Russies -Ortodokse Kerk

Russies -Ortodokse Kerk

Die meeste mense in die Russiese Ryk was lede van die Russies -Ortodokse Kerk. Dit is bestuur deur die hoofprokureur, 'n amptenaar wat deur die tsaar aangestel is.

Die Ortodokse Kerk het heeltemal onder die beheer van die regering 'n belangrike rol gespeel in die verskillende russifikasieveldtogte (die gebruik van plaaslike tale en die onderdrukking van godsdienstige gebruike). t raak ook nou verbonde aan die Joodse Pogroms wat gedurende die laaste deel van die 19de eeu plaasgevind het.

As staatsdepartement het die Russies -Ortodokse Kerk die reg verloor om namens die armes en onteienaars by die tsaar te pleit. Die kerk word dus deur diegene wat hervorming soek, beskou as 'n reaksionêre instelling wat diensknegte goedkeur.

Die Bolsjewiste, as marxiste, beskou godsdiens as die 'opium van die massas'. Na die Oktoberrevolusie was die Sowjetregering uiters vyandig teenoor die Kerk.

In Januarie 1918 het die Sowjetregering wetgewing aangeneem wat probeer het om die kerk van die staat en onderwys te skei. Hulle ontneem die Kerk ook van alle regsfunksies rakende die gesin en die huwelik.

Tydens die Burgeroorlog is op alle kerkgeboue, fondse en eiendom beslag gelê. Na raming is ongeveer duisend priesters gedurende hierdie tydperk doodgemaak.

'N Dekreet wat op 14 April 1929 aangeneem is, het bepaal dat die Kerk nie eiendom kon besit of sentrale fondse kon stig of verpligte heffings kon maak nie. Hulle godsdienstige aktiwiteite is beperk tot aanbidding binne die geregistreerde gemeente. Hulle is ook verbied om aan sending- of welsynswerk deel te neem.

Nie een van die nuwe stede en nywerheidsentrums wat onder die vyfjaarplanne gebou is, het kerke ingesluit nie. Ou kerke is afgebreek en teen die 1930's het Moskou slegs 'n dosyn kerke gehad, vergeleke met meer as 200 voor die Oktoberrevolusie.

In 1937 was daar 30 000 geregistreerde godsdienstige gemeenskappe. Tydens die suiwering het hierdie syfer aansienlik gedaal en teen 1939 was dit slegs 20 000. Daar word egter beraam dat daar 'n groot aantal ongeregistreerde gemeentes was.


'N Geskiedenis en inleiding van die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika

Die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika spoor sy oorsprong aan die aankoms in Kodiak, Alaska van agt Ortodokse sendelinge uit die Valaamo -klooster in die noordelike Karelië -streek in 1794. Die sendelinge het 'n groot impak op die inheemse Alaskaanse bevolking gehad en was verantwoordelik daarvoor dat baie tot die Ortodokse Christelike geloof.

Vandag tel die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika ongeveer 700 gemeentes, missies, gemeenskappe, kloosters en instellings in die Verenigde State, Kanada en Mexiko.

In die 1820's het vader John Veniaminov in Alaska aangekom en ook sendingwerk gedoen. Onder sy vele prestasies was die vertaling van die Skrif en die liturgiese dienste in die inheemse dialekte, waarvoor hy ook 'n grammatika en alfabet bedink het.

Omstreeks 1840 is vader John verkies tot die bisdom, met die naam Innocentius. Die kerk het steeds gegroei onder die inheemse Alaskane, maar biskop Innocent het ook Kalifornië en die Ortodokse gemeenskap in Fort Ross, noord van San Francisco, besoek. Uiteindelik keer hy terug na Rusland, waar hy die Metropolitan van Moskou genoem word. [In 1977 is hy deur die Russies -Ortodokse Kerk verheerlik (heilig verklaar) as 'n heilige van die Ortodokse Kerk.]

Terwyl die kerk in Alaska bly groei, het immigrante begin aankom in wat ons vandag die onderste 48 noem. In die 1860's is 'n gemeente in San Francisco gestig deur Serwiërs, Russe en Grieke. [Vandag is hierdie gemeente die OCA ’s Holy Trinity Cathedral.] Geleidelik is ander soortgelyke gemeentes oor die hele grondgebied van die Verenigde State gestig en, met die groot golwe immigrante uit Sentraal- en Oos -Europa, die Midde -Ooste en Suid -Europa aan die einde van die 19de eeu en die begin van die 20ste eeu is die hoofkwartier van die Noord -Amerikaanse Ortodokse Bisdom na San Francisco en later na New York verskuif. Teen die vroeë 1900's was byna alle Ortodokse gemeenskappe, ongeag die etniese agtergrond, verenig in 'n enkele bisdom, of jurisdiksie, wat onder die Russies -Ortodokse Kerk was. Trouens, die eerste biskop vir Arabies-Amerikaners, biskop Raphael Hawaweeny, was ook die eerste Ortodokse Christen wat gewy is aan die biskop in Noord-Amerika. Hy en die gemeentes onder sy leiding was 'n integrale deel van die Noord -Amerikaanse bisdom. [Biskop Raphael is in Mei 2000 deur die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika as 'n heilige verheerlik.]

In 1917 het die Russiese rewolusie uitgebreek. As gevolg hiervan is kommunikasie tussen die Noord -Amerikaanse bisdom en die kerk in Rusland baie belemmer. In die vroeë twintigerjare het die aartsvader van Moskou, Saint Tikhon, tien jaar lank as biskop van die Noord -Amerikaanse bisdom 'n bevel uitgevaardig wat 'n beroep doen op bisdomme buite die grense van Rusland [teen die Sowjetunie] om hulself outonoom te organiseer totdat normale kommunikasie en betrekkinge met die Kerk in Rusland kan hervat word. Kort daarna, in 'n Raad van alle hiërarge en geestelikes en parochie -afgevaardigdes, is besluit dat die Kerk in Noord -Amerika nie meer streng administratiewe bande met die Kerk in Rusland kon handhaaf nie, veral omdat patriarg Tikhon gearresteer is. [Hy sterf daarna in 1925 en verheerlik as 'n heilige deur die Russies -Ortodokse Kerk in 1989.]

Terselfdertyd het verskillende etniese groepe wat 'n integrale deel van die enkele bisdom was, afsonderlike bisdomme of jurisdiksies georganiseer en hulself onder hul onderskeie Moederkerke geplaas. Dit het aanleiding gegee tot die huidige situasie van Ortodoksie in Noord -Amerika, naamlik die bestaan ​​van veelvuldige, oorvleuelende jurisdiksies gebaseer op etniese agtergrond, eerder as om die kanonieke beginsel van 'n enkele kerklike entiteit op 'n gegewe gebied te volg.

In die vroeë 1960's was die OCA destyds bekend as die Russies -Ortodokse Grieks -Katolieke Kerk van Noord -Amerika, of The Metropolia het in gesprek getree met die Moskou Patriargaat in 'n poging om die status van Metropolias te reël. In 1970 tree die Metropolia weer in die gemeenskap met die Moskou Patriargaat, wat dit onmiddellik outosefale, of administratiewe selfbestuur, verleen. Op 'n Raad van hiërarge, geestelikes en leke wat in dieselfde jaar in die Saint Tikhon ’s -klooster, Suid -Kanaän, Pennsilvanië gehou is, is besluit dat die kerk die naam The Orthodox Church in America moet kry.

Vandag bevat die OCA, benewens die tel van die gemeentes van die voormalige Metropolia, ook die Roemeens Ortodokse Episkopaat, die Albanese Ortodokse Aartsbisdom en die Bulgaarse Ortodokse Bisdom. Verder het die OCA in die afgelope twee dekades meer as 220 nuwe gemeentes gestig, byna uitsluitlik nie-etnies van oorsprong en slegs die Engelse taal in aanbidding gebruik. [Feitlik al die voormalige Metropolia -gemeentes gebruik nou uitsluitlik Engels in die dienste.]

Die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika is 'n volwaardige lid van die Vergadering van Kanonies -Ortodokse Biskoppe van die Verenigde State, saam met die Grieks -Ortodokse Aartsbisdom van Amerika, die Antiochiaanse Ortodokse Christelike Aartsbisdom van Noord -Amerika en die ander lid jurisdiksies. Hiërarge en geestelikes van die OCA vier gereeld saam met geestelikes van ander vergaderingsregsgebiede. Dit is veral duidelik op die jaarlikse viering van die triomf van die ortodoksie op die eerste Sondag van die Groot Lydenstyd.

As 'n selfregerende kerk het die OCA die reg om sy eie Primate of presiderende hiërarg te kies, sonder om op enige kerklike entiteit in die buiteland staat te maak vir bekragtiging. Sy saligspreking, Metropolitan Tikhon, die huidige primaat van die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika, is voorsitter van die vergaderings van die Heilige Biskoppe -sinode, heilig die Heilige Chrism en voer ander pligte uit wat by sy amp pas. Verkies Primate by die 17de Amerikaanse Raad wat in Parma, OH, 13 November 2012, vergader is, is Metropolitan Tikhon op Sondag 27 Januarie 2013 in die Saint Nicholas Cathedral, Washington, DC bekroon.

Die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika is ten volle verbind tot die eenheid van Ortodoksie in Noord -Amerika volgens die kanonieke beginsel van 'n enkele, verenigde Kerk in 'n gegewe geografiese gebied. Vir hierdie doel ondersteun en neem dit ten volle deel aan die werk van talle pan-Ortodokse instansies en inisiatiewe, waaronder Internasionale Ortodokse Christelike Liefdadigheidsorganisasies, die Ortodokse Christelike Sending Sentrum, die Ortodokse Christelike Genootskap, die Ortodokse Christelike Onderwyskommissie en talle Ortodokse media en kommunikasie afsetpunte.


Die geskiedenis van ikone in Rusland

Gedurende die 10de eeu was die mure van Russiese kloosters bedek met ikone van Votive en Festival, en in die buitekapelle was daar houtpanele met die heiliges van die kalender. Irina Osipova skryf in Rusland buite die opskrifte , “Anders as Wes -Europese lande, het Russiese kuns die Renaissance oorgeslaan. Die Middeleeue in Rusland het geduur vanaf die einde van die 10de eeu, toe Rusland die Christendom aangeneem het, tot aan die begin van die 17de en 18de eeu, toe Petrus I die troon bestyg. ”

'Die geskiedenis van die Russiese ikoon moet nie in akademiese taal geskryf word nie, maar in die hoë taal van tragedie. Periode van geestelike vlug en artistieke openbaring, periodes van vergetelheid en onderdrukking, periodes van eerbied en wegraping het almal hul plek daarin gevind, net soos in die geskiedenis van Rusland self. ” – Dr. Yury Bobov, kunsakademie in St Petersburg

Volgens Pavlovich Kondakov het ikonografie ook meer vrugbaar geword in Rusland as in ander streke weens die groot hoeveelheid hout uit die noordelike woude van Rusland. Dit het gelei tot 'n toename in toegewyde ikone (in Russies bekend as Moléannas) uit die 10de eeu.

Links: fyn antieke Russiese ikoon. Verkoop vir $ 175 via Sarasota Estate Auction Right: Russiese ikoon op die paneel. Verkoop vir $ 175 via Saco River Auction.

Toe Petrus I aan die einde van die 17de en vroeë 18de eeu Rusland regeer, het hy die land in 'n era van Verligting gebring. Sy oorgang na protestantisme het gelei tot die suiwering van ikone uit kerke in die streek. 'Die gevolg was 'n algemene vermindering van antieke voorwerpe in kerke, veral van ikone wat waardevol was vir hul oudheid of hul bergings. Pêrels wat ikone afgehaal het, word (of is) deur die skepel in ryk kloosters gewys, ”skryf Pavlovich Kondakov. Dit is gevolg deur 'n afname in die versorging van die ikone, waarvan 'n groot aantal beskadig is deur water, hitte, koue en afsakbare stof.

Minder as 'n eeu gelede het Russiese ikonografie begin om belangstelling onder versamelaars te lok. Voor 1900 word die Russiese ikonografie as gevolg van gebrek aan sorg as vervalle en somber beskou, maar Osipova wys daarop dat Russiese ikonografie "as 'n verskynsel" begin het in die vroeë 20ste eeu, toe lae vuil en roet van die oppervlak van werke verwyder is en diep kleure en goue aksente is onthul.


Aartsvader Tikhon (r. 1917–1925)

Van die begin af het patriarg Tikhon gesukkel om die lewe en organisasie van die Kerk te verdedig te midde van hewige vervolging deur die Bolsjewiste. Byna op dieselfde tydstip dat Saint Tikhon gekies is as die nuwe aartsvader, was Saint John Kochurov (1871–1917), wat as pas geordende priester vir 12 jaar as hoof van die gemeente in Chicago, Illinois, die eerste priester geword het sterf as 'n martelaar uit die hande van die Bolsjewiste. In 1994 verheerlik die Russiese Kerk hom as & ldquoEerste Hieromartyr onder die Bolsjewistiese juk. & Rdquo

Op 19 Januarie 1918, met die volledige goedkeuring van die Groot Raad in Moskou wat aanhou vergader het, het patriarg Tikhon alle vyande van die Kerk uitgesluit en ontwortel. & Rdquo Hy het tot hulle uitgeroep, en ldquoMadmen, herstel u sinne! Hou op met jou bloedige wraak. U optrede is nie net wreed nie, dit is satanisties. & Rdquo

Hierdie optrede het die woede van die rewolusionêres teen die Kerk verhoog, wat hulle verag het vir sy noue bondgenootskap met die gehate Tsaristiese bewind dat hulle hul lewe daaraan gewy het om omver te werp. Volgens James Cunningham, en op 23 Januarie 1918 het hulle 'n bevel uitgevaardig wat die Kerk van die staat geskei het, alle skole van die Kerk weggeneem het, alle kerklike eiendomme onteien het, alle staatsubsidies aan kerklike organisasies opgeskort het, die kerk sy status ontken het as 'n regspersoon, en die staat totaal gesekulariseer. & rdquo

Sint Vladimir van Kiev

Twee dae later word Metropolitan Vladimir van Kiev (1848–1918) die eerste biskop wat deur die revolusionêre tereggestel is. In die loop van die volgende drie jaar is minstens 28 biskoppe vermoor, duisende geestelikes is in die tronk gesit of vermoor, en ongeveer 12 000 leke is vermoor vir godsdienstige aktiwiteite. In die nag van 17 Julie 1918 is tsaar Nicholas en sy hele naaste familie verraderlik en skandelik tereggestel in Ekaterinburg en die volgende nag is groothertogin Elizabeth (1864-1918) en ander lede van die uitgebreide koninklike familie naby Alapaevsk vermoor. Hulle is almal in 2000 deur die Russiese Kerk erken as heiliges onder die nuwe martelare, belydende en passievolle draers van Rusland.

Saint Tikhon

Op 12 Mei 1922 is patriarg Tikhon in die gevangenis gesit omdat hy geweier het om gewyde kerkvaartuie prys te gee wat die regering gedurende die tyd van hongersnood en burgeroorlog geëis het, skynbaar te verkoop om die armes te voed. Hy het die ongeskonde skatte van die Kerk aan die Bolsjewiste aangebied, en hy het ook belowe om geld in te samel vir die geteisterdes deur vrywillige offergawes van gelowiges wat gelyk is aan die bedrag wat die regering eis, solank sulke aanbiedinge sou wees direk deur die Kerk aan die mense versprei. Hy is in Junie 1923 uit die gevangenis vrygelaat nadat hy 'n verklaring van lojaliteit aan die Sowjetregering afgelê het - 'n stap wat hy gevoel het hy moet neem ten goede van die Kerk.

In sy stryd en beproewings het die aartsvader probeer om 'n pad van politieke neutraliteit te volg terwyl hy die regte van die Kerk verdedig. Hy sterf in 1925 onder geheimsinnige omstandighede in 'n hospitaal in Moskou, as 'n belydenis vir die geloof. In 1989 is patriarg Tikhon deur die Moskou Patriargaat heilig verklaar as & ldquoSaint Tikhon the Confessor, Patriarch of Moscow and All-Russia, and Enlightener of North America. & Rdquo


Russies -Ortodokse Kerk - Geskiedenis

Russiese handelaars en ontdekkingsreisigers het in die eerste helfte van die 18de eeu vanuit Al -Siberië na Alaska begin emigreer. As gevolg van die Ortodokse geloof, het Russe die inboorlinge, die Christelike leer en die waarheid van hul Ortodokse Kerk geleer.

Hulle het baie goed geslaag in hulle sendingwerk, hoewel dit vir hulle nuut was. Handelaar Golikoff het in 1763 'n groep Aleuts op die eiland Umnak gedoop en kort daarna, in 1774, het 'n ander Russiese handelaar en organiseerder van die Trading Company van Alaska-Shelikhoff 40 Aleuts op Kodiak-eiland gedoop. Die ander lede van die Kompanjie wou ook die inboorlinge van Alaska na die Christendom bring.

Die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika spoor sy oorsprong aan die aankoms in Kodiak, Alaska van agt Ortodokse sendelinge uit die Valaam -klooster in die noordelike Karelië -streek in 1794. Die sendelinge het 'n groot impak op die inheemse bevolking van Alaska gehad en was verantwoordelik daarvoor dat baie tot die Ortodokse Christelike geloof.

In 1794 vervul die Tsarina Grigorii Shelikhov se pleidooie om 'n Ortodokse sending in Alaska te vestig, en die eerste formele Ortodokse Christelike Sending na Amerika het op 24 September 1794 in Kodiak aangekom. Hierdie missie het bestaan ​​uit agt monnike en twee beginners, saam met tien inboorlinge uit Alaska wat in 1786 deur Shelikov na Rusland geneem is. Igumen Nazary het etlike jare lank die regte personeel gekies vir die sending van Alaskan, wat groot verantwoordelikheid aanvaar het in hul voorgestelde sendingwerk. Uiteindelik kon hy manne vir die missie aanstel, soos volg:

1. Sendinghoof, Archimandriet Joasaph (1761-1799), seun van die priester, studeer aan die Teologiese Kweekskool Yaradlov, en gee vier jaar onderwys aan die voorbereidende Teologiese Skool van Rostov, gewy aan die monastieke orde in 1786 en word as Hieromonk in die Valaam -klooster in 1792.

2. Herman (1757-1837) monnik van die Valaam-klooster.

3. Joasaph (Kosma Evseyev), monnik van Valaam -klooster, vriend van monnik Herman.

4. Hieromonk Makary (1750-1799), hierodeacon (1783) en in 1793 oorgeplaas na Konev-klooster naby Valaam.

5. Hieromonk Yuvenaly (1761-1796) Hovorukhn, seun van die arbeider van die Nerchnisk-fabriek, Siberië, voorheen mynbeampte, monnik van Valaam-klooster in 1791, Hieromonk in 1793, uitstekend in sy kloosterlewe.

6. Hieromonk Aeanasy gebore in 1758 in Moscov, seun van 'n boeremonnik van Valaam in 1788.

7. Nektariese Hierodeacon, seun van 'n handelaar, monnik van Sarov -klooster 1787 en oorgeplaas na Alexander Nevsky -klooster in 1793 in Sint Petersburg.

8. Hierodeacon Stephen (Hovoronukhin), broer van Hieromonk Yavenaly, mynbeampte, georden in Irkutsk op pad na Alaska.

Die Valaam -sending is voorberei vir Alaska op die direkte bevel van keiserin Catherine, waarin sy noem dat die hoof van die sending mitra (goue pet) op sy kop moet hê, die onderskeiding van die hoë rang van Archmandrite.

Metropolitan Gabriel het spesiale gedetailleerde instruksies aan hom opgestel oor sendingwerk onder die heidene van Alaska, bestaande uit 34 punte. Aartsmandriet Joasaph, hoof van die missie, het baie goeie teologiese opleiding in kweekskool en ondervinding in die onderrig van teologiese vakke in die teologiese voorbereidingskool met opvallende administratiewe vermoëns.

Die gemiddelde ouderdom van die sendelinge was ongeveer veertig jaar by monnik Herman met die langste ervaring in die kloosterlewe, baie lojaal aan die Valaam -klooster en sy superieure Igumen Nazary. Hieromonk Makary was 'n baie energieke, vreeslose bootman wat na sy aankoms die Kodiak -kus met 'n klein bootjie verken het.

Hieromonk Afanasy, seun van 'n boer, het ervaring in tuinmaak. Hieromonk Yuveraly was 'n baie beskeie en skerp waarnemer en redelik ingesteld.

Die Valaam -sending vertrek van 25 Desember 1793 uit Sint Petersburg en arriveer in Kodiak op 24 September 1794. Daar bou hulle 'n kerk in die naam van die opstanding van ons Here, en dit was die eerste Ortodokse kerk wat in Amerika gebou is.

Hierdie sending het op Kodiak -eiland honderde inboorlinge ontdek wat die basiese beginsels van die Ortodokse Geloof geleer is en deur leke gedoop is. Gregory Shelikov, een van die stigters van wat later die Russies-Amerikaanse Kompanjie sou word, het self ongeveer tweehonderd Aleoete op die Kodiak-eiland laat doop.

Die Amerikaanse missie het onmiddellik begin met die oprigting van die kerk in Kodiak en die eilande en later op die vasteland van Alaska. Ondanks groot probleme was hierdie missie baie suksesvol, want feitlik al die oorblywende inboorlinge van die Kodiak -eiland is in net drie jaar gedoop. Gedurende hierdie tydperk is een van die sendelinge, Hieromonk Juvenaly, by die Iliamna -meer deur inboorlinge gemartel.

Die ywer en bekwaamheid van die eerste Russiese sendelinge het goed tot uiting gekom in Alaska. Hulle het meer as twaalfduisend nuwe lidmate na die kerk gebring en kerke en kapelle laat bou in elke gekerstende nedersetting. Een van die sendelinge, vader Yuvenaley, sterf as martelaar in die hande van die inboorlinge, aangesien later ook Aleut Peter gemartel is vir die Ortodokse geloof in Fort Ross, Kalifornië, deur Spaanse inkwisiteurs-Jesuïete.

In 1798 keer Archimandrite Joasaph terug na Irkutsk in Siberië en word op 10 April 1799 ingewy, biskop van Kodiak, die eerste biskop vir Amerika, maar hy en al sy personeel, insluitend Hieromonk Makary en Hierodeacon Stephen van die oorspronklike sending, sterf in die see 21 Mei 1799 toe die skip waarop hy vaar, & quotPhoenix, & quot naby Kodiak -eiland verwoes het. Vader Herman, wat hom van die begin af onderskei het met sy nederigheid, deernis vir die inboorlinge en sy administratiewe vaardighede, het die waarnemende hoof geword en uiteindelik het hy net van die oorspronklike sending oorgebly.

Alhoewel die Amerikaanse missie nou tot die helfte van sy oorspronklike getal verminder is, het dit sy werk voortgesit. Opvallend was die groot geestelike en sendingwerk van die monnike Herman en Joasaph. Hulle het die inboorlinge nie net in geestelike en godsdienstige aangeleenthede onderrig nie, maar hulle het hulle ook praktiese, sekulêre vakke, soos wiskunde, timmer, landbou en veeteelt geleer.

In 1799 verleen tsaar Paul I (1754-1801) aan Shelekhov se Russian American Company monopolistiese beheer oor handel en regering, wat die maatskappy en die kerk onlosmaaklik verweef het. Die Kompanjie het die Kerk gefinansier in sy sending- en opvoedingswerk, terwyl die Kerk nie net die sedes van die kolonie was nie - dikwels in stryd met die Kompanjiepraktyke - maar ook deur die geestelike en intellektuele opvoeding van die inheemse Alaskane.

Alhoewel die aanvanklike konfrontasie van Russe en Alaskane soms bloedig was, het die verhoudinge met die koms van die Ortodokse priesters oor die algemeen meer harmonieus en wedersyds voordelig geword.

Die primêre doel van die Alaska -sending was om die inheemse bevolking tot Ortodokse Christendom te bekeer. Opvoeding en 'pasifikasie' van die inboorlinge, ondanks hul belangrikheid vir die Russian American Company, was aanvullings tot hierdie doel. Bekering is aangemoedig deur die tsaar, as hoof van die kerk en deur die hiërargie. Die kerkargief bevat talle statistiese rekords van bekerings en beskrywings van uitsonderlike gevalle, soos in die geval van ene Stefan. Die jaarverslae bevat onskatbare genealogiese inligting: geboortedatums, sterftes en huwelike Inheemse en Christelike name, plekke van herkoms en dies meer.

Na moeilike betrekkinge met en vervolging deur die Russies-Amerikaanse handelsmaatskappy, wat die Alaska-kolonie beheer het, tussen 1808 en 1818 het ds. Herman het Kodiak verlaat en is na Spruce Island, wat hy New Valaam genoem het. Hy het die res van sy lewe op hierdie eiland deurgebring, waar hy sorg vir weeskinders, 'n skool bestuur het en sy sendingwerk voortgesit het. Hy het 'n klein kapel, skool en gastehuis gebou, terwyl kos vir hom en die weeskinders uit sy eie proeftuin geproduseer is. Sy graf daar is nou 'n heiligdom vir Alaska en sy naam word met eerbied uitgespreek as dié van 'n heilige deur die Aleuts.

In 1824, met die aankoms van die sendelingpriester John Veniaminov in Unalaska, is 'n nuwe stukrag toegevoeg tot die sendingwerk wat reeds gedoen is. Die oorspronklike sendelinge is deur ander vervang, sodat met die aankoms van Vader John slegs die monnik Herman, nou afgetree na Spruce Island, van die oorspronklike Amerikaanse sending oorgebly het. Hy sterf op 13 Desember 1837 en op 9 Augustus 1970 word hy as die eerste heilige van die Ortodokse Kerk in Amerika heilig verklaar.

Vader Veniaminoff het tien jaar in Unalaska gebly en was mal oor sy nuwe kudde, die Aleuts. Hy was vir hulle 'n priester, onderwyser, dokter, verpleegster en werktuigkundige. Hy het hulle nie net geleer hoe om reg te glo nie, maar ook hoe om reg te lewe. Hierdie goeie priester was so geïnteresseerd in die welsyn van sy Aleuts dat hy hulle opdrag gegee het om hulself met seep te was, hoe om die kinders te verpleeg en hoe om die kos te gebruik. Hy het die wrede kennis gemaak met die reëls van higiëne en 'n mate van industrie onder hulle bekendgestel, soos om selfs horlosies te maak, ens. Hy het alle Aleuts van die Eilande en nabygeleë plekke Christene gemaak en hulle geleer. Hy het die Aleoetiese alfabet uitgevind en die grammatika saamgestel. Hy het die Heilige Skrif en ander boeke in Aleoeties vertaal. Vader Veniaminoff was 'n genie en 'n groot sendeling.

In 1834 is vader Veniaminoff na Sitka verplaas en met dieselfde ywer en sukses onder Kaloshs gewerk. Hier staan ​​die Sint -Michielskatedraal, wat nou nog 'n sieraad vir Alaska is en wat deur hom gebou is, en die klok op die klokkie wat die tyd nog wys, is deur sy hande gemaak. In 1840 is vader Veniaminoff as biskop ingewy aan Alaska en het hy die misie nog 15 jaar lank toegedien. Hy het hier 'n kweekskool geopen, die kerklike konsistorie georganiseer en baie waardevolle reëls en boeke geskryf wat tot vandag toe nog nie hul waarde verloor het nie, en veral die een met die titel "Die weg na die koninkryk van die hemele." In 1855 het biskop Innokenty (dit was Vader) Veniaminoff se naam sedert hy 'n monnik geword het) is na Blagovieschensk, Siberië, oorgeplaas en van daar na Moskou, waar hy tot sy dood in 1879 as Metropolitaan van die groot stad gedien het.

Omstreeks 1840 is vader John verkies tot die bisdom, met die naam Innocentius. Die kerk het steeds gegroei onder die inheemse Alaskane, maar biskop Innocent besoek ook Kalifornië en die Ortodokse gemeenskap in Fort Ross, noord van San Francisco. Uiteindelik keer hy terug na Rusland, waar hy die Metropolitan van Moskou genoem word. Onder sy vele prestasies was die vertaling van die Skrif en die liturgiese dienste in die inheemse dialekte, waarvoor hy ook 'n grammatika en alfabet bedink het.

In 1867 word Alaska deur Rusland aan die Verenigde State verkoop en met hierdie verkoop het die status van die geestelikes van die Amerikaanse Ortodokse Sending verander. Hulle het buitelanders geword vir die nuwe regering en sommige, wat die burgerskap van die Verenigde State aanvaar het, het vreemdelinge geword in hul moederland. eiendom in besit van die Sending, solank daar lede van die Ortodokse Kerk is wat dit nodig het vir godsdienstige doeleindes. Ondanks die radikale veranderinge wat deur Amerikaners aangebring is, bly die diep indruk van Rusland en Russiese Ortodoksie tot vandag toe in Alaska.


Bisdom geskiedenis


Metropolitan Orestes Chornock word begroet in New York na sy toewyding as biskop in Constantinopel (1938)

In Julie 1935 het 37 gemeentes wat teen die latiniseringspogings van die Rooms-Katolieke Kerk gekant was, 'n versoek ingedien dat 'n kerkkongres opgeroep word om die toekoms van die Karpatho-Russiese kerke in die Verenigde State te besluit. Die eerste bisdomraad-Sobor is op 23 November 1937 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, ontbied deur vader Orestes P. Chornock, wat aangestel is as administrateur van die bisdom wat gevorm word. Die Sobor het die 300-jarige "Unia" opgehef en die Karpaten-Russiese mense teruggekeer na die voorvaderlike Ortodokse Geloof. Die geestelikes by hierdie Sobor het die Rt. Eerwaarde Orestes P. Chornock as die biskop-genomineerde van die nuwe bisdom.

Die Karpaat-Russies-Ortodokse Kerk voor die "Unia" was onder die jurisdiksie van die Ekumeniese Patriargaat. Omdat Karpaten-Russe die Christendom van die heiliges Cyril en Methodius uit Konstantinopel ontvang het, en omdat die aartsvader van Konstantinopel kanonieke jurisdiksie oor alle nuwe kerke in die diaspora gehad het, het die eerste bisdom Sobor besluit om die Ekumeniese Patriargaat te versoek om die Karpaten-Russe tot Ortodoksie te aanvaar en kanonies 'n nuwe bisdom stig.


Sy Eminene, Metropolitan Orestes (Chornock)

Die Ekumeniese Aartsvader aanvaar die versoekskrif en ontvang die Karpatho-Russiese Kerk in Ortodoksie as 'n selfregerende bisdom. Op 19 September 1938 is die Bisdom deur patriarg Benjamin I heilig verklaar, drie keer geseënd in die naam "Die Heilige Ortodokse Kerk in Christus" onder Patriargale Besluit nommer 1379. Dit was die eerste Carpatho-Russiese Ortodokse Kerk sedert die berugte pouslike Unia. Vader Orestes P. Chornock is die dag voor, 18 September, ingewy as biskop van die Bisdom.

Die Carpatho-Russian Youth Organization is gestig gedurende die eerste jaar van die nuwe biskop se administrasie. In 1946 is die amptelike koerant van die Bisdom, "The Church Messenger", gestig en druk tot vandag toe steeds 'n twee-weeklikse koerant uit. Die Amerikaanse Carpatho-Russian Youth (ACRY) is in 1947 herorganiseer.

Christus die Verlosser -katedraal is in 1950 gestig en opgeneem, en maak Johnstown, Pennsylvania, die setel van die bisdom. In 1951 is die Seminarium van Christus die Verlosser permanent na Johnstown verplaas. Studente is voorheen in tydelike kwartale in New York, Nicholson, PA en Bridgeport, Connecticut, onderrig.

Gedurende die daaropvolgende jare is baie prestasies behaal en sodra die bisdom stabiel en groeiend was, het biskop Orestes 'n biskop begin soek om hom te help met sy verantwoordelikhede. Die Ekumeniese Patriargaat het biskop Peter (Shymansky) as hulpbiskop verkies en aangestel in 1963. Kort na sy toewyding het hy siek geword en nadat hy slegs 6 maande gedien het, het hy op 17 Mei 1964 in die Here gaan woon.

Op 1 Januarie 1966 by die Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Cathedral in New York, is biskop Orestes tot die rang van Metropolitan verhef.

His Grace, biskop John (Martin)

Op 16 Augustus 1966 het die Heilige Sinode van die Ekumeniese Patriargaat biskop John (Martin) aangestel en verkies as hulpverlener van Sy Eminence, Metropolitan Orestes. Biskop Johannes is op 6 Oktober in Christus die Verlosserkatedraal ingewy. Tydens sy bisdom het die nuwe biskop talle aspekte van die bisdom -administrasie opgeknap. 'N Engelse liturgieboek vir die kerkbanke is gepubliseer. Die kurrikulum vir die kweekskool is hersien. Drie nuwe sendinggemeentes is gestig. 'N Geestelike pensioenfonds is gestig. Die program van Distinguished Diocesan Donors is ingewy, wat uiteindelik gelei het tot die bou van 'n kamp- en toevlugsoord met die naam Camp Nazareth in Mercer County, Pennsylvania, en in 1977 voltooi is.

Op 17 Februarie 1977 het His Eminence, Metropolitan Orestes in die Here rus, en die Heilige Sinode van die Ekumeniese Patriargaat het biskop John as regerende biskop van die bisdom aangestel.

In 1978 is 'n kloostergemeenskap vir mans gestig by die klooster van die aankondiging in Tuxedo, Park, New York.

Op 30 September 1984 sterf biskop John onverwags en is op 4 Oktober begrawe saam met aartsbiskop Iakovos.

Die geestelikes van die bisdom het biskop Nicholas (Smisko) as hul nuwe hiërarg aangewys. Biskop Nicholas is op 13 Maart 1983 as biskop ingewy vir die Oekraïens -Ortodokse Kerk. Die Heilige Sinode het op 20 Maart 1985 biskop Nicholas as die Heersende Biskop van die Bisdom verkies. Op 19 April word hy deur aartsbiskop Iakovos bekroon. Biskop Nicholas het onmiddellik probeer om die betrekkinge met die Karpaten-Russies-Ortodokse in Europa te verbeter. Hy het baie aandag aan liturgiese aangeleenthede gegee en 'n nuwe gebedsboek gepubliseer met die titel "Kom na my toe", wat sedertdien duisende eksemplare verkoop het. 'N Diaconate -program het die afgelope paar jaar ongeveer 25 diakens behaal. Biskop Nicholas is in 1998 tot die rang van Metropolitan verhef.


Sy Eminence, Metropolitan Nicholas

Sy Eminence het verskeie pelgrimstogte van gelowiges na die Heilige Land en na Europa gelei, veral die pelgrimstog van 1988 wat die Millenium in Rusland gevier het. Sy Eminence het 'n Pro-Life-beweging in die Bisdom begin, wat getrou na Washington, DC gelei het vir die jaarlikse "March for Life" sedert 1987.

The Seminary curriculum was revamped and an "Annual Giving Appeal" for the theological school was initiated. The Diocesan newspaper, "The Church Messenger," was consolidated in Johnstown. Five new parishes were received. The Diocese celebrated its Golden Jubilee of Canonical Establishment in 1988 amidst thousands of faithful, numerous bishops and representatives of the Patriarch of Constantinople, including His Eminence, Archbishop Iakovos.

A bold program of missions and evangelization was begun in 1992 and is known as "Harvest 2000." Missions have been established in Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Illinois, Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia and Ontario, Canada.

Recognizing the need for larger, modern chancery facilities, a new Chancery building for the Diocese was constructed, adjoining the present Episcopal Residence. Ground was broken for the edifice in June 1997 by His Eminence, Archbishop Spyridon, while the cornerstone was dedicated by His All-Holiness, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew during his historic visit to the Diocese on November 16, 1997.

The diocese entered a new era by establishing a presence on the world wide web, through the establishment in the year 2000 of a diocesan website at www.acrod.org. Ds. Paul Stoll was appointed the first diocesan webmaster.

Under the leadership of Metropolitan Nicholas, a staff lodge and additional cabins for campers were constructed. In addition, a Carpathian-style wooden church was constructed on the Camp grounds to serve as a memorial to our ancestors and an inspiration to our youth. The new church, which was placed under the patronage of the evangelizers of the Slavs, Saints Cyril and Methodius, was consecrated in August of 2003. A heritage museum is planned for the basement of the church.

In anticipation of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the establishment of Camp Nazareth, many renovations and improvements were made to the camp facilities, including the refurbishing of the interior of the cabins, repainting of the exterior of all buildings, the remodeling of the kitchen, repairs to the swimming pool and the erection of new welcome signs.

In August of 2005 at the annual summer pilgrimage at Camp Nazareth, with the Blessing of His All-Holiness, Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I, His Eminence announced the establishment of a new annual celebration of the glorification of All Saints of Carpatho-Rus, to be held on the second Sunday after Pentecost.

In September of 2005, a new diocesan-wide youth ministry was established by Metropolitan Nicholas to more effectively meet the spiritual needs of our diocesan youth. Bekend as The Diocesan Apostolate for Youth, this apostolic ministry has labored for the strengthening and evangelization of the youth of the Diocese and the establishment of a Christian witness for any youth seeking a relationship with Christ. The primary activity of the Youth Apostolate has been to provide a catalyst for youth activity. To date, two projects have been initiated and firmly established in the life of the American Carpatho-Russian Diocese -- the establishment of a youth-oriented publication known as Daglig and the Annual Summer Pilgrimage at Camp Nazareth as well as several regional pilgrimages held each year.

In 2007, the diocese joined the Ecumenical Patriarchate in honoring the 1600 th Anniversary of the repose of St. John Chrysostom. This celebration was marked with special deanery and diocesan-wide celebrations, educational symposia and special programming at the annual Altarboy Retreat, summer camping program, and the Fall educational conference at Camp Nazareth.

The year 2008 marked the seventieth anniversary of the canonical establishment of the Diocese, the celebration of the 2000 th anniversary of the conversion of the Holy Apostle Paul, and the twenty-fifth anniversary of the consecration of His Eminence, Metropolitan Nicholas to the Episcopacy. The diocese honored these milestones in the life of the diocese and the Christian Faith with special liturgical commemorations, educational programs and celebrations. In remembering the establishment of the diocese and the missionary labors of the Apostle Paul, clergy and laity alike were provided with an excellent opportunity to reflect on the missionary nature of the Church. Read A Reflection On The Seventieth Anniversary Of The Diocese

Inspired by the missionary zeal of the Holy Apostle Paul and the founding fathers and mothers of the diocese, several new initiatives were set in motion to reinvigorate and enhance the apostolates and ministries of the diocese, including the complete redesign and expansion of the diocesan website, and the establishment of live broadcasting of liturgical services and educational symposia via the internet.

On March 13, 2011, the 28th anniversary of his consecration as Bishop, His Eminence, Metropolitan Nicholas, after a prolonged and courageous battle with cancer, fell asleep in the Lord. Funeral services were conducted by His Eminence, Archbishop Demetrios of America at Christ the Saviour Cathedral in Johnstown and at the Metropolitan's home parish of St. John the Baptist Church in Perth Amboy, NJ. He was laid to rest next to his parents at St. John's Parish Cemetary on Monday March 21, 2012.

On July 14, 2012, the clergy gathered in Special Assembly to nominate Archimandrite Grigorios (Gregory) Tatsis as successor to His Eminence, Metropolitan Nicholas. Archimandrite Gregory was canonically elected Titular Bishop of Nyssa and ruling Hierarch of the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese of the USA by the Sacred and Holy Synod of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople on August 30, 2012.

His Grace, Bishop Gregory was consecrated to the Episcopacy on Tuesday November 27, 2012 on the feast day of St. Gregory of Nyssa at Christ the Saviour Cathedral in Johnstown, PA by His Eminence, Archbishop Demetrios of America assisted by hierarchs of the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA.

Having entered into a new chapter in the history of the Diocese, Under the leadership of His Grace, Bishop Gregory, the clergy and faithful of the American Carpatho-Russian Orthodox Diocese of the 21 st century are firmly committed to carrying out the great Commission of our Lord, to go therefore and make disciples of all the nations . (Matthew 28:19) proclaiming the beauty and truth of the Orthodox Christian Faith.


4. Outline of Major Works

Baker, Derek. 1976. Ecclesiastical History Society The Orthodox Churches And The West. Papers Read at the Fourteenth Summer Meeting and the Fifteenth Winter Meeting of the Ecclesiastical History Society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Berdiaev, Nikolai. [1962]. The Russian Idea. Boston: Beacon Press.

Bishop, George Bernard Hamilton. 1915. The Religion of Russia. A Study of the Orthodox Church in Russia from the Point of View of the Church in England. London: The Society of SS. Peter and Paul.

Brian-Chaninov, Nicolas. 1931. The Russian Church. Translated by Warre B.Wells. London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne.

Bulgakov, Sergei Nikolaevich. 1976. A Bulgakov Anthology. Edited by James Pain and Nicholas Zernov. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Bulgakov, Sergei Nikolaevich. [1935]. The Orthodox Church. London: The Centenary Press.

Callinicos, Constantine N. 1957. The History of the Orthodox Church: A Brief Sketch of the One Holy Orthodox Catholic and Apostolic Church. Translated by Katherine Natzio. Los Angeles: Prothymos Press.

Fedotov, Georgii Petrovich. 1946. The Russian Religious Mind. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Fennell, John Lister Illingworth. 1995. A History of the Russian Church to 1448. London New York: Longman.

Florovsky, Georges. 1979. Puti Russkogo Bogosloviia. [Ways of Russian theology]. Belmont, MA: Notable & Academic Books.

Giuseppe Alberigo, et al, eds. 1996. The Holy Russian Church and Western Christianity. London: SCM Press Maryknoll NY: Orbis Books.

Gorodetzky, Nadejda. 1951. Saint Tikhon Zadonsky, Inspirer of Dostoevsky. London: S.P.C.K.

Heard, Albert F. 1887. The Russian Church and Russian Dissent, Comprising Orthodoxy, Dissent, and Erratic Sects. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Leatherbarrow W. J and Offord, D.C., eds. 1987. A Documentary History of Russian Thought: From the Enlightenment to Marxism. Translated by W.J. Leatherbarrow And D.C. Offord. Ann Arbor MI: Ardis.

Lossky, Vladimir. 1978. Orthodox Theology: An Introduction. Translated by Ian and Ihita Kesarcodi-Watson. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press.

Maloney, George A. 1976. A History of Orthodox Theology since 1453. Belmont, MA: Nordland Pub. Co.

Mouravieff, Andrei Nikolaevich. [1971]. Istor Iia Ross Iiskoi Tserkvi. [A History of the Church of Russia]. Translated By R. W. Blackmore. New York: AMS Press.

Nichols, Robert L. and Stavros, Theofanis George, eds. 1978. Russian Orthodoxy under the Old Regime. Minneapolis: Universiteit van Minnesota Press.

Reyburn, Hugh Young. 1924. The Story of the Russian Church. London New York: A. Melrose.

Runciman, Steven. 1971. The Orthodox Churches and the Secular State. Auckland University Press.

Russkaia Pravoslavnaia Tserkov. 1982. [The Russian Orthodox Church] Translated by Doris Bradbury. Moscow: Progress.

Schmemann, Alexander. 1969. Russian Theology, A Bibliographical Survey. [Richmond:] Union Theological Seminary in Virginia.

Slesinski, Robert. 1984. Pavel Florensky: A Metaphysics of Love. Crestwood, NY: St. Vladimir's Seminary Press.

Solovjev, Aleksandar Vasiljevic. 1959. Holy Russia the History of a Religious-Social Idea. 'S-Gravenhage: Mouton.

Tompkins, Stuart Ramsay. 1940. Russia through the Ages: From the Scythians to the Soviets. New York: Prentice-Hall.

Walicki, Andrzej. 1975. W Kregu Konserwatywnej Utopii. [The Slavophile Controversy: History of a Conservative Utopia in Nineteenth-Century Russian Thought]. Translated by Hilda Andrews-Rusiecka. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Ware, Kallistos. 1993. The Orthodox Church. London New York: Penguin Books.


Verken

Significant for its architecture, the Russian Orthodox church originally called "Saints Cyril and Methodius Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church" was first built in Hartshorne in 1897 at Third and Modoc streets. It was erected on a place deemed "Russian Hill" because of the nationality of its residents. The original Carpatho-Russian parishioners of the church had immigrated to the United States and then came to Hartshorne, in the Choctaw Nation of Indian Territory, to mine coal. In 1917 they constructed the present building, and the parish reached its high point in membership with seventy-five families. The red brick church's design, reminiscent of St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow, includes stained-glass windows and three "onion" domes topped with crosses. With the onset of the Great Depression and the decline of coal mining, many members of the church left the area to search for other employment. At the beginning of the twenty-first century the church had an average of ten worshipers every Sunday most of these faithful were elderly. The edifice remains an important reminder of the impact of coal mining on the state's diverse religious and ethnic heritage. Sts. Cyril and Methodius Church is Oklahoma's only representative in the Orthodox Church in America, Diocese of the South.

Bibliografie

Michael Hightower, "The Road to Russian Hill," The Chronicles of Oklahoma 63 (Fall 1985).

"Sts.Cyril and Methodius Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church, Hartshorne, Oklahoma," Church Histories, Pittsburg County, D.A.R. Files, Research Division, Oklahoma Historical Society, Oklahoma City.

Gary L. Watters, "From Russia to Oklahoma: A Case Study of the Immigrant Experience" (M.A. thesis, Oklahoma State University, 1974).

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Aanhaling

Die volgende (volgens Die Chicago Manual of Style, 17de uitgawe) is die voorkeuraanhaling vir artikels:
William Lynch, &ldquoSts. Cyril and Methodius Russian Orthodox Church,&rdquo Die ensiklopedie van die geskiedenis en kultuur van Oklahoma, https://www.okhistory.org/publications/enc/entry.php?entry=ST002.

© Oklahoma Historical Society.


Russian Orthodox Church - History

The Church has her origin with Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit, not with a human teacher, or group, nor a code of conduct or religious philosophy. Orthodoxy believes that the Church has her origin in the Apostolic Community called into being by Jesus Christ, and enlivened by the Holy Spirit. The Feast of Pentecost, which is celebrated fifty days after Easter, commemorates the "outpouring'' of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles and marks the beginning of the mission of the Church to the world. The Orthodox Church believes that she has maintained a direct and unbroken continuity of love, faith, and order with the Church of Christ born in the Pentecost experience.

The Time of Persecution

The earliest Church, which is described in the Epistles and the Acts of the Apostles, did not confine itself to the land of Judea. She took very seriously the command of Our Lord to go into the whole world and preach the Gospel. The words of Christ and the event of His saving Death and Resurrection were destined not only for the people of the first century and the Mediterranean world of which they were a part, but also for persons in all places and in every age. Within only a few years after the Resurrection, colonies of Christians sprung in the major cities of the Roman Empire.

While the early Church received many converts from Judaism and the pagan religions, the world in which the Gospel was proclaimed was, in the words of St. Paul, "heartless and ruthless." With only a few intervals of peace, the Church was persecuted throughout the Empire for nearly three hundred years. The faith and love expressed by the Christians were viewed as a threat to the religion and political policies of the Empire. Thousands upon thousands of Christians were martyred.

The Time of Growth

The beginning of the fourth century marked a new stage in the development of the Church. After centuries of vicious persecution at the direction of the Roman Emperors, an Emperor of Rome became a Christian. This was Constantine the Great, who in the year 313 granted Christians freedom of worship. The Edict was a recognition that the Church not only had survived the persecutions but also had become a significant force in the Empire. From that time onward, the Church and the Empire began a very close and mutually beneficial relationship. Not only did the Church receive imperial support, but also the evils which had characterized the old Roman Empire were greatly reduced in Christian Byzantium. The Church was truly a leaven of the society of which it was a part. The fourth through the tenth centuries were a significant period for the Church's internal development. The authorative content of the New Testament was determined. The Services of Worship received a formal framework. The Teachings of Christianity were developed by great pastors and theologians who are known as the "Fathers" of the Church. It was also a period of missionary activity. Among the most important was the evangelization of the Slavs by Saints Cyril and Methodius. However, the period was not without struggle. The Byzantine Empire was constantly on guard against the neighboring Persians and Muslims. The Church itself was frequently afflicted with many grave schisms and heresies. For example, serious schisms took place in the years 431 and 451. Among the greatest heresies was Arianism, which taught that Christ was not truly God. This heresy plagued the Church and brought havoc to the Empire for nearly a century.

The fundamental doctrines of the Church were proclaimed and defended by the Seven Ecumenical Councils. These Synods, which are known by the names of the cities in which they were convened, included Bishops from throughout the world, who came to affirm the authentic teachings on the Incarnation and the Holy Trinity. The Councils did not create new doctrines, but in a particular place and time, they proclaimed what the Church always believed and taught. The counciliar and collegial expression of Church life and authority which was manifest at the Ecumenical Councils and other synods of the early Church continue to be an important aspect of Orthodox Christianity.

The Ecumenical Councils also sanctioned the organization of the Church about the five great ecclesiastical centers of Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem. The Archbishops of these cities came to be known as Patriarchs. They presided over the synod of bishops in a particular area. Since the early Church was not monolithic, each center had its own theological style, customs, and liturgical traditions. Yet, all shared in the unity of the faith. However, a primacy of honor was accorded the Bishop of Rome, from early times. The Second Ecumenical Council (381) gave Constantinople a position of honor by stating, "The Bishop of Constantinople shall have the prerogative of honor after the Bishops of Rome, because Constantinople is New Rome."

The Great Schism

The Great Schism is the title given to separation between the Western Church (the Roman Catholic) and the Eastern Church, (the Orthodox), which took place in the eleventh century. Relations between the two great traditions of the East and the West had often been strained since the fourth century. Yet, unity and harmony was maintained in spite of differences in theological expression, liturgical practices, and views of authority. By the ninth century, however, legitimate differences were intensified by political circumstances, cultural clashes, papal claims, and the introduction in the West of the Filioque phrase into the Nicene Creed. The Filioque affirms that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. Both the papal claims and the Filioque were strongly repudiated by the East.

Although it is difficult to date the exact year of the schism, in the year 1054 official charges, known as Anathamas, were exchanged. The Crusades, and especially the sack of the city of Constantinople by the western crusaders in 1204, can be considered the final element in the process of estrangement and deepening mistrust.

From that period onward, the Western Church, centered about the Pope of Rome, and the Eastern Church, centered about the Patriarch of Constantinople, went their separate ways. Although there were attempts to restore communion in the years 1274 and 1439, there was no lasting unity achieved. While political, cultural, and emotional factors have always been involved, the Orthodox Church believes that the two principal reasons for the continued schism are the papal claims of universal jurisdiction and infallibility, as well as the meaning of the Filioque.

For nearly 500 years the two traditions lived in formal isolation from each other. Only, since the early 1960's have steps been taken to restore the broken unity. Most significant has been the mutual lifting of the Anathamas of 1054 by the late Patriarch Athenagoras and Pope Paul VI in 1965.

Time of Struggle

In the year 1453, the City of Constantinople fell to the invading Muslims. With its capital, the Byzantine Empire came to an end and the vast lands of Asia Minor fell subject to non-Christians. The great ecclesiastical cities of Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, which had come under the political control of Islam centuries earlier, were now joined by Constantinople. Throughout the Ottoman Empire, Christians came to be treated as second-class citizens who paid heavy taxes and wore distinctive dress. The life of the Orthodox Church in the Balkan and Asia Minor continued, but under much duress. Thousands of Christians suffered martyrdom. Patriarchs were deposed and murdered. Churches, monasteries, and schools were closed and destroyed. Only with the liberation of Greece in 1821, did some of the brutality come to an end. However, there were a series of vicious massacres at the beginning of this century. And, even today, Christians are denied their basic human rights in parts of Asia Minor.

After the decline of Byzantium, the Church in Russia thrived for nearly 500 years. However, with the Bolshevik revolution of 1917, Orthodoxy found itself confronted with the beliefs and political policies of militant atheists. Most churches were closed and a policy was inaugurated to eliminate Christianity from Russia, a land which was steeped in Orthodoxy since the tenth century. In the years between the two World Wars, Orthodox Christians in Russia suffered much cruel and devastating persecution. Only since 1943 have there been modifications in government policy which have permitted the Church some degree of existence.

Today, in many of the lands which were once the pride and glory of Eastern Christendom, the Orthodox Church struggles amid great obstacles and persecution. It has been observed that in recent centuries there have been more martyrs than during the great persecutions of the early Church. Yet, despite injustices and indignities, the Faith survives.

Time of Renewal and Reconciliation

Throughout the past two hundred years the Orthodox Church in the Western Hemisphere has been developing as a valuable presence and distinctive witness. For example, in the United States, Orthodoxy has been recognized as one of the four major faiths. She has more than five million members, who are grouped into more than a dozen ecclesiastical jurisdictions. The Greek Orthodox Archdiocese, which is the largest, has about 500 parishes and operates church schools, parochial schools, an orphanage, a college, and a graduate theological school. Many believe that Orthodoxy in America has the potential for true renewal, creative development, and missionary activity which can contribute greatly to American life.

From the beginning of this century, the Orthodox Church has been committed to the Ecumenical Movement. This quest for Christian unity is the boldest attack on division since the early centuries of the Church. The Patriarchate of Constantinople not only inspired the movement for unity with an encyclical in 1920, but also was one of the co-founders of the World Council of Churches in 1948. The cause of Christian unity was a special concern of the late and beloved Patriarch Athenagoras. He labored greatly to promote a renewed sense of collegiality among the various Orthodox Churches, as well as to inaugurate a true dialogue with the Roman Catholic Church. In the year 1968, the Patriarch looked toward the future and declared: May the Lord of mercy send as soon as possible to our holy Eastern and Western Churches the grace of celebrating the Divine Eucharist anew and of communicating again together. The common chalice stands out luminously on the horizon of the Church.

Treasures Of Orthodoxy is a series of pamphlets written for the non-Orthodox, especially those who are considering becoming members of the Orthodox Church and who wish to deepen their appreciation of her faith, worship, and traditions. The pamphlets are authored by Fr. Thomas Fitzgerald, a faculty member of Hellenic College-Holy Cross School of Theology. The pamphlet titles are as follows:


The different colors in Russian Orthodoxy EXPLAINED

Inside the Holy Trinity Church at St. Iversky Convent, Rostov-on-Don.

The color of eternal life in Russian Orthodoxy, green, is also associated with the Holy Spirit. When the holiday of Pentecost (in Russian Orthodox tradition, the Holy Trinity holiday) is celebrated on the 50th day after Easter, priests wear green robes and the churches are decorated with green branches and leaves. Also, the Patriarch&rsquos mantle is traditionally green.

Red

Russian Orthodox Patriarch Kirill conducts the Easter service at the Christ The Saviour Cathedral in Moscow, Russia.

Red is the color of fire &ndash and symbolizes the burning bush, from which God spoke to Moses on Mount Horeb. So, red is also associated with God the Father.

Red is the color of Christ&rsquos blood and is also associated with Easter &ndash the Resurrection of Christ. But also, the Bible says, the Romans dressed Christ in red robes before commencing the execution, to show that he was the King of the Judeans. So, red, being the royal color, is also attributed to the events of Christ&rsquos execution and resurrection in general.

Blou

Biysk, the Assumption Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary

Blue symbolizes Heaven and the combination of blue and white are the colors of the Mother of God. Jesus Christ and the saints are often depicted in blue robes, as they are habitants of Heaven.

Wit

The Church of Ascension, Kolomenskoe, Moscow

Gennadiy Klimov (CC BY-SA 3.0)

In the Old Testament, white is the color of God himself: &ldquoHis head and his hairs were white like wool, as white as snow and his eyes were as a flame of fire.&rdquo White meant luminosity, a kinship with the divine light.

The Hoedigitria church in Vyaz'ma, Russia

The walls of the Church of Ascension in Kolomenskoe, the earliest stone church with a tented roof and of the Hodegetria Church in Vyazma are entirely white, which amplifies their idea of purity.

Yellow (Gold)

The color of glory and dignity, yellow is not associated with gold or money in Russian Orthodoxy. It is the symbol of warmth and God&rsquos love. Although in 12th-13th centuries in Europe, yellow became associated with the betrayal of Christ by Judas and Judas was traditionally painted wearing yellow robes, in Russian Orthodoxy this association didn&rsquot exist. Gold vestments are used by Orthodox priests during Sunday services, as well as on most days of the year, unless someone is commemorated in church. If a church has gold-tinted domes, it is a church consecrated in honor of Christ, or in honor of one of the 12 Great feasts in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

Swart

The church at Pokrovsky Monastery, Moscow

Apart from being a universal mourning color, black in Russian Orthodoxy is associated with monasticism. After being tonsured as a monk, a person shuns the worldly delights and so, &ldquodies&rdquo for the secular world. Black domes usually appear on churches built in monasteries. Also, black is the color of the robes of bishops, archbishops, metropolitans and patriarchs during the Orthodox Lent. In the modern Russian Orthodox Church, there is a tendency to abandon the use of black and replace it with dark purple.

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