Versterkings van Amphipolis

Versterkings van Amphipolis


Amphipolis

Amphipolis (Grieks: Αμφίπολη, geromaniseer: Amfipoli Ancient   Grieks: Ἀμφίπολις, geromaniseer: Amphipolis) [2] is 'n munisipaliteit in die Serres  streek en#8197 -eenheid van Griekeland. Die setel van die munisipaliteit is Rodolivos. [3] Dit was 'n antieke Griekse polis   (stad), en later 'n Romeinse stad, waarvan die groot oorblyfsels nog te sien is.

Amphipolis, 'n Atheense kolonie, was die setel van die geveg tussen die Spartane en Atheners in 422 v.C., en ook die plek waar Alexander  the   Great voorberei het op veldtogte wat gelei het tot sy inval in Asië. [4] Alexander se drie beste admirale, Nearchus, Androsthenes en Laomedon, woon in Amphipolis, wat ook die plek is waar sy vrou, Roxana, en hul seun Alexander  IV, na die dood van Alexander verban en later vermoor is.

Opgrawings in en om die stad het belangrike geboue, ou mure en grafte onthul. Die vondste word vertoon in die argeologiese  museum   van  Amphipolis. By die nabygeleë uitgestrekte Kasta  begrafnis  graf, is onlangs 'n ou Masedoniese graf onthul. The Lion  of   Amphipolis -monument in die omgewing is 'n gewilde bestemming vir besoekers.


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Oorsprong

Gedurende die 5de eeu v.C. het Athene probeer om sy beheer oor Thracië te konsolideer, wat strategies belangrik was vanweë sy primêre materiale (die goud en silwer van die Pangaion -heuwels en die digte woude wat noodsaaklik is vir vlootbou), en die seeroetes wat noodsaaklik is vir Athene 'voorraad graan uit Scythia. Na 'n eerste onsuksesvolle poging tot kolonisasie in 497 vC deur die Milesiaanse tiran Histiaeus, stig die Atheners in 465 'n eerste kolonie by Ennea-Hodoi ('Nege maniere'), maar hierdie eerste tienduisend koloniste is deur die Thraciërs vermoor. [4] 'n Tweede poging vind plaas in 437 vC op dieselfde terrein onder leiding van Hagnon, seun van Nicias, wat suksesvol was. Die stad en sy eerste mure dateer uit hierdie tyd.

Die nuwe nedersetting het die naam Amphipolis (letterlik "in die stad") gekry, 'n naam waaroor baie leksikografie gedebatteer word. Thucydides beweer dat die naam afkomstig is van die feit dat die Strymon aan twee kante "om die stad" vloei [5], maar 'n nota in die Suda (ook in die leksikon van Photius) bied 'n ander verduideliking wat blykbaar gegee is deur Marsyas, seun van Periander : dat 'n groot deel van die bevolking "rondom die stad" gewoon het. 'N Meer waarskynlike verklaring is egter die van Julius Pollux: dat die naam die nabyheid van 'n landas aandui.

Amphipolis het die belangrikste magsbasis van die Atheners in Thracië geword en gevolglik 'n teiken van keuse vir hul Spartaanse teëstanders. Die Atheense bevolking het baie in die minderheid in die stad gebly. [6] Om hierdie rede het Amphipolis 'n onafhanklike stad en 'n bondgenoot van die Atheners gebly, eerder as 'n kolonie of lid van die konfederasie. In 424 vC neem die Spartaanse generaal Brasidas egter maklik beheer oor die stad.

'N Reddingsekspedisie onder leiding van die Atheense generaal, en later historikus, moes Thucydides tevrede wees met die beveiliging van Eion en kon Amphipolis nie herower nie, 'n mislukking waarvoor Thucydides in ballingskap veroordeel is. 'N Nuwe Atheense mag onder bevel van Cleon het weer in 422 vC misluk tydens 'n geveg waarin beide Cleon en Brasidas hul lewens verloor het. Brasidas het lank genoeg oorleef om te hoor van die nederlaag van die Atheners en is met indrukwekkende praal begrawe in Amphipolis. Van toe af word hy beskou as die stigter van die stad [7] [8] [9] en vereer met jaarlikse speletjies en opofferings.

Masedoniese bewind

Die stad self het sy onafhanklikheid behou tot die bewind van koning Filips II (r. 359–336 vC) ondanks verskeie Atheense aanvalle, veral as gevolg van die regering van Callistratus van Aphidnae. In 357 vC slaag Philip daarin waar die Atheners misluk het en verower die stad, en verwyder sodoende die struikelblok wat Amphipolis voorgestel het aan Masedoniese beheer oor Thrakië. Volgens die historikus Theopompus was hierdie verowering die voorwerp van 'n geheime ooreenkoms tussen Athene en Filips II, wat die stad sou teruggee in ruil vir die versterkte stad Pydna, maar die Masedoniese koning verraai die ooreenkoms, weier om Amphipolis af te staan ​​en lê beleg van Pydna ook.

Die stad is nie onmiddellik opgeneem in die Masedoniese koninkryk nie, en het 'n geruime tyd sy instellings en 'n mate van outonomie behou. Die grens van Masedonië is egter nie verder ooswaarts verskuif nie, maar Philip het 'n aantal Masedoniese goewerneurs na Amphipolis gestuur, en die stad is in baie opsigte effektief 'Masedonies'. Nomenklatuur, die kalender en die geldeenheid (die goudstater, wat deur Philip geskep is om die goudreserwes van die Pangaion -heuwels te benut, het die Amphipolitan -drachma vervang) is almal vervang deur Masedoniese ekwivalente. In die bewind van Alexander die Grote was Amphipolis 'n belangrike vlootbasis en die geboorteplek van drie van die beroemdste Masedoniese admirale: Nearchus, Androsthenes [10] en Laomedon, waarvan die begraafplaas waarskynlik gekenmerk word deur die beroemde leeu Amphipolis.

Die belangrikheid van die stad in hierdie tydperk word getoon deur die besluit van Alexander die Grote dat dit een van die ses stede was waar groot luukse tempels ter waarde van 1500 talente gebou is. Alexander het hom voorberei vir veldtogte hier teen Thracië in 335 vC en sy leër en vloot wat naby die hawe vergader het voor die inval in Asië. Die hawe is ook gebruik as vlootbasis tydens sy veldtogte in Asië. Na Alexander se dood is sy vrou Roxane en hul klein seuntjie Alexander IV deur Cassander verban en later hier vermoor.

Regdeur die Masedoniese soewereiniteit was Amphipolis 'n sterk vesting van groot strategiese en ekonomiese belang, soos blyk uit inskripsies. Amphipolis het een van die hoofstoppe op die Masedoniese koninklike pad geword (soos getuig deur 'n grenssteen wat tussen Philippi en Amphipolis gevind is, wat later die afstand tot laasgenoemde gee), en later op die Via Egnatia, die belangrikste Romeinse pad wat die suidelike Balkan oorgesteek het. Afgesien van die mure van die laer stad, is die gimnasium en 'n stel goed bewaarde fresco's uit 'n welgestelde villa die enigste artefakte uit hierdie tydperk wat sigbaar bly. Alhoewel min bekend is oor die uitleg van die stad, is die moderne kennis van sy instellings aansienlik beter as gevolg van 'n ryk epigrafiese dokumentasie, insluitend 'n militêre verordening van Philip V en 'n efebargiese wet van die gimnasium.

Verowering deur die Romeine

Na die finale oorwinning van Rome oor Masedonië in 'n geveg in 168 vC, het Amphipolis die hoofstad geword van die vier mini-republieke, oftewel merides, wat deur die Romeine geskep is uit die koninkryk van die Antigonids wat Alexander se ryk in Masedonië opgevolg het. Hierdie merides is geleidelik opgeneem in die Romeinse kliëntstaat, en later die provinsie, Thracia. Volgens die Handelinge van die Apostels het die apostels Paulus en Silas in die vroeë 50's na Christus deur Amphipolis gegaan op hul reis tussen Filippi en Thessalonika. [11]

Herlewing in die laat oudheid

Gedurende die tydperk van die Laat Oudheid het Amphipolis baat gevind by die toenemende ekonomiese welvaart van Masedonië, soos blyk uit die groot aantal Christelike kerke wat gebou is. Hierdie kerke is egter beduidend gebou in 'n beperkte gebied van die stad, beskut deur die mure van die akropolis. Dit is beskou as 'n bewys dat die groot versterkte omtrek van die ou stad nie meer verdedigbaar was nie en dat die bevolking van die stad aansienlik verminder het.

Tog is die aantal, grootte en kwaliteit van die kerke wat tussen die vyfde en sesde eeu gebou is, indrukwekkend. Vier basilieke versier met ryk mosaïekvloere en uitgebreide argitektoniese beeldhouwerke (soos die kolomhoofde van die ram - sien prent) is opgegrawe, asook 'n kerk met 'n seskantige sentrale plan wat die van die basiliek van St. Vitalis in Ravenna oproep . Dit is moeilik om in so 'n klein dorpie redes te vind vir sulke munisipale uitspattigheid. Een moontlike verklaring wat deur die historikus André Boulanger verskaf is, is dat 'n toenemende 'gewilligheid' van die welgestelde hoërklasse in die laat -Romeinse tydperk om geld te bestee aan plaaslike gentrifikasieprojekte (wat hy noem euergetisme, uit die Griekse werkwoord εύεργετέω, (wat 'ek doen goed' beteken) is deur die plaaslike kerk uitgebuit tot sy voordeel, wat gelei het tot 'n massiewe gentrifisering van die stedelike sentrum en van die landbouryke rykdom van die stad. Amphipolis was ook 'n bisdom onder die metropolitaanse siening van Thessalonika - die biskop van Amphipolis word die eerste keer in 533 genoem. [12]

Finale agteruitgang van die stad

Die Slawiese invalle van die laat 6de eeu het geleidelik inbreuk gemaak op die Amphipolitan-leefstyl in die agtergrond en gelei tot die agteruitgang van die stad, gedurende watter tydperk die inwoners teruggetrek het na die gebied rondom die akropolis. Die walle is tot 'n sekere mate gehandhaaf, danksy materiaal wat uit die monumente van die laer stad geplunder is, en die groot ongebruikte bakke van die boonste stad is deur klein huise en die werkswinkels van ambagsmanne beset. Rond die middel van die 7de eeu nC is 'n verdere vermindering van die bewoonde gebied van die stad gevolg deur 'n toename in die vesting van die stad, met die bou van 'n nuwe skans met vyfhoekige torings wat deur die middel van die oorblywende monumente gesny het. Die akropolis, die Romeinse baddens en veral die biskoplike basiliek is deur hierdie muur gekruis.

Die stad is waarskynlik in die agtste eeu verlaat, soos die laaste biskop in 787 getuig het. Die inwoners het waarskynlik verhuis na die naburige plek van antieke Eion, die hawe van Amphipolis, wat in die Bisantynse tydperk herbou en opgeknap is onder die naam "Chrysopolis" ”. Hierdie klein hawe het steeds welvaart geniet voordat dit gedurende die Ottomaanse tydperk verlaat is. Die laaste teken van aktiwiteit in die omgewing van Amphipolis was die bou van 'n versterkte toring in die noorde in 1367 deur die megas primikerios John en die stratopedarches Alexios om die land wat hulle aan die klooster van Pantokrator op die berg Athos gegee het, te beskerm.


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Xena is in 1995 deur John Schulian ontwikkel as 'n sekondêre karakter vir Hercules: The Legendary Journeys, hoewel Lawless reeds op 20 Februarie 1995 verskyn het as die karakter Lyla in die episode "As Darkness Falls". [1] Xena is oorspronklik bedink om te sterf aan die einde van die derde episode, "Unchained Heart", maar toe die ateljee besluit dat hulle 'n afslag wil doen Hercules, het die vervaardiger Robert Tapert gesê dat Xena die beste keuse was, aangesien sy grootliks deur TV -kritici en aanhangers ontvang is en 'n volledige verhaal moes ondersoek. [2] Die ateljee wou iets daaraan doen Jason en die Argonauts, maar Tapert het gesê dat die program te veel dieselfde gevoel as Hercules sou hê. [2]

Die oorspronklike keuse om Xena te speel, was die Britse aktrise Vanessa Angel, maar sy het siek geword en kon nie die stel haal nie. [3] Uiteindelik is die rol aan Lawless gegee, aangesien sy reeds 'n inwoner van Nieu -Seeland was. [3] Lawless het verskeie ongelukke gehad wat die karakter speel as gevolg van die stunts (waarvan sy self uitgevoer het), soos om deur swaarde gesny te word, in die kop geslaan te word en perdverwante voorvalle. In 1996, terwyl hy 'n skets oefen vir The Tonight Show met Jay Leno, sy breek haar heup toe sy van haar perd verwyder word. [4] As gevolg hiervan moes verskeie episodes van seisoen twee geredigeer word om haar herstel te akkommodeer, en sommige daarvan is verander sodat Lawless 'n effense voorkoms kon hê, en die bemanning het 'n paar nuwe episodes gemaak. [4]

Bruce Campbell, Rose McIver, Hudson Leick en Ted Raimi het Xena ook in verskillende episodes van die reeks uitgebeeld as gevolg van 'body-swap' plotlines.

Die naam Xena kom van die antieke Grieks ξένος (xenos), wat 'vreemdeling' beteken. [5]

Oorsprong aan Hercules Redigeer

Xena verskyn oorspronklik as 'n skurk in die Hercules In die episode "The Warrior Princess", ongeveer tien jaar in haar loopbaan van plundery en bedrogspul, ontmoet Xena vir Hercules. Aanvanklik wil sy hom doodmaak. [6] In "The Gauntlet" draai haar leër teen haar in die oortuiging dat sy swak geword het nadat sy haar luitenant, Darphus, keer om 'n kind in 'n afgedankte dorp te vermoor. Xena bestuur 'n handskoen en oorleef en word die enigste persoon wat die handskoen ooit oorleef het. Sy veg dan teen Hercules, in die hoop dat sy haar leër sal herwin as sy sy kop kan terugbring. Dit lyk asof Xena die oorhand kry totdat Hercules se neef tussenbeide tree, sonder om self 'n verskil te maak, maar per ongeluk sy swaard aan Hercules gee, wat hom in staat stel om op gelyke grond met Xena te veg en haar te verslaan. Hercules weier egter om Xena dood te maak en sê vir haar: "Moord is nie die enigste manier om te bewys dat jy 'n vegter is nie". Aangeraak en geïnspireer deur Hercules se integriteit, en deur die feit dat hy ook die bloedverlies verloor het soos sy en tog besluit om te veg ter ere van hulle, besluit sy om by hom aan te sluit en haar ou leër te verslaan. [7]

In 'Unchained Heart' vertel Hercules vir Xena dat daar goedheid in haar hart is, en hulle twee deel 'n kort romantiese verhouding, voordat Xena besluit om weg te gaan en haar verlede te verbeter. [8]

Fiktiewe karaktergeskiedenis Wysig

Aanvanklike wending tot die bose Edit

'N Paar jaar voor die reeksvlieënier, "Sins of the Past", pleeg Xena talle aaklige dade van terrorisme tot seerowery en moord, en word op 'n stadium bekend as die "Destroyer of Nations". Haar reis op die pad van die bose begin waarskynlik wanneer haar geliefde broer tydens 'n aanval deur die krygsheer Cortese vermoor word. Xena beloof wraak en sy word gevolglik van haar ma vervreem.

'N Ruk later tree sy op as die kaptein van 'n seerowerskip, en doen alles, van die aanval op ander skepe tot die loskoop van gyselaars. Dit is tydens een lospryspoging dat sy die jong, aantreklike en onbeskaamde Romeinse edelman genaamd Julius Caesar teëkom. Caesar is 'n ervare kryger en militêre bevelvoerder met groot ambisies. Hy en Xena het 'n passievolle liefdesverhouding en beplan om kragte saam te snoer. Caesar verraai Xena egter. Caesar het Xena geslaan en daarna gekruisig (met haar bene gebreek) op 'n strand om te sterf van blootstelling - dit wil sê totdat sy gered word deur 'n Egiptiese slavin met die naam M'Lila. M'Lila het oorspronklik op die skip van Xena weggesteek en daarna met haar vriende gemaak en vir Xena haar eerste drukpunte geleer. Nadat sy Xena gered het, neem M'Lila haar na 'n geneser wat haar beserings behandel. Terwyl die geneser Xena behandel, bars Romeinse soldate in en probeer Xena doodmaak, maar M'Lila beskerm Xena, neem 'n noodlottige skoot uit 'n kruisboog en sterf in Xena se arms.

Hierdie gebeurtenis dryf Xena heeltemal aan die kant van die bose en ondanks haar beserings, slaag hy daarin om die soldate dood te maak, maar waarsku die laaste een voordat hy sterf, "Sê vir Hades om homself voor te berei, 'n nuwe Xena word vanaand gebore." [9]

Eerste stappe in die rigting van verlossing Redigeer

Daarna word Xena die leier van 'n leër en skakel sy in met Borias, wat sy effektief van sy familie af verlei en die twee saamsnoer. Die twee word verliefdes en na 'n tyd raak Xena swanger met haar seun Solan. Dit is tydens haar swangerskap dat 'n belangrike gebeurtenis plaasvind. Xena reis saam met haar weermag na China, waar sy hoop om 'n alliansie te bou met die kragtige Lao -stam om haar aktiwiteite daar te vergemaklik.

Daaropvolgende gebeurtenisse waarin Borias Xena verraai, lei daartoe dat Xena om haar lewe hardloop en gejag word. Terwyl sy op die vlug is, ontmoet Xena Lao Ma, 'n vrou met groot spesiale vermoëns. Sy skrik die honde wat Xena agtervolg weg met net 'n blik en kan beweeg soos 'n gevegskunstenaar wat Xena verstom. Lao Ma sorg vir Xena soos sy nog nooit tevore was nie deur haar te behandel as 'n vriendin wat net daarin belangstel om haar te help om 'n beter mens te word. Onder leiding van haar vriendin leer sy om 'n groot deel van haar haat en pyn opsy te sit. Boonop genees Lao Ma die verlamde bene van Xena, en dit word geïmpliseer dat sy vir Xena leer om bewegings te leer wat sy nog nie ontwikkel het nie. Lao Ma gee Xena die metaforiese titel "Warrior Princess", met die voorneme dat sy 'n belangrike katalisator vir verandering in die land sal wees. Uiteindelik word Lao Ma se pogings tot niet, ten minste op kort termyn. Op die lange duur is Lao Ma se leerstellings egter 'n belangrike rol in die vorming van die goeie mens wat sy sou word.

Borias en Xena versoen en hernu hul alliansie, net om dit die laaste keer te verbreek en hul magte tussen hulle te verdeel, met Xena wat die sterkste van die twee is. Borias word gedood in die daaropvolgende geveg, en Xena gee die pasgebore Solan aan die Centaurs om groot te maak sodat hy veilig en beskerm kan word.

Ontmoeting met Hercules en daaropvolgende hervorming Redigeer

Xena sit haar lewe as 'n krygsheer vir baie jare voort totdat sy 'n lewensveranderende ontmoeting met Hercules kry, waarin sy haar rug op die pad van die bose draai. Sy draai teen haar troepe om 'n baba te beskerm wie se familie nie die losprys sou betaal wat sy geëis het nie. Haar troepe gaan Xena doodmaak omdat hulle swak in hul oë was. Na hierdie gebeure reis Xena vir 'n kort rukkie saam met Hercules en die twee deel 'n kort romantiese verhouding. Alhoewel hul romanse nie lank duur nie, vorm die twee 'n spesiale vriendskap. Elkeen respekteer die ander se vermoëns en oordeel. In 'n reeks 1 -episode erken elkeen die positiewe impak wat die ander op die wêreld gehad het. In daardie aflewering het Xena gesê: "Die wêreld het Hercules nodig". Hierop het Hercules geantwoord: 'Die wêreld het Xena ook nodig'. Soos die jare vorder, kom Xena en Hercules mekaar op verskillende tye te hulp, en dien hulle ook as 'n bron van troos vir die ander. Na die eerste ontmoeting met Hercules, vind Xena egter dat die weg na verlossing pynliker is as wat sy verwag het.

Die ontmoeting met Gabrielle Edit

Spook deur haar oortredings in die verlede, gaan sy haar lewe as 'n vegter heeltemal prysgee. [10] In die episode "Sins of the Past". sy trek haar wapenrusting en wapens af en begrawe dit in die vuil. Sy sien hoe 'n groep dorpsmeisies deur 'n groep krygers aangeval word. In die groep is Gabrielle. Xena red die jong vroue en Gabrielle is ontsag vir die vaardighede van die Warrior Princess.

Gabrielle volg Xena in 'n poging om Xena te oorreed om haar haar reisgenoot te laat wees. Tydens die episode keer Xena terug na haar tuisdorp, Amphipolis, waar sy uiteindelik met haar ma, Cyrene, versoen. [10] Sy besoek ook die graf van haar broer Lyceus om met hom te 'praat'. Wanneer Xena privaat met Lyceus vertrou dat dit moeilik is om alleen te wees, sê Gabrielle - wat stil in die deuropening van die krip staan ​​- vir haar: "Jy is nie alleen nie." Binnekort stem Xena in om Gabrielle toe te laat om saam met haar te reis. Met verloop van tyd word Gabrielle die liefste vriendin en sielsgenoot van Xena.

Daaropvolgende reise en ontberings Redigeer

Gabrielle en Xena word beste vriende, sielsgenote en inderdaad konstante metgeselle oor die vele avonture wat volg. Elke vrou leer van die ander Gabrielle word 'n vegter namens goed (nie kwaad nie), terwyl Xena 'n sagter en liefdevoller persoonlikheid ontwikkel om haar vegter se hart te balanseer. Die daaropvolgende lewe van Xena word deur baie tragedies bederf. Haar seun Solan, wat haar nooit as sy ma leer ken het nie, word vermoor deur Hope, die demoniese kind van Gabrielle, [11] (met die hulp van Callisto) en Xena verloor Gabrielle byna meer as een keer.

Die gevalle waar Xena en Gabrielle byna uitmekaar is, is geneig as gevolg van manipulasies van ander mense. Die ernstigste hiervan is natuurlik die dood van Xena se seun deur die demoniese kind van Gabrielle, Hope. Hierna reis Gabrielle, wat deur smart verdwyn is, om by die Amazones te bly. Xena vind haar op haar beurt en probeer Gabrielle se lewe neem deur haar oor 'n krans te gooi terwyl sy in 'n verswakte toestand is. Xena slaag nie daarin nie, en daarna versoen beide vroue met die gees van Xena se seun Solan. Spesifiek, Solan skep die land van Illusia waarin beide vroue, deur middel van musiek, hul hartseer en woede uitspreek, nie soseer met mekaar nie, maar met die traumas wat hulle elkeen verduur het. Hier bely Xena dat sy Ming Tien inderdaad vermoor het omdat hy boos geword het en sy ma Lao Ma vermoor het. Xena erken aan Solan dat sy sy ma is en sing vir hom en vra om vergifnis. Hierna reis hulle weer saam.

Vyande wysig

Kort na die aanvang van haar reise met Gabrielle, loop Xena Ares raak, wat haar blykbaar sedert haar krygsdae ken, en hy probeer haar verlei om by hom aan te sluit as sy Warrior Queen, pogings wat sy herhaaldelik dwarsboom. [12] Sy ontmoet ook 'n formidabele vegvrou met die naam Callisto, wie se familie jare gelede deur Xena se leër vermoor is. [13]

Die pad na verlossing gaan voort Edit

Marcus, 'n vegter, goeie vriend en minnaar uit haar krygsdae, wat sy oorreed om haar te volg om goed te kies, word vermoor terwyl hy sy eerste goeie daad doen. [14] Later word hy toegelaat om kortliks terug te keer na die wêreld van die lewendes om 'n bose moordenaar wat uit die onderwêreld ontsnap het, te help stuit. Hy en Xena oornag saam voordat Marcus na die ander kant moet terugkeer. [15] Etlike jare na haar eerste ontmoeting met Lao Ma, word 'n boodskapper deur Lao Ma gestuur om Xena te vra om na China te reis om te help om 'n groot euwel te keer. Sy vertrek onmiddellik om haar dierbare vriendin te help, maar dring daarop aan dat sy dit alleen moet hanteer en dat Gabrielle agterbly.

Ten spyte van haar beste pogings, is sy te laat om haar mentor en vriend Lao Ma te red om deur haar eie seun, die keiser Ming T'ien, doodgemartel te word en word sy verpletter deur die verlies. [16] Uiteindelik word sy en Gabrielle gekruisig deur die Romeine op die Ides van Maart deur Caesar, voorheen 'n bondgenoot en voormalige minnaar van Xena met wie sy van plan was om die bekende beskawing oor te neem totdat hy haar verraai het. Caesar, self, word deur Brutus verraai en vermoor. [17] Hulle word later herleef deur 'n mistikus met die naam Eli, 'n Jesus -gestalte, saam met die geestelike hulp van Callisto, wat teen daardie tyd 'n engel geword het nadat hy deur Xena vermoor is. Hierdie gebeurtenis het langdurige gevolge vir alle betrokkenes. [18]

Eve/Livia Redigeer

Die bogenoemde gebeurtenis lei tot die geboorte van Xena se dogter, Eva. Callisto speel 'n prominente rol in die gebeure wat tot dusver plaasgevind het. Nadat Xena haar jare gelede laat sterf het, word sy na Tartarus gestuur, maar later keer sy terug en word 'n god en 'n nog groter vyand van Xena. Uiteindelik probeer Xena Callisto van haar lyding te red deur haarself op te offer. Callisto word 'n engel en Xena 'n duiwel of demoon. Voordat Eva gebore word, bel die engel Callisto haar siel in Xena se ongebore baba met Xena se stilswyende aanvaarding, as 'n manier om haarself te verlos van haar verlede en haar en haar betrokkenheid by die skepping van Callisto. Ongelukkig sou ma en dogter min tyd saam hê, aangesien die gode daarop ingestel was om die kind te vernietig om hulself te red, want daar word geprofeteer om die skemer van die Olimpiese gode en die geboorte van die "Christendom" te bewerkstellig. Om haar kind, sowel as haarself en Gabrielle, te red, vervals hulle hul dood [19], maar hul plan loop skeef as Ares hulle in 'n ysgrot begrawe, waar hulle 25 jaar slaap.

Gedurende daardie tyd word Eva aangeneem deur die Romeinse edelman Octavius ​​wat in elke behoefte voorsien en seker maak dat sy die beste van alles ontvang. Sy word groot en word Livia, die kampioen van Rome, en 'n meedoënlose vervolger van Eli se volgelinge. In 'n sekere sin het sy 'n reïnkarnasie van Callisto geword en selfs haar naam laat val. Eva se genadelose gedrag kan te wyte wees aan die invloed van Callisto se siel, maar dit is onduidelik, veral omdat Callisto van al die kwaad in haar gesuiwer is toe sy 'n engel word. [20] Na haar terugkeer kan Xena Livia tot bekering keer, en Livia neem die naam Eva terug en word die boodskapper van Eli. [21] soos Xena met Callisto gedoen het voordat sy Eva probeer red. Nadat Eva deur die doop gereinig is, kry Xena die mag om gode dood te maak solank haar dogter lewe. [22] In 'n laaste konfrontasie gebeur die skemering wanneer Xena die meeste gode doodmaak om haar dogter te red, met die hulp van God en aartsengel Michael, en self gered word deur Ares wanneer hy sy onsterflikheid prysgee om die slegte te genees beseerde en sterwende Eve en Gabrielle, [22] met Xena wat hom later help om sy godheid te herwin. [23]

Finale verlossing en dood Redigeer

Xena se soeke na verlossing eindig wanneer sy haarself opoffer om die Japannese demoon Yodoshi, wat die siele van die dooies vashou, dood te maak. Xena veg alleen teen 'n Japannese weermag en hulle vermoor haar. Xena, nou 'n gees, veg en vermoor Yodoshi. Xena besluit om dood te bly, sodat die siele van die 40 000 wat sy (per ongeluk) jare gelede vermoor het, in 'n toestand van vrede kan vrygelaat word. Die reeks eindig met Gabrielle op 'n skip, wat Xena se as vashou en met Xena se gees praat. [24]

Legacy Edit

Volgens die darshan, Naiyima, [25] is dit slegs een van vele lewens wat Xena deur die eeue sal leef. Een so 'n lewe is die van Arminestra, 'n Indiese heilige moeder wat 'n beweging lei wat vrede verkondig, en nog een is 'n vrou met die naam Melinda, wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog die graf van Ares ontbloot en deur die gees van Xena besit word om te stop die God van Oorlog. In baie van hierdie lewens sal sy saam met haar sielsgenoot Gabrielle 'n pad stap, wat die oorsaak van goed teen kwaad bevorder.

Vaardighede en vaardighede Redigeer

Xena beskik oor baie vaardighede wat sy opgedoen het tydens haar uitgebreide reise na baie dele van die antieke wêreld oor 'n tydperk van baie jare. Sy het veral merkwaardige vaardigheid en vaardigheid in hand-tot-hand-gevegte getoon, met talle akrobatiese truuks en die vermoë om verskeie teenstanders tegelyk uit te skakel of andersins dood te maak. Sy is ook vaardig in die gebruik van drukpunte - om iemand te verlam of selfs dood te maak as sy die toepaslike drukpunt veroorsaak. Xena het 'n uitgebreide kennis van noodhulp en kruiemiddels wat dieselfde is as dié van enige professionele geneser.

Xena se kenmerkende wapen is die chakram, 'n gooiwapen met 'n skeermes wat sy gereeld gebruik vir afwisselende gevegte. [26] Xena kan die chakram vaardig aflei van die oppervlaktes wat dit tref, sodat sy in een gooi verskeie teikens kan tref. Gewoonlik kan sy die chakram na haar toe teruglei, sodat sy dit kan vang. Behalwe dat dit 'n formidabele wapen is, het die chakram ander gebruike, soos die afleiding van vyande of die sny van verre teikens soos toue. Nadat sy deurmekaar was, het Xena haar chakram herontwerp as 'n ontwerpvariasie met 'handvatsels' in deursnee, die 'Yin-Yang' chakram genoem. [27] Dit is gebruik as dolke, kan in twee middelvlugte verdeel word om verskeie teikens op uiteenlopende trajekte te tref, en maak voorsiening vir 'boemerang'-vlugvermoëns. Saam met haar swaard en chakram het sy ook baie vaardigheid getoon met ander wapens soos knuppels, dolke en swepe. Dwarsdeur die reeks gebruik Xena dikwels 'n handtekening -oorlogskreet, 'Alalaes'. Haar kreet was 'n alternatiewe uitspraak vir 'Alale' (of 'Alala'), wat in die Griekse mitologie die vroulike verpersoonliking van die oorlogskreet was. [28]

Xena is 'n formidabele taktikus, inspirerende leier en strategiese denker. Sy het die vermoë om haar vyand se taktiek te ontleed en effektief 'n reaksie te formuleer. As reaksie op die aanvalle van haar vyande, toon sy soms baie kreatiwiteit en vindingrykheid; sy het met min of geen hulpbronne en beperkte tyd gewerk. Xena is goed vertroud met militêre taktieke soos die vorming van 'n verdedigende omtrek, die bou van verdedigingsvestings, die organisering en leiding van troepe en die afsny van 'n vyand se toevoerlyne. Sy demonstreer ook herhaaldelik 'n talent vir vermommings, infiltrasie en kriptografie.

Alhoewel die meeste van haar vaardighede martial en geestelik is, het Xena wel 'n paar bonatuurlike vermoëns. Danksy Lao Ma se leerstellings gebruik sy telekinesis en energieprojeksie by drie geleenthede. Xena het ook eens die mag gehad om gode deur haar dogter, Eva, dood te maak. Buiten hierdie spesifieke magte, ken Xena die basiese beginsels van die meeste ander vorme van magie, genoeg dat sy doeltreffend magiese vyande kan bestry of uitoorlê.

Xena het verskyn in al die afslagpunte van die reeks, gewoonlik as die hoofkarakter. Die geanimeerde film Hercules en Xena: Die stryd om die berg Olympus Dit is die eerste verskyning van Xena buite die televisiereeks. [29] Sy verskyn ook in die strokiesprente Xena: Warrior Princess, oorspronklik uitgereik deur Topp en Dark Horse Comics, en in 2007 het Dynamite Entertainment die regte op die boek verkry toe dit ontdek is dat die program nog baie aanhangers het. Dit het daartoe gelei dat Dynamite Entertainment se spin-off strokiesprentreeks Xena: Wedstryd van die Pantheons en Donker Xena. Dit vind laaste plaas nadat die televisiereeks geëindig het. [30]

Xena is 'n speelbare karakter in die videospeletjies Xena: Warrior Princess, en 'n kiesbare karakter in Die Talisman of Fate. [31] [32] In 1999 verskyn Lucy Lawless ook in die geanimeerde televisieprogram Die Simpsons geklee as haar Xena -karakter, tydens die Treehouse of Horror X. [33]

In die videospeletjie League of Legends die karakter Sivir het 'n vel met die titel 'Warrior Princess' wat soos Xena lyk.

Lesbiese subteks en debatte Redigeer

Xena het 'n besondere kultusstatus in die lesbiese gemeenskap geniet. Sommige van die lesbiese fanbase beskou Xena en Gabrielle as 'n paartjie en het hulle as rolmodelle en lesbiese ikone omhels. [34] [35] 'n Groep genaamd The Marching Xenas het aan baie gay en lesbiese trotsparades deelgeneem. [36]

Die vraag of Xena en Gabrielle liefhebbers is, is 'n onderwerp van groot belangstelling en debat onder kykers. [37] [38] Die kwessie word deur die skrywers gedurende die grootste deel van die vertoning doelbewus dubbelsinnig gelaat. Grappe, insinuasies en ander subtiele bewyse van 'n romantiese verhouding tussen Xena en Gabrielle word deur 'aanhangers' lesbiese subteks 'of bloot' subteks 'genoem. [37] Die kwessie van die ware aard van die Xena/Gabrielle-verhouding het intense skeepsdebatte in die fandom veroorsaak, wat veral passievol geword het as gevolg van oorstromings uit werklike debatte oor seksualiteit van dieselfde geslag en gay-regte. [38]

In 'n 2003 -onderhoud met Lesbiese Nuus tydskrif, het Lawless gesê dat sy na die reeksfinale geglo het dat Xena en Gabrielle se verhouding 'Gay' was. Beslis. water wat tussen hul lippe in die laaste toneel deurloop, wat dit vir my vasgemaak het. Nou was dit nie net dat Xena biseksueel was nie en nogal van haar vriendin gehou het, en dat hulle soms 'n dwaas was, nee, hulle is getroud , man. '"[39]

Die Xena fandom het ook die term Altfic (van "alternatiewe fiksie") gewild gemaak om na dieselfde geslag romantiese fanfiksie te verwys. [40] Baie aanhangers het gevoel dat die term slash fiction die betekenis het dat dit slegs oor manlike/manlike paartjies gaan, en dit was nie 'n goeie beskrywing vir romantiese fanfiksie oor Xena en Gabrielle nie. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Sy was op die derde plek in AfterEllen.com se top 50 gunsteling vroulike TV -karakters. [41]

Populêre kultuur Redigeer

Xena: Warrior Princess Daar word na verwys as 'n popkulturele verskynsel, 'n sekssimbool en 'n feministiese en lesbiese/biseksuele ikoon. [42] [43] [44] The television series, which employed pop culture references as a frequent humorous device, has itself become a frequent pop culture reference in video games, comics and television shows, and has been frequently parodied and spoofed.

Xena has been credited by many, including Buffy the Vampire Slayer creator Joss Whedon, with blazing the trail for a new generation of female action heroes such as Buffy, Max of Dark Angel, Sydney Bristow of Alias, and Beatrix Kiddo a.k.a. the Bride in Quentin Tarantino's Kill Bill. [38] The director Quentin Tarantino is also a fan of Xena. After serving as Lucy Lawless' stunt double on Xena, stunt woman Zoë E. Bell was recruited to be Uma Thurman's stunt double in Tarantino's Kill Bill. By helping to pave the way for female action heroes in television and film, "Xena" also strengthened the stunt vrou profession. [45] David Eick, one of the co-developers of the Xena series, was also the executive producer of Battlestar Galactica, [46] which also features strong female characters, and Lucy Lawless in a recurring role.

In 2005, the team that discovered the dwarf planet 2003 UB313 nicknamed it "Xena" in honor of the TV character. On 1 October 2005, the team announced that 2003 UB313 had a moon, which they had nicknamed "Gabrielle". [47] The objects were officially named Eris and Dysnomia by the International Astronomical Union on 13 September 2006. Although the official names have legitimate roots in Greek mythology, "Dysnomia" is also a synonym to the word "anomia", which means "lawlessness" in Greek, perpetuating the link with Lucy Lawless. [48]

In 2006, Lucy Lawless donated her personal Xena costume to the Museum of American History. [49] In an interview the same year with Smithsonian magazine, she was asked the question "Was the Warrior Princess outfit comfortable?" and she responded:

Not at first, because they would put boning in the corset. It would cover up those little floating ribs that are so important for breathing, so I'd feel like I was having panic attacks. But it just became a second skin after a while. It was very functional, once I got over the modesty factor. I admit to being a little bit embarrassed the first couple weeks because I'd never worn anything so short.

In 2004, Xena was listed at number 100 in Bravo's 100 Greatest TV Characters. [50]


Inhoud

The place, which today is occupied by the castle, was used by the city of Herakleion (Ηράκλειον) in pre-Christian times. [2] Not only on the top of the castle hill, but also at the foot of the hill, were settlements that were assigned to this ancient city. Around 360 BC Skylax of Karyandar described the place as "the first Macedonian city behind the river Pinios". The Roman historian Titius Livius has a more accurate position determination. "Between Dion and Tembi lying on a rock," he described the place, which is identical with the position of the castle. But even earlier, since the Bronze Age, a settlement of the castle hill has been proved.

In the year 430 BC, The Athenians conquered the place to control from here the Thermaean Gulf to their possessions on the Chalkidiki. At the same time, the country's most popular north-south route runs along the hill. At the beginning of the 3rd century BC, the city and the now established port were destroyed. By what, or by whom, is not exactly known. A short time later the region was conquered by the Romans. In the year 169 BC, from Thessaly coming, they held their camp in the plain between Herakleion and Leivithra before starting their campaign against Macedonia. Of course the outstanding strategic importance of the hill was not hidden from them. Probably from this time comes the acropolis, the upper town, which was surrounded by a low wall. From the time around Christ's birth to the middle Byzantine epoch, in the 10th century AD, little evidence was found of the events at this time. The name Platamon for the close vicinity of the hill emerges for the first time. With this term Homer referred to a rock surrounded by the sea. In the 12th century, the city of Platamon is described and the castle as such is mentioned for the first time.

In 1204, Franconian knights founded the kingdom of Thessaloniki in the course of their conquest of Constantinople, which also included the castle of Platamon. They finally finished the bulwark, but had to clear it again in 1217 to make way for the Comnenes, a Byzantine aristocracy. The further history of the place remains changing and the castle always finds new masters. At the end of the 14th century the Turks came and were replaced by the Venetians in 1425. They remained until the 400 years of the Turkokratia in Greece began. The last battles took place in the Second World War. New Zealand troops who had moved into this area were bombed.

A footpath leads from the parking lot to the gate of the castle. It is open every day between 08:30 and 15:00. What we call Platamon today included the city of Platamon and the actual castle. The extensive area is designed as a polygon and had irregular towers at irregular intervals. At the foot of the hill, to the left and right of the land, which extends into the sea, are two smaller towers. Only the main tower, the donjon, which is surrounded by its own wall, is located in the western part of the complex. Unfortunately, it is not open to visitors. Here, in fighting, was the last retreat for the inhabitants. For strategic reasons, there is only a relatively narrow gate that can be defended well. Many of the basics of churches, houses, a smithy, pottery and other buildings testify to the life of the past. Partially well-preserved cannons served in the later Middle Ages, the defense of pirates and the general defense of the fortress. To ensure the water supply during a longer lasting siege, there are several cisterns on the site.

The walls have a height of 7.50 to 9.50 m and have a thickness between 1.20 and 2 meters. In the course of the centuries, they have been continually increased, and the individual sections of the building can still be seen today. Except for the destroyed upper part of the defense route in the east, they are well preserved. The wall is accessible in several places for visitors and invites you to enjoy the fantastic view of the surroundings.

Originally the castle complex was surrounded by another, lower wall. It formed the first line of defense in an emergency. The only intact building is the small church Agia Paraskevi. It is richly decorated and offers space for around 30 believers.

Paradoxically, the construction of a railway tunnel through the hill a few years ago has, from the point of view of archaeologists, used the facility more than harmed. During the construction, further ground plans of buildings were discovered which are assigned to the historic city of Herakleion.

Today, the acropolis serves as one of the Olympus Festival venues. In the open air, with good acoustics, theatrical performances and concerts take place here.


Eindnotas

Note 01:
Spelled Poteidaia on Xena: Warrior Princess .
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Note 02:
For more on volcanoes, see Whoosh! #11, "Volcanoes: The Foes of the Gods" by Virginia Carper.
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Note 03:
The iron sword is not the only thing that the Dorians contributed. Besides a new instrument for bloody warfare, they also created a new design for a bronze pin and originated a style of geometric designs on their pottery. Archaeologists have not been able to dig up much else they can attribute directly to the Dorians.
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Note 04:
Phonetics are given for some words so you can impress your friends with the genuine Greek pronunciations. In some cases, these are quite different from the way English speakers have been taught to pronounce Greek, but they have been verified by an actual Greek person. Modern Greek pronunciation is quite close to that of the Classical period, though probably not so close to pronunciation in 1000 BCE.
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Note 05:
It met on the island of Delos, hence the name.
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Note 06:
Even after all this time, the people of Potidaea still considered themselves related to Corinth.
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Note 07:
Not Alexander the Great, but an earlier one [obviously, a not-so-great one].
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Note 08:
Compare modern words like "amphitheater".
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Money featuring Lion of Amphipolis during German Occupation

With the eyes of the world upon the excavation of the ancient tomb at Amphipolis and with archaeologists working at an excruciatingly slow pace, tidbits about the past are slowly coming to light.

A trademark for the regional unit of Serres, a symbol of Macedonia… The Lion of Amphipolis is undoubtedly one of the most significant preserved monuments of the 4th century BC. It has been restored and stands next to the old bridge of Strymonas river at the regional street Amphipolis-Serraiki Akti. After the last discovery of the funerary enclosure of the “Kasta” mound in ancient Amphipolis, according to the research results of the 28th Ephorate of Prehistoric and Classical Antiquities, the burial monument of the Lion is closely related to the grave marker of the burial mound, which is in fact its foundation and is placed in the central and highest point of the mound, also following the geometry of the enclosure.

“The excavation of the burial mound, which is in progress, has brought to light an important funerary enclosure, unique in its kind, which is dated to the last quarter of the 4th century BC, with marble bases, jambs, crownings and other superstructure parts, of 3m height, and a total length of 497 m. So far 300 metres have been excavated. The unique construction of the funerary enclosure with the use of architectural members of Thasian marble, and the important historical period during which it was built, led us to assume that there are important tombs within the enclosure, which only the continuation of the excavation survey will reveal.

The Tomb of Kasta Amphipolis and the monument of the Lion have comparable architectural features and they both date back to the last quarter of the 4th century BC. The brecciae (fragments of marble processing) found near the grave marker at the top of the Kasta mound, show that there is a big marble monument, namely the Lion and its base” said Director of the 28th EPCA Katerina Peristeri.

The excavations at the funerary enclosure of the “Kasta” mound revealed that a big part of the enclosure had been demolished during the Roman era. Consequently, several architectural members are not in there original place.

Archaeologist Katerina Peristeri and architect Michalis Lefantzis have conducted a survey to locate the lost architectural parts. Their survey led them to the area of the Lion monument of Amphipolis, where the marble architectural members from the funerary enclosure were found either scattered or walled in the base of the Lion.

This survey shows there is a close relation between the significant funerary enclosure of the Kasta mound and the Lion of Amphipolis, shedding light to the history of the area and the previous theories about the erection of the monument. According to Professor Arvanitopoulos, for instance, the Lion of Amphipolis was erected by Agnon, following his friend Pericles’ advice, dedicated to the 10,000 people who were killed at the Draviskos battle, while according to archaeologist Lazaridis, the monument was built in honour of the general of Alexander the Great Leosthenes from Mytilene. It is also suggested that the monument belongs to Laomedon, general and close friend of Alexander the Great.

During the time to which the funerary enclosure is dated, namely the period after Alexander’s death until the end of the 4th century BC, great historical events took place in Amphipolis. Important generals and admirals of Alexander the Great are related to the region, and Cassander exiled and killed in 311 BC Alexander’s legitimate wife Roxanne and his son Alexander IV.

The Lion of Amphipolis is 5,30 m in height. The existence of the monument became known for the first time in 1912, from a report of the 7th division of the Greek Army. In August 1916, British soldiers who were building fortifications at the bridge of Amphipolis found the marble parts of the lion and tried to transport them to the shore, in order to smuggle them to England. Their efforts were stopped when Bulgarians who had just seized Paggaion attacked them.

As the Director of 28th EPCA points out, “the material of the Lion’s base had been re-used as a dam since the Roman era, and was found by the Greek Army in 1912, during drainage works of the Strymonas bed in order to build the modern bridge. After 1917, the marble architectural members were gathered near the foundation which was misinterpreted as the foundation of the monument’s base. Anastasios Orlandos and P. Perdrizet have been the first archaeologists to study the material until the 1930s. In 1936, J. Roger and O. Broneer continued the study and restoration of the monument at the same place where it stands today, by building a conventional base. At the same time, Ulen found new fragments during drainage works of the old Kerkinitida Lake and moved the material 60 klm away, in Lithotopos, where the new dam of the Lake Kerkini is located. In 1971 S. Miller identified the material in Lithotopos, and it returned to its original place. Miller interpreted the material correctly, but did not conclude neither its provenance nor that it belonged to a circular wall”.

According to historians and archaeologists, the face of the Lion, which has always been a sacred symbol of Macedonians, was looking towards the city, thus expressing the importance and glory of it.

The Amphipolis Lion was erected as a symbolical monument, in order to express the power of the city, as was the case with the Lions of Delos. Furthermore, according to a legend, its sculptor (whose identity is unknown), after finishing his work, which was also the peak of his career, faced an unpleasant surprise. The Lion missed its tongue. In desperation, the sculptor threw the Lion to the Strymonas river, so that no one would see it.


Inhoud

Oorsprong

Archaeology has uncovered remains at the site dating to approximately 3000 BC. Due to the strategic location of the site it was fortified from very early.In the 8th and 7th century BC the site of Amphipolis was ruled by Illyrian tribes. [ 2 ] Xerxes I of Persia passed during his invasion of Greece of 480 BC and buried alive nine young men and nine maidens as a sacrifice to the river god. [ aanhaling nodig ] Near the later site of Amphipolis Alexander I of Macedon defeated the remains of Xerxes' army in 479 BC.

Throughout the 5th century BC, Athens sought to consolidate its control over Thrace, which was strategically important because of its primary materials (the gold and silver of the Pangaion hills and the dense forests essential for naval construction), and the sea routes vital for Athens' supply of grain from Scythia. After a first unsuccessful attempt at colonisation in 497 BC by the Milesian Tyrant Histiaeus, the Athenians founded a first colony at Ennea-Hodoi (‘Nine Ways’) in 465, but these first ten thousand colonists were massacred by the Thracians. [ 3 ] A second attempt took place in 437 BC on the same site under the guidance of Hagnon, son of Nicias.

The new settlement took the name of Amphipolis (literally, "around the city"), a name which is the subject of much debates about lexicography. Thucydides claims the name comes from the fact that the Strymon flows "around the city" on two sides [ 4 ] however a note in the Suda (also given in the lexicon of Photius) offers a different explanation apparently given by Marsyas, son of Periander: that a large proportion of the population lived "around the city". However, a more probable explanation is the one given by Julius Pollux: that the name indicates the vicinity of an isthmus. Furthermore, the Etymologicum Genuinum gives the following definition: a city of the Athenians or of Thrace, which was once called Nine Routes, (so named) because it is encircled and surrounded by the Strymon river. This description corresponds to the actual site of the city (see adjacent map), and to the description of Thucydides.

Amphipolis subsequently became the main power base of the Athenians in Thrace and, consequently, a target of choice for their Spartan adversaries. The Athenian population remained very much in the minority within the city. [ 5 ] A rescue expedition led by the Athenian strategos (general, and later historian) Thucydides had to settle for securing Eion and could not retake Amphipolis, a failure for which Thucydides was sentenced to exile. A new Athenian force under the command of Cleon failed once more in 422 BC during a battle at which both Cleon and Brasidas lost their lives. Brasidas survived long enough to hear of the defeat of the Athenians and was buried at Amphipolis with impressive pomp. From then on he was regarded as the founder of the city [ 6 ] [ 7 ] [ 8 ] and honoured with yearly games and sacrifices. The city itself kept its independence until the reign of the king Philip II despite several other Athenian attacks, notably because of the government of Callistratus of Aphidnae.

Conquest by the Romans

In 357 BC, Philip removed the block which Amphipolis presented on the road to Macedonian control over Thrace by conquering the town, which Athens had tried in vain to recover during the previous years. According the historian Theopompus, this conquest came to be the object of a secret accord between Athens and Philip II, who would return the city in exchange for the fortified town of Pydna, but the Macedonian king betrayed the accord, refusing to cede Amphipolis and laying siege to Pydna.

After the conquest by Philip II, the city was not immediately incorporated into the kingdom, and for some time preserved its institutions and a certain degree of autonomy. The border of Macedonia was not moved further east however, Philip sent a number of Macedonian governors to Amphipolis, and in many respects the city was effectively ‘Macedonianized’. Nomenclature, the calendar and the currency (the gold stater, installed by Philip to capitalise on the gold reserves of the Pangaion hills, replaced the Amphipolitan drachma) were all replaced by Macedonian equivalents. In the reign of Alexander, Amphipolis was an important naval base, and the birthplace of three of the most famous Macedonian Admirals: Nearchus, Androsthenes [ 9 ] and Laomedon whose burial place is most likely marked by the famous lion of Amphipolis.

Amphipolis became one of the main stops on the Macedonian royal road (as testified by a border stone found between Philippi and Amphipolis giving the distance to the latter), and later on the ‘Via Egnatia’, the principal Roman Road which crossed the southern Balkans. Apart from the ramparts of the lower town (see photograph), the gymnasium and a set of well-preserved frescoes from a wealthy villa are the only artifacts from this period that remain visible. Though little is known of the layout of the town, modern knowledge of its institutions is in considerably better shape thanks to a rich epigraphic documentation, including a military ordinance of Philip V and an ephebarchic (?) law from the gymnasium. After the final victory of Rome over Macedonia in a battle in 168 BC, Amphipolis became the capital one of the four mini-republics, or ‘merides’, which were created by the Romans out of the kingdom of the Antigonids which succeeded Alexander’s Empire in Macedon. These 'merides' were gradually incorporated into the Roman client state, and later province, of Thracia.

Revival in Late Antiquity

During the period of Late Antiquity, Amphipolis benefited from the increasing economic prosperity of Macedonia, as is evidenced by the large number of Christian Churches that were built. Significantly however, these churches were built within a restricted area of the town, sheltered by the walls of the acropolis. This has been taken as evidence that the large fortified perimeter of the ancient town was no longer defendable, and that the population of the city had considerably diminished.

Nevertheless, the number, size and quality of the churches constructed between the fifth and sixth centuries are impressive. Four basilicas adorned with rich mosaic floors and elaborate architectural sculptures (such as the ram-headed column capitals - see picture) have been excavated, as well as a church with a hexagonal central plan which evokes that of the basilica of St. Vitalis in Ravenna. It is difficult to find reasons for such municipal extravagance in such a small town. One possible explanation provided by the historian André Boulanger is that an increasing ‘willingness’ on the part of the wealthy upper classes in the late Roman period to spend money on local gentrification projects (which he terms évergétisme, from the Greek verb εύεργετέω, (meaning 'I do good') was exploited by the local church to its advantage, which led to a mass gentrification of the urban centre and of the agricultural riches of the city’s territory. Amphipolis was also a diocese under the suffragan of Thessaloniki - the Bishop of Amphipolis is first mentioned in 533.

From the reduction of the urban area to the disappearance of the city

The Slavic invasions of the late 6th century gradually encroached on the back-country Amphipolitan lifestyle and led to the decline of the town, during which period its inhabitants retreated to the area around the acropolis. The ramparts were maintained to a certain extent, thanks to materials plundered from the monuments of the lower city, and the large unused cisterns of the upper city were occupied by small houses and the workshops of artisans. Around the middle of the 7th century AD, a further reduction of the inhabited area of the city was followed by an increase in the fortification of the town, with the construction of a new rampart with pentagonal towers cutting through the middle of the remaining monuments. The acropolis, the Roman baths, and especially the Episcopal basilica were crossed by this wall.

The city was probably abandoned in the eighth century, as the last bishop was attested in 787. Its inhabitants probably moved to the neighbouring site of ancient Eion, port of Amphipolis, which had been rebuilt and refortified in the Byzantine period under the name “Chrysopolis”. This small port continued to enjoy some prosperity, before being abandoned during the Ottoman period. The last recorded sign of activity in the region of Amphipolis was the construction of a fortified tower to the north in 1367 by Grand Primicier Jean and the Stratopedarque Alexis to protect the land that they had given to the monastery of Pantokrator on Mount Athos.


Late Byzantine secular architecture and urban planning

Early Byzantine (including Iconoclasm) c. 330 – 843
Middle Byzantine c. 843 – 1204
The Fourth Crusade & Latin Empire 1204 – 1261
Late Byzantine 1261 – 1453
Post-Byzantine after 1453

The route and results of the Fourth Crusade (Kandi, CC BY-SA 4.0)

The Fourth Crusade and the Latin Empire

In 1204, the crusaders of the Fourth Crusade (western Europeans faithful to the pope in Rome, whom the Byzantines referred to as “Latins” or “Franks”) sacked and occupied the Byzantine Capital of Constantinople. In the years that followed, the crusaders established a “Latin Empire” that also included formerly Byzantine regions such as the Pelopponese in southern Greece. In terms of urban developments, the period of Latin control encouraged some construction in the Peloponnese, while having an adverse effect on Constantinople. For all, the physical evidence is limited.

Location of the Church of the Holy Apostles, Constantinople (map: Carolyn Connor and Tom Elliot, Ancient World Mapping Center, CC BY-NC 3.0)

Urban planning in Constantinople

After retaking Constantinople for the Byzantines in 1261, emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos ‘s refounding of the capital city may have been more symbolic than actual. It included a unique triumphal column positioned before the Church of the Holy Apostles (one of the great churches of the Byzantine capital, which no longer survives), topped by a statue group of the emperor kneeling before St. Michael. Since Constantine (the founder of Constantinople) was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles, Michael’s new column may have represented an attempt to present himself as a “new Constantine” or second founder of the city of Constantinople. Unfortunately, the column does not survive and is only known from historical descriptions.

Mosaic of Theodore Metochites (left) offering the Chora church to Christ, Chora monastery, Constantinople (Istanbul) c. 1315-21 (photo: Evan Freeman, CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)

Theodore Metochites, a Byzantine statesman who as a young man had written an encomium lauding the city of Nicaea, strikes a very different tone in the Byzantios, an oration on Constantinople. While recognizing the diminished state of affairs, he attempts to give it a positive spin: Constantinople renews herself, so that ancient ruins are woven into the city’s fabric to assert their ancient nobility. While the intended message is of unchanging greatness, the realities of ruin and desolation are all too apparent.

Mystras with reconstructed Palace of the Despots (left) and Frankish castle (upper right) (photo: Guillén Pérez, CC BY-ND 2.0)

Frankish castle built by William II of Villehardouin, 1249, Mystras, Greece (photo: © The Byzantine Legacy)

Urban planning in the Peloponnese

Mystras, a new city of the period, gives a better picture of urban planning.

Strategically situated on a hill above the ancient Greek city of Sparta in the Peloponnese (in souther Greece), Mystras developed beneath a Frankish castle—built by Latin occupiers in 1249 following the Fourth Crusade—which the Byzantines captured in 1262.

The rugged site with its steep slope offered excellent defenses and did not require a complete ring of walls.

Plan of Mystras (adapted from Marsyas, CC BY 3.0)

Subdivided internally into an upper and lower city, the streets are often no more than footpaths and too steep for wheeled vehicles urban planning was at the mercy of the topography. Indeed, many areas within the walls were too steep for construction. Houses often required extensive substructures, and the only sizeable terrace within the city was given over to the Palace of the Despots (more on this below). Markets were probably located outside the walls.

The situation at Late Byzantine Geraki seems to have been similar. Located southeast of Mystras in the Pelopponese, Geraki developed beneath another Frankish hilltop fortress, which was ceded to the Byzantines in 1263.

Geraki, Greece (photo: © Robert Ousterhout)

Domestic architecture

Excavations at Pergamon

The evidence for Late Byzantine domestic architecture is similarly limited. The excavations at Pergamon provide some sense of a neighborhood development.

Reconstruction of a Byzantine neighborhood, Pergamon (© Klaus Rheidt)

Reconstruction of a Byzantine house, Pergamon (© Klaus Rheidt)

Here the houses consist of several rooms, often with a portico, arranged around a courtyard set off the irregular pattern of alleys and cul-de-sacs .

Similar house forms have been noted in other urban situations, with the focus of the house away from the street.

The so-called Laskaris House (with the Pantanassa monastery and the Frankish castle in the background), early 15th century, Mystras, Greece (photo: © Robert Ousterhout)

Mystras also provides several good examples, such as the so-called Frangopoulos House and Laskaris House (named for those believed to have inhabited them), both probably from the early fifteenth century. Set into the steep slope, both had vaulted substructures of utilitarian function—cistern, stable, storeroom—to create a level platform for the residence, which consisted of one large room, with a fireplace to the rear and a terrace or balcony facing the view.

Tower of Apollonia

In the countryside, fortified towers often functioned as residences, as at Apollonia (near Amphipolis) and elsewhere in mainland Greece.

Tower of Apollonia, 14th century, Greece (photo: Ggia, CC BY 3.0)

Location of the Tekfursaray, Constantinople (map: Carolyn Connor and Tom Elliot, Ancient World Mapping Center, CC BY-NC 3.0)

Constantinople

In Constantinople, nothing survives of the main imperial residence at the Blachernae Palace , except the so-calle d Tekfursaray, which may have been a pavilion associated with it.

Built as a three-storied block set between two lines of the land wall, the lowest level was opened to the courtyard by an arcade. The mid level was apparently subdivided into apartments, with the upper level functioning as a large audience hall, with appended balcony and a tiny chapel.

Tekfursaray, north façade of the main palace block before restoration, c. 1261–91, Constantinople (Istanbul) (photo: © Robert Ousterhout)

Palace at Nymphaeon (modern Kemalpaşa, Turkey) (photo: BSRF, CC BY-SA 4.0)

An association with Venetian palaces has been suggested, but the ruined palace at Nymphaeon of c. 1225 provides a useful precedent.

At Mystras, the Palace of the Despots grew over the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries as several adjoining but independent units. Its last major addition, the Palaiologos wing, follows a three-storied format like that of the Tekfursaray, with an enormous audience hall on the uppermost level, with apartments and storerooms below.

Palace of the Despots, probably begun mid-13th century and expanded in the early 15th century, Mystras, Greece (photo: © The Byzantine Legacy)

Double walls of Nicaea (modern İznik, Turkey) (photo: Carole Raddato, CC BY-SA 2.0)

Fortifications

With the increasing insecurity and fragmentation of the empire, defense became a growing concern in the last centuries of the empire.

Nicaea was provided with a second line of walls in the thirteenth century, and the Laskarids built a series of visually-connected fortresses in an attempt to secure their Aegean territories.

Chlemoutsi Castle, Kastro-Kyllini, 1220-23 (photo: Ronny Siegel, CC BY 2.0)

Plan of Chlemoutsi Castle, Kastro-Kyllini, 1220-23, in R. Traquair, “Mediaeval Fortresses in the North-Western Peloponnesus,” The Annual of the British School at Athens, 12 (1906-1907): 274

Frankish fortresses in the Peloponnese

Following the Fourth Crusade, the Franks also constructed fortresses across the Peloponnese in an attempt to secure control of the region, as at Chlemoutsi and Glarentza (now in ruins).

Byzantine fortresses

With the reconquest of Constantinople by the Byzantines, fortresses were either strengthened and expanded (as at Yoros on the Bosphoros) or constructed anew to protect the city against the rising power of the Ottomans to the east.

Yoros Castle, expanded during Late Byzantine period, near Anadolu Kavağı (photo: Moonik, CC BY-SA 3.0)

Yoros Castle, expanded during Late Byzantine period, near Anadolu Kavağı (photo: Guilhem Vellut, CC BY 2.0)

Among the smaller fortifications of the period, the castle at Pythion in Thrace is noteworthy. Built by John VI Kantakouzenos c. 1331, a large fortified tower quickly expanded with the construction of a second tower and gateway, with inner and outer enceintes . The four-bayed plan of the main tower, with brick vaulting at all levels, and the extensive use of stone machicolations (floor openings through which stones or other materials could be dropped on attackers) mark Pythion as unique among Byzantine fortifications and at the cutting edge of military technology in the fourteenth century.


Fortifications of Amphipolis - History

Philistine Beach

The Philistines who migrated to the coastal plain of Israel around 1200 BC settled in five major cities. Three of these were along the coastal branch of the International Highway leading from Egypt, but because of the presence of sand dunes, only Ashkelon was built on the shore. At 150 acres (60 ha), the tell of Ashkelon is the largest Philistine city, and one of the largest tells in all of ancient Israel.

Excavations

Since 1985, Harvard University has been excavating Ashkelon under the director Lawrence Stager. More than a century earlier, Ashkelon was the site of the first “archaeological excavation” in the Holy Land when Lady Hester Stanhope conducted a small dig. Excavations have uncovered remains from nearly every period from the Neolithic Age until the 13th century AD.

Fortifications

During the Middle Ages, the Muslim rulers of Ashkelon re-used Roman granite columns to strengthen the construction. These columns now protrude from the eroded tell as waves have gradually washed away ruins on the shoreline. The Canaanite city was surrounded by a massive rampart on three sides of the city, and the fourth side was protected by the sea. Later fortifications took advantage of the rampart, and walls were constructed on top of it. The city had no springs but several good wells and fertile soil.

Canaanite Gate

One of the earliest intact gates in Israel was excavated at Ashkelon in the 1990s. The Middle Bronze mudbrick structure is contemporary with the well-known one at Dan. This photograph shows the area after it was reconstructed and opened to visitors. Outside the gate, a bronze calf was discovered, apparently once worshipped at the city entrance.

Later geskiedenis

Ashkelon was an important city after the Babylonians destroyed the city and wiped out the Philistines. A key seaport in the Hellenistic period, Ashkelon became a free city in 104 BC and the birthplace of Herod the Great shortly after. Herod rebuilt the city and it flourished in the Roman and Byzantine periods. The Crusaders later re-fortified the city but Saladin captured it and destroyed it upon the approach of Richard the Lion-hearted.

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Related Websites

The Leon Levy Expedition to Ashkelon (official site) This site, illustrated with many photos, enlightens the reader about the years of excavation at Ashkelon.

Ashkelon (Jewish Virtual Library) Gives the biblical history, including references, and then some modern history too. Merges into a further discussion of interesting sites in the area, including Ashdod, Ekron, and more.

Ashkelon (The City of Ashkelon) The municipal site this link features a brief history of Ashkelon, along with some interesting modern information.

Ashkelon (Ashkelon123) This website is another great source for information about the modern city, and it also has a well-illustrated history page.

Ashkelon (WebBible Encyclopedia, ChristianAnswers.net) Interests the reader with biblically and other historically descriptive facts, including internal links to related topics.

Ashqelon (Encyclopedia Britannica) A basic history.

Ashkelon (The Jewish Magazine) A review of the history of the site with colorful personal insights that lend a real-life flavor to the experience.

Ashkelon’s Dead Babies (Archaeology Magazine) A fascinating article from 1997, reporting on the startling find of nearly 100 infant skeletons in the sewer beneath a Roman/Byzantine bathhouse and considering the possible explanations.

Philistine Cemetery Unearthed at Ashkelon (Bible History Daily) A 2018 article about the 2016 discovery of a very interesting cemetery. Read more on the New York Times article.

Ancient DNA Sheds New Light on the Biblical Philistines (Smithsonian) This discussion of the DNA evidence surrounding the Philistines gives a further perspective on the implications of the cemetery excavation.


Kyk die video: Minidocumentaire project versterking Houtribdijk