Implisiete II AM -455 - Geskiedenis

Implisiete II AM -455 - Geskiedenis

Implisiete II

(AM - 55: dp 630; 1. 172 '; b. 36'; dr. 10 '; s. 16 k .; cgl. 72;
a. 1 40 mm; kl. Rats)

Implisiete (AM-455) is van stapel gestuur deur Wilmington Boat Works, Wilmington, Kalifornië, 1 Augustus 1953; geborg deur mev. Landon Horton; en op 10 Maart 1954 luitenant -koms. A. C. Filiatrault in bevel.

Een van 'n klas nuwe myneveërs wat geheel en al uit nMagnetiese materiale gebou is, het Implicit gedurende die middel van 1954 afgeskudde opleiding in die waters van Kalifornië uitgevoer. -Mexiko -omgewing. Die skip het toe op 7 Augustus 1957 van haar tuishawe, Long Beach, begin om by die 7de Vloot in die strategiese Verre Ooste aan te sluit. Tydens hierdie ontplooiing het Implicit saam met Japannese skepe, nasionalistiese Chinese mynveërs en met gereelde eenhede van die 7de vloot hul daaglikse missie om vrede en veiligheid in die gebied te handhaaf, bedryf. Sy keer op 1 Maart 1958 terug na Long Beach.

Opleidings- en gereedheidsoefeninge uit Long Beach het die mynveër beset tot haar tweede vaart na die Verre Ooste. Sy het op 8 Januarie 1960 uit Long Beach gestoom en gedurende 6 maande in die westelike Stille Oseaan deelgeneem aan mynoorlogvoering met 7de vlootskepe in die Filippyne en buite Okinawu. Implisiete lang strand na hierdie vaart op 17 Julie 1960

Opleidingsbedrywighede en teenmaatreëls vir myne is tot Augustus 1961 uitgevoer, toe die veteraan-minecraft aan gesamentlike Amerikaans-Kanadese mynevee-oefeninge van British Columbia deelgeneem het. By die terugkeer na Long Beach het die skip voorberei op 'n ander ontplooiing van die Verre Ooste, hierdie keer ter ondersteuning van die Amerikaanse adviespoging in Bouth Vietnam. Op 2 Januarie 1962 vaar hy vir hierdie geteisterde land, Implicitfirst het aan SEATO -maneuvers deelgeneem en daarna na verskillende hawens in Suid -Viëtnam verhuis om te help met die opleiding van offlcers en mans in hul stryd teen kommunistiese ondergrawing. Sy keer op 17 Augustus 1962 terug na Long Beach uit Suid -Viëtnam.

Implisiet hervat 'n skedule van opleiding en vlootoefeninge vanaf Long Beach tot by haar volgende ontplooiing, en vaar met haar afdeling op 3 Januarie 1964. Onderweg stop sy by Guam en Midway en kom in Maart van Formosa af vir mynoorlogvoering. In Mei keer sy terug na die Formosa -straat vir 'n tweede operasie, waarin die skip onder 'n Chinese nasionalistiese afdelingsbevelvoerder optree in 'n demonstrasie van samewerking en vlot gekombineerde operasies. Na haar tweede SEATO -oefening in die Stille Oseaan, het Implioit op 28 Julie 1964 na Long Beach teruggekeer vir 'n opknapping en gereedheidstaktiek en opleiding langs die kus van Kalifornië.

Implisiet vertrek Long Beach 21 September 1966 na die Verre Ooste. ~ eenheid van mynafdeling 91, het sy aangesluit by die "Market Time Patrol" langs die kuslyn van Viëtnam, om Vietcong -mans en voorrade wat Suid -Viëtnam binnegedring het, te onderskep. Op 'n keer is sy deur Vietcong aangevuur terwyl sy naby die wal gery het en met haar 40 mm teruggegee. en ander masjiengewere,

Na 'n tussenstop van twee weke, vertrek Implioit op 14 Januarie uit Kaohsinug, Taiwan om haar "Market Time" patrollies tot laat in 1966 voort te sit. Teen 15 Maart het sy aan boord van meer as 1 000 junks en saipans gegaan vir inspeksie. Op 22 en 23 Maart het die mynveër byna 700 rondes van 40 mm afgevuur. ammunisie wat klein Suid -Viëtnamese vlootvliegtuie onder skoot van vyandelike oewerbatterye ondersteun. Op 28 Junie is Implicit aan die gang met 'n mynafdeling in Long Beach, Kalifornië, via Guam, Kwajalein en Pearl Harbor, wat op 2 Augustus by Long Beach aankom. Van 13 tot 20 September het sy deelgeneem aan mynevee -operasie "Eager Angler ,, buite Santa Rosa -eiland. Implisiete het tot en met Desember by 'n draertaak -eenheid vir Operasie" COMPTUEX "aangesluit en daarna in 1967 tot die opleiding van Lon ~ Beach voortgegaan.


Helen Keller

Helen Keller was 'n skrywer, dosent en kruisvaarder vir gestremdes. Gebore in Tuscumbia, Alabama, het sy op die ouderdom van negentien maande haar gesig en gehoor verloor weens 'n siekte wat vermoedelik skarlakenkoors was. Vyf jaar later het haar ouers, op advies van Alexander Graham Bell, by die Perkins Institute for the Blind in Boston aansoek gedoen om 'n onderwyser, en by die skool Anne Mansfield Sullivan aangestel. Deur die buitengewone onderrig van Sullivan het die dogtertjie geleer om te verstaan ​​en te kommunikeer met die wêreld om haar. Sy het voortgegaan om uitstekende opleiding te verwerf en 'n belangrike invloed op die behandeling van blindes en dowes te word.

Keller het by Sullivan geleer om in braille te lees en te skryf en die handseine van die doofstom te gebruik, wat sy net deur aanraking kon verstaan. Haar latere pogings om te leer praat was minder suksesvol, en in haar openbare optredes het sy die hulp van 'n tolk nodig om haar verstaanbaar te maak. Tog was haar impak as opvoeder, organiseerder en geldinsameling geweldig, en was sy verantwoordelik vir baie vordering in openbare dienste aan gestremdes.

Terwyl Sullivan die lesings in haar hand herhaal het, studeer Keller aan skole vir dowes in Boston en New York en studeer cum laude aan Radcliffe College in 1904. Haar ongekende prestasies om haar gestremdhede te oorkom, het haar op 'n vroeë ouderdom op twaalfjarige ouderdom beroemd gemaak. 'n outobiografiese skets gepubliseer in die Youth ’s Companion, en tydens haar junior jaar op Radcliffe vervaardig sy haar eerste boek, The Story of My Life, nog in meer as vyftig tale in druk. Keller publiseer vier ander boeke van haar persoonlike ervarings, sowel as 'n bundel oor godsdiens, een oor hedendaagse sosiale probleme en 'n biografie van Anne Sullivan. Sy het ook talle artikels vir nasionale tydskrifte geskryf oor die voorkoming van blindheid en die opvoeding en spesiale probleme van blindes.


Implisiete II AM -455 - Geskiedenis

Daar was 'n vertraging in die produksie van die 1970 Pontiac Firebird as gevolg van ingenieurswese en gereedskap, wat gelei het tot die bekendstelling in Februarie 1970. Dit staan ​​nou bekend as die 1970 ½ -model. Dit was slegs in staatsgreep beskikbaar. Convertibles was nie meer beskikbaar nie en sou eers weer in 1991 beskikbaar wees. Basismodelle sluit in die Firebird, Firebird Esprit, Firebird Formula en die Firebird Trans Am.

Die liggaam van die Firebird was nou slanker, met 'n paar van die herkenbare liggaamsstyle. Die nuwe bakontwerp het 'n groot C-pilaar tot 1975. Die Firebirds van 1970-1971 het radio-antennes in glas binne die voorruit aangebring. Die Endura -neus was om die gesplete rooster en enkele kopligte. Die 1970 ½ Trans Am was beskikbaar in Polar White met blou bandstrepe of Lucerne Blue met wit bandstrepe. Slegs 3,196 Trans Ams was hierdie jaar beskikbaar.

In 1970 is twee Ram Air 400 cu -enjins beskikbaar. Die L74 Ram Air III met 335 pk en die LS1 Ram Air IV met 345 pk.

In 1971 het Firebird nou die opsie om 'n Pontiac 455cu -enjin te kry, beskikbaar in die L75 325 pk -weergawe en die hoë -uitvoer -weergawe LS5 335 pk, wat standaard was en Ram Air IV ingesluit het. Dit was die enigste enjinopsie wat beskikbaar was vir die Trans Am. Emmersitplekke met 'n hoë rug is nou bekendgestel.

As gevolg van 'n staking is die Firebird en die F-body Camaro amper uit produksie gelaat. In 1971 is slegs 2 116 Trans Ams in 1971 verkoop, dus was daar nie baie veranderinge vir 1972 -modelle nie. Heuningkoekwiele is bekendgestel, maar die enjin se uitsette het gedaal. Die Trans Am Code-X 455 is tot 300 pk ingeskryf en die Code-M 350 in die Esprit tot 160 pk.

In 1973 is die Super Duty (SD-455) bekendgestel, met sy sterker silinderblok met 4-bout-laers en verbeterde sterkte. SD455's het nodulêre yster krukasse met verbeterings. Dit het 253 agterwielpk op 'n onderstel -dino. Die 455 is tot 1976 deur Pontiac aangebied. Voertuigemissiebeheer het egter die einde beteken. In 1976 is slegs 7 100 Trans Ams gebou met die 455 -enjin.

1973 Trans Ams het nou die "gillende hoender" -grafiek, soos sommige dit noem, op die enjinkap. Dit het ook die nuwe eierrooster-stylrooster-tekstuur.

Die Pontiac Firebird van 1974 was baie swaarder. Teleskopiese buffers van 5 km / h en ander veiligheidsverbeterings het die gewig van die SD455 Trans Am tot 3,850 lbs verhoog. Fisies het dit nou 'n nuwe graaf-neus-voorkant en 'n breë agterste agterlig. Die beskikbare enjins het die basiese 250 cu inline-6 ​​met 100 pk en die 350 cu V8 met 155 pk ingesluit. Opsioneel was die 175-225 400CU V8-enjins en die 455 cu wat 215 of 250 pk lewer, en die SD455 wat 290 pk uitskop. Die Trans Am- en Formula -modelle was beskikbaar met óf die 400, 455 of SD455 enjins. Slegs 58 2-deurs formules met SD455 8-silinders is in 1974 vervaardig.

In 1975 is 'n nuwe omhulde agterruit aan die Pontiac Firebird bekend gestel. Die bak het 'n nuwe daklyn gekry en die rigtingwysers is na die roosters beweeg. Die Super Duty-enjin, Muncie 4-gang, of die TurboHydramatic 400-outomatiese was nie meer beskikbaar nie. 'N Kleiner TurboHydramatic 350 outomaties was nou in plek.

1976 was die 50ste herdenking van Pontiac. 'N Swart Trans Am met goue aksente, die eerste Black and Gold spesiale uitgawe, is vrygestel. Dit was die laaste jaar van die 455 in die Trans Am. Die Firebird het 'n nuwe hoekige bufferontwerp gehad, en 'n T-top is bekendgestel. Meer as 100,000 eenhede van die 1976 Pontiac Firebird is verkoop.

In 1977 was dit tyd vir 'n ontwerpverandering. Dit het 'n skuins neus en vier vierkantige kopligte. Dit was die jaar waarin die Trans Am Special Edition in Smokey and the Bandit te sien was. (Die Turbo -model is gebruik in Smokey en die Bandit II).

Die Buick 105 pk 231 cu V6 het die Chevy inline six vervang as die basiese aanbod. Esprit en Formulas het nou die opsie van die 301 cu weergawe van die Pontiac V8. Die Trans Am het die opsie gehad van die Oldsmobile-gebou met 403 cu V8 met 185 pk of die Pontiac 400 met 200 pk. In Kalifornië kom die Pontiac Firebird met Chevy 305 cu en 350 cu V8's.

In 1978 was die voorste rooster nou 'n kruispatroon in plaas van 'n heuningkoekpatroon. Die Firebird Formula LT Sport Edition is bekendgestel. Dit het 'n 10% verhoogde kompressie Chevy 305 V8 aandrywingstelsel met 155 pk. 'N Vier-spoed handrat T-10 BW-ratkas met 'n vloer-middelkonsole, gekoppel aan 'n ewenaar met 'n beperkte gly-differensiaal. 'N Beperkte Touring -pakket, die LT, het 'n kajuitdak, spatbord en kappie -grafika. Die Trans Am -hanteringpakket het HD -gasskokke, modulêre allooiwiele en 'n SE Trans Am -agterspoiler met die woord "Formula". Daar is ook vanjaar blou "Sky Bird" en die rooi "Red Bird" Firebirds vervaardig.

Die krag is verhoog met 10% vir 'n totaal van 220 van 1978 tot 1979 as gevolg van die kompressieverhouding in die 400 ci wat verhoog is as gevolg van verskillende silinderkoppe met kleiner verbrandingskamers. Die 400/403 opsie was slegs tot 1979 beskikbaar.

1979 was die 10de herdenking van die Trans Am, dus was daar natuurlik 'n herdenkingspakket beskikbaar. Die motor was silwer met grys boonste verf -aksente, 'n silwer leer -binneruim en 'n spesiale Firebird -kappie -kenteken wat van die enjinkap na die voorskerms gegaan het. 7 500 motors uit die herdenkingsuitgawe is vervaardig. Daarvan het 1817 die Pontiac 400-enjin met 'n 4-gang Borg Warner Super T-10-ratkas. Wat die opsies betref, was die enjin slegs beskikbaar. 116, 535 Trans Ams is in 1979 verkoop, wat 'n rekord was.

Uitstootbeperkings was oor die jare baie moeilik vir baie motorvervaardigers. In 1980 laat Pontiac sy groot verplasing -enjins val. Die standaard enjin was nou die 301, wat in 1979 as 'n kredietopsie aangebied is. Die 301 turbo en die Chevrolet 305 klein blokke was opsies.

In 1981 is 'n nuwe elektroniese vergassingstelsel ingestel, wat gedink het die enjins in die Trans Ams was dieselfde as in 1980.

Lekker feite:

Van 1972 tot 1977 is die Firebird slegs in Norwood, Ohio, vervaardig. Norwood het verf op lakbasis gebruik (kyk na 'n 'L' in die deksel), terwyl Van Nuys, Kalifornië, 'n waterbasisverf (soek 'n 'W' in die deksel) gebruik as gevolg van beperkings in Kalifornië. Gedurende die waarborgtydperk het die verf op waterbasis gereeld gely, sodat motors gewoonlik geverf moes word.

Vanaf 1972-1980 is die 5de VIN-syfer (en 11de syfer vir 1981) N vir Norwood, Ohio. Vir Van Nuys, Kalifornië, is dit 'L'.

Daar was geen omskepbare Firebird van die tweede generasie wat deur GM gebou is nie. Daar was maatskappye wat hulle na die verkoop sou omskakel. Pontiac het sy 50ste bestaansjaar in 1976 gevier. 'N Spesiale uitgawe van swart en goue weergawe van die Trans Am is vrygestel, wat later informeel bekend gestaan ​​het as die "Bandit Edition".

1973 was die eerste jaar vir die beroemde "Screaming Chicken" kappie. Tot op daardie stadium het slegs 'n klein voëltjie bo -op die uretaanbuffer verskyn.

Die ontwerp van beide die Firebird en Camaro het groot veranderings ondergaan.

1982 was die bekendstelling van die derde generasie Pontiac Firebird. Drie modelle was beskikbaar: Firebird, Firebird S/E en Firebird Trans Am. Die basismodel Firebird vergelykbaar met die Camaro Sport Coupe. Binne het die Firebird nuwe besonderhede en meters gehad. Opsionele Recaro-sitplekke was beskikbaar, net soos die 3-spaak-stuurwiel uit 1981, met die Firebird-logo in die middel van die horingblok. Viscount PMD -emmersitplekke was nou opsioneel, met 'n PMD -logo in die middel van die rugleuning en 'n klein opening in die kopsteun. Leersitplekke was beskikbaar in die Viscount PMD -sitplekke en die standaard sitplekke. Daar was nou 'n mini -band agter die paneel agter aan die passasierskant, en 'n sluitende handskoenkas aan die agterkant van die bestuurder se kant van die vragarea. Ander opsies sluit in 'n privaat skaduwee vir die laaigebied en 'n afsluitbare vragdeur op die agterste vloer.

Die ontwerp van beide die Firebird en Camaro het groot veranderings ondergaan. Die voorruit was nou skuins teen 62 grade en die luikrug was van glas sonder metaalsteun. Vanaf hierdie jaar was elke Firebird V8 nou 'n GM -motor, en al vier en V6's sou dieselfde wees as met die Camaro. Die intrekbare kopligte en die afgeronde kap het die Pontiac Firebird onderskei van die Camaro en vorige ontwerpe van Firebird. Die ruitveërs was nou onder die enjinkap versteek met die luginlate. Die asafstand was 101 duim, wat meer as 8 duim korter was. Gladde wieldoppe was beskikbaar vir die Trans Am.

Die Firebird van 1982 het drie afwerkingsvlakke: basis, Trans Am en luukse georiënteerde S/E. Die basismotors het die Iron Duke 2.5-liter OHV inlyn vier as 'n motor, met 90 pk. Die S/E-standaard was die 2.8-liter OHV V6 met 'n 2-vat-vergasser en 105 pk of die V8. Die Trans Am het 'n standaard V8 305 cu 4-vat met 145 pk. Dit is ondersteun met óf 'n 3-gang outomatiese óf 'n 4-gang handratkas. Die Firebird S/E was geposisioneer as die luukser voertuig van die lyn. Dit het die Iron Duke I-4-aandrywingstelsel, maar meer opsies was beskikbaar, insluitend die Trans Am WS6-vering. Dit het dit opvallend gemaak deur die S/E -skrif op die panele in plaas van die Firebird -plakkers. Binne-in die S/E was daar kleurgekodeerde plastiek wat pas by die verf binne/buite.

Die Trans Am het nou getinte agterligte agter in die motor aangebring, met 'n silwer of goue sticker (die 'skreeuende hoender') tussen die ligte. Kleiner rubber mini-spats was nou voor op die agter- en voorwiele. Daar was ook 'n opsionele Turbo Bulge -kap vir die Trans Am, met 'n kleiner 'skreeuende hoender' daarop.

Die beperkte uitgawe van Recaro Trans Am is in 1982 bekendgestel. Dit was 'n bygewerkte weergawe van die Pontiac Trans Am se RPO Y84 swart en goue Trans Am S/E wat in 1977 in Smokey and the Bandit te sien was. , t-tops, swart buitekant met goue afwerking, swart dopbal-wieldoppe met goue Pontiac Arrowhead-plakkers in die middel en goudgeverfde 15 duim aluminiumwiele.

In 1983 het die Firebird 'n hupstoot gekry. Daar was nou 'n T-handvatselknop en die skakelaar was die Automatic Overdrive 700-R4. Die S/E V6 pk is tot 125 pk geskop en kopers kan nou kies vir 'n 5-spoed handratkas. Die L69-weergawe van die 4-vat 5.0 liter-enjin V8 met 190 pk met 'n 5-spoed-handrat was later in 1983 beskikbaar. terwyl die Camaro 'n lugreiniger met twee snorkels gehad het. Die 90 pk vier was nog beskikbaar, maar nie meer baie gewild nie.

Die Recaro Edition Trans Am (RPO “Y84”) is vir 1983 heringestel. Die RPO “Y81” was nou terug as die Recaro Edition Trans Am S/E, maar sonder T-tops. Visueel was die buitekant dieselfde, behalwe dat vergulde swart en goud Firebird-logo-medaljes die Firebird-logo-plakkers op die seilpanele vervang het. Binne was daar bruin leer Recaro -sitplekke, sypanele, matte en kopstukke. Slegs 1321 Recaro Trans Ams is vervaardig.

In 1984 was die S/E Firebird basies onveranderd. Wat die Firebird betref, die binnekant het 'n effens aangepaste dashboard en 'n opsionele knieblokkie vir die bestuurder aan die linkerkant vir handmatige motors. T-tops het nou 'n penmontering in plaas van die grendel.

1984 was ook die jaar van Trans Am se 15de bestaansjaar. Dit het Recaro-sitplekke en wit verf met blou afwerking en T-tops, blou "Trans Am" -plakkate op die onderste agterste helfte van die deure, blou penstrepe en blou-en-wit 15de verjaardag medaljes op die seilpanele, 'n blou vervaagdekaal en 'n blou 5,0 liter FO -skrif op die bult van die turbo -kappie, en 'n funksionele koue lug -induksie -turbokap. Daar was 'n blou-op-wit Firebird-logo op die agterpaneel se middelpaneel en, eksklusief vir die 15de verjaardagmotor, die nuwe Aero-Tech 16-duim konvekse aluminiumwiele, wat wit geverf was met blou pennetjies, gekombineer met Goodyear P245/60/ VR16 Gatorback uni-directional bande. Binne-wit leer met grys lap-insetsels met Trans Am-strook op die middelste gedeeltes van die Recaro-sitplekke, en 'n spierwit leer-toegedraaide stuurwiel met blou-en-wit 15de bestaansjaarmedalje wat in 'n spierwit horingknoppie ingesit is. Daar was ook 'n stylvolle, spierwit skakelaarknop en parkeerhendelhandvatsel, sowel as 'n spierwit sakkaart aan die kant van die passasier met 'n blou Firebird-logo en Trans Am-skrif. Hierdie motor was vol styl en werklik besonders, met 'n produksie van tot 1500 eenhede.

In 1985 het die Pontiac Firebird 'n nuwe, sterker voorkoms. Dit het nou 'n wikkel-insetsels of bumperette op sy nuwe neus en 'n omhulsel bumperette op die agterste buffer. Ook nuut vir hierdie jaar was die multi-poort brandstofinspuiting 2.8-liter V6 met 135 pk. Binne sien ons 'n nuwe streep met nuwe meters met 'n grafiekpatroon agtergrond, nuwe T-handvatselverskuiwers vir outomatiese motors, opgedateerde stereo- en HVAC-voorplate.

Die Firebird S/E, met 'n nuwe neus en 'n agterste bumperstel, het 'n nuwe kappie met vents voor, 'n kleurgekodeerde Firebird-logo in die middel van die agterligte en 'n kleurgekodeerde Firebird-logo op die seil panele. Kopers kan nou lap Recaro -sitplekke hê.

Die Trans Am was nou beskikbaar met 'n brandstofinspuiting van 305ci. Die Tuned Port Injection LB9 305 was nou beskikbaar. Dit het 210 pk gelewer, alhoewel dit nie met 'n handratkas beskikbaar was nie. Daar was nou 'n plat kappie met dubbele ventilasieopenings en hitte -uitlaatgate aan die agterkant. Vanjaar se Trans Am was ook beskikbaar met standaard High Tech 15-inch konkawe aluminiumwiele of 'n aangepaste Natural Silver-weergawe van die Aero Tech 16-inch aluminiumwiele van die 15de verjaardag, saam met die WS6-vering. Ander opsies sluit in posisionele kaartlig, verwyderbare flitslig, sak vir 'n garagedeuropener en handmatig verstelde herinneringswiele. Daar was ook 'n opsionele omhulde Aero Spoiler, beskikbaar in swart.

In 1986 is die CHMSL (Center High Mounted Stop Light) in die agterste luikglas geplaas. Die basis Firebird het nou nuwe agterligte gekry. Die 2,5-liter-4-silinder enjin was nie meer beskikbaar nie. Nou was die standaard-enjin die 2.8-liter V6.

Die Firebird S/E is einde 1986 gestaak. Slegs 26 Trans Ams met die 305 High Output L69 is in 1986 vervaardig.

1987 het die groot enjins ingebring. Die TPI -weergawe van GM se 350 cu V8 met 210 pk was beskikbaar vir die Trans Am en die Formula 350. Dit was 15 pk minder as die Camaro weens 'n beperkte inname. Die algehele liggaam van die Firebird is egter skaars verander. Die stoplampe is nou tussen die spoiler en die agterste deksel van die agterste deksel verplaas, en die groot embleem van die Firebird -kappie is weg.

Die S/E, die 4-silinder enjin en die CHMSL is almal vanjaar laat val. Die Formule 305 en Formule 350 is herleef en die Trans Am, bekend as die GTA, is bekendgestel. Die Trans Am GTA het 'n standaard 5,7-liter 350 Tuned Port Injection (TPI). Dit het 'n standaard outomatiese ratkas TH-700R4 (4L60), lugversorging, nuwe deurpanele, nuwe sitplekke met opblaasbare lumbale en systutte, epoksievulde embleme, 'n nuwe GTA-horingknoppie en die WS6-pakket vir prestasiehantering. Trans Ams met die RPO -kode Y84 het hierdie opsies. Hierdie model is tot 1992 vervaardig.

In 1988 was daar nie veel veranderinge nie, behalwe nuwe radio's, nuwe stuurwiele en nuwe wiele op die Formulas en 'n luik op die Trans Am GTA. Die agterkant het 'n opgeknapte rugleuning met integrale kopstutte. 'N Nuwe versnellingsbakstelsel het die opbrengs van die 5,0 liter V8 tot 170 pk gehef. Die Firebird Formula is toegerus met nuwe 16x8 duim -aluminiumwiele met silwer WS6 -middeldoppe.

In 1989 is die 20ste bestaansjaar Trans Am bekendgestel. Daar is 1, 555 replika's, geskat op 250 pk. Dit het 'n beter Buick 3.8L V6 met turboaangedrewe motors en is gebruik as die pasmotor in die Indianapolis 500. Die 20ste bestaansjaar Turbo Trans Ams met hardtops en die cabriolet is tot dusver die skaarsste. Slegs 40 hardtops en slegs 3 convertibles is ooit gemaak.

Gedurende 1989 het GM die uitlaatstelsel met dubbele katalisator (RPO -kode N10) bekendgestel. Dit het 13% meer krag vrygestel, wat die LB9 -enjin tot 225 pk en die L98 tot 235 pk verhoog het.

T-top Firebirds is opgegradeer na nuwe akrielplastiekblaaie wat deur Leximar vir FM vervaardig is. Hulle was ligter, donkerder en meer koepelvormig. Ongelukkig het hulle vinnig agteruitgegaan, sodat GM uiteindelik talle stelle met glas onder waarborg vervang het. Tog was die akrielblaaie standaard tot 1992. GM het ook die Voertuigdiefstalstelsel (VATS) of PASS-Key bekendgestel, aangepas by die hoër Corvette en Cadillacs. Ander opsies was 'n CD -speler en skouergordels op die agtersitplek.

In 1990 was daar nou lugsakke in baie motors, en 'n lugsak aan die bestuurder se kant was standaard in die Firebird. Ander veranderings aan die binnekant sluit in die verskuiwing van die bykomstige skakelaars na 'n nuwe paneel oor die verwarmer en radiokontroles. Die luukse buitedeurpanele was nie meer beskikbaar vir die GTA of die Trans Am nie. Radiokontroles wat in die stuurwiel gemonteer is, was nou weg van die GTA weens die installering van die lugsak. Regulasies oor brandstofverbruik het beteken dat die L98-enjin nie meer vir die T-top-motors beskikbaar was nie. Nuwe spoeddigtheid -brandstofinspuiting is bygevoeg op LB9- en L98 -platforms. Die L98 -toegeruste voertuie het die N10 dubbele katalisator. In 1990 is geen Firebird Cabriolet vervaardig nie, en die Firebird van 1990 het slegs 'n halfjaar produksieloop gekry.

In 1991 stel die Pontiac Firebird 'n ietwat omstrede voorkoms bekend. Sommige hou nie van die nuwe voorkant nie, terwyl ander van die voorkoms hou. Convertible Firebirds en Trans Ams, wat sedert 1969 weg was, is ook bekendgestel. Die cabriolete is aangebied met een van die volgende enjinopsies LHO 3,1-liter V6, L03 5,0-liter V8 vir die basis Firebird, of LB9 5,0-liter V8 vir die Trans Am. T-top-modelle het ook beter seëls gekry, wat lekkasies voorkom.

In 1992 was nuwe buitekleure beskikbaar vir die Pontiac Firebird, en cabrio's was nog steeds beskikbaar. Gom is by die voeë en panele aangebring om die motor stil te maak. Kaartjies wat met TPI toegerus is, sal leë gasklepplate ontvang in plaas van dié met 'Tuned Port Injection'. Die Performance Equipment Group het die TPI 5-liter V8 tot 230 pk geskop. Dit sou die laaste jaar wees vir die Trans Am GTA, weggesteekte ruitveërs en die lang kap en 'n lae daklyn, en 'n vol leerbedekking op die voorste sitplekke. Daar was baie min Trans Am GTA's vanjaar, slegs 48 in Kanada en 226 in die Verenigde State.

Lekker feite:

Die praatmotor, KITT, van Knight Rider was 'n 1982 Pontiac Trans Am. In 2000 was daar 'n reünie -film Knight Rider 2000 waar KITT die Knight Industries 4000 geword het. KITT was eintlik nou 'n Dodge Stealth en nie meer 'n Firebird Trans Am nie.

As gevolg van die nuwe inkeping -ontwerp in 1988, het die Trans Am GTA die bynaam Ferrari Back gekry omdat sommige mense gedink het die motor lyk soos 'n Ferrari.

In 1991 het SLP (Street Legal Performance) 'n formule aangepas om die Firehawk te skep. Dit was 'n beperkte opsie (RPO -kode B4U). 'N Formule word na SLP gestuur om dit te wysig, en geen twee is dieselfde nie. 27 is bestel en 25 is gebou, 1-25 genommer vir hardtops. Nommers 18 en 23 is nooit gebou nie, en nommer 27 was die enigste Firehawk Convertible. 21 Firehawks was rooi, 1 aqua, 1 blou, 1 wit, 1 groen. 1 het 'n t-top, 1 was 'n cabriolet, 3 het aluminiumblokkies en 11 het die kompetisiepakket. 'N Standaard Firehawk was $ 39,995.00. Die kompetisiepakket was 'n ekstra $ 9.995,00 wat aluminiumkappie, volrolhok minus die agterste sitplek insluit, 13 dwarsgeboorde 13 in Brembo Ferrari F-40-remme en Recaro-renstoele met volledige harnas en agterste sitplek verwyder.

1996 het gegaan oor die verbetering van prestasie

Die Pontiac Firebird is van 1967 tot 2002 vervaardig. Dit is in Februarie 1967 bekendgestel, dieselfde jaar as die Chevrolet Camaro. General Motors, die moedermaatskappy van Pontiac, het in die vyftigerjare die naam Firebird in hul Firebird gebruik.

Met 'n slanker, meer aërodinamiese ontwerp, is die vierde generasie van die Firebird in 1993 bekend gestel. Selfs die meerderheid van die onderdele was nuut. Nuwe toevoegings vir 1993 sluit in dubbele lugsakke, anti-sluitremme met vier wiele, tandwielstuur, 16-duim-wiele en kort/lang-arm voorvering. Die afwerkingsvlakke sluit in V6-aangedrewe Firebird, V8-aangedrewe Formula en Trans Am. Standaard vir die V8 was die Borg-Warner T56 6-gang handratkas terwyl die V6 die T5 5-handratkas gekry het. Daar was 'n viergang-outomatiese opsie vir albei voertuie, insluitend ingeboude elektroniese kontroles wat in 1994 ingestel is.

In 1993 was daar twee hoofmotors beskikbaar: die 3,4 liter V6 160 pk, en die LT1-weergawe van die 5,7 liter kleinblok-V8 met 275 pk, wat met 'n 2-handratkas beskikbaar kan wees.

Stereostelsels het ook 'n opgradering in hierdie generasie gekry. Die klankbedienings op die stuurwiel was opsioneel, asook 'n kasset- of CD -speler -stereostelsel. Die Delco -stereo -stelsel is nou vervang met die Delco 2001 -reeks. Ander Pontiac -motorlyne het ook hierdie opgradering gekry. Die bedieningspanele het groter knoppies en was meer ergonomies ontwerp. 'N 7-band grafiese gelykmaker was opsioneel.

In 1994 was die cabriolet nou beskikbaar. 'N Trans -uitgawe van 25 -jarige bestaan, in coupé of in cabriolet, wit geverf met 'n enkele blou streep in die middel was beskikbaar. Die GT-weergawe van die Trans Am, met leersitplekke en 'n skip-shift-funksie op die sesgang-handratkas, was nou beskikbaar. Formule- en Trans Am -motors het nou die Transmission Perform -knoppie, wat eers in 1994 en 1995 beskikbaar sou wees.

In 1995 was ASR (Acceleration Slip Regulation) beskikbaar vir LT1 Firebirds. Stuurwiele in die Firebird het 'n opgradering gekry met die klankbeheer wat nader aan mekaar verskuif is. Die Trans AM GT -afwerkingsvlak is verlaag. Nou het die Trans Am bande met 'n Z-nommer en 'n snelheidsmeter van 155 km / h gekry. 1995 was ook die jaar van die bekendstelling van die geventileerde Opti-Spark-verspreider op die LT1 F-motors. Maar visueel, sonder om VIN -nommers na te gaan, het die Pontiac Firebird van 1995 presies soos die Pontiac Firebird van 1994 gelyk.

In 1996 het dit gegaan oor die verbetering van prestasie. Die 3,8-liter V6 200 pk was nou die basismotor en die LT1-drywing het tot 285 gestyg met 'n nuwe uitlaatstelsel vir katalisators. Opsionele verbeterings vir alle afwerkingsvlakke, insluitend die Y87 Performance-pakket vir V6's, het nou ekstra meganiese kenmerke van die V8-opsette, soos vierwiel-skyfremme, meer reageerbare stuur, dubbele uitlaatpype en 'n beperkte gly agterste ewenaar. Die funksionele dubbele inlaat Ram Air-kap was nou deel van die WS6-prestasiepakket vir die Trans Am en Formula. 'N Opsionele pakket het die nominale perdekrag van 285 tot 305 en die wringkrag van 325 tot 335 gestoot. Ander opsies sluit in 'n beter vering, ovaal dubbele uitlaatpunte, 'n WS6, 17 "x9" -wiele met 275/40ZR17 -bande en Bilstein -skokke.

In 1997 was digitale kilometertellers, standaard lugversorging, bedagslampe en 'n opsionele 500 Watt Monsoon-kasset of CD-stereostelsel beskikbaar vir alle Firebird-afwerkingsvlakke. Dit was ook die jaar waarin die W68 Sport -voorkomspakket vir V6 Firebirds bekendgestel is. Die WS6 Ram Air -prestasiepakket sou nou 'n opsie wees vir alle omskepbare Trans Ams en Formules. Vir 1997 is 463 Trans Am -cabrio's en 41 Formules -cabrio's met die WS6 vervaardig.

In 1999 was die Torsen-ewenaar met beperkte gly vir V8's en vir V6's met die Performance Package een van die min opgraderings. Ander opsies sluit in 'n Hurst-skakelaar vir die 6-ratkas en 'n koeler vir stuurstuur vir die V8-modelle. 'N Trans-30ste bestaansjaar is in wit vervaardig met twee donkerblou strepe, blou-getinte 17-inch allooi A-vormwiele en 'n wit leer-binnekant. Dit was beskikbaar as 'n WS6 cabriolet of WS6 t-top coupe. In 1999 was bestuurders bly om 'n nuwe standaard nie-metaalbrandstoftenk van 16,8 liter te sien. Die ASR-traksiebeheerstelsel was nou beskikbaar in die V6 Firebirds, en alle Y87 V6 en LS1 V8 Firebirds is versterk met 'n Zexel/Torsen II gly-vermindering agteras. Die hidrouliese proporsionele kleppe is vervang met 'n nuwe Electronic Brakeforce Distribution (EBD) -stelsels, en 'n nuwe Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM) was in plek om statistieke op te neem 5 sekondes voor enige lugsakontplooiing.

2000 het aangebreek sonder veel veranderinge aan die Firebird. Die Hurst-versneller vir 6-spoed en 'n verkoelingstelsel vir stuurstuur was nou opsies vir die LS1 Firebirds.

In 2001 is die LS1 herwaardeer tot 310 pk (325 met die WS6), en die Ram Air-opsie was nie meer beskikbaar vir die Formule nie. Die WS6 -prestasiepakket was slegs beskikbaar vir die Trans Am coupe en cabriolet.

2002 was die 35ste herdenking van die Firebird. 'N Gele Trans Am met twee swart strepe van stert tot en met kappie en swart 5-spaak-17-duim-allooiwiele is as 'n spesiale uitgawe vervaardig. Beskikbaar as 'n WS6 cabriolet of WS6 t-top coupe. Vir die Firebirds het kragspieëls en kragantenne standaard geword en kassette het in die geskiedenis vervaag en was nie meer beskikbaar in die stereostelsels nie.

Lekker feite:

Die vierde generasie Firebird het baie van die ontwerp van die Banshee IV Pontiac -konsepvoertuig geneem.

In 1994 was dit die 25ste bestaansjaar van die Trans Am en 'n spesiale uitgawe wat wit geverf is met 'n enkele blou streep in die middel, bring hulde aan die handelsmerk.

Die Firehawk was die toppunt van Firebird -optrede. Die motors is deur SLP omskep en deur die Pontiac -handelaars verkoop vir die hele generasie.


Hoëprestasie Ram Air-weergawes

Pontiac het die Ram Air -weergawes in 'n totaal van vyf verskillende fases gebou. The original set up in 1967 concentrated on improving how the engine would breathe. To that end, they included a hood scoop and fresh air intake, but tweaks to the camshaft, cylinder heads, and exhaust manifolds were key as well.

These parts boosted power through improved intake efficiency and by reducing exhaust back pressure. The major difference between the original Ram Air in 1967 and the Ram Air II in 1968 is the shape of the cylinder head intake ports. They went from a D-shaped port to a round one. This change pushed advertised horsepower past 365 HP for the first time.

On the Ram Air III version, built in 1969, Pontiac increased the lift and duration of the camshaft. They also strengthened the bottom end by using a four-bolt main instead of the previous year’s two-bolt setup.

The Ram Air V is a completely different story. These were built to power cars for the SCCA Trans Am Racing Series. Pontiac milled the deck on these blocks to boost compression and raise horsepower. It's believed they built less than 500 in total.


1976 Pontiac Firebird Trans Am

F or 1976, the Pontiac Firebird was available as four models including the base, Esprit, Formula and Trans Am. The base engine was a 250 cubic-inch six-cylinder engine while the Trans Am could be fitted with a 455 cubic-inch V8.

All Firebirds had body-colored urethane bumpers and new options this year included a canopy top, fuel economy indicator, and a new appearance package for the Formula model.

The Firebirds were available in only five colors including Firethorn Red, Sterling Silver, Carousel Red, Goldenrod Yellow and Cameo White.

The Trans Am model had an air dam, rear decklid spoiler, shaker hood, Rally II wheels with trim rings, 400 cubic-inch four-barrel V8, GR70 x 15 tires, and rally gauges. Pricing for the Trans Am was just under $5000 and a total of 46,701 examples were made.

The base model sold for $3,900. These models came with the 250 cid six mated to a three-speed manual gearbox, dual horns, power steering, and radial-tuned suspension.


Third Dynasty of Egypt (2686 &ndash 2575 BC)

Rulers of the Third Dynasty :

  1. Netjerikhet (Djoser) &ndash Buried in the step pyramid at Saqqara, Egypt&rsquos first step pyramid. His chancellor was Imhotep, responsible for many great construction projects in Egypt.
  2. Sekhemkhet (Djoserty) (abt 2648 &ndash 2640 BC) &ndash His step pyramid was never completed, possibly because the died unexpectedly. A sealed sarcophagus was found beneath the pyramid but when opened, was found to be empty.
  3. Sanakhte (Nebka), (2686 &ndash 2668 BC) &ndash Believed to be entombed at Beit Khallaf. Inside the tomb were the skeletal remains of a man who was 8-inches taller than the average male at the time.
  4. Khaba (Teti) (2643 &ndash 2637 BC)
  5. Uncertain, possibly Qahedjet (Huni) (2637 &ndash 2613 BC)

18 U.S. Code § 3553 - Imposition of a sentence

[1] So in original. The period probably should be a semicolon.

[2] So in original. No subpar. (B) has been enacted.

The Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), are set out in the Appendix to this title.

Section 408 of the Controlled Substances Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(4), is classified to section 848 of Title 21, Food and Drugs.

For information regarding constitutionality of certain provisions of this section, as amended by section 401(a)(1) of Pub. L. 108–21, see Congressional Research Service , The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States .

2018—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–391, § 402(a)(1)(A), (C), in introductory provisions, substituted “, section 1010” for “or section 1010” and inserted “, or section 70503 or 70506 of title 46” after “963)”, and inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 115–391, § 402(a)(1)(B), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: “the defendant does not have more than 1 criminal history point, as determined under the sentencing guidelines”.

2010—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 111–174 substituted “a statement of reasons form issued under section 994(w)(1)(B) of title 28” for “the written order of judgment and commitment”.

2003—Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 108–21, § 401(j)(5)(A), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: “the applicable category of offense committed by the applicable category of defendant as set forth in the guidelines issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to section 994(a)(1) of title 28, United States Code, and that are in effect on the date the defendant is sentenced or”.

Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 108–21, § 401(j)(5)(B), inserted before semicolon at end “, taking into account any amendments made to such guidelines or policy statements by act of Congress (regardless of whether such amendments have yet to be incorporated by the Sentencing Commission into amendments issued under section 994(p) of title 28)”.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 108–21, § 401(j)(5)(C), amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: “any pertinent policy statement issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(2) that is in effect on the date the defendant is sentenced”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–21, § 401(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading, substituted “Except as provided in paragraph (2), the court” for “The court”, and added par. (2) and concluding provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–21, § 401(c)(2), (3), in concluding provisions, inserted “, together with the order of judgment and commitment,” after “the court’s statement of reasons” and “and to the Sentencing Commission,” after “to the Probation System”.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–21, § 401(c)(1), substituted “described, which reasons must also be stated with specificity in the written order of judgment and commitment, except to the extent that the court relies upon statements received in camera in accordance with Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 32. In the event that the court relies upon statements received in camera in accordance with Federal Rule of Criminal Procedure 32 the court shall state that such statements were so received and that it relied upon the content of such statements” for “described”.

2002—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–273 inserted “a” before “minimum sentence”.

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–294, § 601(h), amended directory language of Pub. L. 103–322, § 80001(a). See 1994 Amendment note below.

1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–322, § 280001, amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: “the kinds of sentence and the sentencing range established for the applicable category of offense committed by the applicable category of defendant as set forth in the guidelines that are issued by the Sentencing Commission pursuant to 28 U.S.C. 994(a)(1) and that are in effect on the date the defendant is sentenced”.

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–690 inserted “or other appropriate public record” after “transcription” in second sentence and struck out “clerk of the” before “court” in last sentence.

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–182, § 3(1), (2), substituted “court finds that there exists an aggravating or mitigating circumstance of a kind, or to a degree, not adequately taken into consideration by the Sentencing Commission in formulating the guidelines that should result” for “court finds that an aggravating or mitigating circumstance exists that was not adequately taken into consideration by the Sentencing Commission in formulating the guidelines and that should result”.

Pub. L. 100–182, § 3(3), inserted after first sentence “In determining whether a circumstance was adequately taken into consideration, the court shall consider only the sentencing guidelines, policy statements, and official commentary of the Sentencing Commission.”

Pub. L. 100–182, § 16(a), substituted “In the absence of an applicable sentencing guideline, the court shall impose an appropriate sentence, having due regard for the purposes set forth in subsection (a)(2). In the absence of an applicable sentencing guideline in the case of an offense other than a petty offense, the court shall also have due regard for the relationship of the sentence imposed to sentences prescribed by guidelines applicable to similar offenses and offenders, and to the applicable policy statements of the Sentencing Commission.” for “In the absence of an applicable sentencing guideline, the court shall impose an appropriate sentence, having due regard for the relationship of the sentence imposed to sentences prescribed by guidelines applicable to similar offenses and offenders, the applicable policy statements of the Sentencing Commission, and the purposes of sentencing set forth in subsection (a)(2).”

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–182, § 17, inserted “and that range exceeds 24 months,”.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–646, § 9(a), inserted provision relating to sentencing in the absence of applicable guidelines.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–646, § 8(a), substituted “If the court does not order restitution, or orders only partial restitution” for “If the sentence does not include an order of restitution”.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–646, § 80(a), struck out “or restitution” after “notice” in heading, and struck out “or an order of restitution pursuant to section 3556,” after “section 3555,” in introductory text.


The History of the 454ci Engine

The Chevrolet 454-cubic-inch V-8 engine was part of the Mark IV big-block V-8s that competed against Chrysler's 426 Hemi for muscle car supremacy. Chevy launched the Mark IV V-8s in 1965, but the 454 didn't arrive until 1970. And its timing couldn't have been worse. The 454 wielded massive horsepower and torque for two years before General Motors detuned its engines beginning in 1972 to accommodate stricter federal emissions and safety standards.

Variante

The 1970 debut of the 454 was Chevrolet's effort to raise the bar in muscle car performance. Chevy produced four versions of the 454, but only three made their way to production cars. The base 454 was the LS5 that powered Corvettes, Camaros and Chevelles. It also powered station wagons and the Chevy C/K series light-duty pickups. The LS6 was a high-performance 454 option. The LS7 never saw production for standard Chevys, but was a crate, or replacement engine, for custom Chevys and tuned to deliver as much as 500 horsepower. The LS7 was still available in 2011. The detuned LS4 454 powered the 1973 and 1974 Monte Carlos, Chevelles and Corvettes.

LS5 Specifications

All 454s had a 4.251-inch bore and 4-inch stroke. The 1970 LS5 featured a four-barrel carburetor and 11.25-to-1 compression ratio to deliver 360 horsepower for the Chevelle and 390 horsepower for the Corvette. The torque rating for both cars was 500 foot-pounds. In 1971, the Chevelle's LS5 equipped with a four-barrel car developed 364 horsepower and 465 foot-pounds of torque. Horsepower dropped dramatically in 1972 to 270 with a 390 foot-pound torque rating as automakers switched from "gross" horsepower ratings to "net" horsepower and emission control requirements began to kick in. In 1974, the LS5 could no longer sustain itself as an engine capable of efficiently delivering massive horsepower. It only generated 235 horsepower and 295 foot-pounds of torque when small-block V-8s could deliver the same horsepower in a much smaller package.

LS6 Specifications

The high-performance LS6 454 equipped with a four-barrel carb had an 11.25-to-1 compression ratio and wielded 450 horsepower and 500 foot-pounds of torque in the 1970 Chevelles and Camaros. Chevy slightly detuned the 1971 version to generate 425 horsepower and 475 foot-pounds of torque. The automaker ceased production of the LS6 after 1971.

LS4 Specifications

For 1973, the LS4 arrived for a brief stay to power the Chevelle, Monte Carlo and Corvette. It generated 275 horsepower and 395 foot-pounds of torque. The 1974 versions featured a 235-horsepower engine for the Monte Carlo and Chevelle, while a 270-horsepower version came with the Corvette.

Optrede

The 454 posted some impressive times even when it lost horsepower as the 1970s wore on. A Chevelle equipped with the LS6 450-horsepower 454 reached zero to 60 mph in 6.1 seconds and the quarter mile in 13.7 seconds at 103 mph. The LS6 365-horsepower 454 managed a 6.0-second zero-to-60 clocking in the 1971 Chevelle, but struggled to obtain 14.35 seconds in the quarter mile test. The 1971 Corvette equipped with a 425-horsepower 454 achieved 60 from a dead stop in 6.5 seconds and the quarter mile in 14.4 seconds.


Executive Summary

During two years of research in eight southern states (Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee), we interviewed over 100 African American citizens who were excluded from jury service based on race and reviewed hundreds of court documents and records.

We uncovered shocking, present-day evidence of racial discrimination in jury selection, including:

  • Racially biased use of peremptory strikes and illegal racial discrimination in jury selection remains widespread, particularly in serious criminal cases and capital cases. Hundreds of people of color called for jury service have been illegally excluded from juries after prosecutors asserted pretextual reasons to justify their removal.
  • Prosecutors have struck African Americans from jury service because they appeared to have “low intelligence,” wore eyeglasses, walked in a certain way, dyed their hair, and countless other reasons that the courts have rubber-stamped as “race-neutral.”
  • Some district attorney’s offices explicitly train prosecutors to exclude racial minorities from jury service and teach them how to mask racial bias to avoid a finding that anti-discrimination laws have been violated.
  • In some communities, the exclusion of African Americans from juries is extreme. For example, in Houston County, Alabama, 8 out of 10 African Americans qualified for jury service have been struck by prosecutors from death penalty cases. In Jefferson Parish, Louisiana, there is no effective African American representation on the jury in 80 percent of criminal trials.
  • Many defense lawyers fail to adequately challenge racially discriminatory jury selection because they are uncomfortable, unwilling, unprepared, or not trained to assert claims of racial bias.
  • There is wide variation among states and counties concerning enforcement of anti-discrimination laws that protect racial minorities from illegal exclusion.

The report offers detailed recommendations for ensuring full representation of people of color on juries throughout the U.S. These recommendations include:

  • Dedicated and thorough enforcement of anti-discrimination laws designed to prevent racially biased jury selection must be undertaken by courts, judges and lawyers involved in criminal and civil trials, especially in serious criminal cases and capital cases.
  • Prosecutors who repeatedly exclude people of color should be subject to fines, penalties, suspension, and other consequences to deter the practice. Community groups can hold their district attorneys accountable through court monitoring, requesting regular reporting on the use of peremptory strikes, and their voting power.
  • The criminal defense bar should receive greater support, training and assistance in ensuring that state officials do not exclude people of color from serving on juries on the basis of race.
  • States should strengthen policies and procedures to ensure that racial minorities are fully represented in jury pools. State and local governments should expand their jury lists and use computer models that weight groups appropriately.
  • The rule banning racially discriminatory use of peremptory strikes announced in Batson v. Kentucky should be applied retroactively to death row prisoners and others with lengthy sentences whose convictions or death sentences are the product of illegal, racially biased jury selection but whose claims have not been reviewed because they were tried before 1986.

Equal Justice Initiative, “Illegal Racial Discrimination in Jury Selection: A Continuing Legacy” (2010).


Aanbevole leesstof

Modern Mapping Tools Meet the Battle of Gettysburg

The Great Illusion of Gettysburg

The Atlantic's Special Civil War Issue

Gallagher also feels that hindsight has dimmed recognition of how close the Confederacy came to achieving its aims. "For the South, a tie was as good as a win," he says. It needed to inflict enough pain to convince a divided Northern public that defeating the South wasn't worth the cost. This nearly happened at several points, when rebel armies won repeated battles in 1862 and 1863. As late as the summer of 1864, staggering casualties and the stalling of Union armies brought a collapse in Northern morale, cries for a negotiated peace, and the expectation that anti-war (and anti-black) Democrats would take the White House. The fall of Atlanta that September narrowly saved Lincoln and sealed the South's eventual surrender.

Allen Guelzo, director of Civil War studies at Gettysburg College, adds the Pennsylvania battle to the roster of near-misses for the South. In sy nuwe boek, Gettysburg: The Last Invasion, he identifies points when Lee's army came within minutes of breaking the Union line. If it had, he believes the already demoralized Army of the Potomac "would have gone to pieces." With a victorious Southern army on the loose, threatening Northern cities, "it would have been game over for the Union."

Imagining these and other scenarios isn't simply an exercise in "what if" history, or the fulfillment of Confederate fantasy fiction. It raises the very real possibility that many thousands of Americans might have died only to entrench secession and slavery. Given this risk, and the fact that Americans at the time couldn't see the future, Andrew Delbanco wonders if we ourselves would have regarded the defeat of the South as worth pursuing at any price. "Vindicated causes are easy to endorse," he observes in The Abolitionist Imagination.

Recent scholarship has also cast new light on the scale and horror of the nation's sacrifice. Soldiers in the 1860s didn't wear dog tags, the burial site of most was unknown, and casualty records were sketchy and often lost. Those tallying the dead in the late 19 th century relied on estimates and assumptions to arrive at a figure of 618,000, a toll that seemed etched in stone until just a few years ago.

But J. David Hacker, a demographic historian, has used sophisticated analysis of census records to revise the toll upward by 20%, to an estimated 750,000, a figure that has won wide acceptance from Civil War scholars. If correct, the Civil War claimed more lives than all other American wars combined, and the increase in population since 1860 means that a comparable war today would cost 7.5 million lives.

This horrific toll doesn't include the more than half million soldiers who were wounded and often permanently disabled by amputation, lingering disease, psychological trauma and other afflictions. Veterans themselves rarely dwelled on this suffering, at least in their writing. "They walled off the horror and mangling and tended to emphasize the nobility of sacrifice," says Allen Guelzo. So did many historians, who cited the numbing totals of dead and wounded but rarely delved into the carnage or its societal impact.

That's changed dramatically with pioneering studies such as Drew Gilpin Faust's This Republic of Suffering, a 2008 examination of "the work of death" in the Civil War: killing, dying, burying, mourning, counting. "Civil War history has traditionally had a masculine view," says Faust, now president of Harvard, "it's all about generals and statesmen and glory." From reading the letters of women during the war, though, she sensed the depth of Americans' fear, grief, and despair. Writing her book amid "the daily drumbeat of loss" in coverage of Iraq and Afghanistan, Faust's focus on the horrors of this earlier war was reinforced.

"When we go to war, we ought to understand the costs," she says. "Human beings have an extraordinary capacity to forget that. Americans went into the Civil War imagining glorious battle, not gruesome disease and dismemberment."

Disease, in fact, killed roughly twice as many soldiers as did combat dysentery and diarrhea alone killed over 44,000 Union soldiers, more than ten times the Northern dead at Gettysburg. Amputations were so routine, Faust notes, that soldiers and hospital workers frequently described severed limbs stacked "like cord wood," or heaps of feet, legs and arms being hauled off in carts, as if from "a human slaughterhouse." In an era before germ theory, surgeons' unclean saws and hands became vectors for infection that killed a quarter or more of the 60,000 or so men who underwent amputation.

Other historians have exposed the savagery and extent of the war that raged far from the front lines, including guerrilla attacks, massacres of Indians, extra-judicial executions and atrocities against civilians, some 50,000 of whom may have died as a result of the conflict. "There's a violence within and around the Civil War that doesn't fit the conventional, heroic narrative,' says Fitzhugh Brundage, whose research includes torture during the war. "When you incorporate these elements, the war looks less like a conflict over lofty principles and more like a cross-societal bloodletting."

In other words, it looks rather like ongoing wars in the Middle East and Afghanistan, which have influenced today's scholars and also their students. Brundage sees a growing number of returning veterans in his classes at the University of North Carolina, and new interest in previously neglected aspects of the Civil War era, such as military occupation, codes of justice, and the role of militias and insurgents.

More broadly, he senses an opening to question the limits of war as a force for good. Just as the fight against Nazism buttressed a moral vision of the Civil War, so too have the last decade's conflicts given us a fresh and cautionary viewpoint. "We should be chastened by our inability to control war and its consequences," Brundage says. "So much of the violence in the Civil War is laundered or sanctified by emancipation, but that result was by no means inevitable."

It's very hard, however, to see how emancipation might have been achieved by means other than war. The last century's revisionists thought the war was avoidable because they didn't regard slavery as a defining issue or evil. Almost no one suggests that today. The evidence is overwhelming that slavery was the "cornerstone" of the Southern cause, as the Confederacy's vice-president stated, and the source of almost every aspect of sectional division.

Slaveholders also resisted any infringement of their right to human property. Lincoln, among many others, advocated the gradual and compensated emancipation of slaves. This had been done in the British West Indies, and would later end slavery in Brazil and Cuba. In theory it could have worked here. Economists have calculated that the cost of the Civil War, estimated at over $10 billion in 1860 dollars, would have been more than enough to buy the freedom of every slave, purchase them land, and even pay reparations. But Lincoln's proposals for compensated emancipation fell on deaf ears, even in wartime Delaware, which was behind Union lines and clung to only 2,000 slaves, about 1.5% of the state's population.

Nor is there much credible evidence that the South's "peculiar institution" would have peacefully waned on its own. Slave-grown cotton was booming in 1860, and slaves in non-cotton states like Virginia were being sold to Deep South planters at record prices, or put to work on railroads and in factories. "Slavery was a virus that could attach itself to other forms," says historian Edward Ayers, president of the University of Richmond. "It was stronger than it had ever been and was growing stronger."

Most historians believe that without the Civil War, slavery would have endured for decades, possibly generations. Though emancipation was a byproduct of the war, not its aim, and white Americans clearly failed during Reconstruction to protect and guarantee the rights of freed slaves, the post-war amendments enshrined the promise of full citizenship and equality in the Constitution for later generations to fulfill.

What this suggests is that the 150 th anniversary of the Civil War is too narrow a lens through which to view the conflict. We are commemorating the four years of combat that began in 1861 and ended with Union victory in 1865. But Iraq and Afghanistan remind us, yet again, that the aftermath of war matters as much as its initial outcome. Though Confederate armies surrendered in 1865, white Southerners fought on by other means, wearing down a war-weary North that was ambivalent about if not hostile to black equality. Looking backwards, and hitting the pause button at the Gettysburg Address or the passage of the 13 th amendment, we see a "good" and successful war for freedom. If we focus instead on the run-up to war, when Lincoln pledged to not interfere with slavery in the South, or pan out to include the 1870s, when the nation abandoned Reconstruction, the story of the Civil War isn't quite so uplifting.

But that also is an arbitrary and insufficient frame. In 1963, a century after Gettysburg, Martin Luther King Jr. invoked Lincoln's words and the legacy of the Civil War in calling on the nation to pay its "promissory note" to black Americans, which it finally did, in part, by passing Civil Rights legislation that affirmed and enforced the amendments of the 1860s. In some respects, the struggle for racial justice, and for national cohesion, continues still.

From the distance of 150 years, Lincoln's transcendent vision at Gettysburg of a "new birth of freedom" seems premature. But he himself acknowledged the limits of remembrance. Rather than simply consecrate the dead with words, he said, it is for "us the living" to rededicate ourselves to the unfinished work of the Civil War.