are usually considered to be accidental. The decedents were buried in just the right place where the environment could act as an agent for preservation. This is particularly common in the desert areas of the Tarim Basin and Iran. Mummies have been discovered in more humid Asian climates, however these are subject to rapid decay after being removed from the grave.

Sjina

Mummies from various dynasties throughout China's history have been discovered in several locations across the country. They are almost exclusively considered to be unintentional mummifications. Many areas in which mummies have been uncovered are difficult for preservation, due to their warm, moist climates. This makes the recovery of mummies a challenge, as exposure to the outside world can cause the bodies to decay in a matter of hours. [ aanhaling nodig ]

An example of a Chinese mummy that was preserved despite being buried in an environment not conducive to mummification is Xin Zhui. Also known as Lady Dai, she was discovered in the early 1970s at the Mawangdui archaeological site in Changsha. [48] She was the wife of the marquis of Dai during the Han dynasty, who was also buried with her alongside another young man often considered to be a very close relative. [49] However, Xin Zhui's body was the only one of the three to be mummified. Her corpse was so well-preserved that surgeons from the Hunan Provincial Medical Institute were able to perform an autopsy. [48] The exact reason why her body was so completely preserved has yet to be determined. [50]

Among the mummies discovered in China are those termed Tarim mummies because of their discovery in the Tarim Basin. The dry desert climate of the basin proved to be an excellent agent for desiccation. For this reason, over 200 Tarim mummies, which are over 4,000 years old, were excavated from a cemetery in the present-day Xinjiang region. [51] The mummies were found buried in upside-down boats with hundreds of 13-foot-long wooden poles in the place of tombstones. [51] DNA sequence data [52] shows that the mummies had Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA) characteristic of western Eurasia in the area of East-Central Europe, Central Asia and Indus Valley. [53] This has created a stir in the Turkic-speaking Uighur population of the region, who claim the area has always belonged to their culture, while it was not until the 10th century when the Uighurs are said by scholars to have moved to the region from Central Asia. [54] American Sinologist Victor H. Mair claims that "the earliest mummies in the Tarim Basin were exclusively Caucasoid, or Europoid" with "east Asian migrants arriving in the eastern portions of the Tarim Basin around 3,000 years ago", while Mair also notes that it was not until 842 that the Uighur peoples settled in the area. [55] Other mummified remains have been recovered from around the Tarim Basin at sites including Qäwrighul, Yanghai, Shengjindian, Shanpula (Sampul), Zaghunluq, and Qizilchoqa. [56]

As of 2012, at least eight mummified human remains have been recovered from the Douzlakh Salt Mine at Chehr Abad in northwestern Iran. [57] Due to their salt preservation, these bodies are collectively known as Saltmen. [58] Carbon-14 testing conducted in 2008 dated three of the bodies to around 400 BC. Later isotopic research on the other mummies returned similar dates, however, many of these individuals were found to be from a region that is not closely associated with the mine. It was during this time that researchers determined the mine suffered a major collapse, which likely caused the death of the miners. [57] Since there is significant archaeological data that indicates the area was not actively inhabited during this time period, current consensus holds that the accident occurred during a brief period of temporary mining activity. [57]

Siberia

In 1993, a team of Russian archaeologists led by Dr. Natalia Polosmak discovered the Siberian Ice Maiden, a Scytho-Siberian woman, on the Ukok Plateau in the Altai Mountains near the Mongolian border. [59] The mummy was naturally frozen due to the severe climatic conditions of the Siberian steppe. Also known as Princess Ukok, the mummy was dressed in finely detailed clothing and wore an elaborate headdress and jewelry. Alongside her body were buried six decorated horses and a symbolic meal for her last journey. [60] Her left arm and hand were tattooed with animal style figures, including a highly stylized deer. [59]

The Ice Maiden has been a source of some recent controversy. The mummy's skin has suffered some slight decay, and the tattoos have faded since the excavation. Some residents of the Altai Republic, formed after the breakup of the Soviet Union, have requested the return of the Ice Maiden, who is currently stored in Novosibirsk in Siberia. [59] [60] [61]

Another Siberian mummy, a man, was discovered much earlier in 1929. His skin was also marked with tattoos of two monsters resembling griffins, which decorated his chest, and three partially obliterated images which seem to represent two deer and a mountain goat on his left arm. [59]

Filippyne

Philippine mummies are called Kabayan Mummies. They are common in Igorot culture and their heritage. The mummies are found in some areas named Kabayan, Sagada and among others. The mummies are dated between the 14th and 19th centuries.

Europa

The European continent is home to a diverse spectrum of spontaneous and anthropogenic mummies. [62] Some of the best-preserved mummies have come from bogs located across the region. The Capuchin monks that inhabited the area left behind hundreds of intentionally-preserved bodies that have provided insight into the customs and cultures of people from various eras. One of the oldest mummies (nicknamed Ötzi) was discovered on this continent. New mummies continue to be uncovered in Europe well into the 21st Century.

Bog bodies

The United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, and Denmark have produced a number of bog bodies, mummies of people deposited in sphagnum bogs, apparently as a result of murder or ritual sacrifices. In such cases, the acidity of the water, low temperature and lack of oxygen combined to tan the body's skin and soft tissues. The skeleton typically disintegrates over time. Such mummies are remarkably well preserved on emerging from the bog, with skin and internal organs intact it is even possible to determine the decedent's last meal by examining stomach contents. The Haraldskær Woman was discovered by labourers in a bog in Jutland in 1835. She was erroneously identified as an early medieval Danish queen, and for that reason was placed in a royal sarcophagus at the Saint Nicolai Church, Vejle, where she currently remains. Another bog body, also from Denmark, known as the Tollund Man was discovered in 1950. The corpse was noted for its excellent preservation of the face and feet, which appeared as if the man had recently died. Only the head of Tollund Man remains, due to the decomposition of the rest of his body, which was not preserved along with the head. [63]

Canary Islands

The mummies of the Canary Islands belong to the indigenous Guanche people and date to the time before 14th Century Spanish explorers settled in the area. All deceased people within the Guanche culture were mummified during this time, though the level of care taken with embalming and burial varied depending on individual social status. Embalming was carried out by specialized groups, organized according to gender, who were considered unclean by the rest of the community. The techniques for embalming were similar to those of the ancient Egyptians involving evisceration, preservation, and stuffing of the evacuated bodily cavities, then wrapping of the body in animal skins. Despite the successful techniques utilized by the Guanche, very few mummies remain due to looting and desecration. [64] [65]

Czech Republic

The majority of mummies recovered in the Czech Republic come from underground crypts. While there is some evidence of deliberate mummification, most sources state that desiccation occurred naturally due to unique conditions within the crypts. [66] [67] [68]

The Capuchin Crypt in Brno contains three hundred years of mummified remains directly below the main altar. [67] Beginning in the 18th Century when the crypt was opened, and continuing until the practice was discontinued in 1787, the Capuchin friars of the monastery would lay the deceased on a pillow of bricks on the ground. The unique air quality and topsoil within the crypt naturally preserved the bodies over time. [67] [68]

Approximately fifty mummies were discovered in an abandoned crypt beneath the Church of St. Procopius of Sázava in Vamberk in the mid-1980s. [69] Workers digging a trench accidentally broke into the crypt, which began to fill with waste water. The mummies quickly began to deteriorate, though thirty-four were able to be rescued and stored temporarily at the District Museum of the Orlické Mountains until they could be returned to the monastery in 2000. [69] The mummies range in age and social status at time of death, with at least two children and one priest. [67] [69] The majority of the Vamberk mummies date from the 18th century. [69]

The Klatovy catacombs currently house an exhibition of Jesuit mummies, alongside some aristocrats, that were originally interred between 1674 and 1783. In the early 1930s, the mummies were accidentally damaged during repairs, resulting in the loss of 140 bodies. The newly updated airing system preserves the thirty-eight bodies that are currently on display. [67] [70]

Denemarke

Apart from several bog bodies, Denmark has also yielded several other mummies, such as the three Borum Eshøj mummies, the Skrydstrup Woman and the Egtved Girl, who were all found inside burial mounds, or tumuli.

In 1875, the Borum Eshøj grave mound was uncovered, which had been built around three coffins, which belonged to a middle aged man and woman as well as a man in his early twenties. [71] Through examination, the woman was discovered to be around 50–60 years old. She was found with several artifacts made of bronze, consisting of buttons, a belt plate, and rings, showing she was of higher class. All of the hair had been removed from the skull later when farmers had dug through the casket. Her original hairstyle is unknown. [72] The two men wore kilts, and the younger man wore a sheath which contained a bronze dagger. All three mummies were dated to 1351–1345 BC. [71]

The Skrydstrup Woman was unearthed from a tumulus in Southern Jutland, in 1935. Carbon-14 dating showed that she had died around 1300 BC examination also revealed that she was around 18–19 years old at the time of death, and that she had been buried in the summertime. Her hair had been drawn up in an elaborate hairstyle, which was then covered by a horse hair hairnet made by the sprang technique. She was wearing a blouse and a necklace as well as two golden earrings, showing she was of higher class. [73]

The Egtved Girl, dated to 1370 BC, was also found inside a sealed coffin within a tumulus, in 1921. She was wearing a bodice and a skirt, including a belt and bronze bracelets. Found with the girl, at her feet, were the cremated remains of a child and, by her head, a box containing some bronze pins, a hairnet, and an awl. [74] [75] [76]

Hongarye

In 1994, 265 mummified bodies were found in the crypt of a Dominican church in Vác, Hungary from the 1729–1838 period. The discovery proved to be scientifically important, and by 2006 an exhibition was established in the Museum of Natural History in Budapest. Unique to the Hungarian mummies are their elaborately decorated coffins, with no two being exactly alike. [77]

Italië

The varied geography and climatology of Italy has led to many cases of spontaneous mummification. [78] Italian mummies display the same diversity, with a conglomeration of natural and intentional mummification spread across many centuries and cultures.

The oldest natural mummy in Europe was discovered in 1991 in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian-Italian border. Nicknamed Ötzi, the mummy is a 5,300-year-old male believed to be a member of the Tamins-Carasso-Isera cultural group of South Tyrol. [79] [80] Despite his age, a recent DNA study conducted by Walther Parson of Innsbruck Medical University revealed Ötzi has 19 living genetic relatives. [79]

The Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo were built in the 16th century by the friars of Palermo's Capuchin monastery. Originally intended to hold the deliberately mummified remains of dead friars, interment in the catacombs became a status symbol for the local population in the following centuries. Burials continued until the 1920s, with one of the final burials being that of Rosalia Lombardo. In all, the catacombs host nearly 8000 mummies. (See: Catacombe dei Cappuccini)

The most recent discovery of mummies in Italy came in 2010, when sixty mummified human remains were found in the crypt of the Conversion of St Paul church in Roccapelago di Pievepelago, Italy. Built in the 15th century as a cannon hold and later converted in the 16th century, the crypt had been sealed once it had reached capacity, leaving the bodies to be protected and preserved. The crypt was reopened during restoration work on the church, revealing the diverse array of mummies inside. The bodies were quickly moved to a museum for further study. [81]

Noord -Amerika

The mummies of North America are often steeped in controversy, as many of these bodies have been linked to still-existing native cultures. While the mummies provide a wealth of historically-significant data, native cultures and tradition often demands the remains be returned to their original resting places. This has led to many legal actions by Native American councils, leading to most museums keeping mummified remains out of the public eye. [82]

Kanada

Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi ("Long ago person found" in the Southern Tutchone language of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations), was found in August 1999 by three First Nations hunters at the edge of a glacier in Tatshenshini-Alsek Provincial Park, British Columbia, Canada. According to the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi Project, the remains are the oldest well preserved mummy discovered in North America. [83] (The Spirit Cave mummy although not well preserved, is much older.) [84] Initial radiocarbon tests date the mummy to around 550 years-old. [83]

Greenland

In 1972, eight remarkably preserved mummies were discovered at an abandoned Inuit settlement called Qilakitsoq, in Greenland. The "Greenland Mummies" consisted of a six-month-old baby, a four-year-old boy, and six women of various ages, who died around 500 years ago. Their bodies were naturally mummified by the sub-zero temperatures and dry winds in the cave in which they were found. [85] [86]

Mexiko

Intentional mummification in pre-Columbian Mexico was practiced by the Aztec culture. These bodies are collectively known as Aztec mummies. Genuine Aztec mummies were "bundled" in a woven wrap and often had their faces covered by a ceremonial mask. [87] Public knowledge of Aztec mummies increased due to traveling exhibits and museums in the 19th and 20th centuries, though these bodies were typically naturally desiccated remains and not actually the mummies associated with Aztec culture. (See: Aztec mummy)

Natural mummification has been known to occur in several places in Mexico this includes the mummies of Guanajuato. [88] A collection of these mummies, most of which date to the late 19th century, have been on display at El Museo de las Momias in the city of Guanajuato since 1970. The museum claims to have the smallest mummy in the world on display (a mummified fetus). [89] It was thought that minerals in the soil had the preserving effect, however it may rather be due to the warm, arid climate. [88] [90] Mexican mummies are also on display in the small town of Encarnación de Díaz, Jalisco.

Verenigde State

Spirit Cave Man was discovered in 1940 during salvage work prior to guano mining activity that was scheduled to begin in the area. The mummy is a middle-aged male, found completely dressed and lying on a blanket made of animal skin. Radiocarbon tests in the 1990s dated the mummy to being nearly 9,000 years old. The remains were held at the Nevada State Museum, though the local Native American community began petitioning to have the remains returned and reburied in 1995. [82] [84] [91] When the Bureau of Land Management did not repatriate the mummy in 2000, the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe sued under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act. After DNA sequencing determined that the remains were in fact related to modern Native Americans, they were repatriated to the tribe in 2016. [92]

Oseanië

Mummies from the Oceania are not limited only to Australia. Discoveries of mummified remains have also been located in New Zealand, and the Torres Strait, [93] though these mummies have been historically harder to examine and classify. [94] Prior to the 20th Century, most literature on mummification in the region was either silent or anecdotal. [95] However, the boom of interest generated by the scientific study of Egyptian mummification lead to more concentrated study of mummies in other cultures, including those of Oceania.

Australië

The aboriginal mummification traditions found in Australia are thought be related to those found in the Torres Strait islands, [95] the inhabitants of which achieved a high level of sophisticated mummification techniques (See:Torres Strait). Australian mummies lack some of the technical ability of the Torres Strait mummies, however much of the ritual aspects of the mummification process are similar. [95] Full-body mummification was achieved by these cultures, but not the level of artistic preservation as found on smaller islands. The reason for this seems to be for easier transport of bodies by more nomadic tribes. [95]

Torres Strait

The mummies of the Torres Strait have a considerably higher level of preservation technique as well as creativity compared to those found on Australia. [95] The process began with removal of viscera, after which the bodies were set in a seated position on a platform and either left to dry in the sun or smoked over a fire in order to aid in desiccation. In the case of smoking, some tribes would collect the fat that drained from the body to mix with ocher to create red paint that would then be smeared back on the skin of the mummy. [96] The mummies remained on the platforms, decorated with the clothing and jewelry they wore in life, before being buried. [95] [96]

Nieu-Seeland

Some Māori tribes from New Zealand would keep mummified heads as trophies from tribal warfare. [97] They are also known as Mokomokai. In the 19th Century, many of the trophies were acquired by Europeans who found the tattooed skin to be a phenomenal curiosity. Westerners began to offer valuable commodities in exchange for the uniquely tattooed mummified heads. The heads were later put on display in museums, 16 of which being housed across France alone. In 2010, the Rouen City Hall of France returned one of the heads to New Zealand, despite earlier protests by the Culture Ministry of France. [97]

There is also evidence that some Maori tribes may have practiced full-body mummification, though the practice is not thought to have been widespread. [98] The discussion of Maori mummification has been historically controversial, with some experts in past decades claiming that such mummies have never existed. [99] Contemporary science does now acknowledge the existence of full-body mummification in the culture. There is still controversy, however, as to the nature of the mummification process. Some bodies appear to be spontaneously created by the natural environment, while others exhibit signs of deliberate practices. General modern consensus tends to agree that there could be a mixture of both types of mummification, similar to that of the ancient Egyptian mummies. [98]

Suid-Amerika

The South American continent contains some of the oldest mummies in the world, both deliberate and accidental. [5] The bodies were preserved by the best agent for mummification: the environment. The Pacific coastal desert in Peru and Chile is one of the driest areas in the world and the dryness facilitated mummification. Rather than developing elaborate processes such as later-dynasty ancient Egyptians, the early South Americans often left their dead in naturally dry or frozen areas, though some did perform surgical preparation when mummification was intentional. [100] Some of the reasons for intentional mummification in South America include memorialization, immortalization, and religious offerings. [101] A large number of mummified bodies have been found in pre-Columbian cemeteries scattered around Peru. The bodies had often been wrapped for burial in finely-woven textiles. [102]

Chinchorro mummies

The Chinchorro mummies are the oldest intentionally prepared mummified bodies ever found. Beginning in 5th millennium BC and continuing for an estimated 3,500 years, [101] all human burials within the Chinchorro culture were prepared for mummification. The bodies were carefully prepared, beginning with removal of the internal organs and skin, before being left in the hot, dry climate of the Atacama Desert, which aided in desiccation. [101] A large number of Chinchorro mummies were also prepared by skilled artisans to be preserved in a more artistic fashion, though the purpose of this practice is widely debated. [101]

Inca mummies

Several naturally-preserved, unintentional mummies dating from the Incan period (1438–1532 AD) have been found in the colder regions of Argentina, Chile, and Peru. These are collectively known as "ice mummies". [103] The first Incan ice mummy was discovered in 1954 atop El Plomo Peak in Chile, after an eruption of the nearby volcano Sabancaya melted away ice that covered the body. [103] The Mummy of El Plomo was a male child who was presumed to be wealthy due to his well-fed bodily characteristics. He was considered to be the most well-preserved ice mummy in the world until the discovery of Mummy Juanita in 1995. [103]

Mummy Juanita was discovered near the summit of Ampato in the Peruvian section of the Andes mountains by archaeologist Johan Reinhard. [104] Her body had been so thoroughly frozen that it had not been desiccated much of her skin, muscle tissue, and internal organs retained their original structure. [103] She is believed to be a ritual sacrifice, due to the close proximity of her body to the Incan capital of Cusco, as well as the fact she was wearing highly intricate clothing to indicate her special social status. Several Incan ceremonial artifacts and temporary shelters uncovered in the surrounding area seem to support this theory. [103]

More evidence that the Inca left sacrificial victims to die in the elements, and later be unintentionally preserved, came in 1999 with the discovery of the Llullaillaco mummies on the border of Argentina and Chile. [104] The three mummies are children, two girls and one boy, who are thought to be sacrifices associated with the ancient ritual of qhapaq hucha. [105] Recent biochemical analysis of the mummies has revealed that the victims had consumed increasing quantities of alcohol and coca, possibly in the form of chicha, in the months leading up to sacrifice. [105] The dominant theory for the drugging reasons that, alongside ritual uses, the substances probably made the children more docile. Chewed coca leaves found inside the eldest child's mouth upon her discovery in 1999 supports this theory. [105]

The bodies of Inca emperors and wives were mummified after death. In 1533, the Spanish conquistadors of the Inca Empire viewed the mummies in the Inca capital of Cuzco. The mummies were displayed, often in lifelike positions, in the palaces of the deceased emperors and had a retinue of servants to care for them. The Spanish were impressed with the quality of the mummification which involved removal of the organs, embalming, and freeze-drying. [102]

The population revered the mummies of the Inca emperors. This reverence seemed idolatry to the Roman Catholic Spanish and in 1550 they confiscated the mummies. The mummies were taken to Lima where they were displayed in the San Andres Hospital. The mummies deteriorated in the humid climate of Lima and eventually they were either buried or destroyed by the Spanish. [106] [107]

An attempt to find the mummies of the Inca emperors beneath the San Andres hospital in 2001 was unsuccessful. The archaeologists found a crypt, but it was empty. Possibly the mummies had been removed when the building was repaired after an earthquake. [107]

Monks whose bodies remain incorrupt without any traces of deliberate mummification are venerated by some Buddhists who believe they successfully were able to mortify their flesh to death. Self-mummification was practiced until the late 1800s in Japan and has been outlawed since the early 1900s.

Many Mahayana Buddhist monks were reported to know their time of death and left their last testaments and their students accordingly buried them sitting in lotus position, put into a vessel with drying agents (such as wood, paper, or lime) and surrounded by bricks, to be exhumed later, usually after three years. The preserved bodies would then be decorated with paint and adorned with gold.

Bodies purported to be those of self-mummified monks are exhibited in several Japanese shrines, and it has been claimed that the monks, prior to their death, stuck to a sparse diet made up of salt, nuts, seeds, roots, pine bark, and urushi tea. [108]

Jeremy Bentham

In the 1830s, Jeremy Bentham, the founder of utilitarianism, left instructions to be followed upon his death which led to the creation of a sort of modern-day mummy. He asked that his body be displayed to illustrate how the "horror at dissection originates in ignorance" once so displayed and lectured about, he asked that his body parts be preserved, including his skeleton (minus his skull, which despite being mis-preserved, was displayed beneath his feet until theft required it to be stored elsewhere), [109] which were to be dressed in the clothes he usually wore and "seated in a Chair usually occupied by me when living in the attitude in which I am sitting when engaged in thought". His body, outfitted with a wax head created because of problems preparing it as Bentham requested, is on open display in the University College London.

Vladimir Lenin

During the early 20th century, the Russian movement of Cosmism, as represented by Nikolai Fyodorovich Fyodorov, envisioned scientific resurrection of dead people. The idea was so popular that, after Vladimir Lenin's death, Leonid Krasin and Alexander Bogdanov suggested to cryonically preserve his body and brain in order to revive him in the future. [110] Necessary equipment was purchased abroad, but for a variety of reasons the plan was not realized. [110] Instead his body was embalmed and placed on permanent exhibition in the Lenin Mausoleum in Moscow, where it is displayed to this day. The mausoleum itself was modeled by Alexey Shchusev on the Pyramid of Djoser and the Tomb of Cyrus.

Gottfried Knoche

In late 19th-century Venezuela, a German-born doctor named Gottfried Knoche conducted experiments in mummification at his laboratory in the forest near La Guaira. He developed an embalming fluid (based on an aluminum chloride compound) that mummified corpses without having to remove the internal organs. The formula for his fluid was never revealed and has not been discovered. Most of the several dozen mummies created with the fluid (including himself and his immediate family) have been lost or were severely damaged by vandals and looters.

Summum

In 1975, an esoteric organization by the name of Summum introduced "Modern Mummification", a service that utilizes modern techniques along with aspects of ancient methods of mummification. The first person to formally undergo Summum's process of modern mummification was the founder of Summum, Summum Bonum Amen Ra, who died in January 2008. [111] Summum is currently considered to be the only "commercial mummification business" in the world. [112]

Alan Billis

In 2010, a team led by forensic archaeologist Stephen Buckley mummified Alan Billis using techniques based on 19 years of research of 18th-dynasty Egyptian mummification. The process was filmed for television, for the documentary Mummifying Alan: Egypt's Last Secret. [113] Billis made the decision to allow his body to be mummified after being diagnosed with terminal cancer in 2009. His body currently resides at London's Gordon Museum. [114]

Plastination

Plastination is a technique used in anatomy to conserve bodies or body parts. The water and fat are replaced by certain plastics, yielding specimens that can be touched, do not smell or decay, and even retain most microscopic properties of the original sample.

The technique was invented by Gunther von Hagens when working at the anatomical institute of the Heidelberg University in 1978. Von Hagens has patented the technique in several countries and is heavily involved in its promotion, especially as the creator and director of the Body Worlds traveling exhibitions, [115] exhibiting plastinated human bodies internationally. He also founded and directs the Institute for Plastination in Heidelberg.

More than 40 institutions worldwide have facilities for plastination, mainly for medical research and study, and most affiliated to the International Society for Plastination. [116]

In the Middle Ages, based on a mistranslation from the Arabic term for bitumen, it was thought that mummies possessed healing properties. As a result, it became common practice to grind Egyptian mummies into a powder to be sold and used as medicine. When actual mummies became unavailable, the sun-desiccated corpses of criminals, slaves and suicidal people were substituted by mendacious merchants. [117] Mummies were said to have a lot of healing properties. Francis Bacon and Robert Boyle recommended them for healing bruises and preventing bleeding. The trade in mummies seems to have been frowned upon by Turkish authorities who ruled Egypt – several Egyptians were imprisoned for boiling mummies to make oil in 1424. However, mummies were in high demand in Europe and it was possible to buy them for the right amount of money. John Snaderson, an English tradesman who visited Egypt in the 16th century shipped six hundred pounds of mummy back to England. [118]

The practice developed into a wide-scale business that flourished until the late 16th century. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties to stop bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form as in mellified man. [119] Artists also made use of Egyptian mummies a brownish pigment known as mummy brown, based on mummia (sometimes called alternatively caput mortuum, Latin for death's head), which was originally obtained by grinding human and animal Egyptian mummies. It was most popular in the 17th century, but was discontinued in the early 19th century when its composition became generally known to artists who replaced the said pigment by a totally different blend -but keeping the original name, mummia or mummy brown-yielding a similar tint and based on ground minerals (oxides and fired earths) and or blends of powdered gums and oleoresins (such as myrrh and frankincense) as well as ground bitumen. These blends appeared on the market as forgeries of powdered mummy pigment but were ultimately considered as acceptable replacements, once antique mummies were no longer permitted to be destroyed. [120] Many thousands of mummified cats were also sent from Egypt to England to be processed for use in fertilizer. [121]

During the 19th century, following the discovery of the first tombs and artifacts in Egypt, egyptology was a huge fad in Europe, especially in Victorian England. European aristocrats would occasionally entertain themselves by purchasing mummies, having them unwrapped, and holding observation sessions. [122] [119] The pioneer of this kind of entertainment in Britain was Thomas Pettigrew known as "Mummy" Pettigrew due to his work. [123] Such unrolling sessions destroyed hundreds of mummies, because the exposure to the air caused them to disintegrate.

The use of mummies as fuel for locomotives was documented by Mark Twain (likely as a joke or humor), [124] but the truth of the story remains debatable. During the American Civil War, mummy-wrapping linens were said to have been used to manufacture paper. [124] [125] Evidence for the reality of these claims is still equivocal. [126] [127] Researcher Ben Radford reports that, in her book The Mummy Congress, Heather Pringle writes: "No mummy expert has ever been able to authenticate the story . Twain seems to be the only published source – and a rather suspect one at that". Pringle also writes that there is no evidence for the "mummy paper" either. Radford also says that many journalists have not done a good job with their research, and while it is true that mummies were often not shown respect in the 1800s, there is no evidence for this rumor. [128]

While mummies were used in medicine, some researchers have brought into question these other uses such as making paper and paint, fueling locomotives and fertilizing land. [129]


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