9 November 1940

9 November 1940

9 November 1940

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Die Italiaanse "Venezia" -afdeling van die Alpini is in die Pindus -gebied afgesny

Oorlog in die lug

Luftwaffe voer wydverspreide nagaanvalle uit

RAF val Lorient, Boulogne en Calais aan

Groot Brittanje

Die dood van Neville Chamberlain



Roosevelt en Wall St.

Van Sosialistiese appèl, Vol. 4 nr. 45, 9 November 1940, p. 4.
Getranskribeer en amp gemerk deur Einde O ’ Callaghan vir die Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism Online (ETOL).

Die afbetaling van 'n geweldige historiese skulpspel is nou verskuldig. Op 5 November staan ​​die Amerikaanse werkende massas agter twee leë okkerneutdoppe, met die etiket & ldquoRoosevelt & rdquo en & ldquoWillkie. & Rdquo Hulle het nie net hul regte en veiligheid gewag nie, maar hul eie lewens.

Hulle was sekere verloorders, ongeag hul keuse. Vir die enigste wenner in die & ldquoold army game & rdquo is die manipuleerder. Die manipuleerder van die presidentsverkiesing van 1940 was Big Business. Die ertjie, dit wil sê die welsyn van die Amerikaanse massas, was onder geen van die doppe weggesteek nie. Dit is in die onbeholpe hand van Wall Street gekalmeer en gekwalifiseer.

Elke raket gebruik 'n & ldquocome-on. & Rdquo Gedurende die afgelope agt jaar het die werkers hul verbintenis op Roosevelt geplaas. Hulle is toegelaat om 'n paar klein weddenskappe te gee, en net genoeg om hulle vertroue in die spel te gee. Weereens het hulle alles op Roosevelt ingepalm, en miskien kan hulle hierdie keer 'n paar regte winste behaal! Maar met 'n klein handjie genaamd & ldquowar, en & rdquo Wall Street is nou gereed vir 'n groot & ldquokill. & Rdquo

& ldquoAmerica & rsquos Sestig gesinne & rdquo tel reeds die take. Die Magazine van Wall Street, 7 September, het sy intekenare van syhoed ingelig:

& ldquoTentatiewe raaiskote in Washington stel dit (onmiddellike PEACETIME & lsquonational defence & rsquo -krediete) teen waarskynlik nie minder nie as $ 10 miljard meer vir die vloot en $ 10 miljard meer vir die weermag en 'n totale belegging van ongeveer $ 35 miljard. & rdquo

VYF-EN-DERTIG MILJOEN DOLLARS en net 'n voorgereg! Vir die & ldquoDefense of Democracy & rdquo? Geen! As 'n KAPITAALBELEGGING!

Maar dit spaar geld net aan Wall Street. Barron & rsquos, een van die Wall Street finansiële weekblaaie, 26 Augustus, verklaar:

Deur deeglike ondersoek van die getuienis voor die kongreskomitees en ander deskundige mening word dit egter duidelik dat die totale bedrag wat daaraan verbonde is, 'n verbysterende omvang het. Dit is beslis baie groter en rdquo as klein wat tot dusver bekend gemaak is. Die minimum is miskien 50 miljard dollar en die maksimum kan tot 75 miljard dollar beloop. Hierdie vierkante, groot soos dit is, is gebaseer op die veronderstelling dat die Verenigde State nie die huidige konflik sal betree nie. (Ons klem) & rdquo

'N VYFTI MILJOEN DOLLAR MINIMUM VIR MUURSTRAAT EN AS DIE VSA NIE OORLOG NIE! Dit is waarvoor elke werker gestem het toe hy vir Roosevelt gestem het. 50 miljard dollar en dit is nie hooi nie! En dit kom uit die vlees en bene van die Amerikaanse werkers. Dit is die ou weermagspel van 1940!

Wall Street & rsquos Tweede keuse

As Roosevelt werklik die hulpmiddel van Wall St. is, waarom het so baie van die bankiers en nyweraars en die groot sakepersoneel Willkie onderskryf?

Die antwoord op die vraag is eerstens dat hulle Willkie as 'n meer hanteerbare instrument beskou het, nie 'n ander, maar 'n beter instrument vir hul ontwerpe as Roosevelt.

Maar nog meer indrukwekkend as hierdie rede, is die heeltemal onvervulde reaksionêre karakter van die heersende klas. Deur die pas afgehandelde verkiesingsveldtog het die heersende klas die werkers die laaste waarskuwing gegee dat dit klaar is met die nonsens van & ldquoreformers. & Rdquo Sy program is voortaan genadelose oorlogvoering oor arbeid. In Roosevelt in Roosevelt het Wall Street hom nie as die hulpmiddel aangeval nie, maar as die simbool van & ldquoliberalism & rdquo wat hy vir soveel misleide werkers voorstel.

Want deur 'n onwillige volk in die oorlog te lok, het Roosevelt die hoogste bewys in die kuns van misleiding. Sy liberale kamoeflering het dikwels so realisties voorgekom dat dit baie kapitaliste bang gemaak het. Hulle het altyd daarteen gekant om toegee aan arbeid selfs & ldquoin beginsel. & Rdquo Hulle het nog altyd verkies om arbeid in 'n meer direkte tong aan te spreek, die versoenende einde van 'n black-jack.

Alhoewel Roosevelt hom na die & ldquokill gelei het, beskou Wall Street hom met afkeer. In die verlede het Roosevelt die finansiële pakket slim aan die leiband gehou wanneer sy ongeduld dreig om die arbeidsgroef af te skrik. Wall Street is gewoond daaraan om vrylopend te wees, en hou selfs nie van die geringste beperkings nie. Alhoewel die leiband nou af is, hou Big Business selfs nie daarvan dat dit steeds aan die hand van Roosevelt en rsquos hang nie. As die leiband heeltemal vernietig kon word!

Daarom was Wendell Willkie Wall Street & rsquos se eerste keuse as oorlogspresident. Willkie is een van die pak self, wat die hardste aan die leiband getrek het. Hy sou seker gewees het as hy gekies was, die aanval op arbeid met onverbloemde woede gelei het.

Ja, dit is waar dat die meerderheid Wall Street -magnaat Willkie verkies het. Maar hulle is nie baie bekommerd oor die herverkiesing van Roosevelt nie. Hulle verstaan ​​goed dat Roosevelt geen ander keuse het as om hulle te verteenwoordig nie. En die bankiers en nywerheidsbase kan tog te hard teenoor Roosevelt voel toe die winste vir die eerste kwartaal van 1940, voor die oorlogsbesteding, reeds 67 persent hoër was as dieselfde kwartaal van 1939: in werklikheid , hoër as in 1928, 'n hoogtepunt van voorspoed.

& ldquoMy Vriende. & rdquo

Die vermoë van Roosevelt en rsquos om die massas te laat dink dat hulle iets kry, was sy grootste bydrae tot die behoud van kapitalisme. Sedert sy eerste ampstermyn was sy primêre doel om die Amerikaanse kapitalistiese stelsel te red. Hy het dit probeer doen deur die werkers te versoen met die belange van die base.

Van die begin af het Roosevelt toegegee om slegs te werk & ldquoin beginsel, & rdquo nie feit nie. Sy eerste daad as president het dit onthul. Hy het die voorste finansieringskapitaliste gekonsolideer deur middel van die bankmoratorium, terwyl hy die meeste klein onafhanklike banke en miljoene klein deposante uitgewis het. Deur die National Industrial Recovery Act het hy die industriële monopolie verder gevestig. Ingevolge hierdie wet het die groot nyweraars 'n groot deel van die mededingende klein ondernemings uitgeroei deur monopolie-vasstelling en soortgelyke maatreëls.

Uiteindelik het hy probeer om die lig, of verbruikersgoederebedrywe, te stabiliseer deur middel van 'n ldquopump-priming. & Rdquo Deur middel van plaaslenings, werklose verligting, ens., Het hy weer probeer om die winsstroom te begin. Hierdie fondse was hoofsaaklik bedoel as indirekte uitdeelstukke aan die ketting- en afdelingswinkels, en die vervaardigers van tekstiel-, meubel-, tabak-, chemiese, radio-, motor- en ander vervaardigers. Die geringe voordele van hierdie maatreëls wat deur die werkers verkry is, is ingesluit by administrasiekoste onder die opskrifte. & ldquoRiot Insurance & rdquo en & ldquoSmart Politics. & rdquo

Arbeid & ldquoAppeasement & rdquo

Terwyl hy kapitalisme gestabiliseer het, was Roosevelt verplig om arbeid te gee. Hy bevestig mondeling sekere arbeidsregte, vervat in artikel 7A van die NIRA en later in die Wagner -wet. Hierdie maatreëls het slegs 'n gevestigde reg onderskryf, solank arbeid dit deur georganiseerde optrede kan afdwing, en die reg op kollektiewe bedinging deur arbeidsorganisasies en eie keuse.

Hierdie toekenning in & ldquoprinciple & rdquo is eintlik slegs verkry deur arbeid self. Vanaf 1933 en ndash1939 was daar 17 862 stakings, waarby 8 261 000 werkers betrokke was. (Arbeidsinligtingsbulletins, Amerikaanse departement van arbeid) Hierdie stakings het sonder uitsondering in elke industrie plaasgevind en is beveg met 'n woede wat ongeëwenaard is in die Amerikaanse arbeidsgeskiedenis.

Die woede was nodig. Tydens die administrasie van Roosevelt en rsquos het die National Guard, gefinansier en toegerus met federale fondse en opgelei deur die gewone weermagoffisiere, sy mees aktiewe slagbrekende rol gespeel. Van 1933-1935 alleen, uit 42,737 nasionale wagte wat tot aktiewe diens geroep is, is 32,645 of 77 persent gebruik om stakings te onderbreek. In die een jaar, 1935, was die National Guard werksaam in 73 stakings in 20 state, waarvan die meerderheid onder die New Deal & rdquo -staatsadministrasies was. Tydens die National Textile Strike het Roosevelt self gedreig om gereeld troepe teen die Rhode Island -stakers te stuur.

In 1934 het Roosevelt reeds duidelik getoon dat sy arbeid en ldquoplatform & rdquo Jerry gebou is. Hy het generaal Hugh S. Johnson, destyds sy NRA -administrateur, toegelaat om die tekstielstakers en die algemene staking in San Francisco in die openbaar aan die kaak te stel. Die nuwe handelaar Paul V. McNutt, as goewerneur van Indiana, het die Terre Haute -stakers twee maande lank met krygswet geterroriseer. Roosevelt beloon hom later met die pos van administrateur van sosiale sekerheid. F.D.R. & rsquos New Deal -goewerneur in Ohio, Martin L. Davey, het die Little Steel -staking in 1937 met gewapende troepe verpletter. Die New Deal Kelly-Nash-masjien in Chicago het tien ongewapende werkers tydens die Memorial Day Massacre in 1937 vermoor.

Dit is maar 'n paar van die eindelose feite wat onweerlegbare bewys lewer dat Roosevelt en ldquogave & rdquo -arbeid net die arbeid kon opdoen sonder om 'n baas -politikus en seën te hê!


Op hierdie dag in die geskiedenis, 9 ноябрь

Op hierdie dag het die Duitse kanselier Angela Merkel, die laaste Sowjet-president Mikhail Gorbatsjof en die Poolse oudpresident en Nobelpryswenner Lech Walesa deur die Brandenburgerpoort in Berlyn geloop om die 20ste herdenking van die val van die Berlynse muur te herdenk.

1994 Darmstadtium is vir die eerste keer geskep

Die swaar radioaktiewe element met 'n atoomgetal van 110 en simbool Ds, is geskep by Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (Institute for Heavy Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Duitsland, die stad waarna die element vernoem is.

1985 Jongste persoon wat wêreldskaakkampioen geword het

Die 22-jarige Rus Gary Kasparov het die 13de Wêreldskaakkampioenskap teen Anatoly Karpov gewen om die jongste wêreldskaakkampioen te word.

1967 Rolling Stone maak sy debuut

Die tweeweeklikse populêre kultuurtydskrif is gestig deur Jann Simon Wenner in San Francisco. Die tydskrif het die loopbane van baie bekende skrywers geloods en die vroeë weergawes van Hunter S. Thompson's Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas gepubliseer.

1938 Nag van gebreekte glas

Sturmabteilung -troepe en burgerlikes het 'n pogrom teen Joodse ondernemings, sinagoges en Jode in Duitsland en Oostenryk uitgevoer. Die reeks aanvalle wat ongeveer 70 mense doodgemaak en 30 000 Jode in die tronk sit, staan ​​bekend as die nag van gebreekte glas of Kristallnacht


5 gedagtes oor & ldquoNeville Chamberlain sterf & rdquo

Neville was 'n mislukking wat nie by myopie was nie. Dank God vir die geestige en verstandige Churchill wat die hele wêreld, saam met die Poolse kriptoloë, red van die ywerige en afskuwelike Nazi -regime.

Dit is moeilik om te sê wat ons sou doen as ons in Chamberlain was. Dit is duidelik dat hy nie Britse burgers na hul dood wou stuur in 'n land wat nie aan die Verenigde Koninkryk behoort nie. Ek dink hy doen wat hy gedink het die beste vir die Verenigde Koninkryk was. Hy het nooit sy land in vrede gesien nadat die oorlog begin het nie.

Chamberlain was 'n bekwame en intelligente politikus, maar hy het hom deur die skelm Lord Halifax laat oorreed dat daar nie meer met Hitler onderhandel moet word nie. Die gevolg was die rampspoedige waarborg aan Pole op 31 Maart 1939, wat oorlog onvermydelik gemaak het, aangesien die Pole geen redes meer gehad het om toegewings oor Danzig te maak nie.

Ek is Tsjeggies, en dit is vir my baie moeilik om hom op 'n positiewe manier te sien. Foto van hom wat uit 'n vliegtuig stap en trots waai met die München -verdrag, word 'n simbool om my land agter te laat …

Hy was 'n dromer wat sy drome geglo het. Hy het sy loopbaan en sy lewe verwoes deur te doen wat hy gedink het Europa uit die oorlog sou hou. Soos Churchill stem ek nie saam met wat hy gedoen het nie, maar ek respekteer hom omdat hy alles vir vrede waag.


Gebore hierdie dag in die geskiedenis 9 November

Verjaar vandag

Spiro Agnew
Gebore: 9 November (1918), Baltimore, Verenigde State
Oorlede: 17 September 1996, Berlyn, Maryland, Verenigde State
Bekend onder: president Richard M. Nixon, vise -president van die Verenigde State, veral bekend as die enigste vise -president wat gedwing is om uit sy amp te bedank weens kriminele aanklagte. Hy het op 10 Oktober 1973 bedank weens aanklagte en skuldig pleit daarvoor dat hy "nie $ 29 500 inkomste ontvang het wat in 1967 ontvang is nie en nie die inkomstebelasting op daardie inkomste betaal het nie".
Anne Sexton
Gebore: 9 November 1928 Massachusetts, Verenigde State
Oorlede: 4 Oktober 1974 Massachusetts, Verenigde State
Bekend vir: Amerikaanse digter en skrywer wie se poësie dikwels outobiografies was en beïnvloed is deur haar geestesongesteldhede waaraan sy die grootste deel van haar lewe gely het.


9 November 1940 - Geskiedenis

Tex Oliver was blykbaar bekommerd genoeg oor die UCLA -agterspeler Jack Robinson om die verslaggewers uit die praktyk te sluit.

Op die oog af het hy goeie rede gehad. Dit was die briljante atleet, wat ons nou ken as Jackie Robinson, die MLB Hall of Famer wie se nommer amptelik afgetree is op elke span bofbal, wat die berugte kleurgrens in 1947 verbreek het.

In 1940 was Robinson nog nie 'n legende nie, maar hy was op pad. 'N Vier sportster by UCLA en sy ouer broer Mack was in die middel dertigerjare 'n sterbaanatleet in Oregon, nadat hy 'n silwermedalje in die Olimpiese Spele gewen het (Oregon het Jackie vir sokker gewerf, maar het nie 'n goeie genoeg beurs beskikbaar nie) ) en ndash Robinson het die Webfoots in 1939 verskeur. Saam met die toekomstige College HOF QB Kenny Washington op 'n 66 yard TD -pas, het hy later 'n pas van Bob Smith onderskep en daarna met 'n 82 yard agteruit, die eindstryd was Jackie Robinson 12, ander UCLA-spelers 4, Oregon 6. UCLA het in 1939 nie verloor nie, met 6-0-4 vir die beste rekord in die spangeskiedenis, want Robinson was gemiddeld meer as 12 meter per dra.

So, Robinson, oftewel die “Black Blur, ” die “Midnight Express, ” die “Colored Flash ” — sou dit blykbaar die rassistiese skrywers van die tyd doodgemaak het om met 'n oorspronklik sobriquet — was 'n merkwaardige man in 1940, duidelik 'n uitstekende speler en een van die vinnigste agterspelers in die land. Die probleem vir UCLA was dat die Bruins nie veel van 'n span gehad het om hom in 1940 te ondersteun nie. Die briljante Washington het gegradueer, en die Bruins het geen spelers in staat om die agterstand in te haal toe Robinson onvermydelik saamgespan het, bewaak, bedek, horings gedraai, wasgoed aangetrek en andersins geneutraliseer. Vir al sy belofte is Robinson in toom gehou deur elke span wat hy in sy junior seisoen in die gesig gestaar het. Teen die tyd dat UCLA op 'n reënerige Novemberoggend by Hayward Field uitkom, was die Bruins vasgevang in 'n verloorreeks van ses wedstryde, 'n gemiddelde van minder as ses punte per wedstryd, en Robinson het slegs twee agtergronde op sy naam gehad.

Tog het die hype hom langs die kus gevolg:

Jackie Robinson, die ‘Midnight Express ’ van die UCLA Bruins, sal bereid wees om die spoed en ontwykendheid te demonstreer wat hom die ranglys van Amerika se gevaarlikste agterveldbedreiging besorg het toe Babe Horrell & Bruins Saterdag Hayward Field binnedring. middag & hellip ”

— Dick Strite, Eugene Register-Guard, 7 November 1940

Maar vir hierdie wedstryd was dit alles hype. Die aanvallende ellende van UCLA het voortgegaan op die modderige Hayward -grasveld, die Bruins het slegs 22 wedstryde kon behaal, wat gelei het tot 'n eerste afslag, 28 netto meter wat jaag en 13 meter verby en 'n totale afstand van 41 meter. Hulle het nooit verby die Oregon 32 -erflyn gevorder nie. Daar is geen konsekwentheid by statistieke wat tydens die vooroorlogse era gehou is nie, maar dit is veilig om te sê dat dit een van die groot verdedigingsprestasies in die Oregon-vooroorlogse geskiedenis was.

Die Webfoots het ongetwyfeld baie voordeel getrek uit 'n tipies haglike November Hayward Field -toestand. Dit was die enigste wedstryd van UCLA buite Kalifornië, en die hoofafrigter Horrell het agterna gesê dat baie van sy spelers nog nooit 'n wedstryd in die reën gespeel het nie. En sy begin QB Ned Mathews het in die tweede kwartaal 'n kniebesering opgedoen, wat Robinson genoop het om van halfback na quarterback oor te gaan en iets waarmee hy nie baie goed was nie (hy het 2-11-1 vir al 13 UCLA's verbygegaan) ). Op die laaste rit van UCLA is hy ontslaan vir 'n verlies van twaalf meter en die bal half walglik in die vuilnis geslaan.

Alhoewel die Oregons Robinson in die steek gelaat het, het die neger seuntjie hulle nietemin in 'n konstante sweet gehou, sodat hy nie sou wegbreek nie en hy was vreeslik gevaarlik, selfs op die skoen-diep nat gras wanneer hy met die bal hardloop. Pogings om hom oor die bene te pak was pure vermorsde pogings. Hy keer op keer dat hy uit die hande van 'n takelaar kom, selfs as hy skynbaar hopeloos saamgesteek het om hom te keer, moes hulle hom bo die middel gryp, of nog beter om die nek van die neger seuntjie en hom buite die perke sluit. .

Robinson se meter was nie die ware maatstaf van sy prestasie nie en hy kon eenvoudig nie wegbreek nie, en hy was so woedend dat sy pas nie werk nie. Maar toe hy die spel laat in die vierde periode uiteindelik verlaat, sug die kliënte nie net van verligting nie, maar gee hom ook 'n huldeblyk. ”

— L. H. Gregory, Die Oregonian, 10 November 1940

Bewyse dat Robinson die hele spelverhaal was: In die Oregonian se spelverslag word geen speler van Oregon by die naam genoem tot die sewende paragraaf op bladsy drie nie, lank nadat Robinson se hele dag beskryf is. In die Register-Guard het die inwoners in paragraaf ses krediet gekry, weer na groot beskrywings van die bottelering van Jackie Robinson.

Bewyse dat Robinson nog steeds die hele spelverhaal is 62 jaar later: ons wil nou eers noem dat die sterre van die spel in Oregon QB John “Buck ” Berry was, HB/P Len Isberg en SE Frank met twee bedreigings Boyd, wat die Webfoots tot 304 meter totale oortreding gelei het.

Tex Oliver UCLA keer terug na SoCal vir die res van sy wedstryde, maar wen slegs een keer in 1940. Robinson was nie naby sy nommers van 1939 nie, en het nie die AP All-Coast-span gehaal nie, selfs nie die derde eenheid nie, maar is aangewys as die 2de span UPI All-Coast. Oregon, soos altyd onder Oliver, 'n gevoelloos middelmatige span, het die seisoen met 4-4-1 beëindig, die uitsluiting van UCLA was een van drie in die seisoen, 'n prestasie wat slegs twee keer oortref is (onder Len Casanova het die eende vier keer in 1955 afgesluit) en 1958 het Oregon sedertdien nie meer as twee afsluitings in 'n seisoen gehad nie).


The Archer County News (Archer City, Tex.), Vol. 30, nr. 9, red. 1 Donderdag, 21 November 1940

Weeklikse koerant uit Archer City, Texas, wat plaaslike, staats- en nasionale nuus insluit, asook advertensies.

Fisiese beskrywing

agt bladsye: ill. bladsy 22 x 15 duim. Gedigitaliseer vanaf 35 mm. mikrofilm.

Skeppingsinligting

Konteks

Hierdie koerant is deel van die versameling getiteld: Texas Digital Newspaper Program en is deur die Archer Public Library verskaf aan The Portal to Texas History, 'n digitale bewaarplek wat deur die UNT Libraries aangebied word. Dit is al 16 keer bekyk. Meer inligting oor hierdie kwessie kan hieronder besigtig word.

Mense en organisasies wat verband hou met die skepping van hierdie koerant of die inhoud daarvan.

Redakteur

Gehore

Kyk na ons webwerf vir hulpbronne vir opvoeders! Ons het dit geïdentifiseer koerant as 'n primêre bron binne ons versamelings. Navorsers, opvoeders en studente vind hierdie probleem nuttig in hul werk.

Verskaf deur

Archer openbare biblioteek

Die missie van die biblioteek is om die burgers van Archer County te verryk, te vermaak en in te lig deur toegang tot sy versamelings, tegnologie, fasiliteite en dienste te verkry. Ter bevordering van hierdie missie het die Archer Public Library 'n Tocker Foundation -toekenning ontvang om materiaal aan die publiek beskikbaar te stel.


The Bartlett Tribune and News (Bartlett, Tex.), Vol. 54, nr. 9, red. 1, Vrydag, 15 November 1940

Daaglikse koerant uit Bartlett, Texas, wat plaaslike, staats- en nasionale nuus insluit, asook uitgebreide advertensies.

Fisiese beskrywing

ses bladsye: illus. bladsy 16 x 22 duim Gedigitaliseer vanaf 35 mm. mikrofilm.

Skeppingsinligting

Konteks

Hierdie koerant is deel van die versameling getiteld: The Bartlett Tribune en is deur die Bartlett Activities Center en die Historical Society of Bartlett verskaf aan The Portal to Texas History, 'n digitale bewaarplek wat deur die UNT Libraries aangebied word. Dit is 103 keer bekyk. Meer inligting oor hierdie kwessie kan hieronder besigtig word.

Mense en organisasies wat verband hou met die skepping van hierdie koerant of die inhoud daarvan.

Redakteur

Uitgewer

Gehore

Kyk na ons webwerf vir hulpbronne vir opvoeders! Ons het dit geïdentifiseer koerant as 'n primêre bron binne ons versamelings. Navorsers, opvoeders en studente vind hierdie probleem nuttig in hul werk.

Verskaf deur

Bartlett -aktiwiteitsentrum en die historiese vereniging van Bartlett

Die sentrum en genootskap, geleë in Bartlett tussen Williamson en Bell County, bewaar die historiese gebou wat hulle huisves en die geskiedenis van die gemeenskap. Bartlett is gestig toe die Katy Railroad sy ondersoek in 1881 begin het en 'n belangrike versendingspunt vir katoen geword het.

Kontak Ons

Beskrywende inligting om hierdie koerant te help identifiseer. Volg die onderstaande skakels om soortgelyke items op die portaal te vind.

Titels

  • Hoof titel: The Bartlett Tribune and News (Bartlett, Tex.), Vol. 54, nr. 9, red. 1, Vrydag, 15 November 1940
  • Serie titel:The Bartlett Tribune and News

Beskrywing

Daaglikse koerant uit Bartlett, Texas, wat plaaslike, staats- en nasionale nuus insluit, asook uitgebreide advertensies.

Fisiese beskrywing

ses bladsye: illus. bladsy 16 x 22 duim.
Gedigitaliseer vanaf 35 mm. mikrofilm.

Onderwerpe

Biblioteke van die Universiteit van Noord -Texas Blaai deur die struktuur

Taal

Art tipe

Identifiseerder

Unieke identifiserende nommers vir hierdie probleem in die portaal of ander stelsels.

  • Control of Number of Library of Congress: sn87091169
  • OCLC: 16963607 | Eksterne skakel
  • Argiefhulpbronsleutel: ark:/67531/metapth76653

Versamelings

Hierdie uitgawe is deel van die volgende versamelings van verwante materiaal.

Die Bartlett Tribune

Sedert 1886 het die koerant 'n belangrike rol in die gemeenskap gespeel deur verslag te doen oor nasionale, staats- en plaaslike nuus, sterfkennisse en 'n rekord van regskennisgewings. Befondsing uit 'n toelae aan die Texas State Library and Archives Commission.

Texas Digitale Koerantprogram

Die Texas Digital Newspaper Program (TDNP) werk saam met gemeenskappe, uitgewers en instansies om standaarde-gebaseerde digitalisering van Texas-koerante te bevorder en dit vrylik toeganklik te maak.

Digitale lêers

Datums en tydperke wat verband hou met hierdie koerant.

Skeppingsdatum

Gedekte tydperk

Bygevoeg tot The Portal to Texas History

Beskrywing Laaste opgedateer

Gebruikstatistieke

Wanneer is hierdie uitgawe laas gebruik?


9 misdade, verhore in die geskiedenis van South Bend

South Bend het sy deel van gruwelike misdade en opspraakwekkende verhore gehad gedurende sy 150-jarige geskiedenis.

Onopgeloste moorde, 'n geheimsinnige bombardement, 'n verduistering wat verband hou met die Notre Dame-sokker en 'n ontsteltenis uit die depressie, wat moontlik deur die beroemdste bankrower van die land gepleeg is, is een van die meer onvergeetlike gevalle.

Die dag toe Dillinger (miskien) na South Bend gekom het

Koerantuitknipsels van The Tribune en die voormalige South Bend News-Times is as bewys gebruik tydens die verhore van 'n verdagte in die roof van die Merchants National Bank in 1934 waar 'n polisiebeampte dood is. Die uitknipsels was in 'n lêer van proefuitstallings wat in die stoorhuis in St. Joseph County gevind is. Die foto's aan die linkerkant is mense wat koeëlgate in hul motors uitwys na die ophou en skietery wat toegeskryf is aan John Dillinger, 'n groot foto aan die regterkant, en sy bende.

1-7-09: Getuie vertel van '34 bankroof. Hy was net 6 toe Dillinger hier was, maar dit is 'n lewendige herinnering. 21/07/08: Dillinger 23/07/2007: Dillinger 26/10/2005: John Dillinger 19/10/99

Merchants National Bank is die tuiste van die Dillinger -bende -roof in die 1930's in South Bend

'Vier beseerdes toe bandiete 'n aanval op Merchants Bank doen,' skree die opskrif in die South Bend Tribune van 30 Junie 1934.

'' N Bende bankbandiete wat deur die desperado, John W. Dillinger, 'n spoor van een dood en ten minste vier gewondes gelaat is, het kort voor die middag gevlug nadat hy op die Merchants National Bank toegeslaan het, "het The Tribune berig. Die gesteelde bedrag was $ 28,439.

Die polisiebeampte van die South Bend -polisie, Howard Wagner (29), is buite die bank doodgeskiet. Drie ander mans en 'n vrou is geskiet en beseer.

Die bende ry in 'n bruin Hudson -sedan naby die bank, S. Michigan St. 229 (een winkelfront noord van die huidige Dainty Maid Bakery). Een van die bandiete bly buite waak terwyl 'n ander, wat deur sommige getuies geïdentifiseer is as Dillinger, die ander in die bank lei.

Binne spuit een bandiet die plafon met 'n Thompson -masjiengeweer.

Dit was 'n stampvol toneel daardie Saterdagoggend. Meer as 25 mense was binne die bank toe die rowers opdaag.

Die wegkommotor het om die draai in Waynestraat geparkeer gestaan. Sommige getuies het gesê dat hulle gedink het hulle sien Lester Gillis - beter bekend as 'Baby Face Nelson' - staan ​​met 'n masjiengeweer by die kruising. Terwyl koper op die sypaadjie kom, het die bende vinnig ontsnap.

Die polisiebeampte van die South Bend, Harry Henderson, het op die vlugtende motor geskiet. Die motor wat deur bloed bevlek en met koeëls deurdring is, is die volgende dag verlate gevind in Goodland, Ind., Byna 100 kilometer suidwes van South Bend.

Hoewel die owerhede sterk vermoed het dat dit die dag die Dillinger -bende was en dat Dillinger self teenwoordig was, is dit nooit beslis bewys nie.

Bruce Bouchard, 'n plaaslike man wat tydens die rooftog deur twee koeëls bewei is, het daarop aangedring dat Dillinger nie een van die bendes is wat die bank beroof het nie. 'Ek het niemand gesien wat soos Dillinger gelyk het terwyl ek saam met die bandiete was nie,' het Bouchard in 'n 1934 -onderhoud met Tribune gesê. 'En ek het genoeg foto's van hom gesien en bestudeer om te weet hoe hy lyk.'

Bouchard en verskeie ander is deur die bandiete in beslag geneem en as menslike skilde gebruik toe die bende uit die bank gevlug het.

Ander getuies het gesê dat hulle gedink het dat hulle 'n gewapende man wat 'n donkerbril gedra het, herken as Dillinger.

As dit Dillinger was wat die rooftog die dag gelei het, sou dit sy laaste bankroof wees.

Teen die volgende maand is die beroemde bankrower dood - deur federale agente buite die Biograph Theatre in Chicago doodgeskiet.

Bomaanvalle skud die middestad, vernietig geboue

Die eienaar van Palace Café is in die verhoor onskuldig bevind

Vroeg die oggend van 10 Januarie 1935 het drie groot ontploffings in die middel van South Bend geruk.

Die polisie se ondersoek het ontdek dat drie bomme in die Palace Café, 'n restaurant wat onlangs in 'n nagklub omskep is, in die noordwestelike hoek van Michiganstraat en Colfaxlaan in die Palais Royale -gebou afgegaan het.

Die bomaanvalle het die kafee 'n dop gelaat en die naburige Krauss -juwelierswinkel en die Dixie Frock -winkel vernietig en nog 'n dosyn ander nabygeleë winkels beskadig, berig die South Bend Tribune destyds.

Wonder bo wonder is niemand beseer of dood nie - miskien omdat die bomme om 03:48 ontplof het toe besighede gesluit is en die grootste deel van die middestad verlate was. Die verliese is op $ 150,000 geraam.

James Stasinos, eienaar van die kafee, het na 'n ses dae afwesigheid in Chicago na die stad teruggekeer. Hy kon geen rede gee vir die bombardering van sy onderneming nie.

Die polisie het Stasinos se voormalige sakevennoot ondervra, wat ses maande tevore gedwing is en bankrot verklaar het. Versekering vir die onderneming vir 'n totaal van $ 30 000 is 'n jaar tevore afgesluit.

Die aand voor die bombardement het 'n groep vakbondmusikante die kafee gekies omdat een van die orkeslede in 'n nie-vakbond gespeel het. Die polisie het 'n vakbondverbinding ondersoek, maar niks gevind nie.

'N Jaar later word Stasinos en sy vrou, Orrie, aangekla van twee sameswering om die ontploffing te veroorsaak en om versekeringsmaatskappye van $ 57,500 te bedrieg. Daar word beweer dat hulle 'n sameswering met Chicago -bomwerpers gehad het om die ontploffing te veroorsaak om versekeringsgeld in te samel.

Die jurie het twee uur en 40 minute beraadslaag voordat hy 'n uitspraak gelewer het: onskuldig. Stasinos bedank die jurielede individueel.

'Die Amerikaanse volk is goed,' het hy gesê volgens die artikel van The Tribune. 'U harte is op die regte plek. Ek het geregtigheid ontvang. ”

Die bombardement bly tot vandag toe onopgelos.

Muessel Brewing Co. se terrein van moorde in 1915

Dit was 'n paar dae na Kersfees 1915 dat Henry Muessel (33) en Frank Chrobot (37) tydens 'n rooftog in die Muessel Brewing Co. -kantoor in Elwoodlaan in South Bend doodgeskiet is.

William Muessel, 'n boekhouer van die onderneming en Henry se broer, is in die voorval gewond.

Henry Muessel was die kantoorbestuurder en Chrobot was 'n bierwa -bestuurder. Bestuurders was besig om vate af te lewer en was terug om die kontant die aand van 30 Januarie 1915 by die broueryskantoor af te lewer.

Robert Muessel (17), 'n neef, het by die kantoor gestop en is net daar weg toe twee mans hom nader. Hulle het gewere op hom gerig en hom weer binne -in beveel, volgens die nuusberigte van Tribune.

Robert word aangesê om met die gesig op die vloer neer te lê en is vasgemaak. Toe hoor hy geweerskote. Henry Muessel en Chrobot is albei aan hul beserings dood, maar William het herstel. Robert is nie beseer nie.

Die saak was jare lank onopgelos tot Maart 1920 toe Estella Schultz volgens Tribune -berigte oor haar vriendin in kennis gestel het.

Sy het gesê haar man, Gus Schultz, en twee ander mans - Jack Wright en Charlie Danruther - het die misdaad gepleeg. Gus Schultz het sy twee vennote in die misdaad erken en sy naam genoem.

Schultz is in 1921 skuldig bevind aan tweedegraadse moord. Hy het 22 jaar tronkstraf uitgedien en is in 1943 vrygelaat. Wright is ook skuldig bevind aan moord in die tweede graad en is tronk toe gestuur.

Die derde man, Danruther - vermoedelik die een wat die geweer afgevuur het - is nooit gevind nie. Na wat verneem word, is hy in Suid -Amerika dood.

Die geval van Korpal -familiemoorde neem 'n vreemde wending

Ernest Korpal en moontlike moordwapen, snitte uit die South Bend Tribune -argief.


Inhoud

Lamarr is gebore as Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler in 1914 in Wene, Oostenryk-Hongarye, die enigste kind van Emil Kiesler (1880–1935) en Gertrud "Trude" Kiesler (née Lichtwitz 1894–1977). Haar pa is gebore uit 'n Galisies-Joodse gesin in Lemberg (nou Lviv, Oekraïne), en was 'n bankdirekteur by die Creditanstalt-Bankverein. [1] [18] Haar ma was 'n konsertpianis, gebore in Boedapest uit 'n Hongaarse-Joodse familie uit die hoër klas. Sy bekeer haar tot katolisisme as volwassene, op aandrang van haar eerste man, en voed haar dogter Hedy ook op as katoliek, hoewel sy destyds nie formeel gedoop is nie. [1] (p8)

As kind het Kiesler belangstelling in toneelspel getoon en was gefassineer deur teater en film. Op die ouderdom van 12 het sy 'n skoonheidskompetisie in Wene gewen. [19] (pp12-13) [8] (ongeveer 7m & gt05s – 8m00s)

Kiesler het 'n privaatskool bygewoon, waar sy lesse in klavier, ballet, taal en natuurwetenskappe ontvang het.

Na die Anschluss het sy gehelp om haar ma uit Oostenryk te haal en na die Verenigde State, waar Gertrud Kiesler later 'n Amerikaanse burger geword het. Sy het 'Hebreeus' as haar ras op haar petisie vir naturalisasie geplaas, 'n term wat gereeld in Europa gebruik is. [20]

Vroeë werk Redigeer

Sy gebruik nog haar nooiensvan Hedy Kiesler en neem toneelspelklasse in Wene. Op 'n dag het sy 'n toestemmingsbrief van haar ma gesmee en na Sascha-Film gegaan, waar sy op 16-jarige ouderdom as draaiboekmeisie aangestel is. Sy het 'n rol as ekstra in gekry Geld op straat (1930), en dan 'n klein sprekende deel in Storm in 'n waterglas (1931). Die vervaardiger Max Reinhardt speel haar in 'n toneelstuk getiteld Die swakker seks, wat opgevoer is in die Theatre in der Josefstadt. Reinhardt was so beïndruk met haar dat hy gereël het dat sy saam met hom terugkeer na Berlyn, waar hy gevestig is. [19] (pp16–19)

Kiesler het nooit by Reinhardt opgelei nie en het ook nie in enige van sy produksies in Berlyn verskyn nie. Nadat sy die Russiese teatervervaardiger Alexis Granowsky ontmoet het, het sy 'n rol gespeel in sy filmdebuut, Die stamme van mnr. O.F. (1931), met Walter Abel en Peter Lorre in die hoofrolle. [19] ( pp21–22 ) Granowsky soon moved to Paris, but Kiesler stayed in Berlin to work. She was given the lead role in No Money Needed (1932), a comedy directed by Carl Boese. [19] ( p25 ) Her next film brought her international fame.

Ekstase Redigeer

In early 1933, at age 18, Hedy Kiesler, still working under her maiden name, was given the lead in Gustav Machatý's film Ekstase (Ekstase In Duits, Extase in Czech). She played the neglected young wife of an indifferent older man.

The film became both celebrated and notorious for showing the actress's face in the throes of an orgasm. According to Marie Benedict's book The Only Woman In The Room, Kiesler's expression resulted from someone sticking her with a pin. She was also shown in closeups and brief nude scenes, the latter reportedly a result of the actress being "duped" by the director and producer, who used high-power telephoto lenses. [21] [b] [22]

Although Kiesler was dismayed and now disillusioned about taking other roles, Ekstase gained world recognition after winning an award in Rome. Throughout Europe, the film was regarded as an artistic work. However, in the United States, it was banned, [23] considered overly sexual, and made the target of negative publicity, especially among women's groups. [21] The film was also banned in Nazi Germany, justified by Kiesler's Jewish heritage. [24] It was not until 1935, after cuts made by the Nazis, that the film was shown under turmoil in a few German cinemas, with the warning: "This film offends the youth." [25] Her husband, Fritz Mandl, reportedly spent over $300,000 buying up and destroying copies of the film. [26]

Marriage Edit

Kiesler also played a number of stage roles, including a starring one in Sissy, a play about Empress Elisabeth of Austria produced in Vienna in early 1933, just as Ekstase première. It won accolades from critics. [27] [28]

Admirers sent roses to her dressing room and tried to get backstage to meet Kiesler. She sent most of them away, including an insistent Friedrich Mandl. [21] He became obsessed with getting to know her. [29] Mandl was a Viennese arms merchant and munitions manufacturer who was reputedly the third-richest man in Austria. She fell for his charming and fascinating personality, partly due to his immense wealth. [23] Her parents, both of Jewish descent, did not approve, as Mandl had ties to Italian fascist leader Benito Mussolini and, later, German Führer Adolf Hitler, but they could not stop their headstrong daughter. [21]

On 10 August 1933, at the age of 18, Kiesler married Mandl, then 33. The son of a Jewish father and a Catholic mother, Mandl insisted that she convert to Catholicism before their wedding in Vienna Karlskirche. In her autobiography Ecstasy and Me, Mandl is described as an extremely controlling husband. He strongly objected to her having been filmed in the simulated orgasm scene in Ekstase and prevented her from pursuing her acting career. She claimed she was kept a virtual prisoner in their castle home, [23] Castle Schwarzenau (Schloss Schwarzenau), in the remote Waldviertel region, near the Czech border.

Mandl had close social and business ties to the Italian government, selling munitions to the country, [1] [ bladsy benodig ] and, despite his own part-Jewish descent, had ties to the Nazi regime of Germany. Kiesler accompanied Mandl to business meetings, where he conferred with scientists and other professionals involved in military technology. These conferences were her introduction to the field of applied science and she became interested in nurturing her latent talent in science. [30]

Eventually finding her marriage to Mandl unbearable, Kiesler decided to flee her husband as well as her country. According to her autobiography, she disguised herself as her maid and fled to Paris. Friedrich Otto's account says that she persuaded Mandl to let her wear all of her jewelry for a dinner party where the influential austrofascist Ernst Stahremberg attended, then disappeared afterward. [26] She writes about her marriage:

I knew very soon that I could never be an actress while I was his wife. . He was the absolute monarch in his marriage. . I was like a doll. I was like a thing, some object of art which had to be guarded – and imprisoned – having no mind, no life of its own. [28] : 28–29

Louis B. Mayer and MGM Edit

After arriving in London in 1937, [31] she met Louis B. Mayer, head of MGM, who was scouting for talent in Europe. [32] She initially turned down the offer he made her (of $125 a week), but booked herself onto the same New York-bound liner as he. During the trip, she impressed him enough to secure a $500 a week contract. Mayer persuaded her to change her name from Hedwig Kiesler (to distance herself from "the Ekstase lady" reputation associated with it). [26] She chose the surname "Lamarr" in homage to the beautiful silent film star, Barbara La Marr, on the suggestion of Mayer's wife, Margaret Shenberg.

When Mayer brought Lamarr to Hollywood in 1938, he began promoting her as the "world's most beautiful woman". [6] He introduced her to producer Walter Wanger, who was making Algiers (1938), an American version of the noted French film, Pépé le Moko (1937).

Lamarr was cast in the lead opposite Charles Boyer. The film created a "national sensation", says Shearer. [1] : 77 Lamarr was billed as an unknown but well-publicized Austrian actress, which created anticipation in audiences. Mayer hoped she would become another Greta Garbo or Marlene Dietrich. [1] : 77 According to one viewer, when her face first appeared on the screen, "everyone gasped . Lamarr's beauty literally took one's breath away." [1] : 2

In future Hollywood films, Lamarr was often typecast as the archetypal glamorous seductress of exotic origin. Her second American film was I Take This Woman (1940), co-starring with Spencer Tracy under the direction of regular Dietrich collaborator, Josef von Sternberg. Von Sternberg was fired during the shoot, and replaced by Frank Borzage. The film was put on hold, and Lamarr was put into Lady of the Tropics (1939), where she played a mixed-race seductress in Saigon opposite Robert Taylor. She returned to I Take This Woman, re-shot by W.S. van Dyke. The resulting film was a flop.

Far more popular was Boom Town (1940) with Clark Gable, Claudette Colbert and Spencer Tracy it made $5 million. [33] MGM promptly reteamed Lamarr and Gable in Comrade X (1940), a comedy film in the vein of Ninotchka (1939), which was another hit.

She was teamed with James Stewart in Come Live with Me (1941), playing a Viennese refugee. Stewart was also featured in Ziegfeld Girl (1941), in which Lamarr, Judy Garland, and Lana Turner played aspiring showgirls it was a big success. [33]

Lamarr was top-billed in H. M. Pulham, Esq. (1941), although the film's protagonist was the title role played by Robert Young. She made a third film with Tracy, Tortilla Flat (1942). It was successful at the box office, as was Crossroads (1942) with William Powell.

She played the seductive native girl "Tondelayo" in White Cargo (1942), top-billed over Walter Pidgeon. It was a huge hit. White Cargo contains arguably her most memorable film quote, delivered with provocative invitation: "I am Tondelayo. I make tiffin for you?" This line typifies many of Lamarr's roles, which emphasized her beauty and sensuality while giving her relatively few lines. The lack of acting challenges bored Lamarr, and she reportedly took up inventing to relieve her boredom. [34] In a 1970 interview, Lamarr also remarked that she was paid less because she would not sleep with Mayer. [35]

Lamarr was reunited with Powell in a comedy, The Heavenly Body (1944). She was then borrowed by Warner Bros. for The Conspirators (1944), reuniting several of the actors of Casablanca (1942), which had been inspired in part by Algiers and written with Lamarr in mind as its female lead, [36] though MGM would not lend her out. [37] RKO later borrowed her for a melodrama, Experiment Perilous (1944), directed by Jacques Tourneur.

Back at MGM, Lamarr was teamed with Robert Walker in the romantic comedy Her Highness and the Bellboy (1945), playing a princess who falls in love with a New Yorker. It was very popular, but would be the last film she made under her MGM contract. [38]

Personality Edit

Her off-screen life and personality during those years was quite different from her screen image. She spent much of her time feeling lonely and homesick. She might swim at her agent's pool, but shunned the beaches and staring crowds. When asked for an autograph, she wondered why anyone would want it. Writer Howard Sharpe interviewed her and gave his impression:

Hedy has the most incredible personal sophistication. She knows the peculiarly European art of being womanly she knows what men want in a beautiful woman, what attracts them, and she forces herself to be these things. She has magnetism with warmth, something that neither Dietrich nor Garbo has managed to achieve. [21]

Author Richard Rhodes describes her assimilation into American culture:

Of all the European émigrés who escaped Nazi Germany and Nazi Austria, she was one of the very few who succeeded in moving to another culture and becoming a full-fledged star herself. There were so very few who could make the transition linguistically or culturally. She really was a resourceful human being–I think because of her father's strong influence on her as a child. [39]

Wartime fundraiser Edit

Lamarr wanted to join the National Inventors Council, but was reportedly told by NIC member Charles F. Kettering and others that she could better help the war effort by using her celebrity status to sell war bonds. [40] [41]

She participated in a war bond-selling campaign with a sailor named Eddie Rhodes. Rhodes was in the crowd at each Lamarr appearance, and she would call him up on stage. She would briefly flirt with him before asking the audience if she should give him a kiss. The crowd would say yes, to which Hedy would reply that she would if enough people bought war bonds. After enough bonds were purchased, she would kiss Rhodes and he would head back into the audience. Then they would head off to the next war bond rally. [42] In total, Lamarr sold approximately $25 million (over $350 million when adjusted for inflation in 2020) worth of war bonds during a period of 10 days. [4]

Producer Edit

After leaving MGM in 1945, Lamarr formed production company Mars Film Corporation with Jack Chertok and Hunt Stromberg, producing two film noir motion pictures which she also starred in: The Strange Woman (1946) as a seductress manipulating a son with the goal of convincing him to murder his father (her husband), and Dishonored Lady (1947) as a formerly suicidal fashion magazine editor trying to start a new life but getting accused of murder. [43] [44] [45] Her initiative was unwelcomed by the Hollywood establishment, as they were against actors (especially female actors) producing their films independently. [8] Both films grossed over their budgets, but were not large commercial successes.

Later films Edit

In 1948, she tried a comedy with Robert Cummings, called Let's Live a Little.

Lamarr enjoyed her greatest success playing Delilah opposite Victor Mature as the biblical strongman in Cecil B. DeMille's Simson en Delila (1949). A massive commercial success, it became the highest-grossing picture of 1950 and won two Academy Awards (Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design) of its five nominations. Lamarr won critical acclaim for her portrayal of Delilah. Showmen's Trade Review previewed the film before its release and commended her performance:

Miss Lamarr is just about everyone's conception of the fair-skinned, dark-haired, beauteous Delilah, a role tailor-made for her, and her best acting chore to date. [46]

As Delilah, Hedy Lamarr is treacherous and tantalizing, her charms enhanced by Technicolor. [47]

Lamarr returned to MGM for a film noir with John Hodiak, A Lady Without Passport (1950), which flopped. More popular were two pictures she made at Paramount, a Western with Ray Milland, Copper Canyon (1950), and a Bob Hope spy-spoof, My Favorite Spy (1951).

As her career declined, she went to Italy to play multiple roles in Loves of Three Queens (1954), which she also produced. However she lacked the experience necessary to make a success of such an epic production, and lost millions of dollars when she was unable to secure distribution of the picture.

She was Joan of Arc in Irwin Allen's critically panned epic, 'The Story of Mankind (1957) and did episodes of Zane Grey Theatre ("Proud Woman") and Shower of Stars ("Cloak and Dagger"). Her last film was a thriller, The Female Animal (1958).

Lamarr was signed to act in the 1966 film Picture Mommy Dead, [48] but was dismissed after she collapsed during filming, from nervous exhaustion. [49] She was replaced in the role of Jessica Flagmore Shelley by Zsa Zsa Gabor.

Although Lamarr had no formal training and was primarily self-taught, she worked in her spare time on various hobbies and inventions, which included an improved traffic stoplight and a tablet that would dissolve in water to create a carbonated drink. The beverage was unsuccessful Lamarr herself said it tasted like Alka-Seltzer. [50] [34]

Among the few who knew of Lamarr's inventiveness was aviation tycoon Howard Hughes. She suggested he change the rather square design of his aeroplanes (which she thought looked too slow) to a more streamlined shape, based on pictures of the fastest birds and fish she could find. Lamarr discussed her relationship with Hughes during an interview, saying that while they dated, he actively supported her inventive "tinkering" hobbies. He put his team of scientists and engineers at her disposal, saying they would do or make anything she asked for. [12]

Frequency-hopping spread spectrum Edit

During World War II, Lamarr learned that radio-controlled torpedoes, an emerging technology in naval war, could easily be jammed and set off course. [51] She thought of creating a frequency-hopping signal that could not be tracked or jammed. She conceived an idea and contacted her friend, composer and pianist George Antheil, to help her implement it. [4] Together they developed a device for doing that, when he succeeded by synchronizing a miniaturized player-piano mechanism with radio signals. [39] They drafted designs for the frequency-hopping system, which they patented. [52] [53] Antheil recalled:

We began talking about the war, which, in the late summer of 1940, was looking most extremely black. Hedy said that she did not feel very comfortable, sitting there in Hollywood and making lots of money when things were in such a state. She said that she knew a good deal about munitions and various secret weapons . and that she was thinking seriously of quitting MGM and going to Washington, D.C., to offer her services to the newly established National Inventors Council. [29]

As quoted from a 1945 Sterre en strepe interview, "Hedy modestly admitted she did only 'creative work on the invention', while the composer and author George Antheil, 'did the really important chemical part'. Hedy was not too clear about how the device worked, but she remembered that she and Antheil sat down on her living room rug and were using a silver match box with the matches simulating the wiring of the invented 'thing'. She said that at the start of the war:" [54]

British fliers were over hostile territory as soon as they crossed the channel, but German aviators were over friendly territory most of the way to England . I got the idea for my invention when I tried to think of some way to even the balance for the British. A radio controlled torpedo, I thought would do it. [54]

Their invention was granted a patent under U.S. Patent 2,292,387 on 11 August 1942 (filed using her married name Hedy Kiesler Markey). [55] However, it was technologically difficult to implement, and at the time the US Navy was not receptive to considering inventions coming from outside the military. [34] Nevertheless, it was classified in the "red hot" category. [56] It was first adapted in 1957 to develop a sonobuoy [13] before the expiration of the patent, [4] although this was denied by the Navy. At the time of the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962, an updated version of their design was installed on Navy ships. [57] Today, various spread-spectrum techniques are incorporated into Bluetooth technology and are similar to methods used in legacy versions of Wi-Fi. [14] [15] [16] Lamarr and Antheil's contributions were formally recognized in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries.

Lamarr was married and divorced six times and bore three children:

    (married 1933–1937), chairman of the Hirtenberger Patronen-Fabrik[58] (married 1939–1941), screenwriter and producer In 1938, Lamarr hid a pregnancy with John Loder. She gave birth secretly on 9 June 1939. She then proceeded to "adopt" James Lamarr Markey with Gene Markey, in order to hide their child's illegitimacy. It wasn't until 2001 that James found out he was the out-of-wedlock son of Lamarr and actor John Loder, whom she later married as her third husband. [59][60] (married 1943–1947), actor James Lamarr Markey was adopted by Loder as James Lamarr Loder. During their marriage, Lamarr and Loder had two more children: [61] Denise Loder (born 19 January 1945), married Larry Colton, a writer and former baseball player and Anthony Loder (born 1 February 1947), married Roxanne, who worked for illustrator James McMullan. [62] They both appeared in the documentary films Calling Hedy Lamarr (2004),[63] and Bombshell: The Hedy Lamarr Story (2017). [8] (married 1951–1952), nightclub owner, restaurateur, and former bandleader
  1. W. Howard Lee (married 1953–1960), a Texas oilman (he later married film actress Gene Tierney)
  2. Lewis J. Boies (married 1963–1965), Lamarr's divorce lawyer

Following her sixth divorce in 1965, Lamarr was unmarried for the remaining 35 years of her life.

Lamarr became estranged from her first son, James Lamarr Loder, when he was 12 years old. Their relationship ended abruptly, and he moved in with another family c. 1950 . They did not speak again for almost 50 years, and until 2001, he was unaware that he was in fact the natuurlik child of his so-called adoptive parents, Lamar and John Loder. [c] [d]

Lamarr became a naturalized citizen of the United States at age 38 on 10 April 1953. Her autobiography, Ecstasy and Me, was published in 1966. In a 1969 interview on Die Merv Griffin Show, she said that she did not write it, and claimed that much was fictional. [68] Lamarr sued the publisher in 1966 to halt publication, saying that many details were fabricated by its ghost writer, Leo Guild. She lost the suit. [69] [70] In 1967, Lamarr was sued by Gene Ringgold, who asserted that the book plagiarized material from an article he had written in 1965 for Screen Facts tydskrif. [71]

In the late 1950s, Lamarr designed and, with husband W. Howard Lee, developed the Villa LaMarr ski resort in Aspen, Colorado. [72] [19] ( p194 ) After their divorce, her husband gained this resort. [73]

In 1966, Lamarr was arrested in Los Angeles for shoplifting. The charges were eventually dropped. In 1991, she was arrested on the same charge in Florida, this time for stealing $21.48 worth of laxatives and eye drops. [74] She pleaded no contest to avoid a court appearance, and the charges were dropped in return for her promise to refrain from breaking any laws for a year. [75]

During the 1970s, Lamarr lived in increasing seclusion. She was offered several scripts, television commercials, and stage projects, but none piqued her interest. In 1974, she filed a $10 million lawsuit against Warner Bros., claiming that the running parody of her name ("Hedley Lamarr") featured in the Mel Brooks comedy Blazing Saddles infringed her right to privacy. Brooks said he was flattered the studio settled out of court for an undisclosed nominal sum and an apology to Lamarr for "almost using her name". Brooks said that Lamarr "never got the joke". [76] [19] ( p220 ) With her eyesight failing, Lamarr retreated from public life, and settled in Miami Beach, Florida, in 1981. [1] [ bladsy benodig ]

In 1996, a large Corel-drawn image of Lamarr won the annual cover design contest for the CorelDRAW's yearly software suite. For several years, beginning in 1997, it was featured on boxes of the software suite. Lamarr sued the company for using her image without her permission. Corel countered that she did not own rights to the image. The parties reached an undisclosed settlement in 1998. [77] [78]

In 1997, Canadian company WiLAN signed an agreement with Lamarr to acquire 49% of the marketing rights of her patent, and a right of first refusal for the remaining 51% for ten quarterly payments. This was the only financial compensation she received for her frequency-hopping spread spectrum invention. A friendship ensued between her and the company's CEO, Hatim Zaghloul. [79]

Seclusion Edit

In the last decades of her life, Lamarr communicated only by telephone with the outside world, even with her children and close friends. She often talked up to six or seven hours a day on the phone, but she spent hardly any time with anyone in person in her final years. A documentary film, Calling Hedy Lamarr, was released in 2004 and features her children Anthony Loder and Denise Loder-deLuca. [63]

Death Edit

Lamarr died in Casselberry, Florida, [80] on 19 January 2000, of heart disease, aged 85. [1] According to her wishes, she was cremated and her son Anthony Loder spread her ashes in Austria's Vienna Woods. [63]

Films wysig

Jaar Titel Rol Leading actor Notas
1930 Money on the Street Jong meisie Georg Alexander Original title: Geld auf der Straße
1931 Storm in a Water Glass Secretary Paul Otto Original title: Sturm im Wasserglas
1931 The Trunks of Mr. O.F. Helene Alfred Abel Original title: Die Koffer des Herrn O.F.
1932 No Money Needed Käthe Brandt Heinz Rühmann Original title: Man braucht kein Geld
1933 Ekstase Eva Hermann Aribert Mog Original title: Ekstase
1938 Algiers Gaby Charles Boyer
1939 Lady of the Tropics Manon de Vargnes Carey Robert Taylor
1940 I Take This Woman Georgi Gragore Decker Spencer Tracy
1940 Boom Town Karen Vanmeer Clark Gable
1940 Comrade X Golubka/ Theodore Yahupitz/ Lizvanetchka "Lizzie" Clark Gable
1941 Come Live with Me Johnny Jones James Stewart
1941 Ziegfeld Girl Sandra Kolter James Stewart
1941 H.M. Pulham, Esq. Marvin Myles Ransome Robert Young
1942 Tortilla Flat Dolores Ramirez Spencer Tracy
1942 Crossroads Lucienne Talbot William Powell
1942 White Cargo Tondelayo Walter Pidgeon
1944 The Heavenly Body Vicky Whitley William Powell
1944 The Conspirators Irene von Mohr Paul Henreid
1944 Experiment Perilous Allida Bederaux George Brent
1945 Her Highness and the Bellboy Princess Veronica Robert Walker
1946 The Strange Woman Jenny Hager George Sanders and producer
1947 Dishonored Lady Madeleine Damien Dennis O'Keefe and producer
1948 Let's Live a Little Dr. J.O. Loring Robert Cummings and producer
1949 Simson en Delila Delilah Victor Mature Her first film in Technicolor
1950 A Lady Without Passport Marianne Lorress John Hodiak
1950 Copper Canyon Lisa Roselle Ray Milland
1951 My Favorite Spy Lily Dalbray Bob Hoop
1954 Loves of Three Queens Helen of Troy,
Joséphine de Beauharnais,
Genevieve of Brabant
Massimo Serato,
Cesare Danova
Original title: L'amante di Paride
1957 The Story of Mankind Joan of Arc Ronald Colman
1958 The Female Animal Vanessa Windsor George Nader

Televisie wysig

Radio Edit

Hedy Lamarr starred in the following radio dramas:

Jaar Program Episode
1941 Lux Radio Theatre "Algiers" [81]
1941 Lux Radio Theatre "The Bride Came C.O.D." [82]
1942 The Screen Guild Theater "Too Many Husbands" [1]
1942 Lux Radio Theatre "H. M. Pulham, Esq." [83]
1942 Lux Radio Theatre "Love Crazy" [84]
1943 The Screen Guild Theater "Come Live with Me" [85]
1944 Lux Radio Theatre "Casablanca" [86]
1944 Silver Theater "She Looked Like an Angel" [1]
1945 Radio Hall of Fame "Experiment Perilous" [87]
1951 Lux Radio Theatre "Samson and Delilah" [88]

In 1939, Lamarr was voted the "most promising new actress" of 1938 in a poll of area voters conducted by a Philadelphia Record film critic. [89]

In 1951, British moviegoers voted Lamarr the tenth best actress of 1950, [90] for her performance in Simson en Delila.

In 1960, Lamarr was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame for her contribution to the motion picture industry, [91] [92] at 6247 Hollywood Blvd, adjacent to Vine Street where the walk is centered.

Also in 1997, Lamarr was the first woman to receive the Invention Convention's BULBIE Gnass Spirit of Achievement Award, known as the "Oscars of inventing". [94] [95]

In 2014, Lamarr and Antheil were posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame for frequency-hopping spread spectrum technology. [96]

Also in 2014, Lamarr was given an honorary grave in Vienna's Central Cemetery, where the remaining portion of her ashes were buried in November, shortly before her 100th birthday. [97]

Asteroid 32730 Lamarr, discovered by Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in 1951, was named in her memory. [98] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 27 August 2019 ( M.P.C. 115894 ). [99]

On 6 November 2020, a satellite named after her (ÑuSat 14 or "Hedy", COSPAR 2020-079F) was launched into space.

The 2004 documentary film Calling Hedy Lamarr features her children, Anthony Loder and Denise Loder-DeLuca. [63]

Lamarr was selected out of 150 IT people to be featured in a short film launched by the British Computer Society on 20 May 2010. [101]

Also during 2010, the New York Public Library exhibit Thirty Years of Photography at the New York Public Library included a photo of a topless Lamarr (c. 1930 ) by Austrian-born American photographer Trude Fleischmann. [102]

The 2017 documentary film Bombshell: The Hedy Lamarr Story, [8] written and directed by Alexandra Dean and produced by Susan Sarandon, [103] about Lamarr's life and career as an actress and inventor, also featuring her children Anthony and Denise, among others, premiered at the 2017 Tribeca Film Festival. [39] It was released in theaters on 24 November 2017, and aired on the PBS series Amerikaanse meesters in May 2018. As of April 2020 [update] , it is also available on Netflix.

In popular culture Edit

During World War II, the Office of Strategic Services invented a pyrotechnic device meant to help agents operating behind enemy lines to escape if capture seemed imminent. When the pin was pulled, it made the whistle of a falling bomb followed by a loud explosion and a large cloud of smoke, enabling the agent to make his escape. It saved the life of at least one agent. The device was codenamed the Hedy Lamarr. [104]

In the 1982 off-Broadway musical Little Shop of Horrors and subsequent film adaptation (1986), Audrey II says to Seymour in the song "Feed Me" that he can get Seymour anything he wants, including "A date with Hedy Lamarr." [105]

In the 2004 video game Half-Life 2, Dr. Kleiner's pet headcrab, Lamarr, is named after Hedy Lamarr. [106]

In 2008, an off-Broadway play, Frequency Hopping, features the lives of Lamarr and Antheil. The play was written and staged by Elyse Singer, and the script won a prize for best new play about science and technology from STAGE. [1] [107]

The story of Lamarr's frequency-hopping spread spectrum invention was explored in an episode of the Science Channel show Dark Matters: Twisted But True, a series that explores the darker side of scientific discovery and experimentation, which premiered on 7 September 2011. [108]

Batman co-creator Bob Kane was a great movie fan and his love for film provided the impetus for several Batman characters, among them, Catwoman. Among Kane's inspiration for Catwoman were Lamarr and actress Jean Harlow. [19] ( p97 ) Also in 2011, Anne Hathaway revealed that she had learned that the original Catwoman was based on Lamarr, so she studied all of Lamarr's films and incorporated some of her breathing techniques into her portrayal of Catwoman in the 2012 film The Dark Knight Rises. [109]

In 2013, her work in improving wireless security was part of the premiere episode of the Discovery Channel show How We Invented the World. [110]

On the 101st anniversary of Lamarr's birth – 9 November 2015 – Google gave tribute to Lamarr's work in film and her contributions to scientific advancement with an animated Google Doodle. [111]

In 2016, Lamarr was depicted in an off-Broadway play, Hedy! The life and inventions of Hedy Lamarr, a one-woman show written and performed by Heather Massie. [112] [113]

Also in 2016, the off-Broadway, one-actor show Stand Still and Look Stupid: The life story of Hedy Lamarr starring Emily Ebertz and written by Mike Broemmel went into production. [114] [115]

Also in 2016, Whitney Frost, a character in the TV show Agent Carter, was inspired by Lamarr and Lauren Bacall. [116]

Actress Celia Massingham portrayed Lamarr on The CW television series Legends of Tomorrow in the sixth episode of the third season, titled "Helen Hunt". The episode is set in 1937 "Hollywoodland" and references Lamarr's reputation as an inventor. The episode aired on 14 November 2017. [117]

In 2018, actress Alyssa Sutherland portrayed Lamarr on the NBC television series Timeless in the third episode of the second season, titled "Hollywoodland". The episode aired 25&nbssparch 2018. [118]

Gal Gadot was chosen to portray Lamarr in an Apple TV+ limited series based on her life story. [119]

A novelization of her life, The Only Woman in the Room by Marie Benedict, was published in 2019. [120]


Kyk die video: 063 - Britains First Victory, Germany Plunders Europe u0026 Mussolinis Folly - WW2 - November 9, 1940