Cushing - TB -1 - Geskiedenis

Cushing - TB -1 - Geskiedenis

Cushing

William Barker Cushing, gebore 24 November 1842 in
Delafield, Wis., Het tydens die Burgeroorlog dapper diens gelewer, onoortreflik vir waagmoed en moed. Hy was vier keer geprys deur die vlootafdeling en het die kongres bedank vir sy dapperste en suksesvolste uitbuiting, die vernietiging van die Konfederale ysterbeklamme Albemarle in Plymouth, NC, 27 Oktober 1864. Kommandeur Cushing sterf op 17 Desember 1874 terwyl hy diens doen in die Washington Navy Yard.

(TB-1: dp. 116; 1. 140 '; b. 15'1 "; dr. 4'10"; s. 23 k .;
kpl. 22; a. 3 8-pdr., 3 tt .; kl. Cushing)

Die eerste Cushing (TB-1) is op 23 Januarie 1890 van stapel gestuur deur Herreshoff Manufacturing Co., Bristol, R.I .; geborg deur juffrou K. B. Herreshoff; en in opdrag van 22 April 1890, luitenant C. M. Winslow in bevel.

Die eerste torpedoboot wat vir die vloot gebou is, was Cushing verbonde aan die eskader van evolusie en toegerus vir eksperimentele werk om die ontwikkeling van torpedo -uitrustings te voltooi en data vir die diens in te samel. Op 8 September 1891 meld sy haar aan by Newport vir diens by die Naval Torpedo-stasie, en behalwe vir 'n kort tydperk buite diens, 11 November 1891-11 Januarie 1892, het Cushing haar torpedo-eksperimente in hierdie gebied tot 1893 voortgesit.

Cushing het op 31 Maart 1893 by Hampton Roads aangekom vir tydelike diens by die Naval Review Fleet, en in April het sy HMS Blake en HMS Caravels na New York begelei. Cushing keer op 6 Mei terug in diens by Newport en werk saam met die Whitehead -torpedo. Op grond van Key West vanaf 31 Desember 1897, het Cushing by die Blokkeringsmag van die Noord -Atlantiese Vloot aangemeld vir patrollie in die Straat van Florida en koerierdiens vir die Mag. Op 11 Februarie 1898 het Cushing, terwyl hy 'n deurreis na Havana gemaak het, vaandrig J. C. Breckinridge oorboord verloor in swaar see. Vir hul heroïese pogings om hom te red, is Gunner's Mate Third Class J. Everetts en Ship's Cook First Class D. Atkins bekroon met die Erepenning.

Na die oorlogsverklaring tussen die Verenigde State en Spanje, is Cushing aangestel om die Cays te patrolleer en op 7 Augustus vier klein vaartuie gevange geneem en na haar ankerplek by Piedras Cay gesleep. Vier dae later het gewapende bote van Cushing en Gwin 'n skoen van 20 ton gevang en verbrand. In Augustus 1898, terug na die noorde, hervat Cushing haar bedrywighede by die Newport Torpedo -stasie op 14 September tot en met 8 November 1898. .


Militêre

USS Cushing (DD 985), die laaste vernietiger van die Spruance-klas, is op 21 September 2005 in San Diego, op die 26ste herdenking van die ingebruikneming van die skip, uit diens gestel.

Die USS Cushing, 'n baie veelsydige multi-missie-vernietiger, was in staat om onafhanklik of met amfibiese aanvalle en taakmagte te werk. Cushing se primêre missies sluit in die vervolging van bedreigings op die oppervlak sowel as ondergronds. Die aanvallende bates van die skip sluit in Harpoon seevaart-missiele, vyfduim-gewere en torpedo's wat deur die skip en helikopter gelanseer word.

USS Cushing (DD985) was die drie-en-twintigste SPRUANCE Class Destroyer wat deur Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries in Pascagoula, Mississippi, ontwerp en gebou is. Cushing is tuisgemaak in Yokosuka, Japan, en is aangestel as bevelvoerder, Destroyer Squadron Fifteen.

As deel van 'n herorganisasie van die oppervlakteskepe van die Stille Oseaan -vloot in 1995 in ses kerngevegsgroepe en agt vernietigers -eskaders, met die reorganisasie wat teen 1 Oktober voltooi moes word, en veranderings in die hawe in die daaropvolgende jaar, is die USS Cushing heraangewys Vernietiger Eskader 5.

'N Prototipe Remote Minehunting System (RMS) is betyds aan boord van die USS Cushing geïnstalleer vir die ontplooiing van die USS Kitty Hawk in die herfs van 1996 om die Battle Group 'n mynverkenningsvermoë te bied. Dit was 'n opgradering van die stelsel wat in 1995 suksesvol gebruik is, met die ekstra vermoë om aan boord te begin en te herstel en 'n direkte koppelvlak aan die boordstelsel. In 1997 is die RMS -konsep suksesvol bewys deur die gebruik van 'n prototipe stelsel van die USS Cushing (DD 985) tydens 'n oefening in die Arabiese Golf.

Vroeg in 1997 het die USS Cushing maritieme onderskepoperasies in die Arabiese Golf uitgevoer.

Die vernietiger van die Spruance-klas USS Cushing het op 16 Maart 1998 na Pearl Harbor, HI, vertrek na die nuwe tuiste van Yokosuka, Japan. Die USS Cushing is sedert 1991 tuisgemaak in Pearl Harbor en sou die USS Fife vervang, wat sy hawens na Everett, WA, verander het. Gedurende sy tyd in Pearl Harbor het USS Cushing vier vestigings in die westelike Stille Oseaan en een na die Suid -Atlantiese Oseaan gedoen. By sy aankoms in Japan is USS Cushing aangestel by bevelvoerder, Destroyer Squadron 15, en in Mei ontplooi om deel te neem aan CARAT '98, 'n multi-nasionale oefening met vloote van Suidoos-Asiatiese lande. CARAT '98 was die vierde jaarlikse Cooperation Afloat Readiness and Training (CARAT) -oefening tussen die Verenigde State en ses lande in Suidoos -Asië vanaf 12 Mei tot 5 Augustus 1998. As deel van 'n reeks bilaterale oefenoefeninge het CARAT 98 Amerikaanse troepe gehad opleiding met militêre magte van Brunei, Indonesië, Maleisië, Thailand, Singapoer en die Filippyne. CARAT 98 demonstreer Amerikaanse toewyding aan veiligheid en stabiliteit in Suidoos -Asië, terwyl die operasionele gereedheid en vermoëns van Amerikaanse magte verhoog word. Die oefening bevorder ook interoperabiliteit en samewerking met Amerikaanse streeksvriende en bondgenote deur 'n breë spektrum van wedersyds voordelige opleidingsgeleenthede aan te bied.

Die USS Cushing, van 22 Maart tot 25 Maart 1999, het saam met Battle Force 7th Fleet deelgeneem aan 'n multi-nasionale lewende vuur missiel-oefening (MTX 99) in waters naby die Marianas-eilande. By die MTX 99 was ook vlooteenhede uit Australië, Kanada, Singapoer en die Republiek van Korea betrokke. Gedurende MTX 99 was lewendige wapens wat Harpoon-, Penguin- en Maverick -missiele, torpedo's en verskillende wapensisteme aan boord ingesluit het. Die voormalige USS Oklahoma City is as die doelskip gebruik. Oklahoma City is in 1944 aangestel as 'n ligte kruiser (CL 91). Sy het aan die Slag van Okinawa deelgeneem voordat sy in 1947 uit diens gestel is, voordat sy in 1960 weer as 'n geleide missiel -kruiser (CLG 5) in diens geneem is. Viëtnam -oorlog en verskeie ontplooiings na WESTPAC om as die vlagskip van die 7de vloot te dien voordat dit uiteindelik in 1979 uit die vlootregister verwyder en uit die vlootregister verwyder is.

Die USS Cushing het deelgeneem aan die 38ste Foal Eagle -oefening wat in die herfs van 1999 gehou is. 'N Gereelde oefening, Foal Eagle, het kragte uit die Republiek van Korea (ROK) saamgevoeg met Amerikaanse. In Augustus 2000 het die USS Cushing deelgeneem aan SHAREM 138. USS Cushing en verskeie eenhede in die Foward Deployed Naval Force (FDNF), het deelgeneem aan SHAREM (Ship ASW Readiness Effectiveness Measuring) 138 saam met eenhede van die gasheer, Japan Maritime Self Defense Force naby Okinawa, Japan. Alhoewel weersomstandighede SHAREM -gebeure ingeperk het, is waardevolle opleiding in die Art of Undersea Warfare (USW) uitgevoer.

Die USS Cushing het deelgeneem aan die missieloefening (MISSILEX) 01-1, wat van 17 tot 18 November 2000 gehou is as deel van 'n gekoördineerde taakgroepoperasie.

Tydens 'n Naval Surface Fire Support-oefening wat op 4-5 Desember 2000 naby Guam gehou is, het die USS Cushing (DD 985) 'n beter as perfekte telling behaal tydens 'n skietery. Die oefening is ontwerp om die akkuraatheid en doeltreffendheid van Cushing se gewere en die vaardigheid van sy wagspanne te toets. Toe die stof gaan lê en die gradeblaaie getel is, met bonuspunte vir uitstekende kommunikasieprestasie, het Cushing 101,5 punte uit 100 gekry.

Die USS Cushing (DD 985) is vereer deur bevelvoerder, Destroyer Squadron 15, toe Cushing op 25 Januarie 2001 die Silver Enlisted Surface Warfare Excellence Pennant ontvang het. en senior het gekwalifiseer as aangewese spesialiste in die oppervlakoorlogvoering binne die vereiste tydstandaard wat deur die Chief of Naval Operations uiteengesit is. Cushing is die eerste skip van Destroyer Squadron 15 wat vir hierdie gesogte toekenning in aanmerking kom.

Cushing se aggressiewe aangewese oppervlakoorlogsprogram behels daaglikse opleiding, beide aan die gang en by die invoer. Die betrokke lesingsreeks bou 'n grondslag vir die bemanning om kennis te verkry van die grondbeginsels van oppervlakoorlogvoering. Dan moet personeel deur elke deel van die skip gaan en onder andere handtekeninge kry oor individuele gevegstelsels, ingenieurswese, dek- en skadebeheeritems en wys dat hulle verstaan ​​hoe die skip werk. Na voltooiing van al die kennisvereistes in hul kwalifikasieboeke, moet kandidate 'n streng skriftelike eksamen en 'n mondelinge kwalifikasieraad slaag. Die wimpel beliggaam die krygsgees van die bemanning se spesialiste op die gebied van oorlogvoering. Om individuele matrose te verdien, verg uitgebreide navorsing, waarneming, studie en kennis van al die oppervlakteoorlogse missiegebiede om die pen te verdien: gevegstelsels, operasies, navigasie, ingenieurswese en voorraad.

Van Januarie tot Maart 2001 ondergaan die USS Cushing 'n reeks opgraderings aan sy wapens en ingenieurswese.

USS Cushing (DD 985) keer op 27 Augustus 2004 terug na Yokosuka, Japan, nadat hy byna vyf maande in die Persiese Golf ontplooi was. Die vernietiger van die Spruance-klas het tydens die ontplooiing aan verskeie missies ter ondersteuning van Operation Iraqi Freedom deelgeneem. Cushing werk saam met vlooteenhede uit verskeie ander lande en vorm 'n koalisiemag om potensiële terroriste, terreurverwante maritieme aktiwiteite te verbied, en om waarskuwings- en uitsluitingsones rondom die olie-terminale van Irak in die noordelike Persiese Golf te handhaaf.

Die skip het 465 vaartuie navraag gedoen en tydens die ontplooiing aan boord geklim. Ondanks die tempo van die onlangse aanvangsperiode, het Cushing se bemanning ook tyd gekry om verskeie pogings tot gemeenskapsverhoudinge in Maleisië en Sri Lanka uit te voer en 62 nuwe spesialiste op die gebied van oorlogsvoering te kwalifiseer.

Gedurende die skeepsloopbaan het Cushing 10 ontplooiings, vier veranderings by die hawe voltooi en verskeie toekennings vir uitnemendheid ontvang. Die vernietiger was ook die laaste Amerikaanse oorlogskip wat deur die Panamakanaal getrek het terwyl dit onder Amerikaanse beheer was, in September 1979.

Skipskild en kuif

Die drietand is 'n tradisionele maritieme simbool en sy skerp punte dui op aanstootlike optrede. Die spar torpedo is donkerblou wat verwys na die donker nag en die geheime aard van die sink van die Albemarle. Die donkerblou herinner ook aan die feit dat bevelvoerder Cushing die torpedo geneem het, destyds 'n konfederale wapen, en dit suksesvol gebruik het om 'n vyandelike vaartuig te laat sink. Die vyf sterre verwys na die feit dat USS Cushing die vyfde skip in die Amerikaanse vloot was met hierdie naam.

USS Cushing (DD 985) is die vyfde Amerikaanse vlootskip met die naam Cushing. Die oorspronklike was die vloot se eerste torpedoboot, TB-1, wat op 22 April 1890 in gebruik geneem is. Van 1891 tot 1897 het die boot eksperimentele torpedobewerkings uitgevoer by die Naval Torpedo-stasie, Newport, Rhode Island. Aan die einde van 1897 is hierdie Cushing oorgeplaas na Key West, Florida, waar dit patrollie- en koerierdienste in die Straat van Florida uitgevoer het. Tydens die Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlog het TB-1 die waters van Florida af patrolleer en vyf klein Spaanse vaartuie gevang. Na die oorlog het Cushing voortgegaan met torpedo-eksperimente tot die staking daarvan in November 1898. Van 1901 tot 1911 is TB-1 aan die Reserve Torpedo Flotilla geheg en is later as 'n skeepvaartdoel gesink.

DD 55

Die tweede USS Cushing was een van die vroegste vernietigers, DD-55, wat op 21 Augustus 1915 in gebruik geneem is. Totdat die VSA die Eerste Wêreldoorlog betree het, het Cushing deelgeneem aan die tipiese skedule van maneuvers en oefeninge. In Mei 1917 is die verwoester beveel om na die oorlogsgebied voor Ierland te gaan en die Ierse kus te patrolleer, konvooie te begelei, vyandelike duikbote te betrek en oorlewendes van getorpedeerde skepe op te haal. Later het Cushing soortgelyke werk aan die kus van Frankryk verrig en die oorlog beëindig met 'n uitstekende diensrekord. DD-55 is in Augustus 1920 ontmantel.

DD 376

DD-376, wat op 28 Augustus 1936 in gebruik geneem is, was 'n 1465 ton vernietiger van die MAHAN-klas en die derde Amerikaanse vlootvaartuig met die naam Cushing.

Sy is gebou op die Puget Sound Navy Yard, en is in Augustus 1936 in opdrag geneem. Sy werk hoofsaaklik in die Stille Oseaan gedurende die half-dekade van vrede wat gevolg het nadat sy in diens geneem is, deelgeneem aan vlootprobleme, opleiding en ander aktiwiteite. Onder laasgenoemde was die soektog in die middel van die oseaan in Julie 1937 na die vermiste vlieënier Amelia Earhart.

Toe Japan op 7 Desember 1941 met die Stille Oseaan -oorlog begin, was Cushing besig met 'n opknapping by die Mare Island Navy Yard. Gedurende die eerste maande van die oorlog het Cushing konvooi tussen die weskus en Pearl Harbor uitgevoer, van die Midway -eilande gepatrolleer en saam met die oorblywende Amerikaanse Stille Oseaan -vlootskip aan die weskus gewerk, wat later oefenmagte naby Kalifornië ondersoek het.

In Augustus 1942 is dit in die suide van die Stille Oseaan beveel om deel te neem aan die veldtog om Guadalcanal te hou. Benewens die konvooi -begeleiding, het sy die vliegdekskip Enterprise tydens die Slag van die Santa Cruz -eilande einde Oktober onder die loep geneem. Cushing het op 26 Oktober 1942 geveg tydens die Slag van Santa Cruz, waartydens die Amerikaanse troepe in getal 'n Japannese mag teruggedraai het wat na Guadalcanal gevorder het.

'N Paar weke later, op 13 November 1942, was Cushing aan die hoof van die Amerikaanse linie tydens die eerste nagaksie van die Slag van Guadalcanal. In 'n intense geweer- en torpedo -aksie het sy dapper verskeie Japannese skepe aangegaan, waaronder die slagskip Hiei. Alhoewel Cushing talle treffers deur vyandelike skulpe gekry het, het die bemanning aangehou veg tot 0230 die volgende dag toe die skip verlaat is. Terwyl hul skip deur skulpvuur geslaan en erg gebrand het, is die oorlewende bemanningslede van die vernietiger oor die kant in die water gedwing, waaruit hulle die volgende oggend gered is. Cushing se omhulsel bly tot op die laatmiddag van 13 November kop bo water, maar kry toe 'n tydskrifblootstelling en sak. Sy het egter gehelp om 'n vyandelike bombardement van Amerikaanse posisies aan wal op Guadalcanal te stuit, en het dus 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die suksesvolle stryd om die belangrike eiland te behou. Cushing het 70 mans gesterf of vermis en talle ander gewond. Die derde USS Cushing verdien drie gevegsterre vir haar oorlogstyd.

Cushing se gesinkte wrak is in 1991-1992 opgespoor en ondersoek. Sy rus byna regop, amper 'n half kilometer onder die oppervlak van Iron Bottom Sound, suidoos van Savo-eiland. Haar romp is agter die voorste deel van die agterdekhuis vernietig, maar is in wese ongeskonde tot by die boog. Cushing se voorste bobou, verswak deur intense brande voordat sy sink, het grootliks in duie gestort en baie van die res van haar bo -werke is ernstig beskadig. Haar voorwaartse vyfduim gewere is ongeskonde en wys na die hawe en stuurboog. Haar middellyn, viervoudige torpedobuise, wys ook presies soos tydens die chaotiese nag van 13 November 1942.

DD 797

Die vierde USS Cushing (DD 797), 'n vernietiger van die FLETCHER -klas, is op 17 Januarie 1944 in gebruik geneem. Die skip het in Augustus 1944 by die VYFDE Vloot aangesluit om die vliegdekskip te toets tydens aanvalle op die Filippyne, Formosa en China. . By Iwo Jima, en later in Okinawa, het Cushing vir Task Force 58 sifting, bombardemente op die wal en radarplatformdiens gelewer. Vanaf Junie 1945 tot aan die einde van die oorlog het DD 797 die draers ondersoek wat op Tokio gestaak het. Na die oorlog keer Cushing terug na die Verenigde State en word op 3 Februarie 1947 uit diens gestel.

DD 797 het later optree tydens die Koreaanse konflik. Die skip is op 17 Augustus 1951 weer in gebruik geneem en is aan die Atlantiese Vloot toegewys. In Januarie 1953 sluit Cushing by Task Force 77 aan die kus van Korea aan en dien hoofsaaklik as vliegtuigwag by die taakmag. Die skip keer in Augustus daardie jaar terug na Norfolk en dien in die Atlantiese Oseaan en die Middellandse See in 1954. In 1955 keer Cushing terug na die Stille Oseaanvloot waar dit diens doen totdat sy op 8 November 1960 in Charleston, Suid -Carolina, uit diens neem. Die vierde Cushing verdien

William Barker Cushing

USS Cushing is vernoem na bevelvoerder William Barker Cushing, 'n vlootheld van die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog. Gebore in Delafield, Wisconsin, 4 November 1842, betree hy die Naval Academy in 1857. Hy verdien die rang van luitenant op 16 Julie 1862 en bereik daarna die rang van bevelvoerder op 31 Januarie 1872.

Na 'n briljante diens in die blokkerende vloot aan die kus van Noord -Carolina, was sy planne om die torpedobote met 'n spar -torpedo te versier en die formidabele en gevaarlike Konfederale ram ALBERMARLE te vernietig. Die ALBEMARLE het gedurende die lente en somer van 1864 verskeie Unie -oorlogskepe gesink of beskadig en veroorsaak groot kommer in Washington DC omdat geen ysterkleed van die Unie langs die kus van Noord -Carolina kon vaar nie. Dit het die hawens in die gebied toegelaat om oop te bly vir hardlopers, aangesien ALBEMARLE die houtblokkade -eskader kon vernietig. LT Cushing het 'n klein bootaanval op die ysterjas voorgestel met behulp van bote van sy eie ontwerp. Die vlootdepartement het ingestem en die een-en-twintigjarige offisier na New York gestuur om die bote te laat bou.

Die aand van 27 Oktober het Cushing sewe vrywilligers in een van sy klein stoomgedrewe bootjies langs die Roanoke -rivier na Noord -Carolina gelei. Sy enigste wapen was 'n 'torpedo' wat deur 'n twintig voet boom of spartel voor sy vaartuig gehang is. Die torpedo's van daardie tyd was soortgelyk aan wat nou myne genoem word, omdat hulle nie selfaangedrewe was nie. Toe Cushing ALBEMARLE nader, is sy boot opgespoor en van die wal afgevuur. Met die lig van 'n Konfederale vreugdevuur op die nabye oewer, het Cushing opgemerk ALBEMARLE is beskerm deur 'n halfsirkel van drywende stompe. Deur op die aanval te druk, stamp Cushing die versperring op volle vaart, wat veroorsaak dat sy boot minder as tien meter van die magtige ysterjas af vassteek. Vanuit hierdie posisie, deur die gebruik van lyne wat hy beheer het terwyl hy in die boog gestaan ​​het, laat sak Cushing die torpedo in die water, laat dit los, wag dat die torpedo onder die ysterkleed gaan sit en ontplof. Op die oomblik het die torpedo, ontplof, die noodlottige kreupel ALBEMARLE een van sy agtduim kanonne op Cushing se vaartuig afgevuur. Gelukkig kon die geweer nie genoeg ingedruk word om die boot te tref nie, maar die harsingskudding het dit oorweldig. Cushing en 'n paar ander duik in die rivier en probeer ontsnap. Alhoewel almal in sy bemanning vermoor of gevange geneem is, het Cushing self sy agtervolgers ontwyk en daarin geslaag om deur die vyandelike gebied tot by die kus te werk, waar hy deur die blokkerende Unie -magte opgetel is. Vir hierdie aksie is Cushing verdienstelik bevorder tot luitenant-bevelvoerder en ontvang die amptelike dank van die kongres, die enigste nie-vlagoffisier van die burgeroorlog wat so vereer is. Vier jaar nadat hy aan die Naval Academy gestudeer het, is William Barker Cushing bevorder tot die rang van bevelvoerder.

Na die Burgeroorlog het hy diens gedoen in sowel die Stille Oseaan as die Asiatiese eskaders onder bevel van LANCASTER, en MAUMEE het as munisipale offisier by Boston Navy Yard gedien en vanaf 11 Julie 1873 bevel van USS WYOMING totdat hy van sy werk onthef is weens siekte.

Die vrymoedigheid wat hy tydens die oorlog getoon het, was duidelik sigbaar in sy latere loopbaan, soos geïllustreer deur 'n voorval wat plaasgevind het toe hy USS WYOMING in die Karibiese Eilande beveel het. Cushing het gehelp om die passasiers van 'n skip wat deur die Spaanse regering in Kuba aangehou word, te bevry deur te dreig om die stad Havana te beskut as die passasiers nie vrygelaat word nie.

Kommandant Cushing sterf op 17 Desember 1874 aan 'n pynlike rugkwaal, waarskynlik veroorsaak deur die fisiese mishandeling wat sy liggaam tydens sy lewe geneem het. Hy is oorleef deur sy ma, sy vrou, twee dogters en een van sy broers. Hy het twee ander broers laat sterf, een sterf tydens die Slag van Gettysburg, en die ander sterf in 1871 teen die Apache.


Cushingsindroom: historiese aspekte

'N Kort oorsig van die belangrikste stappe wat tot ons huidige kennis van hiperkortisisme lei. Die byniere is in 1563 beskryf en die hipofise is sedert die oudheid bekend. Tot Addison se beskrywing van byniereversaking in 1855 was feitlik niks bekend oor hul funksie nie. Cushing in 1912 beskryf sy beroemde pasiënt met hiperkortisisme, maar aanvaar dat dit 'n polyglandulêre siekte is. Byna 40 jaar lank is die etiologie betwis, hoewel Bauer vroeër gepostuleer het dat hiperkortisisme uiteindelik die bynierhiperfunksie weerspieël, primêr of sekondêr. Hoewel Krause, Schloffer, Cushing, Hirsch en ander vroeg in die 20ste eeu hipofise -chirurgie ingestel het, het die eerste pasiënt met Cushing -siekte eers in 1933 neurochirurgie laat doen. Hierdie terapie het nie wyd aanvaar nie, totdat Gidot & amp; Thibaut en Hardy 'n pionier was in transsfenoidale chirurgie. Bynierchirurgie was jare lank die behandeling van hiperkortisisme, maar voor die beskikbaarheid van glukokortikosteroïede was dit 'n uiters gevaarlike onderneming.


Cushing - TB -1 - Geskiedenis

Lengte: 138 ' 9 & quot algeheel.

Verplasing: 116 lang ton.

Aandrywing masjinerie: steenkoolaangedrewe waterpypketel vertikale qualdruple-uitbreiding enjins 1.720 ihp 2 skagte.

Spoed: 22,5 knope proewe.

Aanvulling: 22

Battery: 3 x 6-ponder gewere 3 x 18-duim Howell-torpedo's.

Sy is ontwerp deur Nathanael Greene Herreshoff, en is in Bristol, Rhode Island, gebou deur sy Herreshoff Manufacturing Company, met luitenantkommandant George A. Converse wat dien as inspekteur van die vloot en rsquos. By haar bekendstelling op 23 Januarie 1890 is sy geborg deur juffrou K. B. Herreshoff. Sy is op 22 April 1890 onder kommando van luitenant -kommandant Cameron McRae Winslow geplaas.

Cushing was die Navy & rsquos se eerste torpedoboot met staalromp en die enigste wat toegerus was om die selfaangedrewe Howell-torpedo te vervoer. Vanaf 8 September 1891 was sy verbonde aan die Naval Torpedo -stasie in Newport, Rhode Island. Behalwe vir 'n kort tydperk buite kommissie vanaf 11 November 1891 en 11 Januarie 1892 en 'n vaart na Norfolk in Maart en April 1893, het sy voortgegaan om vanuit Newport te werk met die Whitehead -torpedo, veral onder haar tweede bevelvoerder, luitenant Frank Friday Fletcher.

Op 31 Desember 1897 onder bevelvoerder Albert Gleaves, Cushing aangemeld by die North Atlantic Fleet & rsquos Blockade Force in Key West, Florida vir patrollie- en koerierdiens in die Straat van Florida.

Tydens die Spaanse-Amerikaanse oorlog van 17 weke is sy aangestel om die Florida Keys te patrolleer. Op 7 Augustus neem sy vier klein vaartuie vas en sleep dit na haar ankerplek by Piedras Key. Vier dae later het gewapende bote van Cushing en Gwin 'n skoener van 20 ton gevang en verbrand.

In Augustus teruggekeer na die noorde, Cushing op 14 September haar bedrywighede by die Torpedo -stasie hervat totdat sy op 8 November buite diens gestel is.

Van 1901 tot 1911, Cushing was verbonde aan die Reserve Torpedo Flotilla in Norfolk. In 1920 is sy as 'n teiken gebruik en op 24 September gesink.


Kommandeur William B. Cushing, USN, (1842-1874)

William Barker Cushing is op 4 November 1842 in Delafield, Wisconsin, gebore, maar het die grootste deel van sy kinderjare in Fredonia, New York, deurgebring. Hy het die Amerikaanse Vlootakademie van 1857 tot Maart 1861 bygewoon, toe sy hoogmoedige gedrag tot sy bedanking gelei het. Die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog het hom weer in diens geneem, en hy onderskei hom gou as 'n offisier van buitengewone inisiatief en moed. In die middel van 1862 word Cushing bevorder tot die rang van luitenant, en dien as uitvoerende beampte van die geweerboot Commodore Perry, en kry toe bevel oor die sleepboot Ellis, wat op 25 November 1862 onder heroïese omstandighede verlore gegaan het. Daarna het hy bevel gegee oor die geweerbote Commodore Barney, Shokokon en Monticello. Gedurende hierdie tyd het hy verskeie gewaagde verkennings en uitstappies na konfederale gebiede gelei.

In die nag van 27-28 Oktober 1864 het Cushing en 'n klein bemanning die Navy-stoomlansering Picket Boat Number One opwaarts na Plymouth, NC, geneem waar hulle die Konfederale ysterbek ram CSS Albemarle aangeval en met 'n spar torpedo laat sink het. Hierdie aksie het van hom 'n nasionale beroemdheid gemaak, en hy is vinnig bevorder tot die rang van luitenant -bevelvoerder. In Januarie 1865 het Cushing gehelp om die landingsmag van die vloot te lei in die verowering van Fort Fisher, NC, en homself weer onderskei.

Na die burgeroorlog het LCdr. Cushing was uitvoerende beampte van USS Lancaster en bevelvoerder van USS Maumee. In 1872 tot bevelvoerder, was hy kaptein van USS Wyoming in 1873-74. In November 1873 het hy met vrymoedigheid die Spaanse owerhede in Kuba gekonfronteer om die lewens van baie passasiers en bemanning van die stoomboot Virginius te red, wat gevange geneem is om mense en voorrade na Kubaanse rewolusionêres te bring. Terwyl hy as uitvoerende beampte van die Washington Navy Yard, DC gedien het, het kommandant Cushing se altyd delikate gesondheid meegegee en is hy op 17 Desember 1874 oorlede.

Soos dit die geheue betaam van 'n man wat die burgeroorlogsekretaris van die vloot, Gideon Welles, die held van die oorlog genoem het, het die vloot 'n reeks torpedobote en vernietigers vir William Barker Cushing genoem. Dit sluit in USS Cushing (TB-1) van 1890-1920, USS Cushing (DD-55) van 1915-1936, USS Cushing (DD-376) van 1936-1942, USS Cushing (DD-797) van 1944-1961, en die huidige USS Cushing (DD-985), in gebruik geneem in 1979.

Op 'n dag soos vandag. 1864: In Petersburg besef die unie -generaal Ulysses S. Grant dat die stad nie meer deur 'n aanranding aangevat kan word nie, en beland in 'n beleg.


Erkenning

Op 21 Desember 1896 vereer die Naval Torpedo Station kapt. Nat Herreshoff deur hom na Newport te nooi vir maneuvers en 'n fotosessie van drie generasies Herreshoff -torpedobote. Van links na regs op die foto hierbo, het kapt. Nat aangekom aan boord van sy nuutste ontwerp PORTER (TB-6), net haar tweede dag aan die gang na die bekendstelling en installering van masjinerie. Hy word vergesel deur die 1887 STILETTO (WTB-1) en die vloot se eerste seevaart-torpedoboot die 1890 CUSHING (TB-1). Dit was 'n welverdiende erkenning, want dit was op die eerste twee Herreshoff-romp dat die vloot 'n basiese torpedo-oorlogvoering ontwikkel het- 'n wapen en die voertuig om dit te lewer. [1]

Opsomming

Dit is die verhaal van die Herreshoff -broers se ervaring met die bekendstelling van nuwe tegnologie in die mededingende torpedobootmark van die Amerikaanse vloot. Dit is ontwikkel uit die nuutste inligting wat beskikbaar is uit navorsing oor Herreshoff -familieblaaie, die rekords van die Herreshoff Manufacturing Co. (HMCo.) En die vloot, persoonlike koerante en biografieë van die belangrike individue en koerantargiewe. Die verhaal word hoofsaaklik vertel in 'n chronologiese reeks koerante, elk gesentreer op 'n spesifieke torpedoboot, wat oor 'n tydperk van 22 jaar van 1875-1897 vir die Amerikaanse vloot gebou of voorgestel is. Elke verhaal plaas die vaartuig in die omgewing van die dag. Omdat die gebeure van 1860 en die daaropvolgende burgeroorlog so transformerend was vir die Herreshoff -broers en veral die Amerikaanse vloot, is dit waar die verhaal begin. Aan die agterkant strek die Postscript na die Amerikaanse vlootplanne vir vernietigers in 1904.

Die koerante in die reeks is:

1. The Players- 1860
2. Oorlog en die gevolge daarvan
3. Bliksem: 'n oorwinning vir die Herreshoff -stelsel
4. STILETTO: Die soeke na pariteit met Europa
5. CUSHING: Die stryd om die Herreshoff -ontwerp te bou
6. PORTER & amp; DUPONT: Herreshoff Performance vs Navy Bureau Mediocrity
7. Die Herreshoff-torpedoboot met 30 knope: 'n bereik bereik sukses en mislukking
8. Naskrif

Agtergrond

Hierdie artikels is veral 'n soeke na die feite. In 'n poging om die versigtigheid te bevredig, het kapt. Nat in 'n brief aan W.P. Stephens gesê: "Dink u nie dat dit beter is om nie uitsprake te maak voordat u die feite ken nie?" [2]

Toe ek in 1997 as vrywilliger begin, was die "feite" van die torpedoboot aan besoekers: Terwyl vandag HMCo. word onthou vir Amerika se beker-oorwinnings, groot wedrenne, en suksesvolle wedrenne en wedrenne, van 1868-1897 het Herreshoff 180 stoomvaartuie gebou, twee keer soveel as seil. vaartuie vir staatsdiens, en agt daarvan was torpedobote vir die Amerikaanse vloot. Nuwe tegnologie is ontwikkel in die private sektor en dan toegepas op vlootwerk. Herreshoff het die eerste Amerikaanse vloot -torpedoboot, USS Lightning, gebou. Herreshoff -torpedobote was die beste vir elke nuwe ontwerp en bied beter prestasie en spoed. Herreshoff het gekap onder leiding van plaaslike vlootinspekteurs, wat hulle as inmengend en minder bekwaam as hulself beskou het. Dit het tot 'n punt gekom met 'n voorval op USS DUPONT (TB-7). Herreshoff is deur inspekteurs aangesê om die materiaal vir 'n enjinslip te verander, wat tydens die proewe misluk. Dit was die laaste strooi en hulle het vinnig die vloot se werk verlaat. Wie het die hartseer nodig gehad toe hulle America's Cup -bote moes bou vir kliënte wat hul ontwerpe sonder twyfel aanvaar en betaal het wat gevra is?

Navorsing het egter bewys dat hierdie verhaal op 'n aantal terreine te eenvoudig en eenvoudig verkeerd is. Om net twee te noem: dit is problematies om te beweer dat Herreshoff die eerste torpedoboot gebou het, en die primêre vlootinspekteur tydens die bou van al die torpedobote was 'n medewerker en ondersteuner wat sy loopbaan in die poging in gevaar gestel het. Boonop, soos sommige ander HMCo. verhale word dit aangebied asof die onderneming bestaan ​​in 'n vakuum sonder komplekse kliënte, mededingers en ander kragte, instellings en persoonlikhede van buite. Hierdie reeks referate het ten doel om hierdie faktore in ag te neem, tesame met 'n meer deeglike ondersoek en ontleding van die historiese rekord. Die koerante sal gedurende die res van 2021 met tussenposes gepubliseer word.

Erkennings

Baie is sedert 1997 geleer en ons het baie mense om te bedank vir die vordering.

In 2001 publiseer die ontslape Bristol -historikus Richard Simpson Die bou van die muskietvloot: die eerste vlootbote van die Amerikaanse vloot en opgevolg in 2016 met Bokkeiland en die Amerikaanse vlootstormstasie: geweerkatoen, rooklose poeier en Torpedo's. Dit bevat nuwe inligting oor die Herreshoff -torpedobote wat hy wys genoeg was om uit die asblik te red tydens veranderende administrasies en afskaling van die Newport Torpedo -stasie. Hy was 'n goeie vriend en het baie van sy argief aan die museum geskenk.

Nuwe navorsing deur die museum ondersteun 'n opgedateerde torpedobootverhaal vir die uitstalling van 2002, In Defense of the Nation: The Herreshoff Story 1875 tot 1945. In 2007 werk wyle David W. McComb, skrywer en dosent oor die geskiedenis van vernietigers van die Amerikaanse vloot en entoesiastiese stigter van die Destroyer History Foundation (www.destroyerhistory.org.) Met ons saam om 'n begrip te kry van die verband tussen die Herreshoff -torpedo bote en die eerste vernietigers van die Amerikaanse vloot- 'n groter tipe bekend as die 'torpedobootvernietiger ”. Dave was die eerste om die belangrikheid van die "Narragansett Bay Connection" te postuleer (Newport Naval Torpedo Station gestig 1869, John Brown Herreshoff eers met stoomvaartuie in 1868 en vervolg met HMCo. Gestig 1878, en die Naval War College gestig 1884).

Dave was ook die eerste om die belangrikheid van George Albert Converse, wat die Navy -verteenwoordiger by HMCo was, te beklemtoon. throughout the torpedo boat years. Both Dave and I separately researched the Converse Collection preserved at the DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University. (Who would have thought the answers to many Herreshoff torpedo boat questions resided in Dallas, TX?) Fortunately, the Library, with encouragement from John Hattendorf, former E.J. King Professor of Naval History, Naval War College, has placed much of the Converse material online.

The majority of the Nathanael G. Herreshoff Collection housed in the museum has received at least a preliminary inventory and is safely preserved in archival boxes. Our major collection of Capt. Nat’s letters was rescued from a large Tupperware box found in Museum storage and is now carefully preserved and cataloged. Donors have contributed important materials the PORTER/DUPONT construction contracts come from Capt. Richard Hamly USN (Ret) and the proposed Edward Burgess/Nat Herreshoff cooperation to design the first sea-going torpedo boat from Burgess family papers. The 1986 bequest of Louise DeWolf, John Brown Herreshoff’s granddaughter, included original HMCo. materials as well as an extensive collection of Herreshoff Family letters and papers. The Museum’s Archives contains these manuscript collections and additional collections related to HMCo., the Herreshoff Family and the America’s Cup. They are preserved and cataloged. Thanks to the work of Norene Rickson and Evelyn Ansel and their volunteers progress continues to be made on the collection each and every day. The loose papers filling the drawers of the Model Room drawing table and many handwritten design notes by Capt. Nat have been scanned and prepared for indexing. Halsey Herreshoff provided access to Capt. Nat’s diaries and Naval Architecture and Engineering Notes for the torpedo boats, and the open-water model testing of their hull designs. Further he commissioned his alma mater Webb Institute to conduct a modern test and analysis of Capt. Nat’s PORTER/DUPONT model.

More knowledge came from the Museum’s new Steam exhibit generously funded by the Van Beuren Charitable Foundation and the Norman Foundation. Bill Lynn, Mike Rossi, Dave Spencer and Sandy Lee did the research and exhibit development and Evelyn Ansel led the installation.

Sandy Lee volunteered the journals and materials of RADM Tattnall Nichols first-hand accounts of the U.S. Navy during the doldrums following the Civil War. Sandy’s RELIANCE model and Steam Launch HMCo. 199 Projects have led to a better understanding of what HMCo., its foremen and craftsmen did, and how they did it.

Kurt Hasselbalch, former Curator Hart Nautical Collections MIT Museum, produced Lighter, Stronger, Faster: The Herreshoff Legacy Exhibit and oversaw the digitization of the HMCo. plans collection, previously loaned and then donated to MIT by Rudolph Haffenreffer.

Claas van der Linde, Herreshoff researcher extraordinaire, has put it all together with the Herreshoff Catalogue Raisonnè: the place to start any research into things Herreshoff.

And on the Navy side of things, the Hathiway Trust has made available online the Annual Reports of the Secretary of the Navy. These documents not only include the Secretary’s report but the reports to him from the Navy Bureaus the latter often including reports from subordinate Navy commands such as U.S. Naval Torpedo Station Newport.

[1] Nathanael G. Herreshoff diary entry Dec 21, 1896. Diary access courtesy Halsey C. Herreshoff. PORTER shows a high freeboard because she is not fully outfitted nor loaded with stores and consumables.

[2] John W. Streeter (annotated). Nathanael Greene Herreshoff, William Piccard Stephens: Their Last Letters 1930-1938 (Bristol, RI: Herreshoff Marine Museum, 1988). Letter #3 NGH to WPS, June 12, 1930, pg. 19.


Explore all drawings relating to this boat.

  1. Dwg 072-012 (HH.5.05196): Flush Deck Hatch - 14" Diameter (1887-04-07)
  2. Dwg 006-040 (HH.5.00539): 51" Propeller, 100" x 90" Pitch (ca. 1888)
  3. Dwg 019-022 (HH.5.01431) Main Engine for Seagoing Torpedo Boat (1888)
  4. Dwg 019-048 (HH.5.01458): Reversing Lever for 15" Stroke Engine (ca. 1888)
  5. Dwg 092-000 (HH.5.07601): Handle for Hatch, Str. 152 (ca. 1888)
  6. Dwg 067-034 (HH.5.04763): Steering Gear Str. 150 and 151 (1888-03-02)
  7. Dwg 019-014 (HH.5.01423): Bottom of Oil Tank - 15" Stroke Engine (1888-08-22)
  8. Dwg 058-010 (HH.5.04081): Stern for Torpedo Boat No. 152 (1888-10-10)
  9. Dwg 058-009 (HH.5.04080): Stern for Torpedo Boat No. 152 (1888-10-13)
  10. Dwg 058-007 (HH.5.04078): Stern Bearing for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1888-11-23)
  11. Dwg 058-011 (HH.5.04082): Outside Intermediate Bearing for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1888-11-24)
  12. Dwg 009-023 (HH.5.00805): Shaft Coupling for Str. 152 (1888-11-28)
  13. Dwg 023-016 (HH.5.01671): Blower Engine Bed for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1888-12-20)
  14. Dwg 023-012 (HH.5.01667): Blower for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1888-12-27)
  15. Dwg 022-015 (HH.5.01601): Machinery for Seagoing Torpedo Boat, Pumping System (ca. 1889)
  16. Dwg 066-011 (HH.5.04683): Engine Signal Apparatus (Engine Room) (ca. 1889)
  17. Dwg 071-031 (HH.5.05134): For Str. 162, Starboard Flange for Port Hawser Pipe (ca. 1889)
  18. Dwg 072-014 (HH.5.05198): [Coal Scuttle] (ca. 1889)
  19. Dwg 083-024 (HH.5.06380): [Skylight] (ca. 1889)
  20. Dwg 083-025 (HH.5.06381): [Sky Light Details] (ca. 1889)
  21. Dwg 083-026 (HH.5.06382): [Sky Light Details] (ca. 1889)
  22. Dwg 085-026 (HH.5.06612): Braces for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (ca. 1889)
  23. Dwg 092-027 (HH.5.07497) Handle for Hatch Str. 152 (ca. 1889)
  24. Dwg 007-054 (HH.5.00682): Propeller Shaft for Torpedo Boat Str. 152, 15" Stroke Quadruple Expansion Engine (1889-01-10)
  25. Dwg 007-053 (HH.5.00681): Propeller Shaft St. 152 (1889-01-12)
  26. Dwg 056-017 (HH.5.04029): Tube Sheets for Str. 152 (1889-01-17)
  27. Dwg 056-013 (HH.5.04025): Condenser for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-01-19)
  28. Dwg 056-018 (HH.5.04030): Plan of Condenser for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-02-05)
  29. Dwg 069-007 (HH.5.04963): Cylinder and Reversing Valve for Steam Steering Gear (1889-02-23)
  30. Dwg 069-036 (HH.5.04992): Details of Steam Steering Gear for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-02-25)
  31. Dwg 069-038 (HH.5.04994): Details of Steam Steering Gear for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-02-25)
  32. Dwg 069-035 (HH.5.04991): Detail of Steam Steering Engine (1889-02-27)
  33. Dwg 069-034 (HH.5.04990): Detail of Steering Engine for Str. 152 (1889-02-28)
  34. Dwg 069-037 (HH.5.04993): Bed for Steam Steering Engine (1889-02-28)
  35. Dwg 072-023 (HH.5.05207): Hatch for Str. 152, Sizes from Blueprint of Dec. 4, ྔ (1889-03-04)
  36. Dwg 050-027 (HH.5.03832): 3 1/2" Gate Valve Str. 156 (1889-04-05)
  37. Dwg 050-027 (HH.5.03833): Gate Valve for Str. 156 (1889-04-05)
  38. Dwg 073-004 (HH.5.05234): Blower Hatch for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 [Cowl] (1889-04-10)
  39. Dwg 092-026 (HH.5.07496) Fittings for Coal Scuttles for Str. 152 (1889-04-16)
  40. Dwg 085-028 (HH.5.06614): Rail Stanchions and Sockets for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-04-18)
  41. Dwg 073-006 (HH.5.05236): Deck Lights for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-04-22)
  42. Dwg 073-007 (HH.5.05237): Ventilators for Torpedoboat Str. 152 (1889-04-23)
  43. Dwg 043-002 (HH.5.03352): Boiler for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-04-27)
  44. Dwg 043-004 (HH.5.03354): Boiler for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 Shown in the Boat (1889-04-27)
  45. Dwg 043-001 (HH.5.03351): Boiler for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 Shown in Position in Boat (1889-04-30)
  46. Dwg 073-008 (HH.5.05238): Ventilator for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-05-03)
  47. Dwg 112-018 (HH.5.09307): Capstan for 5/8" Chain of 3 1/4" Pitch (1889-05-03)
  48. Dwg 044-008 (HH.5.03464): Details of Boiler for Steamer 152 (1889-05-11)
  49. Dwg 044-014 (HH.5.03470): Details of Boiler for Str. 152 (1889-05-11)
  50. Dwg 050-028 (HH.5.03834): Details for Bilge Suction Pipe for Str. 152 (1889-05-14)
  51. Dwg 046-022 (HH.5.03565): Details of Boiler for Steamer 152 (1889-05-17)
  52. Dwg 050-018 (HH.5.03823): Tee for Bilge Suction (1889-05-17)
  53. Dwg 047-054 (HH.5.03637): Details of Boiler for Steamer 152 (1889-05-18)
  54. Dwg 049-003 (HH.5.03680): Detail of Bilge Suction for Str. 152 (1889-05-18)
  55. Dwg 049-036 (HH.5.03713): Ejector for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-05-21)
  56. Dwg 010-044 (HH.5.00888): Stuffing Box for Shaft on Bulkhead # 53 for Str. 152 (1889-05-22)
  57. Dwg 049-007 (HH.5.03684): Plan of Piping from Donkey Pumps (1889-05-24)
  58. Dwg 070-027 (HH.5.05027): Cavel Chocks for Str. 152 (1889-05-29)
  59. Dwg 083-023 (HH.5.06379): General Arrangement > Skylight for Str. 152 (1889-05-29)
  60. Dwg 046-023 (HH.5.03566): 360 Grate Bars to Drawing (1889-05-31)
  61. Dwg 046-024 (HH.5.03567): Cast Iron Details of Boiler for Steamer # 152 (1889-05-31)
  62. Dwg 046-025 (HH.5.03568): Cast Iron Details of Boiler for Steamer # 152 (1889-05-31)
  63. Dwg 072-013 (HH.5.05197): Arrangement for W.C. for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-06-03)
  64. Dwg 069-009 (HH.5.04965): Valve and Stems for Steam Steering Engine (1889-06-06)
  65. Dwg 112-020 (HH.5.09309) Details of Steam Windlass for Str. 152 (1889-06-06)
  66. Dwg 112-021 (HH.5.09310): Details of Steam Windlass for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-06-07)
  67. Dwg 112-016 (HH.5.09305): Details of Steam Windlass Str. 152 (1889-06-11)
  68. Dwg 044-017 (HH.5.03473): Details of Boiler for Steamer No. 152 (1889-06-12)
  69. Dwg 112-019 (HH.5.09308): Details of Steam Windlass for Str. 152 (1889-06-13)
  70. Dwg 112-017 (HH.5.09306): Detail of Steam Windlass for Str. 152 (1889-06-14)
  71. Dwg 043-003 (HH.5.03353): After Boiler for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-06-15)
  72. Dwg 043-000 (HH.5.03451): Details of Boiler, Steamer 152 (1889-06-18)
  73. Dwg 043-005 (HH.5.03355): Side View After Boiler Torpedo Boat Cushing (1889-06-19)
  74. Dwg 069-006 (HH.5.04962): Steam Steering Engine (1889-06-20)
  75. Dwg 070-025 (HH.5.05025): Fair Leads for Anchor Cable, Str. 152 (1889-07-08)
  76. Dwg 085-024 (HH.5.06610): Sockets for Rail Stanchions and Awning Pipes for Str. 152 (1889-07-11)
  77. Dwg 085-025 (HH.5.06611): Sockets for Rail Stanchions and Awning Pipes for Str. 152 (1889-07-11)
  78. Dwg 083-022 (HH.5.06378): Sky Lights and Details for Str. 152 (1889-07-15)
  79. Dwg 112-015 (HH.5.09304): Steam Capstan for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-07-17)
  80. Dwg 050-041 (HH.5.03849): Feed Delivery Valve for Boilers in Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-07-18)
  81. Dwg 067-062 (HH.5.04791) Hand Steering Wheel for Str. 151 and 152 (1889-08-12)
  82. Dwg 082-013 (HH.5.06283): Cushing (1889-08-14 ?)
  83. Dwg 082-013 [082-000] (HH.5.06284): Awning for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-08-14)
  84. Dwg 050-029 (HH.5.03835): Filling Plug for Boiler Str. 152 (1889-08-16)
  85. Dwg 050-026 (HH.5.03831): Blow Off Cock for Boiler Str. 152 (1889-08-17)
  86. Dwg 010-000 (HH.5.00885): Foundations for Line Bearing Str. 152 (1889-08-22)
  87. Dwg 049-006 (HH.5.03683): Plan of Steam Piping, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-08-27)
  88. Dwg 047-029 (HH.5.03613): Smoke Stack for Forward Boiler of Cushing (1889-08-31)
  89. Dwg 009-034 (HH.5.00816): Coupling for Steamer Windlass Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-02)
  90. Dwg 007-055 (HH.5.00683): For Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-03)
  91. Dwg 049-002 (HH.5.03679): Copper Tank for Str. 152 (1889-09-03)
  92. Dwg 050-019 (HH.5.03824): [Deck Fittings for Exhaust Pipe] (1889-09-03)
  93. Dwg 044-010 (HH.5.03466): Arrangement of Boiler Tubes for Upper Drum Str. 152 (1889-09-04)
  94. Dwg 049-000 (HH.5.03677): For Bilge Suction Pipe, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-08)
  95. Dwg 062-035 (HH.5.04400): Rudder for Str. 152, Torpedo Boat No. 1 (1889-09-09)
  96. Dwg 072-015 (HH.5.05199): Coal Bunker Doors for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-09)
  97. Dwg 050-034 (HH.5.03840): 5" Tee and Elbow for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-10)
  98. Dwg 062-034 (HH.5.04399): Rudder Stock for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-10)
  99. Dwg 050-021 (HH.5.03826): Fittings for Piping Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-13)
  100. Dwg 050-020 (HH.5.03825): Fittings for Steam Piping, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-14)
  101. Dwg 050-036 (HH.5.03842): Fittings for Steam Piping, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-14)
  102. Dwg 044-012 (HH.5.03468): Arrangement for Lifting Boilers, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-16)
  103. Dwg 050-017 (HH.5.03822): 5" Angle Valve Used for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-19)
  104. Dwg 050-033 (HH.5.03839): 3 1/2" Angle Valve Used for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-20)
  105. Dwg 050-039 (HH.5.03847): 2" Angle Valve Used for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-21)
  106. Dwg 050-024 (HH.5.03829): Casting for Stop and Safety Valve for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-25)
  107. Dwg 049-008 (HH.5.03685): Arrangement for Valves and Fitting on Boiler for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-26)
  108. Dwg 050-025 (HH.5.03830): 5" Elbows for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-09-30)
  109. Dwg 049-004 (HH.5.03681): Copper Tank for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-01)
  110. Dwg 067-065 (HH.5.04794): Forward Sheave for Steering Chain, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-02)
  111. Dwg 044-013 (HH.5.03469): Details of Boiler for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-05)
  112. Dwg 049-005 (HH.5.03682): Fire Extinguisher for Boiler, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-07)
  113. Dwg 049-011 (HH.5.03688): Details of Distilling Apparatus for Str. 152 (1889-10-09 ?)
  114. Dwg 093-013 (HH.5.07618): Table for Crews Quarter, Torpedo Boat Str. 152, Made of Pine (1889-10-09)
  115. Dwg 049-012 (HH.5.03689): Details of Distilling Apparatus for Str. 152 (1889-10-11)
  116. Dwg 067-064 (HH.5.04793): Foundation and Details for After Steering Engine, Torpedo Str. 152 (1889-10-11)
  117. Dwg 067-063 (HH.5.04792): Details of Steering Arrangement for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-17)
  118. Dwg 085-027 (HH.5.06613): Guard for Propellers, Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-19)
  119. Dwg 022-016 (HH.5.01602): Piston Valve for Worthington Marine Steam Pump Used for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-25)
  120. Dwg 114-016 (HH.5.09511): Detail of Hand Winch for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-10-26)
  121. Dwg 114-017 (HH.5.09512): Hand Winch for Torpedo Boat, Str. 152 (1889-10-28)
  122. Dwg 066-013 (HH.5.04685): Detail of Engine Signal Str. 152 (1889-11-01)
  123. Dwg 066-010 (HH.5.04682): Signal Arrangement for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-11-02)
  124. Dwg 044-009 (HH.5.03465): Details of 5'-6" Sq. Boiler Used for Str. 162 (1889-11-06)
  125. Dwg 067-066 (HH.5.04795): For Torpedo Boat Str. 152 [Steering Details] (1889-11-22)
  126. Dwg 114-018 (HH.5.09513): Davits for Boat Str. 152 (1889-11-22)
  127. Dwg 050-023 (HH.5.03828): Expansion Stuffing Box for Steam Pipe (1889-11-29)
  128. Dwg 049-010 (HH.5.03687): Detail of Destiller [sic] for Torpedo Boat No. 152 (1889-12-11)
  129. Dwg 049-009 (HH.5.03686): Distilling Aparatus for Torpedo Boat No. 152 (1889-12-14)
  130. Dwg 073-005 (HH.5.05235): Speaking Glass from Engine to Boiler Room, Str. 152 (1889-12-17)
  131. Dwg 067-036 (HH.5.04765): Pointer for Rudder Motion, Str. 152, 164, 168 (1889-12-20)
  132. Dwg 010-041 (HH.5.00884): Shaft Bearings for Torpedo Boat Str. 152 (1889-12-29 ?)
  133. Dwg 112-014 (HH.5.09303): Wire Cable Stopper for Torpedoboat Str. 152 (1889-12-30)
  134. Dwg 019-020 (HH.5.01429): Handrail Round Engine Str. 152 (1890-01-02)
  135. Dwg 050-042 (HH.5.03850): Flange for Feed Valve to Go on Boiler Str. 152 (1890-01-03)
  136. Dwg 071-028 (HH.5.05131): Color Pole Socket for Stem, Str. 152 (1890-01-03)
  137. Dwg 032-005 (HH.5.02335): Steam Cooker for Str. 152 (1890-01-10)
  138. Dwg 056-000 (HH.5.04070): Strainer for Condenser Str. 152 (1890-01-13)
  139. Dwg 067-038 (HH.5.04767): Box for Compass, Str. 152 (1890-01-13)
  140. Dwg 066-012 (HH.5.04684): Fire Room Telegraph for # 152 (1890-01-17)
  141. Dwg 092-029 (HH.5.07499) Arrangement for Lantern, Str. 152 (1890-01-21)
  142. Dwg 019-050 (HH.5.01460): Counter Attachment for Engine Str. 152, Foot Valve for Air Pump (1890-01-28)
  143. Dwg 019-049 (HH.5.01459): Arrangement for Counter (1890-02-04)
  144. Dwg 001-004 (HH.5.00417) Construction Dwg > Torpedo Boat Cushing [138 O.A., 15' Beam, 10' Draft] (1890-02-10)
  145. Dwg 019-053 (HH.5.01463): Stopper for Reversing Levers, Str. 152 (1890-02-14)
  146. Dwg 030-003 (HH.5.02217): Docking Plan Torpedo Boat Cushing (1890-03-15)
  147. Dwg 030-011 (HH.5.02224): Docking Plan for Torpedo Boat Cushing (1890-03-15)
  148. Dwg 082-014 (HH.5.06285): Awning Pipes for Str. No. 152 (1890-03-17)
  149. Dwg 035-006 (HH.5.02562): Trial with Torpedo Boat "Cushing" (1890-03-24)
  150. Dwg 024-002 (HH.5.01697): General Arrangement > Torpedo Boat Cushing (1890-03-28)
  151. Dwg 004-033 (HH.5.00215) General Arrangement > Arrangement, Torpedo Boat (1890-05-16)
  152. Dwg 069-008 (HH.5.04964): Cylinder and Reversing Valve for Steam Steering Gear (1890-06-18)
  153. Dwg 069-024 (HH.5.04980): Bed for Steam Steering Engine Str. 152 (1890-06-20)
  154. Dwg 069-039 (HH.5.04995): Details of Steering Engine Str. 152 (1890-06-23)
  155. Dwg 019-056 (HH.5.01466): Arrangement for Turning Cap on Stuffing Box (1891-01-27)
  156. Dwg 066-014 (HH.5.04686): Forward Signal Arrangement for Torpedo Boats No. 6 and 7 (184 and 185) (1896-08 ?)
  157. Dwg 053-020 (HH.5.03906): 5" Angle Valves for Torpedo Boats No. 14, 15, 16 (190, 191, 192) (1897-09-14)

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Cushing - TB-1 - History

Bristol industrialists and neighboring mansions, the launch of a sea-going torpedo boat, gossip from the only reliable source, and an unfortunate iceboating accident

January 28, 1888

“The Herreshoff Works are crowded with contracts” this January, according to the Bristol Phoenix. This is reported in a letter to the editor in counterpoint to the recent “failure of the National Rubber Company,” another major industrial concern in the town of Bristol. Augustus Osborn Bourne, 36th governor of Rhode Island and owner of the National Rubber Company in Bristol, also owned the gothic stone mansion across the street from Love Rocks. The mansion, known as Seven Oaks, was designed by architect James Renwick Jr. and built in 1873.

The National Rubber Company, Bristol RI. Today it is on the location of the Bristol Industrial Park off Franklin and Wood streets image courtesy Wikimedia Commons

January 23, 1890

The torpedo boat CUSHING (HMCo. #152) was launched 131 years ago this week. The Bristol Phoenix reported on the launching festivities and the many Naval officers in attendance. “Kitty” Herreshoff christened the vessel, and the crowd “seemed to enjoy the occasion heartily.” CUSHING (TB-1) was equipped with two Thornycroft boilers and two Herreshoff steam engines. The quadruple expansion, 5 cylinder engines were capable of producing 1050 h.p., and the vessel made 26 m.p.h. in her speed trials. CUSHING was originally contracted for $82,750, and met an unfortunate end in 1920 at just 30 years old: the vessel was used for target practice by the Navy, and was sunk intentionally. You can learn more about CUSHING in our Curator’s Log post September 2018.

CUSHING (HMCo. #152) with three Whitehead torpedo tubes image courtesy the US Navy

January 24, 1899

The Bristol Phoenix is unhappy about big city newspapers scooping their local America’s Cup stories and insists that they are the only source of exclusive America’s Cup gossip to be trusted! As such, the Phoenix reports that the lead for the keel of the latest defender is in the process of being poured: not yesterday or tomorrow but that very day, January 24, 1899. This would have been the keel for COLUMBIA (HMCo. #499).

COLUMBIA (HMCo. #499) photographed by J.S. Johnston for the Detroit Publishing Co. ca. 1899 image courtesy the Library of Congress

January 23, 1912

A terrible accident has occurred on the harbor, according to the Bristol Phoenix and (with even more dramatic headlines) the New York Times. The previous Saturday, L. Francis had been out sailing his iceboat CYRUS P. BROWN with a guest, Miss Christine Howe, of Philadelphia. The iceboat was going some 40 m.p.h. around dusk when it reportedly hit a mooring buoy protruding from the ice. Miss Howe was badly injured, suffering cuts and bruises to her face and two broken arms. L. Francis, somewhat miraculously, was not seriously hurt. The iceboat itself was reportedly destroyed. According to the Phoenix, the CYRUS P. BROWN was capable of attaining speeds close to 60 m.p.h. The unfortunate accident was reported on widely, perhaps especially so because Miss Howe was a “society girl.” Though her injuries were serious, the papers projected she would make a full recovery. Despite the tenor of the coverage of this “spectacular accident,” the two young people were lucky to have been able to walk away from the wreck.

Another Herreshoff family iceboat on Bristol Harbor, BILZZARD, photographed by Agnes Herreshoff six years later in 1918 HMM archive

Sunday Ship History: Sinking the Albemarle

October is a great month in the history of the United States Navy.

The U.S. Navy was founded on October 13, 1775.

USS Grondwet, "old Ironsides", still in commission, was launched in October 1797.

The "greatest sea battle" of all time was fought in and around the Philippines - the Battle of Leyte Gulf was fought from October 20, 1944 (it began with the allied landings on Leyte) and ran through October 26. And saw the end of any real Japanese surface navy threat and the rise of the kamikaze air attacks. And every surface line officer knows that it was probably the last time that "crossing the T" was done to bring all guns to bear on an enemy fleet.

And in October 1962, the world was about as close to full out nuclear war as it has ever come, as the Soviets and Cubans attempted to place nuclear tipped missiles on Cuban shore and the U.S. responded with a naval blockade of Cuba and brinksmanship made both sides blink- during the Cuban Missile Crisis".

These great events sometimes overshadow the smaller stories of men at war, hiding the stories of individual actions and personalities that form themselves in courageous acts.

One such act took place on October 27, 1864. The Confederate states were themselves being blockaded by the Union Navy, which was tasked to keep military supplies from flowing into the South and Southern trade goods from flowing out. The success of the blockade was limited by shortages of ships and by daring "blockade runners." As set out here:

Among the tools the Confederate Navy tried to use to defeat the blockade were its newly developed ironclad ships. These ships were designed to withstand shelling by the Union Navy ships and ram the relatively fragile hulls of wooden blockade ships, sinking them and ending the blockade.

One such iron clad ram was the Confederate ram Albemarle, which was stoutly armored for her day:

. built upriver in eastern North Carolina in William Ruffin Smith, Jr's cornfield on the edge of the Roanoke River near Scotland Neck.

The CSS Albemarle was commissioned on Sunday, April 17, 1864.

Her captain, Commander James W. Cooke, was ordered to immediately begin her trek downstream. Cooke, who previously held the responsibility of overseeing the construction of ironclads built in North Carolina, had been appointed as her captain in January.

Despite the fact that the Union Navy command in New Bern had been warned by spies that the Albemarle was on her way downstream, Cooke managed to successfully maneuver around Union-laid obstacles including a gauntlet of sunken hulls, pilings, torpedoes and cannon shot.

Two days after leaving the Edwards Ferry yard, the ironclad Albemarle, with her tender ship the Cotton Patch following close behind, arrived offshore of Plymouth.

At 4:07 a.m. on April 19, Cooke ordered the Albemarle's gun crew to load solid shot and standby. Through the misty twilight he had spotted two approaching Union vessels.

As the enemy grew closer he could see that the two ships were linked together with "hawsers and chains."

It quickly became obvious that the Union captains planned to snare the Albemarle with their chains trapping her between their vessels so the ironclad could be boarded and possibly captured.

Cooke ordered the Albemarle "all ahead full," sending the 376-ton ironclad straight for the space between the bows of wooden hulled Union vessels.

Heavy guns from the two Union ships, the USS Southfield and USS Miami, pounded the Albemarle with shot.

In a few seconds, the Albemarle had traversed the river, feinted at the last moment and rammed the Southfield hard at her port bow.

The Albemarle's ram crashed 10 feet inside the Southfield's hull, causing the Union ship to start sinking immediately. The Southfield suddenly listed to starboard, causing the Albemarle's bow to become jammed in the hull.

Cooke ordered "all astern full," hoping that full reverse thrust would relieve the Albemarle's bow and ram from the sinking Southfield.

To his horror, the Albemarle's ram remained stuck.

The ironclad began to sink with the Southfield, her bow depressed under the sinking ship. The Albemarle's forward deck was depressed so low that water rushed into her forward port.

Crewmen on the Southfield were abandoning ship. Some were attempting to lower small boats. Others were leaping into the chilly water.

The normally quiet morning twilight was filled with un-muffled shouts, screams and curses of Union sailors abandoning ship.

With the Albemarle stuck fast to the Southfield, the Miami's Captain, Lt. Commander Charles W. Flusser (also the Senior U.S. naval officer at Plymouth) ordered several broadsides fired into the ironclad's port casemate.

The shots ricocheted off the iron plates of the Albemarle, careening harmlessly into the water.

He jumped behind the Miami's bow-mounted XI-inch Dahlgren cannon, and personally fired the big gun pointblank at the Albemarle from a range of about 30 feet.

The shell slammed into the ironclad's casemate, ricocheting back and exploding directly over Flusser, killing him instantly and wounding several of the gun crew.

Cooke, still unable to use the big guns of the Albemarle because of her unfortunate predicament of being stuck to the Southfield, ordered his crew to climb to the top of the casemate where they engaged the Miami's crew in a brief but brisk small arms skirmish.

Finally, the Southfield's hull hit the bottom of the river. She rolled slightly, releasing her death grip on the Albemarle.

Cooke quickly reversed out and maneuvered the Albemarle for an attack on the Miami.

The Miami, however wanted no more of the Albemarle. She reversed her engines, then retreated at full speed.

By 5:11 a.m., as the sun began to cast rays over the waters of the Roanoke River at Plymouth, the Albemarle's first battle was over. She had suffered only one casualty - a crewmember identified only as "Harris." That unlucky Confederate received a pistol shot from a sailor on the Miami when he succumbed to curiosity and took a peek out of one the ironclad's gun ports.

Cooke navigated the victorious Albemarle to a point one mile below Plymouth where he dropped anchor and allowed the crew to recover and prepare their ship for another battle.

His "iron sharpshooter battery" and tender ship, the Cotton Plant, which had remained above Plymouth while the Albemarle engaged the enemy, was now anchored close by the ironclad.

Plymouth, North Carolina in those days was strategic port, located on the Roanoke River, and the site of vigorous military action:

During the War Between the States, Plymouth became a focal point for both the Union and the Confederacy because the Federal naval blockade tightened it's hold on the Confederacy with each passing year of the war. Being a strategic port, Plymouth gained added significance. It was believed to provide the easiest access to the vital Wilmington & Weldon Railroad. This crucial rail link which ran from Wilmington, NC to Richmond, VA was the "lifeline of the Confederacy", supplying Lee's Army of Northern Virginia. By 1864 the Federal fleet had closed all of the significant Southern ports except Wilmington, NC, which was guarded by the "Confederate Goliath", Fort Fischer. Therefore, this vital railroad became the focus of the Union and the Confederacy.

Plymouth, being occupied by the Federal Army and Navy since 1862, was a jumping off point for attempts to cut Lee's supply line, the Wilmington & Weldon Railroad.

Confederate Fort Branch located at Rainbow Bluffs above Williamston on the Roanoke River effectively blocked the river route. Numerous unsuccessful attempts to reach the railroad bridge at Weldon were made by the Plymouth based Federals.

Finally, in early 1864 Robert E. Lee agreed to spare his trustworthy Brigadier General, Robert F. Hoke, from service in Virginia to rid the coast of North Carolina of Union occupation. Hoke was on a tight timetable because Lee needed him back in Virginia before the summer campaign. With 13,000 troops and the promised support of the ironclad ram, the CSS Albemarle, Hoke began his attack on Plymouth late in the afternoon of April 17, 1864. Plymouth was defended by approximately 3,000 Federal troops under the command of Brigadier General Henry Wessells. The army was supported by the Federal Navy under the command of Charles Flusser.

After a full day of hard fighting on April 18th, some of the Confederate troops were becoming demoralized due to the heavy beating they were getting by the Federal Navy's gunboats and the stiff resistance from the well entrenched Federal Army defending Plymouth. Then in the early hours of April 19th the CSS Albemarle came to the rescue, steaming down the Roanoke driving the Federal Navy from the river. Commander Flusser was killed and the USS Southfield was rammed and sunk. The Federal army was surrounded now on land and river, but held out until 10:00 a.m. on April 20th, when General Wessells surrendered.

With the ironclad Albemarle controlling the river, the vital port could be kept open for the Confederacy.

But the death of Commander Flusser angered one his friends, Lt. William Barker Cushing.

Lt. Cushing, commander of the Union ship Monticello vowed to avenge his friend and devised a plan to sink Albemarle:

The plan was approved, and the Lieutenant withdrawn from the Monticello to perform this special service. Since that date Admiral LEE has been succeeded by Admiral PORTER, who has signalized his assumption of command by the destruction of the ALBEMARLE. After the conception of his plan Lieutenant CUSHING came to New York, and, in conjunction with Admiral GREGORY, Captain BOGGS, and Chief Engineer W. W. Wood, applied to one of the new steam-pickets a torpedo arrangement and returned to the Sound.
The Albemarle was moored some eight miles from the mouth of the Roanoke River, at the wharves of Plymouth. On the night of October 27, 1864, a pitch-dark rainy night, Cushing slipped away from the blockading fleet on his perilous and desperate errand. Cushing went up-stream with the utmost caution, as the success depended upon silence and surprise. By good luck he passed unnoticed a Confederate lookout below the ram. The Albemarle was protected by a great boom of logs thrown out about thirty feet from her, on purpose. to prevent such an attack as Cushing had in view. Feeling his way cautiously he finally made out the boom of the Albemarle, and at once drove at her. But as they neared the landing the barking of a dog aroused the sentry. The shots were singing around him, as he stood erect guiding his launch. The noise of the great guns could be heard as they were made ready.

The second attempt to reach the ram was successful. As the boat slid forward over the boom he brought the torpedo full against the side of the powerful ram, and instantly exploded it, within ten feet of the muzzle of the hundred-pounder, which was depressed as rapidly as possible to blow Cushing and his boat out of the water. The explosion and the discharge of the Albemarle's gun was simultaneous. The ram at once settled, and the launch sinking at the same moment, Cushing and his men threw off their coats and plunged into the water, striking out for the middle of the river. From river to swamp and woods, and finally swimming besides a small, square-ended boat out of the sound into the sea, when coming within the hailing of our ships, Cushing gave the "ship ahoy," and was picked up by the Valley City. Cushing's whole career shows him as a man of great courage and energy and, as Admiral Farragut said, " While no navy has braver officers than ours, young Cushing was the hero of the war."

The light of fire ashore showed me the ironclad made fast to the wharf, with a pen of logs around her about 30 feet from her side.

Passing her closely, we made a complete circle so as to strike her fairly, and went into her bows on. By this time the enemy's fire was fairly severe, but a dose of canister at short range served to moderate their zeal and disturb their aim. Paymaster Swan, of the Otsego, was wounded near me, but how many more I know not. Three bullets struck my clothing, and the air seemed full of them.

In a moment we had struck the logs, just abreast of the quarter port, breasting them in some feet, and our bows resting on them. The torpedo boom was then lowered and by a vigorous pull I succeeded in diving the torpedo under the overhang and exploding it at the same time that the Albemarle's gun was fired. A shot seemed to go crashing through my boat, and a dense mass of water rushed in from the torpedo, filling the launch and completely disabling her.

The enemy then continued his fire at 15 feet range, and demanded our surrender, which I twice refused, ordering the men to save themselves, and removing my own coat and shoes. Springing into the river, I swam, with others, into the middle of the stream, the rebels failing to hit us.

The most of our party were captured, some were drowned, and only one escaped besides myself, and he in another direction.

Lt. Cushing was much honored in his day.

Fittingly, the U.S. named a motor torpedo boat (TB-1) after Cushing. In addition, a number of destroyers have borne the Cushing name, one of which (DD-376) was lost off Guadalcanal in 1942. DD-797 saw action in both WW II and Korea. The fifth USS Cushing, a Spruance class destroyer, was decommissioned in 2005.

A small salute to a naval hero and the men who took up his challenge to engage the enemy.


Kyk die video: Dandy with a Dash of Cushing - Mary Ellen Dandy Marmaduke, Michael Dandy Patz,.