11 September Aanvalle: Video's

11 September Aanvalle: Video's

Op die oggend van 11 September 2001 het 19 mans vier Amerikaanse kommersiële vliegtuie gekaap wat met volle brandstoftenks vir die Weskus opgestyg het. Die kapers het die vliegtuie doelbewus in die Twin Towers van die World Trade Center, die Pentagon en op 'n veld buite Shanksville, Pennsylvania, neergestort. Die verliese was verwoestend: 'n Totaal van 2 977 mense is dood in New York, Washington, DC en Pennsylvania.

Kyk hieronder na GESKIEDENIS -video's oor die verwoestende aanvalle op daardie dag en die nadraai.

Onthou 9/11: Die foto -argief

9/11 tydlyn

Onthou 9/11: Die hysbakmotor

Die 9/11 vlag: verlore en gevind

Onthou 9/11: The Ground Zero Cross

Onthou 9/11: The Ground Zero Bible

Onthou 9/11: Karyn's Wings

Onthou 9/11: Pentagon -werknemer Bruce Powers

Die 9/11 Survivor Tree

"9/11: Inside Air Force One" het Woensdag 11 September om 9/8c die première.


11 September Aanvalle: Video's - GESKIEDENIS

Die digitale argief van 11 September gebruik elektroniese media om die geskiedenis van 11 September 2001 en die gevolge daarvan te versamel, te bewaar en aan te bied. Die argief bevat meer as 150.000 digitale items, 'n telling wat meer as 40.000 e-posse en ander elektroniese kommunikasie, meer as 40.000 eerstehandse verhale en meer as 15.000 digitale beelde bevat. In September 2003 aanvaar die Library of Congress die argief in sy versamelings, 'n gebeurtenis wat beide die argief se langtermyn bewaring verseker en die biblioteek se eerste groot digitale verkryging was.

Snuffel: Verken die versameling vir verhale, beelde, e -posse, dokumente, klanke en video's van 11 September

Navorsing: Soek, sorteer en ondersoek die hele versameling

Dra by: Vertel u storie, voeg u e -pos by en laai beelde, dokumente en ander digitale lêers op na die argief


11 September 2001 Tydlyn

Tydlyn, 11 September 2001
Tussen 4:45 - 6:45 uur: Hijacker-Pilot Jarrah bel vriendin in Duitsland
In 'n hotelkamer in Newark, New Jersey, bel Ziad Jarrah vyf telefoonoproepe na Libanon (sy geboorteland), een oproep na Frankryk en een oproep na sy vriendin, Aysel Senguen, in Duitsland. 4 In hierdie kort oproep sê hy vir Senguen dat hy lief is vir haar. 5 Jarrah en drie manlike metgeselle vertrek omstreeks 06:48 uit die Days Inn en gaan na Newark Internasionale Lughawe om aan boord te gaan van United Airlines Flight 93.
7:00: United Airlines se bemanning berei voor op die vlug
Kaptein van United Airlines, Jason Dahl, betree 'n veilige gebied van Terminal A op die Newark Internasionale Lughawe en begin met voorbereidings om vlug 93 van Newark na San Francisco te stuur. Hy ontmoet LeRoy Homer, Jr., die eerste beampte vir die vlug, in die operasiesentrum. Die vyf lugwaardinne wat by Flight 93 toegewys is, kom ook by die sentrum by vir 'n inligtingsessie en om verantwoordelikhede te verdeel. 7
7:00: Ida's Store open in Shanksville, Pennsylvania
In hierdie klein westelike Pennsylvania -stad met 245 inwoners, loop Rick King 'n blok van sy huis na sy onderneming en maak Ida's Store oop vir die dag. Hy begin koffie brou vir sy gereelde vroeë oggendklante.
7: 03-7: 39vm: Kapers meld aan vir vlug op die lughawe Newark
Saeed al Ghamdi, Ahmed al Nami, Ahmad al Haznawi en Ziad Jarrah maak in by die kaartjiebank vir United Airlines vlug 93. 8 Jarrah, 26, van Libanon, is sedert Junie 2000 af en toe in die Verenigde State. 9 Hy verwerf sy private vlieëniersertifikaat van die Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) by die Florida Flight Training Center in November 2000. 10 Die ander drie kapers, burgers van Saoedi -Arabië, wissel tussen 20 en 25 jaar oud. 11. Hulle het gedurende Mei en Junie 2001 die Verenigde State binnegekom
Die vier mans gaan sonder voorval deur die veiligheidskontrolepunt. Slegs een van die vier, Ahmad al Haznawi, word gekies vir 'n beter ondersoek. As voorsorgmaatreël word sy sak van die vliegtuig gehou totdat hy aan boord gaan. 13
07:20: instapoproep vir vlug 93
Flight 93 begin instap by Gate 17. 14 Die vliegtuig is 'n Boeing 757-200, wat 182 persone kan huisves, maar is slegs 20% vol vir die vroeë oggendreis na San Francisco. Die vliegtuig het 'n enkele middelste gang. Dit is gelaai met 48.700 pond brandstof vir die
non-stop, langlaufreis. 15 Die vlug sal na bewering om 08:00 (dieselfde tyd as United Airlines Flight 175) by die hek vertrek en sal na verwagting om 11:14 Pacific Time in San Francisco beland. 16
Die passasiers wat op Flight 93 klim, wissel tussen 20 en 79 jaar oud. Hulle is studente, afgetredenes, sakemanne en vroue. Tien passasiers (insluitend die 4 kapers) sit in die eerste klas. Die oorblywende 27 passasiers het sitplekke in die koetsafdeling.
7: 39-7: 48 vm: Terroriste-kapers klim op vlug 93
Die vier kapers neem plek in die eerste klas. Jarrah is in sitplek 1B, naaste aan die kajuit. 17 Die ander sit in 3C, 3D en 6B. Minstens een van die kapers dra 'n dokument met die titel "The Last Night", 'n instruksiesblad vir die kapers wat begin: 'Omhels die wil om te sterf en hernu trou. Maak van alle aspekte kennis met die plan, en verwag die reaksie en weerstand van die vyand. ” 18

Tot 08:00: Passasiers dra veranderings in reisplanne deur
Ten minste tien van die passasiers en bemanning op vlug 93 het beplan om later of vroeër vlugte te onderneem of het op vlug 93 gekom weens veranderinge in die rooster. 19 Een hiervan, passasier Lauren Grandcolas, bel haar man in San Rafael, Kalifornië, en laat 'n boodskap agter dat sy 'n uur vroeër as verwag sal huis toe kom. Sy was geskeduleer vir United Airlines -vlug 91, maar haar motordiens het vroeg op die lughawe aangekom, sodat sy eerder vlug 93 kon neem. 'Haai, ek wil u net laat weet dat ek agtuur is in plaas van om 9:20,' het Lauren aan haar man gesê. 20
8:00: Die Shanksville, Pennsylvania Poskantoor open vir die dag
Judi Baeckel, waarnemende posmeester, open die Shanksville-poskantoor vir die dag en begin die pos vir die 165 kassiere hou.
08:01: Vlug 93 verlaat die terminale.
United Airlines Flight 93 verlaat die terminale net 'n minuut agter die skedule. Aan boord is 37 passasiers en 7 bemanningslede. Gewoonlik ry vliegtuie na die aanloopbaan en vertrek binne 10-15 minute. 21 'n Stemopnemer aan boord van die vliegtuig begin geluide opneem van bakkies in die vlieënier en eerste offisier se koptelefoon en in die boonste paneel van die vliegdek. Die toestel het 'n lusband van 30 minute. 22 Die vliegtuig se vlugdata -opnemer begin duisende stukke inligting oor die vlug stoor.

08:14: Vlug 11 word gekaap
American Airlines Flight 11, onderweg van Boston na Los Angeles, word gekaap. Binne enkele minute bel die stewardin Betty Ong aan American Airlines en berig: 'Die kajuit antwoord nie iemand is in 'n sakeklas gesteek nie-en ek dink daar is slae wat ons nie kan asemhaal nie. Ek weet nie. Ek dink ons ​​word gekaap. ” Ong gaan voort om inligting van die vlug vir die volgende 26 minute oor te dra
8:16: Klasse begin by Shanksville-Stonycreek School
Dit is die tiende dag van die nuwe skooljaar in Shanksville-Stonycreek, een van die kleinste openbare skole in Pennsylvania. Daar is 490 studente in die kleuterskool tot en met graad 12.24
08:25: Vlugkelners bring inligting kalm oor
Op vlug 11 bel stuurman Amy Sweeney na 'n ander American Airlines -fasiliteit en berig kalm dat die vliegtuig gekaap is, dat 'n passasier in die eerste klas dood is, twee stewardessies gesteek is, die bemanning kan nie kontak met die kajuit, en daar is 'n bom in die vliegtuig. Sy en mede -vlugkelner Betty Ong rapporteer die sitplekgetalle van die "Midde -Oosters" wat die kajuit oorgeneem het.25
08:42: Vlug 93 vertrek 25 minute laat
Lugverkeer is tipies swaar op die Newark -lughawe, wat vertragings op die aanloopbaan veroorsaak. As United Airlines Flight 93 uiteindelik opstyg, loop dit ongeveer 25 minute laat
8: 42-8: 46: 'n Tweede vliegtuig word gekaap
United Airlines Flight 175, onderweg van Boston na Los Angeles, word gekaap. Die transponderkode word verander en die vliegtuig afwyk van die aangewese hoogte. 27
08:46: Vlug 11 val vas in die World Trade Center
Vlugkelner Amy Sweeney, wat nog steeds met American Airlines praat, berig: 'Ons vlieg laag. Ons vlieg baie, baie laag. Ons vlieg te laag. Ag, my God! Ons is te laag. ” Gekapte American Airlines Flight 11 val vas op vloere 93-99 van die North Tower van die World Trade Center. Almal aan boord en 'n onbekende nommer in die gebou word op slag dood

08:50: President Bush verneem van 'n ongeluk by World Trade Center
President George W. Bush besoek 'n klaskamer in Sarasota in Florida om oor onderwys te praat en te luister na kinders wat lees. Voordat Bush die klas binnegaan, word Bush ingelig dat ''n klein tweemotorige vliegtuig in die World Trade Center vasgery het'. 29 Vyf minute later praat hy met die adviseur van die nasionale veiligheid, Condoleezza Rice, wat in die Withuis is. Sy vertel die president dat 'n kommersiële vliegtuig in werklikheid die World Trade Center getref het. 30
8: 51-8: 54 vm: 'n Derde vliegtuig word gekaap
American Airlines Flight 77, onderweg van Washington, DC na Los Angeles, word gekaap en begin ongemagtigde draaie na die suide en ooste neem en daal. Omdat die transponder afgeskakel is, kan lugverkeerbeheerders by die Indianapolis -sentrum nie die vliegtuig opspoor nie.
08:52: Vlug 175 -passasiers bel familielede, bemanningslede bel die lugdiens
'N Passasier op vlug 175, Peter Hanson, bel sy pa en vertel hom van die kaping. Hanson sê dat sy seun berig het: 'Ek dink hulle het die kajuit oorgeneem - 'n bediende is met 'n mes gesteek - en iemand anders is moontlik vermoor. Die vliegtuig maak vreemde bewegings. Bel United Airlines. ” 31 'n Manlike vlugkelner bel United Airlines en rapporteer die kaping en die moord op albei vlieëniers. Hy glo die kapers vlieg met die vliegtuig. Passasier Garnet Bailey bel sy vrou. 'N Ander passasier, Brian Sweeney, bel sy vrou en laat hierdie boodskap agter:' Hallo, Jules. Dis Brian. Luister, ek is op 'n vliegtuig wat gekaap is. " Hy bel sy ma om die kaping aan te meld en vertel dat die passasiers dit oorweeg om die kajuit te bestorm om beheer van die kapers te bewerkstellig. 32
9:00: Passasiers se laaste oomblikke op gekaapte vlug 175
Peter Hanson bel sy pa weer en berig volgens sy pa oor hierdie toestande op die gekaapte vliegtuig: 'Dit raak sleg, pa - 'n stewardess is gesteek - dit lyk asof hulle messe en maas het - hulle het gesê dat hulle 'n bom het. . . Ek dink nie die vlieënier vlieg met die vliegtuig nie - ek dink ons ​​gaan af - ek dink hulle is van plan om na Chicago of iewers heen te gaan en na 'n gebou te vlieg - Moenie bekommerd wees nie, Pa - As dit gebeur, sal dit wees baie vinnig - My God, my God. ” 33
09:03: Vlug 175 val vas by die World Trade Center
Miljoene kyk op televisie hoe gekaapte United Airlines Flight 175 op vloere 77-85 van die South Tower van die World Trade Center gekaap het. Almal aan boord en 'n onbekende nommer in die gebou word op slag dood. 34

09:35: Vlugkelner pleit vir haar lewe.
In die stuurkajuit van Flight 93, pleit 'n stewardess by die kapers om haar nie dood te maak nie, 'Ek wil nie doodgaan nie. Ek wil nie doodgaan nie. Ek wil nie doodgaan nie. ” 57
09:35: Flight 93 Flight Attendant rapporteer kaping by United Airlines
Die stewardess Sandy Bradshaw skakel die United Airlines Maintenance Facility in San Francisco vanaf die Airfone in ry 33 (die volgende by die laaste ry in die vliegtuig) om die kaping aan te meld. Die bestuurder wat die oproep oorneem, beskryf die stewardess as
“Skokkend kalm.” Bradshaw sê dat die kapers in die eersteklas kajuit en kajuit is en het aangekondig dat hulle 'n bom het. Sy sê hulle het 'n mes getrek en 'n stewardog doodgemaak. Dit begin met 'n reeks van 37 telefoonoproepe wat uit die vliegtuig gemaak is, waarvan die meeste op Airfones in die laaste nege rye gemaak is. 58
09:37: Vlug 77 val vas in die Pentagon
Gekapte American Airlines Flight 77 val teen 'n snelheid van 530 myl per uur in die Pentagon vas en dring deur die E-, D- en C -ringe. Almal aan boord word dood, saam met 125 burgerlike en militêre personeel in die Pentagon. 59
09:37: Passasiers begin bel, hoor van aanvalle by die World Trade Center Passasier Mark Bingham bel sy ma vanaf 'n Airfone in ry 25. Hy vertel haar dat hy op vlug 93 is en dit word gekaap. Bingham berig dat die vliegtuig oorgeneem is deur drie ouens wat sê dat hulle 'n bom het. 60 Passasier Tom Burnett maak die eerste van 'n paar kort oproepe na sy vrou vanuit Airfones in rye 24 en 25. Tydens hierdie oproepe berig hy dat die vliegtuig gekaap is, beweer die kapers dat dit 'n bom is en dat 'n passasier geknip is. Sy vrou vertel hom van die vliegtuie wat die World Trade Center binnevlieg. In 'n latere oproep na sy vrou, sê Burnett dat die passasier wat vermoor is, dood is, "hulle" in die kajuit is, en 'n groep passasiers maak gereed om iets te doen. 61 Passasier Jeremy Glick bel sy vrou vanaf die Airfone in ry 27. Hy praat eers met sy skoonma en dan met sy vrou in 'n oproep wat 25 ½ minute duur. Glick vertel aan sy familie dat die vliegtuig gekaap is deur drie mans met 'n Iraanse voorkoms met 'n donker vel en bandanas. Hy het gesê dat hy en ander passasiers dit oorweeg om met die kapers te jaag. Die passasiers stem of hulle die kajuit wil bestorm en die vliegtuig weer beheer. 62
09:39: Cleveland Center hoor die aankondiging van Hijacker-Pilot aan passasiers Die FAA se Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center hoor hierdie aankondiging van Flight 93: "Ah! Hier is die kaptein. Ek wil graag hê dat julle almal moet sit. Ons het 'n bom aan boord, en ons gaan terug na die lughawe, en ons het ons eise.
Bly dus stil. ” Vlieëniers van ander vliegtuie wat dieselfde radiofrekwensie gebruik, meld aan Cleveland Center dat hulle ook die uitsending oor die bom gehoor het. 63
09:39: Passasiers bel, man, neem boodskap op
Lauren Grandcolas bel haar man van die Airfone in ry 23 en laat 'n boodskap agter wat haar liefde uitdruk en sê: 'Ons het 'n klein probleem op die vliegtuig. . .Ek is nie ongemaklik nie, en ek is nou in orde. Dit is 'n klein probleempie. " 64
09:41: Vlug 93 -transponder is afgeskakel
Die transponder van vlug 93, 'n ontwerp wat tydens die vlug 'n identifiserende sein afgee, is afgeskakel. Om voort te gaan met die opspoor van vlug 93, vind Cleveland Center die vliegtuig op die primêre radar en pas die lesings by visuele waarnemings van ander vliegtuie, kyk na die vlug terwyl dit ooswaarts draai en dan suidoos. 65
09:42: Alle vliegtuie word beveel om te land
Ben Sliney by die FAA Command Center in Herndon beveel dat alle vliegtuie so gou as moontlik op die naaste lughawe moet land. 66
09:43: Passasiers bel telefoon
Joe DeLuca bel sy pa van die Airfone in ry 26 en vertel hom dat sy vlug gekaap is en sy liefde betuig. 67
09:44: Passasier bereik Airfone -operateur
Passasier Todd Beamer, wat die Airfone in ry 32 gebruik, bereik 'n GTE -operateur. Syne
die verbinding duur vir die res van die vlug. Hy merk die volgende op: die vlug is gekaap, die kaptein en eerste offisier lê op die vloer van die eersteklas kajuit en is beseer of moontlik dood. Hy berig dat een van die terroriste 'n rooi gordel het met 'n bom om sy middel, twee van die kapers met messe het die kajuit binnegegaan en die deur agter hulle gesluit. Hy dui aan dat die vliegtuig op en af ​​gaan en dat dit van rigting gedraai of verander het. Beamer vertel die operateur dat hy en 'n paar ander passasiers iets beplan. Hy sit die telefoon neer. 68
09:44: Terminal op die Pittsburgh -lughawe ontvang waarskuwing
Pittsburgh Terminal Radar Approach Control North Arrival (PIT) word deur die Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center in kennis gestel dat 'n vliegtuig wat nie reageer nie, op 'n geprojekteerde vlugroete is, wat sal veroorsaak dat dit verbyloop "in die nabyheid as dit nie direk bokant die groter Pittsburgh Internasionale Lughawe is nie" . ” 69
09:45: Ontruimings begin by White House en U.S. Capitol
Ontruimings van die Withuis en Capitol begin in reaksie op gerugte van toenemende aanvalle. 70 kongresleiers word na 'n veilige fasiliteit geneem. Dit is die eerste keer in die geskiedenis dat die hele Capitol -gebou in die Verenigde State ontruim word. 71 Eerste dame Laura Bush, wat in die kantoor van die kantoor van die Russell Senaat langs die Capitol is om die Onderwyskomitee van die Senaat in kennis te stel, is ook na 'n veilige plek geneem. 72
09:45: Cleveland Center bel steeds vlug 93
Cleveland Center bel steeds vlug 93: 'United negentig Cleveland, hoor jy nog die sentrum? Verenigde hoor jy nog steeds Cleveland? ” 73 Vlug 93 reageer nie.
09:46: Passasiersfone suster, neem boodskap op
Linda Gronlund bel haar suster van die Airfone in ry 26 en laat 'n boodskap agter dat haar vlug gekaap is deur terroriste wat sê dat hulle 'n bom het. "Blykbaar het hulle al 'n paar vliegtuie na die World Trade Center gevlieg en dit lyk asof hulle ook hierdie een gaan afneem," berig sy. "Meestal wou ek net sê ek is lief vir jou en ek gaan jou mis." 74
09:46: FAA -hoofkwartier opgedateer oor vlug 93 se afstand van Washington, DC
Die Herndon Command Center werk die hoofkwartier van FAA by: Flight 93 volg Washington, DC en is 29 minute van die stad af. 75
09:48: Flight Attendant bel vir man, teken boodskap op
CeeCee Lyles bel haar man van die Airfone in ry 32 en laat 'n aangetekende boodskap agter dat die vliegtuig gekaap word: 'Ons het omgedraai en ek het gehoor dat daar vliegtuie na die World Trade Center gevlieg is. Ek hoop om weer u gesig te kan sien. ” 76
09:49: Passasiersfone vriend
Passasier Marion Britton bel haar vriend van die telefoon in ry 33 en vertel dat haar vliegtuig gekaap is. Britton sê ook dat die kapers twee passasiers se kele afgesny het en onthul dat sy weet dat twee vliegtuie in die World Trade vasgery het
Sentreer. 77
09:50: Afstuurder stuur steeds waarskuwings
Afsender Ballinger stuur steeds sms -boodskappe na die transkontinentale vlugte van die lugredery, insluitend vlug 93, en beveel hulle aan om "LAND ASP BY NABYTE UAL AIRPORT - ORD TERRORIST. NIEMAND OM TE KOOP nie - LAND ASP ”. 78
09:50: Flight Attendant bel die man
Vlugkelner Sandy Bradshaw bel haar man van die Airfone in ry 33. In die oproep van agt minute meld sy die noodgeval aan en blykbaar bewus te wees van die ander kapings die oggend. Haar man bevestig aan haar dat twee vliegtuie in die World Trade Center vasgery het. Bradshaw vertel haar man dat die vliegtuig gekaap is deur drie mans wat messe gedra het en rooi kopbande aangetrek het toe hulle die vliegtuig oorgeneem het. Sy sê dat sy dink dat die vliegtuig moontlik oor die Mississippi is omdat dit oor 'n groot rivier gaan. Sy vertel dat die passasiers bespreek hoe om die kapers te oorrompel, insluitend die voorbereiding van warm water om op die kapers te gooi voordat hulle hulle jaag. 79
09:51: Die Greater Pittsburgh -lughawetoring word ontruim. 80
09:54: Passasiers bel stiefma
Eer Elizabeth Wainio bel haar stiefma van die Airfone in ry 33 en vertel haar dat die vliegtuig gekaap is. Na ongeveer vier en 'n half minute se gesprek, meld Wainio dat die passasiers en bemanning gereed maak om by die kajuit in te breek. Volgens haar stiefma beëindig sy die oproep en sê: 'Ek moet gaan. Ek het jou lief. Totsiens. ” 81
09:55: Kode vir Reagan Nasionale Lughawe met 'n vlugrekenaar ingevoer
Die vlieënier-kaper, vermoedelik Jarrah, voer die navigasiekode vir die Reagan Nasionale Lughawe in die vliegtuig se vlugrekenaar in om die vliegtuig na Washington te lei,
D.C. 82
09:55: Operateur hoor passasiersverklaring
Die Airfone -operateur, wat sedertdien op pad was met passasier Todd Beamer
9:44, berig dat iemand sê: 'Is julle gereed? Goed! Laat ons loop!" 83
09:56: Werknemers by die Pittsburgh Airport Tower keer terug na die werk
'N Klein toevalligheid van beheerders keer vrywillig terug na hul posisies by die Greater Pittsburgh Airport -fasiliteit. 84
09:57: Passasiers en bemanning beëindig oproepe om die stryd te begin
Passasiers en bemanning begin hul aanval op die vlug 93-terroriste-kapers. Vlugkelner Sandy Bradshaw beëindig die oproep na haar man en sê dat almal eerste klas haal en dat sy moet gaan. "85
09:58: Passasiers skakel 9-1-1
Passasier Edward Felt skakel 9-1-1 vanaf sy selfoon en is gekoppel aan die Westmoreland County [PA] 9-1-1 sentrum. In die oproep van 70 sekondes meld Felt: "Kaping aan die gang!" en verskaf die vlugnommer, die tipe vliegtuig en die oorspronklike vlugplan van Newark na San Francisco. 86
09:58: Flight Attendant bel die man, en stuur haar laaste boodskap deur
Vlugkelner CeeCee Lyles bel haar man op haar selfoon en bereik hierdie keer hom. Sy vertel hom dat die vliegtuig gekaap is en dat die passasiers en bemanning hulle in die kajuit dwing. 87
9:58:55 uur: Cockpit Voice Recorder vang Engelssprekende stemme op:
Die kajuitstemopnemer vang die stem van 'n inheemse Engelssprekende man: "In die kajuit! In die kajuit! ”
9:58:57: Kapers wieg die vliegtuig van kant tot kant
Jarrah sê nog 'n kaper in die kajuit moet die deur versper. Jarrah rol die vliegtuig skerp na links en regs, maar die aanval deur die passasiers en bemanning duur voort. 88
09:59: 'n Stryd om die beheer van die vliegtuig op 5.000 voet
Met die vliegtuig op 5 000 voet bo seespieël, lei ongeveer 2 minute se vinnige, volle linker- en regterinvoer van die stuurwiel tot meer as 30 grade rolle na links en regs. 89 Die stemopnemer van die kajuit vang geluide op van harde stampe, botsings, geskreeu en brille en borde wat breek. 'N Inheemse Engelssprekende manlike stem of stem sê: "Stop hom" en "Let's get them & quot
09:59: In New York, die South Tower van die World Trade Center, val die gebou wat deur vlug 175 getref is, in duie. 90
10:00: Die vlieënier van 'n klein vliegtuig sien vlug 93, vlerke wieg
Bill Wright, die vlieënier van 'n klein, private vliegtuig in die lug oor Westmoreland County [PA], berig dat hy 'n groot vliegtuig ongeveer 8000 voet in die omgewing van die Latrobe, Pennsylvania -lughawe sien. Die vliegtuig se landingsgestel is af, sê hy, die vlerke skommel en dit lyk asof die vliegtuig in nood is. 91
10:00: Vlug 93 maak skerp klim en duik
Terroriste-vlieënier Jarrah slaan die neus van die vliegtuig op en af ​​om die aanranding te ontwrig en steek dan 10:00: 05:00: Kapers bespreek finale optrede
Een van die kapers vra vir Jarrah: 'Is dit dit? Sal ons dit afhandel? ” 'N Kaper antwoord:' Nee. Nog nie. As hulle almal kom, maak ons ​​klaar. ” Die geluide van gevegte gaan buite die kajuit voort. Jarrah slaan die neus van die vliegtuig op en af.
10:00:14: Engelssprekende stemme wat deur die kajuit-stemopnemer opgeneem is
'N Inheemse Engelssprekende man skree: "Ah!" 'N Inheemse Engelssprekende man sê: "Ek is beseer." 'N Inheemse Engelssprekende man skree:' In die kajuit. As ons dit nie doen nie, sterf ons. ” In die verte word 'n opdrag deur 'n inheemse Engelssprekende man uitgeroep: 'Rol dit.'
10:01 uur: Kaperbesluit geneem deur die kajuitstemopnemer
Jarrah stop gewelddadige maneuvers en sê: “Allah is die grootste! Allah is die grootste." Hy vra dan vir 'n ander kaper in die kajuit: 'Is dit dit? Ek bedoel, sal ons dit aftrek? ” Die ander kaper antwoord: "Sit dit daarin en trek dit af." 92
10:02: Die stryd duur voort
Passasiers en bemanningslede hou aan met hul aanranding. 'N Inheemse Engelssprekende mannetjie skreeu hard: "Draai op!" 'N Kaper sê:' Trek dit af! Trek dit af! ” Die vliegtuig, neus af, begin vinnig af, die stuurwiel word hard na regs gedraai. Die vliegtuig rol op sy rug. 'N Kaper begin skree:' Allah is die grootste. Allah is die grootste."
10:03:07: "Nee!" Engelssprekende stem.
10:03:11: Vlug 93 stort neer in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania

Met geluide van die passasiers en bemanning wat teen die terroriste veg, val Flight 93 teen 'n veld naby Shanksville, Pennsylvania teen 'n snelheid van 563 myl per uur, ongeveer 20 minute vlieg tyd vanaf Washington, D.C. 94 Almal aan boord word dood.
10:03: Inwoners van die omgewing bel 9-1-1 om 'n ongeluk aan te meld
Paula Pluta sien 'n silwer streep in die lug, gevolg deur 'n massiewe vuurbal en 'n pluim rook wat agter die bome kom, op die voorstoep van haar huis op Lambertsvilleweg. Die vliegtuig het 'n half kilometer van haar huis af neergestort. Sy skakel 9-1-1 en sê: “O, my God! Hier was 'n vliegtuigongeluk! " 'N Paar sekondes later meld 'n ander inbeller van die 9-1-1 Center asemloos:' Daar was 'n vliegtuig wat net deur Diamond T afgekom het. . . Dit was 'n groot vliegtuig, 'n groot vliegtuig. . . dit het eers neus, onderstebo. 95
10:03: Shanksville -inwoners sien, hoor en voel neerstort
In Shanksville, drie myl van die ongeluksterrein af, voel inwoners die impak van die ongeluk, hoor die ontploffing, storm buite en sien 'n wolk swart rook bokant die bome opkom.
10:03: Assistent -hoof hoor ongeluk, hardloop na die brandweerstasie
Rick King, assistenthoof van die Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company, sowel as die eienaar van Ida's Store, hoor die geluid van 'n groot vliegtuig wat nader kom en dan net oor die heuwel van Shanksville neerstort. King hardloop na die winkel om sy vrou en werknemers te vertel dat 'n vliegtuig neergestort het, en hardloop dan na die brandweerstasie om die radiooproep van Somerset County 9-1-1 Center te beantwoord. Toe hy verneem dat slegs drie vrywillige brandweermaatskappye gestuur is, lig King, asemhalend, die stuurder in dat "dit 'n groot vliegtuig is wat waarskynlik verband hou met wat aan die gang is" en versoek dat ekstra maatskappye om hulp gestuur word.96
10:03: Shanksville -skoolleerlinge voel impak
As die vliegtuig neerstort, voel studente aan die Shanksville-Stonycreek-skool hoe die gebou bewe en hoor hoe die vensters rammel. Sommige onderwysers sê vir hul studente dat hulle onder hul lessenaars moet skuil. Ander studente hardloop na die vensters en sien hoe 'n groot wolk swart rook van die ongeluksterrein opkom. 97
10:04: 9-1-1 Sentrums kommunikeer
Westmoreland County 9-1-1 Center stel Somerset County 9-1-1 in kennis dat hulle 'n oproep ontvang het van 'n passasier aan boord van die vliegtuig wat pas neergestort het. Die oproeper het gesê die vliegtuig is gekaap.
10:06: Inwoner van Indian Lake fotografeer rookwolk
Val McClatchey, van haar huis af, 2,5 kilometer van die ongeluksterrein af, hoor die geluid van
die vliegtuig neerstort, 'n wolk van swart rook sien opkom in die helder blou lug en die wolk van haar voorstoep afneem. Later verskaf sy die geheue kaart van haar kamera aan die FBI.
10:06: Die skoolhoof van Shanksville oorweeg ontruiming
Die skoolhoof by Shanksville-Stonycreek School bel Somerset County 9-1-1 om te vra of sy die studente uit die gebou moet ontruim. 98
10:07: Klein vliegtuig het gevra om verslag te doen oor die ongeluk
In reaksie op 'n versoek van 'n Cleveland-lugverkeersbeheerder, word 'n sakevliegtuig van Fairchild Falcon 20, wat reeds op die Johnstown-Cambria County-lughawe afklim, opdrag gegee om tot 1,500 voet te sak om rook te soek. Volgens die verklaring van die beheerder het die vlieënier rook en vlamme opgemerk en die posisie van die ongeluksterrein en 'n beskrywing van die gebied gerapporteer. 99
10:23 uur: Somerset County Coroner verneem van die ongeluk
Nadat hy verneem het dat 'n vliegtuig moontlik in sy jurisdiksie neergestort het, bel Coroner Wally Miller Somerset County Emergency Management vir bevestiging. Die EMA -direkteur raai hom aan: 'As ek u was, sou ek 'n plek kry om 'n tydelike lykshuis op te rig
iewers. ” 105
10:28: In New York stort die North Tower van die World Trade Center, die gebou wat deur vlug 11 getref is, in duie. 106
10:31 uur: Afvuurbevel word aan NEADS gekommunikeer, maar nie aan vlieëniers nie
NORAD (Noord -Amerikaanse lugverdediging) saai hierdie boodskap uit: 'Visepresident het ons aangemoedig om spore van belang te onderskep en af ​​te skiet as hulle nie reageer nie.' Die NEADS -bevelvoerder het hierdie bevel nie deurgegee aan die vegvlieëniers wat oor New York en Washington sirkel nie, omdat die bevelvoerder nie seker was hoe die vlieëniers met hierdie leiding sou of sou voortgaan nie. 107
12:15 uur: Lugruim ruim oor die kontinentale Verenigde State
Die lugruim oor die 48 aangrensende state is vry van alle kommersiële en private vlugte. Meer as 4 500 vliegtuie is veilig geland. 108
15:30: Bin Laden gekoppel aan aanvalle
Vanaf die Offutt -lugmagbasis in Nebraska waar Air Force One die president om veiligheidsredes geneem het, bel George W. Bush die Nasionale Veiligheidsraad per videokonferensie. Die adviseur van die nasionale veiligheid, Condoleezza Rice en president Bush begin die vergadering met die woorde: "Ons is in 'n oorlog." 109 CIA -direkteur Tenet berig "met byna sekerheid" dat Osama bin Laden agter die terreuraanvalle staan. 110
18:00: Governor Ridge kyk na die ongeluksterrein en hou 'n perskonferensie
Die goewerneur van Pennsylvania, Tom Ridge, hou 'n nuuskonferensie na die beoordeling van die ongeluksterrein Flight 93: 'Dit is moeilik om die omvang van emosies te beskryf wat almal voel as hulle nie net meer oor hierdie voorvalle te wete kom nie, maar dat hulle dit werklik gesien het. Die woordeboek is onvoldoende, en daar is net nie genoeg woorde nie. Maar ek vermoed dat die omvang van emosies van woede en woede tot hartseer tot afgryse gaan tot 'n gevoel van naarheid wat ons almal voel. ” 111 Hy doen 'n beroep op Pennsylvaniërs om hul gebede, hul bloed en hul talent te gee. Hy is die ergste geraak deur wat hy nie kan sien nie: “die mees interessante plek is 'n groot, gapende gat. Baie min puin is sigbaar. ” 112 Hy belowe ''n kragtige en gepaste reaksie' 'aan diegene wat verantwoordelik was vir die' irrasionele, lafhartige, veragtelike, gewetenlose en immorele 'optrede wat United Airlines Flight 93 in die omgewing van Shanksville laat neerstort het. 113
19:00: Gemeenskapsgebed en kosskenkings in Shanksville
Soos in gemeenskappe regoor die land, vergader inwoners van Shanksville vir gebed. Ongeveer 70 mense ontmoet mekaar in die United Methodist Church in Main Street. Donasies van kos en drank vir die eerste respondente begin by die Shanksville -brandweerstasie aankom.
20:30: President Bush spreek die land toe
President Bush spreek die nasie uit die Withuis toe: 'Vandag het ons medeburgers, ons lewenswyse, ons vryheid aangeval in 'n reeks doelbewuste en dodelike terreuraanvalle. . . . Terreuraanvalle kan die fondamente van ons grootste geboue skud, maar dit kan nie die fondament van Amerika raak nie. Hierdie dade breek staal, maar dit kan die staal van Amerikaanse vasberadenheid nie steur nie. . . . Amerika en ons vriende en bondgenote sluit almal aan wat vrede en veiligheid in die wêreld wil hê, en ons staan ​​saam om die oorlog teen terrorisme te wen. Dit is 'n dag waarop alle Amerikaners uit elke lewensterrein hulle verenig in ons voorneme vir geregtigheid en vrede. . . . None of us will ever forget this day, yet we go forward to defend freedom and all that is good and just in our world.” 114
8:45 pm: Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company returns to station
Sixteen volunteer firefighters and three pieces of equipment, on scene for the past 10 hours, return to the fire station in Shanksville. They remain on stand-by for the next 13 days, assisting the FBI in the recovery and investigation of the crash of Flight 93. 115

1 National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, the 9/11 Commission Report (with Third Monograph) (New York: Barnes and Noble, 2006), 1. This is the opening paragraph of the 9/11 Commission Report. All references to the 9/11 Commission Report in this timeline refer to the 2006 edition of the report which includes the Third Monograph, “The Four Flights and Civil Aviation Security.” This document was re-released in September, 2005 absent many of the initial redactions, following a review undertaken by the Administration at the request of the 9/11 Public Discourse Project, a non-profit organization founded by the former 9/11 Commissioners, to continue the work of the Commission.‌

2 Federal Aviation Administration, “Air Traffic Organization Response”, March 21, 2002, 4.

3 The 9/11 Commission Report, 32-33.

4 FBI, Hijackers Timeline (Redacted), 293.‌

5 FBI, Translation of the interview, conducted by German authorities, of the girlfriend of Ziad Jarrah, September 18, 2001. According to the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation’s program, “The Fifth Estate”,

6 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Prosecution Exhibit ST00001B, Final Movement of Hijack Teams, 85.

7 Jere Longman, Among the Heroes (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 2002), 1-5.

9 FBI, Investigative Summary, PENTTBOM, United Airlines Flight 93, 265A-NY-280350, 8

10 9/11 Commission Report, 629.

11 9/11 Commission Report, 163, 231 Longman, 87.

12 9/11 Commission Report, 528.

13 John Farmer, The Ground Truth: The Untold Story of America Under Attack on 9/11 (New York:

Riverhead Books, 2009), 107. John Farmer was the Senior Counsel to the 9/11 Commission. His book expands on information and research which the 9/11 Commission staff did not have time to pursue.

15 National Transportation Safety Board, Office of Research and Engineering, Study of Autopilot,

Navigation Equipment, and Fuel Consumption Activity based on United Airlines Flight 93 and American Airlines Flight 77 Digital Flight Data Recorder Information 15. 9/11 Commission Report, 615. The plane’s registration number is N591UA. A Boeing 757 has a wingspan of 124 feet, 10 inches and is 155 feet, 3 inches long.

16 This arrival time is noted on a Flight 93 boarding pass which was recovered at the crash site.‌

17 9/11 Commission Report, 4.

18 “The Last Night” document is later found at three locations relating to the September 11 attacks. Sien

19 Flight 93 Oral History Project, various interviews Longman, various chapters

20 Lauren Grandcolas call audio provided to National Park Service by Jack Grandcolas

22 The Cockpit Voice Recorder on Flight 93 has a loop tape that is approximately 30 minutes long, meaning that the earliest recordings from the flight will be replaced by later recordings. When the cockpit

23 Department of Justice, Moussaoui trial exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A 9/11 Commission Report, 587.

24 Shanksville-Stonycreek School District‌

25 9/11 Commission Report, 5-7.

27 9/11 Commission Report, 599-600.

28 9/11 Commission Report, 6-7, 593-594 Farmer, 124.‌‌‌‌‌‌‌

29 9/11 Commission Report, 35 Farmer, 155.

30 George W. Bush, Decision Points (New York: Crown Publishers, 2010),126

32 9/11 Commission Report, 600-602 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455- A

33 9/11 Commission Report, 8, 601-602 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-

34 9/11 Commission Report, 602.‌‌

35 9/11 Commission Report, 38 Bush, 127.

36 9/11 Commission Report, 610 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A Farmer, 162.

37 National Transportation Safety Board, Study of Autopilot, 4 FBI, Summary of Penttbom Investigation,

38 9/11 Commission Report, 611 Farmer, 163,166.

39 9/11 Commission Report, 11 Farmer, 189 National Transportation Safety Board, “Specialists Report”,

40 9/11 Commission Report, 616.

41 9/11 Commission Report, 616 Farmer, 189.

42 9/11 Commission Report, 594 Farmer, 219, 240-241.

43 9/11 Commission Report, 616.

44 Federal Aviation Administration, Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, September 2001, 16 Farmer

45 9/11 Commission Report, 612 Farmer, p. 170.

46 Federal Aviation Administration, Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, September 2001, 17 Farmer, 189 9/11 Commission Report, 616.

47 9/11 Commission Report, 617 Farmer, 189.

48 9/11 Commission Report, 617 National Transportation Safety Board, “Specialists Report”, Air Traffic Control Recording, December 21, 2001. 7.

49 9/11 Commission Report, 617.

50 Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 18.

52 9/11 Commission Report, 12 and footnote 75, Chapter 1: “Jarrah apparently did not know how to

53 9/11 Commission Report, 618.

54 9/11 Commission Report, 618.

55 Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 20

56 9/11 Commission Report, 618 Farmer, 191.

57 Department of Justice, Transcript of Cockpit Voice Recorder Farmer, 191.

58 9/11 Commission Report, 619. One Airfone was located in each row of the coach section of Flight 93. These air-to-ground phones were installed in the seatback of the seat in front of the passenger.

59 9/11 Commission Report, 613.

60 9/11 Commission Report, 620.

61 9/11 Commission Report, 621.

62 9/11 Commission Report, 621 9/11 Commission, Memorandum for the Record, Interview with Lyzbeth Glick, 9-11 family member, April 22, 2004.

63 9/11 Commission Report, 621 Cockpit Voice Recorder from UA Flight #93, Original 3/1/2002 Major

64 Lauren Grandcolas call audio provided to National Park Service by Jack Grandcolas 9/11 Commission Report, 621.

65 9/11 Commission Report, 622. Air Traffic Control Recording, 9.

66 9/11 Commission Report, 29 Farmer, 185.

67 Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A, FBI, Summary of interview with Joseph DeLuca, September 13, 2001.‌‌‌‌‌‌

68 9/11 Commission Report, 622.

69 Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 20 FAA, Memorandum dated September 19, 2001, Partial Transcript, Aircraft Accident, UAL93, Somerset, PA.

70 9/11 National Memorial and Museum Interactive Timeline

71 Tom Daschle, Like No Other Time: The 107th Congress and the Two Years that Changed America Forever (New York: Crown Publishers, 2003), 110.

72 Laura Bush, Spoken from the Heart (New York: Scribner, 2010),197.

73 National Transportation Safety Board, Office of Research and Engineering, Flight Path Study – United Airlines Flight 93, February 19, 2002, 7.

74 9/11 Commission Report, 623. FBI, transcripts of recorded calls. The 9/11 Commission Staff received

75 9/11 Commission Report, 623.

76 9/11 Commission Report, 623. Department of Justice, Moussaoui Trial Exhibit BS01101T 01-455-A.‌‌

77 9/11 Commission Report, 623.

78 9/11 Commission Report, 623.

79 FBI, report of interview with Philip G. Bradshaw, September 11, 2001 9/11 Commission Report, 623.

80 “Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events”, 22.

81 9/11 Commission Report, 623 statement by Esther Heymann.

82 9/11 Commission Report, 457, 624.

83 9/11 Commission Report, 624.

84 “Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events,” 22.

85 9/11 Commission Report, 624. The transcript of the cockpit voice recorder indicates that their struggle

continues for the duration of the flight.

86 FBI, Transcripts of recorded calls, Edward Felt phone call transcribed September 11, 2001.‌

87 9/11 Commission Report, 624.

88 9/11 Commission Report, 624.

89 Flight Path Study – United Airlines Flight 93, February 19, 2002, 2.

90 9/11 Commission Report, 305.

91 “Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events”, 23.

92 9/11 Commission Report, 625.‌

93 Transcript from Cockpit Voice Recorder from United Airlines Flight #93, 10.

94 9/11 Commission Report, 625.

95 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 1 time is approximate. “Diamond T” is a local name for the area, referring to the job name of the surface coal mine that had operated at this site for many years but was no longer active in 2001.

96 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 3 time is approximate. Trip Sheet, Shanksville Volunteer Fire Company, September 11, 2001.

97 Conversation with Shanksville Stonycreek School personnel transcription of calls to Somerset County

98 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 1 time is approximate.

99 FAA, personnel statements, Cleveland Air Route Traffic Control Center FAA, Summary of Air Traffic Hijack Events, 23.

100 9/11 Commission Report, 46. In the course of its research, the staff of the 9/11 Commission identified

inaccuracies in the official testimony given to the Commission by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in regard to the timeline of events on September 11, 2001.

These erroneous statements first appeared in press releases, testimony before Congress, and reports compiled by the agencies in the days after the crash and were repeated in print and television interviews, books and films over the next several years, including the Air Force official history of September 11, Air War Over America. Specifically, the Commission identified the following four erroneous statements: 1.

The FAA notified the DoD at 9:16 a.m. of the United Flight 93 hijacking. The actual time was 10:07 a.m.

The FAA notified DoD at 9:24 a.m. of the American Flight 77 hijacking. The actual time was 9:34 a.m.

DoD scrambled fighters from Langley Air Force Base in response to the hijackings of United Flight 93 and American Flight 77. The fighters were actually scrambled in response to an erroneous report that American Flight 11 was heading south toward Washington, D.C. 4. DoD was tracking United Flight 93

101 Transcription of calls to Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder 3 time is approximate. Transcript of Flight 93 National Memorial Oral History Project interview

103 9/11 Commission Report, 42-43 Farmer, 225.

104 9/11 Commission Report, 315.

105 Transcription of 9-1-1 Calls, Somerset County Emergency Management Agency, September 11, 2001, Recorder, time is approximate.‌

106 9/11 Commission Report, 311.

107 9/11 Commission Report, 42-43 Farmer, 241.

108 9/11 Commission Report, 29 Lynn Spencer, Touching History (New York: Free Press, 2008), 269.

109 9/11 Commission Report, 326.

110 Bob Woodward, Bush at War (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003) 26.

111 Mike O’Brien, “Ridge Promises Forceful Response”, Daily American [Somerset, PA], September 12, 2001.

112 Lisa Kozleski, “In Somerset County cornfield, ‘a large, gaping hole . . . very little debris’” Allentown [PA] Morning Call, September 12 2001.

113 Mike O’Brien, “Ridge Promises Forceful Response”, Daily American [Somerset, PA], September 12, 2001.

114 Editors, Nasionale hersiening, We Will Prevail: President George W. Bush on War, Terrorism, and


Jenny Lind

Swedish soprano Jenny Lind, whose purity of voice and natural singing style earned her the nickname “the Swedish nightingale,” made her American debut at the Castle Garden Theatre in New York City on September 11, 1850. The appearance inaugurated a ninety-three-stop American tour which was arranged by showman and entertainment entrepreneur Phineas T. Barnum. The tour came on the heels of a fantastically successful string of appearances in England where the large packed-in crowds gave rise to the term, “Jenny Lind crush.”

Jenny Lind… Studio of Mathew Brady, [Sept. 14, 1850]. Daguerreotypes. Afdelings vir afdrukke en foto's

The great event of the evening…was Jenny Lind’s appearance and her complete triumph. She has a most exquisite, powerful and really quite peculiar voice, so round, soft and flexible…

Queen Victoria’s Journal, May 4, 1847

Jenny Lind was born Johanna Maria Lind on October 6, 1820 in Stockholm, Sweden. She made her debut in the opera Der Freischütz in Stockholm in 1838. Her fame grew in the mid-1840s as she made a series of successful appearances in Germany and Austria. In May 1847 she made her first appearance on a London stage, and it was in England that her status as a “celebrity” reached full force. In 1849, Lind decided to stop performing in operas and instead continued in her career as a recitalist and an oratorio singer.

Castle Garden, New York: From the battery. N Currier, 1848. Popular Graphic Arts. Afdelings vir afdrukke en foto's

Nearly ninety years after Jenny Lind’s tour of the United States, Mrs. Isabell Barnwell still remembered the sensation created by the singer’s 1850-51 tour. Of growing up in Hamilton County, Florida during the Civil War period, she recalled:

Music was a delight to all of us…We four sisters used to sing a great deal…We kept up with the music of the times, having quite a stock of sheet music on hand…I have several of those old volumes now, one composed entirely of Jenny Lind’s repertoire when she made her long-remembered American appearance.

[Mrs. Isabell Barnwell]. Rose Shepherd, interviewer Jacksonville, Florida, February 6, 1939. American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers’ Project, 1936 to 1940. Manuscript Division

Lind’s renditions of popular songs met with great acclaim and helped make her one of the few opera singers to earn a large popular following. Fashionable new polkas and waltzes were choreographed and given her name. The “Jenny Lind Polka,” performed by fiddler John Selleck and recorded in 1939 in Camino, California, is a testament to Lind’s enduring influence on the popular imagination.

The “Jenny Lind Polka” and “Jenny Lind’s Set of Waltz Quadrilles” are described in a popular dance manual published in 1858, Howe’s Complete Ball-room Hand Book. This is just one of the many nineteenth-century dance and ballroom etiquette manuals included in the collection, An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1490 to 1920. Browse the Contributors list for author, title, and publication information for the 210 books included in the collection.

How to Dance, A Complete Ball-room and Party Guide. New York: Tousey & Small, 1878. From Western Social Dance, a Special Presentation included in An American Ballroom Companion: Dance Instruction Manuals, ca. 1490 to 1920. Music Division


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⁣Ring of Power (2006) [FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM, HISTORY, SEPTEMBER 11 ATTACKS]

Every question that you may have is answered in this highly researched 2006 documentary concerning this global criminal network enslaving very man, woman and child on this planet.
From the mystery religions of ancient Egypt to the Zionist role in 9/11, “Ring Of Power” unrevises 4000 years of revisionist human history with never – before – seen revelations. “Ring Of Power” puzzles together the pieces of a giant puzzle into one BIG PICTURE documentary series.

Part I: 9/11 THE UNTOLD STORY (38 min.) Half the world believes Muslims were responsible for 9/11. The other half believes Israeli Zionists were responsible. Who’s right?

Part II: HIDDEN EMPIRE (22 min.) The world’s most powerful empire is not the U.S.A. It is an empire that insiders call “Empire Of The City”.

Part III: TRAIL OF THE PHARAOHS (25 min.) Did the Biblical Abraham really live to be 175? Did Moses really turn staffs into snakes and rivers into blood?

Part IV: GOD AND THE QUEEN (30 min.) Genealogy charts show that British and French royalty are descendants of Mary Magdalene and Jesus Christ. Is dit waar?

Part V: ALL THE QUEEN’S MEN (22 min.) How rich and powerful is Queen Elizabeth II?

Part VI: THE GODFATHERS (30 min.) They scammed control of the Bank of England and the U.S. Federal Reserve, then they found GOD — Gold, Oil and Drugs.

Part VII: CHEATING AT MONOPOLY (52 min.) How many people would play a game of monopoly if the banker was cheating and fixing the rules? Over 6 billion.

Part VIII: ASSES OF EVIL (29 min.) The New World Order Mafia are invisible rulers who make puppets out of politicians, heroes out of villains and villains out of heroes.

Part IX: KING OF HEARTS (22 min.) The ultimate goal of “insiders” is to disarm the world and create one world empire under one world ruler. Wie is hy?

Part X: SOLUTIONS (28 min.) Protesting and writing letters to deaf politicians doesn’t work. What does work?

The Producer is an experienced, award winning documentary filmmaker who, as a child, learned that her father was a member of the secretive cult of Freemasonry. She recalls many arguments between her parents over her father’s secret meetings and the exclusion of women from the brotherhood. The Masonic ring that her father wore had been passed down from father to son over the generations. When she asked her father about the meaning of the letter “G” and the compass and square on his ring, she got no response. As an adult, she decided to investigate. That investigation grew into four years of intensive research into the identity and history of the diabolical globalists who she calls the “Ring Of Power”. Their goal is one World Empire and one world ruler.

Copyright Disclaimer under section 107 of the Copyright Act of 1976, allowance is made for “fair use” for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, education and research. Fair use is a use permitted by copyright statute that might otherwise be infringing.


"Empty Sky": A Personal History of September 11, 2001

An editor for Junior Scholastic recalls how the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, changed her family — and the nation.

On the evening of September 11, 2001, six dads from my hometown of Rumson, New Jersey, didn&rsquot come home from work. Their cars sat empty in the parking lot of the commuter ferry they&rsquod taken into Manhattan that morning. Their seats at the dinner table have been empty ever since.

My brother Mike was one of those dads. He and more than 2,700 other people were killed at the World Trade Center in New York City when ten members of Al Qaeda, an Islamic terrorist group, crashed two hijacked planes into the Twin Towers.

The 9/11 attacks were the deadliest on U.S. soil since the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor in December 1941, and they would change the nation profoundly.

I was on a commuter ferry headed to downtown Manhattan when the first plane struck the North Tower. It was 8:46 a.m. I knew that my brother, who had started a job as an equities trader at Cantor Fitzgerald a week earlier, would already be at his desk. I would soon learn that he was on the 104th floor of that 110-story building.

&ldquoAs you can see,&rdquo the ferry captain said over his bullhorn, &ldquoa plane just crashed into the World Trade Center.&rdquo

We could see the Trade Center and the skyscrapers of Lower Manhattan &mdash still 40 minutes away &mdash with aching clarity. As Mike, an avid bodysurfer, surely would have noted, it was a perfect beach day, crisp and cloudless.

I tried him on his cell phone several times but couldn&rsquot get through. Service had already become sporadic so I couldn&rsquot reach his wife, Lynn, or any other family members either.

As the ferry continued across the Hudson River to New York, we watched smoke spewing from the upper floors of the North Tower.

At first, it seemed as if the crash had been some terrible accident. Then, just 17 minutes later, a second plane sliced through the top of the South Tower.

Everyone gasped. America, we realized, was under attack.

Still, we sailed on. We passed the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island, all eyes glued to the two towers. While smoke billowed from one, orange fireballs ringed the other.

Paper and shards of glass began to rain down on the streets, and thick black soot coated much of the sky. I tried to picture Mike and his best friend, Michael Tucker, or &ldquoTuck,&rdquo who also worked at Cantor, racing down the stairs to safety.

When our ferry docked in Lower Manhattan, we were instructed not to get off. Instead, we would take on people who had fled the Trade Center and nearby office buildings, and head back to New Jersey.

Other Attacks

I looked for my brother and Tuck in the crowd on the pier. If anyone could escape that building, I thought, it was those two guys. Mike had lifted weights since high school and was a great basketball player. And Tuck was as big and strong as the guys on the Syracuse University football team he once roomed with. As we sailed back to New Jersey, the smell of death and burning plastic began to fill the air. But nothing prepared us for what happened next. We watched in stunned silence as the South Tower collapsed in a massive swirl of ash. It was 10:05. Less than a half-hour later, the North Tower fell, leaving us, in the words of Bruce Springsteen, with nothing but an empty sky.

We soon learned that there had been other attacks. Shortly after 9:30 a.m., hijackers had crashed a plane into the Pentagon, the U.S. military headquarters outside Washington, D.C., killing 189 people. And in Shanksville, Pennsylvania, passengers on a fourth plane, known as Flight 93, brought down their hijacked jet in a field when they realized it was headed for either the White House or the Capitol. All 44 people onboard died.

That morning, my brother&rsquos three children and thousands of others were called from their classrooms. My niece Regan, then 8, remembers an unfamiliar teacher arriving at the door during art class.

&ldquoCome with me, please,&rdquo he said, &ldquoand bring your belongings.&rdquo When Regan and her brother and sister got home, their mom was in the driveway, her face ashen.

They went inside and turned on the TV. &ldquoI&rsquod never seen those two buildings before,&rdquo Regan says. &ldquoFlames and chunks were tumbling down. &lsquoYour father is in there,&rsquo my mom managed to say. Then she burst into tears.&rdquo

A decade later, those memories are still raw for everyone who lived through that day. &ldquoAny time I hear &lsquo9/11,&rsquo it just brings everything back,&rdquo says John Pollinger, who was the police chief of Middletown, New Jersey, in 2001. His town of 68,000 lost 37 people that day.

Pollinger was at the ferry landing when my boat got back. &ldquoPeople were shell-shocked, stunned, covered with dust,&rdquo he says. &ldquoI told my detectives, &lsquoGet on the ferry. Go over there. See what you can do.&rsquo&rdquo

In the end, there was little anyone could do besides tend to grieving families and try to recover the bodies of those who had died.

Life Without Dad

My brother&rsquos children have had to grow up without their dad. He has missed their field hockey games, skateboarding competitions, proms, and graduations. He didn&rsquot live to see their funny texts or Facebook posts.

Most important, he&rsquos missed seeing the extraordinary young adults they&rsquove become. Thousands of other families have faced the same heartbreaking loss.

More than 400 firefighters and other rescue workers who went into the burning buildings to try to save people like Mike and Tuck also died on 9/11. Countless others spent months at the site, which came to be known as Ground Zero, searching through the rubble for bodies, trying to give families some measure of peace. Often, all they found were bone fragments.

Many Ground Zero­ workers have since developed severe lung ailments from the pollutants they inhaled. Some have died. Those remaining live with the trauma of what they saw.

If there&rsquos a silver lining, it&rsquos that our friends and people we didn&rsquot even know were there to look out for us. They stuck by us when we needed them most. My family and so many others lost a lot on 9/11. We also incurred a debt that we can never repay.

This article originally appeared with the title &ldquoEmpty Sky&rdquo in the September 5, 2011, issue of Junior Scholastic.


9/11 attacks rare footage video (Not suitable for children)

Also Read - Viral Video Shows Man Flying in New York&rsquos Times Square, People Are Reminded of Green Goblin | Kyk

Die September 11 terror attacks in New York, United States of America, shocked the world in 2001. The famous twin towers of the World Trade Center in New York were smashed to pieces by two passenger airplanes hijacked by Osama bin Laden&rsquos Al-Qaeda terror group. Almost 5,000 people died in the first-of-is-kind attack, although the official figure is 3,000, as the landmark towers made of steel were brought down to ground by the impact. Also Read - Alert Indian-Origin Driver Stops Train From Hitting Asian Man Pushed Onto Tracks in New York

The Pentagon building was also attacked with a plane on the same day, although some reports claim it wasn&rsquot. Op die 13th anniversary of the 9/11 terror attacks in New York, we share a special video with rare footage of reactions of bystanders outside the World Trade Center right after the attack. The first plane attacking the WTC, smoke, fire, people falling down from the towers or jumping down in a bid to save themselves &ndash all this can be seen in this video. Also Read - Indian-Origin Man Charged With Killing, Sexually Abusing His Mom on Mother's Day in New York

Seeing the footage will send a chill down your spine even if you have seen enough of 9/11 videos. This footage is not suitable for children and people who are sentimental. General viewer discretion advised.


9/11 Video Accounts Of The Terrorist Attacks: Remembering The Events Of September 11 (VIDEOS)

Re-watching footage from 9/11, regardless of the anniversary, is undoubtedly eerie, but for some, remembering that terrible day is often necessary in order to pay tribute to those who lost their lives.

For others, especially a generation growing up in the post-9/11 world, watching the footage helps form at least a partial understanding of the attacks.

Technology was able to preserve the memory of the events, for better or worse. Now, the clips that were once only considered a dramatic memory of a tragic day have become a part of history.

The availability of video cameras and recording devices at the time made 9/11 possibly the most recorded tragedy in national history. Though 2001 pre-dates the widespread use of smartphones and cell phone cameras, there were many New Yorkers, and Americans in general for that matter, within arms-reach of a camcorder.

However, there is still little footage of the first plane flying into the North Tower of the World Trade Center, since few eyes were on the sky until it happened. There is also no footage of the plane crashing in Pennsylvania (the most widely seen footage is from after the crash), and there's little coverage of the crash at the Pentagon.

But the moment the second tower was hit is well documented. As many Manhattanites focused their cameras on the first tower burning, they witnessed United Airlines Flight 175 fly into the South Tower. The reactions, as can be heard in many of the videos below, were dramatic.

When the towers began to fall nearly an hour later, many had long been filming the incident, and news cameras were all over the scene.

With all eyes on New York -- a city that has long housed national media titans such as CNN, ABC, NBC and Fox News -- millions of Americans were exposed to the attacks in near real time. From impact to collapse, it was all captured and, for the most part, shown live on television sets throughout the country, and perhaps the world.

The coverage was so in-depth that sites such as the Internet Archive have collected enough footage to virtually replay the day.

We've also provided a number of videos from 9/11, which can be seen below.

WARNING: Some of the language in the videos below may not be suitable for all ages.


In Perspective: Where does 9/11 stand as a turning point in U.S. history?

And so it has been a decade — quite a long one, when you think about it. You know the story — how the attacks of September 11, 2001, led to two long, expensive, hot wars and an endless cold one in the shadows how the George W. Bush administration reacted, was re-elected, and saw much of its counter-terror program not repealed, but ratified by President Obama.

What about for the rest of us? It has gone in and out of fashion to act as though America overreacted to the attacks, that we somehow lack the European or the Middle Eastern capacity to get on with things amid the death and the debris. But if a failure to grow accustomed to terrorism is a vice, it is a vice worth having.

I believe history will come to view 9/11 as an event on par with November 22, 1963, the date on which John F. Kennedy was murdered, cutting short a presidency that was growing ever more promising. Dreams died that day in Dallas it is easy to imagine the 1960s turning out rather differently had President Kennedy lived. Would America have grown so cynical so fast about the role of government had the more politically appealing JFK presided over Washington? Would the Vietnam War have been fought the way it was had he survived, or would he have found a better way forward than Lyndon Johnson did? Unknowable, of course, but intriguing.

We remember Dallas because it was an act of unspeakable violence captured on film that ended a life and changed our lives. So it is with 9/11. Thousands more died that day than on November 22, 1963, but the implications in terms of politics and culture have much in common. A surge of faith and patriotism followed by disillusionment grief that turned to disappointment a particular tragedy whose universal waves are felt long afterward, far away.

In that sense, that profound sense, November 22 has never ended. And neither, truth be told, has September 11, no matter how many years have passed.


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