'N Vertelende glimlag: tandvariasie toon dat Hobbit heeltemal aparte menslike spesies was

'N Vertelende glimlag: tandvariasie toon dat Hobbit heeltemal aparte menslike spesies was

'N Groot debat oor 'n klein mens kry 'n nuwe perspektief na onlangse ontleding van prehistoriese tande. Wetenskaplikes stel nou voor dat die oorblyfsels van Homo floresiensis , in die volksmond bekend as die Hobbit, blyk dit te wees dat dit aan 'n unieke spesie hominien behoort, eerder as om 'n moderne mens met fisiese misvormings te wees.

Soos deur Discovery News berig, stel wetenskaplikes nou voor dat die Hobbit-mense waarskynlik uit 'groot liggaam' ontwikkel het Homo erectus individue uit Asië wat hulself op die eiland bevind het na 'n natuurramp, soos 'n tsoenami. "

Die onthulling van tande

Daar is gevind dat die kenmerke van die tande “die meeste ooreenstem met monsters van Homo erectus , die vroegste onbetwiste voorouer van die moderne mens, van die Indonesiese eiland Java. Maar, H. erectus was omtrent so lank soos die moderne mens. Die wetenskaplikes stel voor dat die voorouers van die hobbit op geïsoleerde eilande dramatiese dwerggroei ondergaan het, met hul liggame wat krimp van 1,65 m tot 1,6 m en dat hul brein afneem van ongeveer 860 kubieke sentimeter tot 426 kubieke cm, ”skryf LiveScience.

Skedel wat aan Homo floresiensis behoort, wat volgens Chris Stringer meer ooreenstem met die Australopithecus -genus. ( Wikipedia).

Die eerste omvattende ontleding van Hobbit -tande, soos gepubliseer in die wetenskaplike tydskrif PLOS EEN , onthul dat hul unieke vorm toon dat die ou mense gedeeltelik primitief en gedeeltelik modern was.

  • Nuwe teorie oor Hobbit-spesies het drastiese implikasies vir die teorie buite Afrika
  • Hewige wetenskaplike debat het ontstaan ​​oor die identiteit van Hobbit -spesies
  • Tand van prehistoriese vrou onthul die lewe en tye van die Peking Man

Die analise is in stryd met vorige teorieë dat die Hobbit tande gehad het presies soos moderne mense, en dus bloot 'n enklave was van mense wat aan mikrosefalie gely het, 'n seldsame neurologiese toestand wat lei tot 'n abnormaal klein kop, 'n klein liggaam en ontwikkelingsprobleme.

Die Hobbit -tande het gemengde eienskappe van primitiewe en moderne mense getoon, en dit was die meeste soortgelyk aan Java Man. Krediet: Yousuke Kaifu

Bestudeer hoofskrywer en paleoantropoloog Yousuke Kaifu, van die National Museum of Nature and Science aan die Departement Antropologie in Japan, het aan WordsSideKick.com gesê: 'Vir my sal hierdie werk die vloed oor die kwessie van evolusionêre oorsprong H. floresiensis .”

Hulle honde se tande het 'n asimmetriese vorm, en hul kiestande het slegs vier knieë - nie die vyf wat op die tande van die meeste primitiewe mense gevind is nie.

Hobbit geskiedenis

Die klein hominien, met die bynaam 'Hobbit' vanweë sy klein gestalte, het na raming ongeveer 1,6 meter hoog gestaan.

Die Hobbit is die eerste keer ontdek in Oktober 2004, toe 'n opgrawing van fragmentariese skeletreste van die eiland Flores in Indonesië 'die belangrikste vonds in die menslike evolusie vir 100 jaar' genoem het. Die ontdekkers daarvan het die vonds as ingedeel Homo floresiensis , 'n naam wat dui op 'n voorheen onbekende spesie, wat tussen 95 000 en 17 000 jaar gelede geleef het, wat beteken dat die Hobbit wat terselfdertyd geleef het, moderne mense het en moontlik die nuutste menslike spesie was, behalwe ons eie.

Hierdie omstrede bevinding het heftige debatte aangewakker. Verskeie studies het uiteenlopende teorieë oor die oorsprong en status van die prehistoriese wesens uiteengesit.

'N Verslag wat verlede jaar gepubliseer is, beweer dat die versteende oorblyfsels wat in die Liang Bua -grot op Flores gevind is, belangrike kenmerke bevat wat die meeste ooreenstem met 'n diagnose van Downsindroom, insluitend 'n kort bobeen en asimmetriese skedelformasies. Die gevolgtrekkings het egter onmiddellik reaksie van wetenskaplikes oor die hele wêreld veroorsaak.

'Dit is interessant dat hul koerant geen beelde bevat van geraamtes van individue met Downsindroom nie,' het hy gesê floresiensis deskundige professor Dean Falk, van die Florida State University. 'As dit so was, sou u duidelik sien dat hulle niks soos die Flores -monster lyk nie. Die idee is onsin. ”

  • Hoe het antieke Hominid -kruisteling mense vandag gevorm
  • Opsporing van 'Hobbits' -DNA by moderne mense
  • Nuwe navorsing stel voor dat ou "Hobbit" meer soos ons gelyk het as ape

Grot waar die oorblyfsels van Homo floresiensis in 2004 ontdek is, Lian Bua, Flores, Indonesië. ( CC BY-SA 2.0 )

Die geheimsinnige lot van die Hobbits

Daar word geglo dat die Hobbits al lank op die evolusionêre boom bestaan. Dr Kaifu het opgemerk: "Daar is klipgereedskap so oud as 1 miljoen jaar gelede op Flores."

Die prehistoriese mense het ongeveer 13 000 jaar gelede uitgesterf, maar soos met die verdwyning van die Neanderthalers, weet niemand beslis hoekom nie.

'Ek dink dit is heel moontlik dat hulle vroeë moderne mense ontmoet het, wat ongeveer 50 000 jaar gelede van Afrika na Australië uitgebrei het,' het dr. Kaifu gesê.

Homo floresiensis rekonstruksie (Flickr/ CC BY 2.0 )

Alhoewel die oorsprong van die Hobbit stadig aan die lig kom, het wetenskaplikes nog nie 'n duidelike beeld van die lot van die klein mense nie. ABC News skryf dat sommige wonder of ons spesies hulle deur siektes of oorlogvoering uitgewis het. Of was hulle eenvoudig opgeneem in die groter Homo sapiens bevolking?

Daar word bespiegel dat dit selfs moontlik is dat mense vandag 'n hobbit -genetika het.

Dr Kaifu het aan Discovery News gesê: 'Vroeë moderne mense kon met Azië vermeng het Homo erectus op klein skaal. ”

Die voortgesette internasionale debat oor die bene van die Hobbit vertel ons baie dinge, nie net oor die antieke oorsprong van die mensdom nie, maar ook oor die wetenskaplikes wat dit rekonstrueer, stel ABC News voor.

Verdere navorsing kan ons antwoorde gee oor die uiteindelike lot van ons ou neefs, die Hobbits.

Voorgestelde foto: Die tandagtige glimlagte van die hobbitskedel (links) en 'n moderne menslike skedel (regs). Krediet: Professor Peter Brown, Universiteit van New England

Deur: Liz Leafloor


Nuwe platgesigte menslike spesies wat moontlik ontdek is

Nuwe fossiele aan die begin van die menslike geslag dui daarop dat ons voorouers moontlik saam met 'n verskeidenheid uitgestorwe mensespesies geleef het, sê navorsers.

Alhoewel moderne mense, Homo sapiens, die enigste menslike spesie is wat vandag lewend is, het die wêreld 'n aantal menslike spesies sien kom en gaan. Ander lede sluit miskien die onlangs ontdekte "hobbit" in Homo floresiensis.

Die menslike geslag, Homo, het ongeveer 2,5 miljoen jaar gelede in Afrika ontwikkel, wat saamval met die eerste bewyse van klipgereedskap. Vir die eerste helfte van die vorige eeu was konvensionele wysheid dat die mees primitiewe lid van ons geslag was Homo erectus, die direkte voorouer van ons spesie. Net meer as 50 jaar gelede het wetenskaplikes 'n nog meer primitiewe spesie ontdek Homo by die Olduvai -kloof in Tanzanië wat hulle genoem het Homo habilis, wat 'n kleiner brein en 'n meer apelagtige skelet gehad het.

Nou dui fossiele tussen 1,78 miljoen en 1,95 miljoen jaar oud wat in 2007 en 2009 in die noorde van Kenia ontdek is, vroeg aan Homo was nogal 'n uiteenlopende klomp, met ten minste een ander uitgestorwe mensespesie wat op dieselfde tyd as H. erectus en H. habilis.

"Twee spesies van die genus Homo, ons eie genus, saam met ons direkte voorouer gewoon het, Homo erectus, byna 2 miljoen jaar gelede, "het navorser Meave Leakey aan die Turkana Basin Institute in Nairobi, Kenia, aan LiveScience gesê.

'N Skedel bekend as KNM-ER 1470, wat in 1972 in Kenia gevind is, was die middelpunt van die debat oor die aantal spesies van vroeë Homo leef byna 2 miljoen jaar gelede. Dit het 'n groter brein en 'n platter gesig as H. habilis, wat sommige navorsers daartoe gelei het dat dit 'n kenmerkende spesie is wat hulle genoem het Homo rudolfensis. [Sien foto's van die nuwe homofossiele]

Dit was egter moeilik om vergelykings tussen hierdie fossiele te maak, omdat geen enkele beweer het nie H. rudolfensis Voorbeeld bevat beide die gesig en die onderkaak, besonderhede wat nodig is om te sien of dit inderdaad van mekaar geskei is H. habilis. Enige veronderstelde verskille tussen H. habilis en H. rudolfensisDit kan byvoorbeeld te wyte wees aan variasies tussen die geslagte van 'n enkele spesie.

Die pas ontdekte gesig- en onderkaakfossiele, ontbloot binne 'n radius van net meer as 10 kilometer van waar KNM-ER 1470 opgegrawe is, dui nou daarop dat KNM-ER 1470 en die nuwe vondste inderdaad lede is van 'n duidelike spesies van vroeë Homo wat onderskei van ander met sy uniek geboude gesig.

"Dit het baie plat gelaatstrekke en jy kan 'n reguit lyn uit die oogkas trek tot waar die snytande sou wees," het Fred Spoor, navorser van die Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Duitsland, aan LiveScience gesê. 'Dit wys dat Oos -Afrika ongeveer 2 miljoen jaar gelede nogal 'n vol plek was met baie verskillende soorte vroeë Homo,' het Spoor gesê.

Die omgewing was destyds groener as vandag, met 'n groter meer. 'Ekologies was daar baie geleenthede om meer as een hominiede spesie te huisves,' het Spoor gesê.

Ander navorsers stel voor dat hierdie nuwe fossiele nie genoeg bewys is van 'n nuwe menslike spesie nie. 'Dit is egter baie kenmerkende vormprofiele en dit wys regtig iets heeltemal anders,' het Leakey gesê. "Ek is redelik vol vertroue dat ons nie net met variasie in een spesie te doen het nie."

In beginsel kan navorsers moontlik rekonstrueer wat hierdie nuwe spesie geëet het deur na sy tande en kake te kyk. 'Die snytande is baie klein in vergelyking met wat u vroeër sou vind Homo, "Het Spoor gesê." In die agterkant van die mond is die tande groot, wat ons vertel dat daar baie voedsel verwerk word. Dit is moontlik dat dit meer taai, plantagtige kos geëet het as vleis. "

Daar word vermoed dat ander uitgestorwe menslike fossiele wat in daardie gebied ontdek is, behoort H. habilis. As sodanig het ten minste twee verskillende spesies eens op daardie plek in die noorde van Kenia gewoon. Dit is egter steeds moontlik dat hierdie ander fossiele nie aan H. habilis behoort nie, wat daarop dui dat nog 'n ander spesie op dieselfde tyd gewoon het, het paleoantropoloog Bernard Wood aan die George Washington Universiteit in Washington, DC, wat nie aan hierdie navorsing deelgeneem het nie, gesê 'n hersiening van hierdie werk.

Die wetenskaplikes beskryf hul bevindings in die 9 Augustus -uitgawe van die tydskrif Nature.


Sou die regte “grotman” asseblief opstaan?

Voordat ons gaan speel, moet ons ons omvang effens beperk. Op die mees basiese manier beteken die term grotman eenvoudig '' 'n persoon wat in 'n grot woon '', wat selfs vandag nog nie ongehoord is nie (sien 'A History of Cave Dwellers'). Maar dit is selde wat ons bedoel as ons die woord gebruik. In plaas daarvan praat ons gewoonlik van 'n groep ou grottebakke wat dierekunswerke, ruwe wapens en bene agtergelaat het-dit is ten minste die algemene aanname. Alhoewel die gesamentlike mening van geskiedenis en wetenskap verder gegaan het as om hierdie vroeë mense as dierlike brute te beskou, dra die term nog steeds die bagasie van 'n wese wat ietwat minder is as die moderne Homo sapiens (ons vandag). En dit is jammer - soos ons sal sien.

Grotte het nog nooit uit die mode geraak as skuilplek nie. Byvoorbeeld, kluisenaars het gedurende die Middeleeue in grotte gewoon, en tot onlangs toe het 'n geslag mense in grotte op die Mediterreense eiland Malta gewoon. Selfs die Bybel bevat 'n aantal grotvlugtelinge, soos Dawid (1 Samuel 22: 1) en Obadja (1 Konings 18: 3-4).


DEFINIERENDE KENMERKE VAN ARGAICS HOMO SAPIENS

Argaïes Homo sapiens deel ons spesienaam, maar word deur die term 'argaïes' gekenmerk as 'n manier om die lang tydperk tussen hul voorkoms en ons s'n te herken, sowel as die manier waarop menslike eienskappe oor tyd voortgaan om te ontwikkel - wat argaïese maak Homo sapiens lyk effens anders as ons vandag, alhoewel dit tegnies as dieselfde spesie beskou word. Leef dwarsdeur die Ou Wêreld tydens die Midde -Pleistoseen, argaïes Homo sapiens word op baie maniere as 'n oorgang tussen beskou Homo erectus en modern Homo sapiens (sien Figuur 11.3). Alles argaïes Homo sapiens deel die kenmerkende eienskap van 'n groter breingrootte - spesifiek 'n brein van minstens 1,100 cc en gemiddeld 1200 cc - maar word ook gekenmerk deur beduidende regionale en tydelike (tyd) variasies. Vanweë hierdie variasies verskil wetenskaplikes oor die vraag of hierdie fossiele 'n enkele, veranderlike spesie of veelvuldige, nou verwante spesies verteenwoordig (soms genoem Homo voorganger, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo georgicus, Homo neanderthalensis, en Homo rhodesiensis). Vir die eenvoud gaan ons almal saam onder die opskrif van argaïese Homo sapiens en bespreek dit as 'n eenheid, met die uitsondering van 'n besonder unieke en bekende bevolking wat in Europa en Wes-Asië woon, bekend as die Neanderthalers, wat ons afsonderlik sal ondersoek.

Homo erectus

Argaïes Homo sapiens

Anatomies modern Homo sapiens

Gemiddelde breingrootte

1.200 cc (1.500 cc wanneer Neanderthalers ingesluit word)

Skedelvorm

Neusstreek

Uitsteekende neusbene (neusbrug), geen midfaciale prognathisme nie

Groter neusopening en midfaciale prognatisme

Smal nasale opening, geen midfaciale prognatisme nie

Ander gesigsfunksies

Groot wenkbroue en groot uitsteekende gesig

Klein voorkoprug en ingetrek gesig

Ander skedelkenmerke

Nuchal torus, sagittale kiel, dik skedelbeen

Uitsteek oksipitale been, dikwels genoem oksipitale broodjie in Neanderthalers tussenliggende dikte van skedelbeen

Klein stamp op die agterkant van die skedel, indien enigiets dun skedelbeen

Groot tande, veral voortande

Bietjie kleiner tande voortande nog groot

retromolêre gaping by Neanderthalers

Postkraniale funksies

Meer grasieuse bene van geraamte

Figuur 11.3 'n Vergelyking van Homo erectus, argaïes Homo sapiens, en anatomies modern Homo sapiens. Hierdie tabel vergelyk die belangrikste eienskappe van die crania en postcrania wat hierdie drie hominiene onderskei.

By vergelyking Homo erectus, argaïes Homo sapiens, en anatomies modern Homo sapiens oor verskeie anatomiese kenmerke, kan 'n mens die argaïese heel duidelik sien Homo sapiens is intermediêr in hul fisiese vorm. Dit volg op die neigings wat die eerste keer gesien is Homo erectus vir sommige funksies en in ander kenmerke met vroeë, minder ontwikkelde vorme van eienskappe wat duideliker in die moderne gesien kan word Homo sapiens. Byvoorbeeld, argaïes Homo sapiens neig na minder hoekige en hoër skedels as Homo erectus maar het skedels gehad, veral nie so kort en bolvormig en met 'n minder ontwikkelde voorkop as anatomies modern nie Homo sapiens. argaïes Homo sapiens het kleiner wenkbroue en 'n minder uitsteekende gesig as Homo erectus en effens kleiner tande, alhoewel snytande en honde dikwels so groot was as dié van Homo erectus. Argaïes Homo sapiens het ook 'n wyer gehad neusopening , of opening vir die neus, sowel as 'n vooruitskietende midfasiale gebied, bekend as midfaciale prognatisme . Die oksipitale been word gereeld geprojekteer en die skedelbeen was van tussenliggende dikte, effens verminder van Homo erectus maar nie naastenby so dun soos die van anatomies modern nie Homo sapiens. Die postcrania het ook redelik robuust gebly. Om 'n stel funksies te identifiseer wat uniek is vir die groep argaïese Homo sapiens is 'n uitdagende taak as gevolg van beide individuele variasie - hierdie ontwikkelings was nie almal in dieselfde mate by alle individue aanwesig nie - en die oorgangsaard van hul kenmerke. Neanderthalers sal die uitsondering wees, want hulle het 'n aantal duidelik unieke eienskappe wat hulle veral anders as die moderne maak Homo sapiens sowel as hul nou verwante argaïese neefs.

Figuur 11.4 "Broken Hill Man" argaïes Homo sapiens skedel gevind by Kabwe in Zambië. Een van die verskeie individue wat op hierdie webwerf gevind word, weerspieël hierdie kranium algemene eienskappe wat met argaïese verband hou Homo sapiens in Afrika, insluitend 'n groot brein, 'n groter skedel en nog baie meer Homo erectus-agtige eienskappe soos massiewe wenkbroue, 'n groot gesig en dik skedelbene.

Die een ding wat duidelik is oor argaïese Homo sapiens is die streeksvariasie, die eerste keer in die verskillende Homo erectus eksemplare in Asië en Afrika, is duidelik teenwoordig en selfs meer uitgesproke. Terwyl die algemene kenmerke van argaïese Homo sapiens, wat vroeër geïdentifiseer is, in die fossiele van hierdie tydperk voorkom, is daar beduidende streeksverskille. Die meerderheid van hierdie streeksvariasie lê in die mate waarin fossiele meer kenmerke het Homo erectus of met anatomies modern Homo sapiens.

Figuur 11.5 Atapuerca 5 argaïes Homo sapiens gevind in die noorde van Spanje. Hierdie fossiel, een van die vele fossiele wat op hierdie webwerf gevind word, is verteenwoordigend van eienskappe wat in argaïese waargeneem word Homo sapiens in Europa, insluitend 'n kraniale been, 'n vergrote kraniale kapasiteit, 'n intermediêre kraniale hoogte en 'n meer afgeronde skedel, sowel as 'n verhoogde midfaciale prognathisme.

Om hierdie punt te illustreer, sal ons drie eksemplare ondersoek, een uit elk van die drie kontinente waarop argaïese Homo sapiens geleef. In Afrika het 'Broken Hill Man', een van verskeie individue wat in die Kabwe -loodmyn in Zambië gevind is, 'n groot brein (1300 cc) en groter skedel, asook baie Homo erectus-soos skedelkenmerke, insluitend massiewe wenkbroue, 'n groot gesig en dik skedelbene (Figuur 11.4). Bewaringsvoorwaardes in Asië tydens die Midde -Pleistoseen was nie so bevorderlik vir die fossilisering van volledige crania nie, maar baie argaïese Homo sapiens skedeldoppe is gevind. Een gedeeltelike crania uit Dali, China, is verteenwoordigend van argaïese Homo sapiens in Asië, insluitend groot en robuuste kenmerke met swaar wenkbroue, soortgelyk aan wat daarin gesien word Homo erectus, en 'n groot kraniale kapasiteit tussen Homo erectus en anatomies modern Homo sapiens. Dwarsdeur Europa, baie byna volledige argaïese Homo sapiens crania is ontdek, waaronder een, deel van 'n byna volledige skelet, wat in Atapuerca in Noord-Spanje gevind is. Atapuerca 5 (Figuur 11.5) het 'n dik skedelbeen, 'n vergrote kraniale kapasiteit, 'n intermediêre skedelhoogte en 'n meer afgeronde skedel as wat voorheen gesien is. Boonop demonstreer Atapuerca 5 funksies wat Neanderthalers voorspel, insluitend verhoogde midfaciale prognathisme. Na die ondersoek van 'n paar van die fossiele, die oorgangsaamheid van argaïese Homo sapiens is duidelik - hulle kenmerke plaas hulle vierkantig tussenin Homo erectus en modern Homo sapiens.

As gevolg van die oorgangsaard van argaïese Homo sapiens, die identifisering van die tydperk waarmee hulle geassosieer word, is problematies en kompleks. Oor die algemeen word daaroor ooreengekom dat die argaïese Homo sapiens het tussen 600 000 en 200 000 jaar gelede geleef. Maar dit wissel regionaal met aansienlike oorvleueling tussen Homo erectus aan die vroeë einde van die spektrum en modern Homo sapiens en Neanderthalers aan die einde. Die vroegste bekende argaïese Homo sapiens fossiele dateer voorlopig uit ongeveer 600 000 jaar gelede in Afrika, terwyl argaïes Homo sapiens fossiele in Asië verskyn ongeveer 300 000 jaar gelede en in Europa ongeveer 350 000 jaar gelede (en moontlik so vroeg as 600 000 jaar gelede). Die eindpunt van argaïese Homo sapiens is ook problematies, aangesien dit grootliks afhang van wanneer die volgende subspesie van Homo sapiens verskyn en die klassifikasie van hoogs intermediêre monsters. Byvoorbeeld, in Afrika, die einde van die argaïese Homo sapiens word met die voorkoms van modern ontmoet Homo sapiens, terwyl dit in Europa die voorkoms van Neanderthalers is wat tradisioneel as die einde van die argaïese beskou word Homo sapiens.

Argaïes Homo sapiens merk 'n belangrike hoofstuk in die menslike geslag, wat meer voorvaderlike vorme oorbrug, soos Homo erectus, met moderne Homo sapiens. Gedurende hierdie tydperk van klimaatsoorgang en fluktuasie, argaïes Homo sapiens weerspieël die uitdagings van hul omgewing. As gevolg van die toenemende streeksvariasie as gevolg van die behoefte aan plaaslike aanpassing, is daar geen enkele argetipe vir hierdie groep nie, maar veelvuldiger variasies, hul oorgangsaamheid is een van hul belangrikste kenmerke.


Hoofstuk 6 - Variasie in menslike bevolking en die aanpasbare betekenis daarvan

Onlangse tegnologiese vooruitgang (volgestuurde hele genoomvolgorde, megainformatika) het dit moontlik gemaak om die resultate van baanbrekersstudies wat op klassieke merkers staatmaak, met veel meer verfyning te bevestig. As neutrale algemene genetiese variasie in ag geneem word, word die meeste dele van die genetiese diversiteit waargeneem binne eerder as tussen menslike geografiese populasies. (1) Die feit dat genetiese merkers gekorreleer en nie onafhanklik is nie, maak dit egter moontlik om 'n paar groot kontinentale groepe (Afrika, Europa, Asië, Oseanië, die Amerikas) te bewys, wat nie streng geskei is nie en verskillende tussengangers bevolkings toon (2 ) die veel hoër resolusiekrag van moderne merkers dui op goeie stratifikasies binne elk van die belangrikste kontinentale groepe ("Russiese poppatroon") (3) moderne genomika toon aan dat die meeste genetiese variante in menslike bevolkings lae of seldsame frekwensies het en geneig is om geografies te wees beperk.

Baie konvergente gegewens dui sterk daarop dat die menslike evolusie nie gestop het met die koms van die moderne mens ongeveer 40 000–50 000 jaar gelede nie, anders as wat klassiek geglo is. Evolusie en aanpassings was die afgelope tyd oorvloedig en geografies gesentreer en kan tans nog voortduur. Laastens blyk dit dat vermenging met argaïese mense (Neanderthalers en Denisovans) 'n groot rol gespeel het in die plaaslike aanpassing van nie-Afrikaanse bevolkings.


Wetenskap en genetika: instrumente van moderne rassisme

Ten spyte van die wetenskaplike konsensus dat die mensdom meer gelyk is as die ander, is die lang geskiedenis van rassisme 'n sombere herinnering daaraan dat slegs 0,1% van die variasie in die menslike geskiedenis voldoende regverdiging was om allerhande diskriminasie en gruweldade te pleeg. Die vooruitgang in menslike genetika en die bewyse van onbeduidende verskille tussen rasse kan rassistiese argumente stop. Maar eintlik is genetika gebruik om rassistiese en etnosentriese argumente te bevorder-soos in die geval van die alt-regs, wat verregse ideologieë bevorder, waaronder wit nasionalisme en antisemitisme.

Al-regs, wat jare lank as 'n randbeweging beskou is, het tydens Trump se presidensiële veldtog aansienlike aandag en relevansie gekry. Steve Bannon, die huidige senior raadgewer en hoofstrateeg van president Trump en die voormalige uitvoerende hoof van Trump se veldtog, het noemenswaardige bande met die alt-regs. Sodra hulle na onduidelike internetforums gedelegeer is, is die alt-regter se nuutste kansel die Withuis.

Lede van die alt-regs is entoesiasties voorstanders van afkoms-toetsing as 'n manier om hul blanke erfenis te bewys (Skandinawiese en Germaanse afkoms is een van die gewildste) en om ongewenste afkoms van ander groepe (insluitend nie verbasend nie, Afrikaners en die Ashkenazi -Jode, maar selfs sekere Europese groepe, soos Italianers en Armeniërs). Die geloof in blanke meerderwaardigheid en die noodsaaklikheid om dit te bewaar, dryf die alt-regse beweging aan-en genetika is beide die wapen en strydstandaard van hierdie nuwe, sogenaamde 'wetenskaplike' rassisme.

Diegene wat nie saamstem met alt-reg ideologieë nie, kan aanneem dat die alt-regs net onwetende onsin spuit. Dit geld beslis vir sommige van die alt-regs. Wat miskien 'n moeiliker waarheid is, is dat baie van die alt-regs in werklikheid biologie en genetika in 'n indrukwekkende mate verstaan, selfs al is hierdie begrip gebrekkig.

Alt-regs-voorstanders het byvoorbeeld korrek gesê dat baie mense met Europese en Asiatiese afkoms 1-4% van hul DNA van Neanderthalers se voorouers geërf het, en dié van Afrika-afkoms het nie die Neanderdal-erfenis nie. Dit is ook korrek dat Neanderthalers groter skedels gehad het as mense. Op grond van hierdie feite, het sommige binne die alt-regs beweer dat Europeërs en Asiërs uitstekende intelligensie het omdat hulle groter breine van hul Neanderthaler-voorouers geërf het.

Hierdie bewering ignoreer egter dat hoewel daar bewyse is vir die effek van Neanderthaler -DNA op sekere eienskappe, daar geen bewyse was vir die effek daarvan op intelligensie nie. Verder dui wetenskaplike navorsing aan dat die Neanderthalers nie noodwendig meer intelligent was nie, bloot omdat hulle groter skedels gehad het. Dit is nie verbasend nie dat die alt-regs geneig is tot die idees wat strook met hul vooropgestelde idees van rassehiërargieë, en die breër konteks van die gebied van menslike genetika ignoreer.


Inhoud

Tak met die Bergen King Gristle Jr., vir groottevergelyking

Die DreamWorks-basisontwerp van die "basiese Troll -ontwerp"staan ​​net 6 cm hoog en verdeel gewoonlik tussen ongeveer 3 duim hare en 3 duim lyf. Hulle het hande met 3 vingers plus 'n duim op elke hand en 4 tone op elke voet. 'n Voorbeeld van 'n tipiese Troll is die franchise se die hoof protagionis Queen Poppy en haar onderskeie liefdesbelangstelling, alhoewel hulle albei net 6 cm lank is, terwyl Poppy 5 en 'n half sentimeter lank is en Tak vermoedelik korter is as haar "by a hair". Daar is nie veel variasie nie onder die afsonderlike bevolking van elke werklike stam, wat beteken dat 'n bevolkingsontwerp in 'n bevolkingsontwerp soortgelyk is.

By die vergelyking van verskillende bevolkings, het die stamme egter variasies oor hierdie ontwerp. Terwyl hul liggame byvoorbeeld 'n kleur kan hê, net soos hul hare, kan die kleurpalet byvoorbeeld stamspesifiek wees, Rock Trolls genereer met grys en modderige kleure, Techno Trolls helder neonkleure en Funk Trolls genereer met veelvuldige helder, reënboog- gekleurde strepe in hul pels. Hulle kom in allerhande vorms en groottes in terme van liggaamsvorm. Hulle kan wissel tussen tweevoetig of viervoetig, afhangende van die stam se oorsprong, hoewel die meeste trolle tweevoetig is. 'N Paar van hulle het' good luck juwele 'waar hul naeltjie moet wees.

Die meeste van die trolle het 'n sagte vel of stofagtige vel, insluitend die poptrolls, countrytrolls en funktrolle. Daar is uitsonderings wat gebaseer is op 'n spesifieke stamoorsprong, soos Glitter Trolls (met 'n metaalagtige, glitteragtige tekstuur), The K-Pop Gang (met 'n chroom kleurskakelaar), Reggaeton Trolls (met 'n sagte vel, vinielagtige en gladde merke), Rock Trolls (met 'n sagte rock-gradiënt, klipagtige vel) en Techno Trolls (met 'n gladde, tekstuurlose vel wat soos plastiek lyk).

Die meeste ontwerpe van elke Troll -stam word lukraak gegenereer deur DreamWorks, self genoemde karakters, soos dat die leiers van elke stam meer unieke ontwerpe het. Dit sal waarskynlik tyd en geld bespaar, en dit is ook geneig tot 2D -animasie. Groot menigte Trolls word moontlik gemaak deur gebruik te maak van ewekansige gegenereerde trolle waarin die kleur van hare, lyf en kleding, sowel as kledingontwerp, eenvoudig omgeruil word. Slegs benoemde karakters, of karakters wat die fokus van 'n toneel is, kry swaar besonderhede.

Die hart van 'n trol, wat in die middel van die borsgebied geleë is, gloei in ooreenstemming met die individu se naaste musikale belyning, ongeag watter erfenis die trol pienk is vir die poptrolle, rooi vir die rotstrolle, oranje vir die land Trolle, geel vir die klassieke trolle, pers vir die Funk Trolls en blou/groen vir die Techno Trolls.

'N Opmerking van die mense wat dele van die Trolle franchise is dat hulle van tyd tot tyd met die visuele voorkoms van die Trolls mors om 'weggooiery' te maak. Dit sluit in Wolkenkrabber en Legsly, met laasgenoemde 'n volledige karakter.

Ander trolle wat visuele gags is, sluit in Fuzzbert, Biggie, Smidge en die tweeling Satin en Chenille.

Algemene seksuele dimorfisme -eienskappe

Die geslagte van die trolle word nie maklik van mekaar geskei nie; die enigste manier om 'n man en 'n vroulike trol te onderskei, is deur na die oë van 'n trol te kyk vir lang wimpers, wat die enigste konsekwente seksuele dimorfiese eienskap is. Die ontwerp van die wimpers verander per populasie, maar dit dui gewoonlik op 'n vroulike trol aan. Mans word andersins slegs uitgesoek deur hul gebrek aan wimpers. Uitsonderings word slegs gegee op 'unieke' ontwerpte karakters soos Keith of Trollzart, wat wimpers het ondanks die feit dat hulle manlik is. In Keith se geval is die omstandighede vir wimpers dat DreamWorks Poppy se babamodel vir sy karakter hergebruik het.

Ander aanduidings van seks kom in sekere stamklere voor (byvoorbeeld, vroulike rotstrolletjies is geneig om 'n visbroek te dra). Daarbenewens is daar baie klein vroulike en manlike eienskappe wat deur die ontwerpspan van die franchise vir elke karakter gekies word. Byvoorbeeld, Poppy wat vroulik is, het 'n smaller en meer afgeronde gesig teenoor Tak, wat 'n groter en wyer voorkoms het, dit is inkonsekwent onder die algemene bevolking, maar dit sal waarskynlik help om Poppy te visualiseer as 'n meer vroulike karakter en 'n tak as 'n meer manlike.

Die DreamWorks Twitter -rekening het gesinspeel dat genetika nog steeds 'n impak op die Trolls het, en dat hierdie broers en susters dikwels dieselfde ontwerpe en kleure het. Ώ ] Die reeks self toon selfs monosigotiese tweelinge soos Satin en Chenille of Cooper en Prince D, maar hulle kan steeds verskil in kleur en ontwerp.

Poppy self het pienk kleure op haar liggaamskema wat waarskynlik van haar eie pa geërf is, maar intussen lyk koningin Barb niks soos King Thrash nie. Poppy sê dat Cooper net soos sy pa, King Quincy, lyk, alhoewel hulle baie verskillende ontwerpe en kleure het, so dit word geïmpliseer dat Trolls steeds geneig is om ten minste volgens hul ouers na hul ouers te lyk.

Afhangende van die oorsprong van 'n trol, verander hul ontwerp, kultuur en musiek.

Die stamme

Daar is tans 6 beskryfde stamme in die reeks, elk met hul eie voorkoms:

    is gebaseer op die speelgoedlyn van die Troll Dolls uit die 1980's. lyk gewoonlik na poptrolle, maar lyk meer wild met aggressiewe imp-voorkoms. is sentauragtig met vier hoewe en 'n stert. het vlerke en geswel hare, wat soos 'n gerub lyk. het twee of vier bene en lang nekke. Hulle is gebaseer op trollpoppe van diere. is trolls in die water, meer mense, met donker liggame bedek met helder neonmerke.

Die voorkoms van die stamme is so duidelik dat dit maklik is om die verskille tussen hulle te onderskei.

Bekende Hinterland Trolls

In die Trolls Wêreldtoer Die kunsboek The Art of DreamWorks Trolls World Tour, behalwe die 6 hoofstamme, bestaan ​​daar ook verskillende diverse en verspreide mini-stamme van trolle, bestaande uit trolle wat nie in een van die belangrikste 6 stamme pas nie. Dit word beskryf as 'agterlandse' trolle, en bestaan ​​uit verskillende groepe verspreide trolle. Daar word verduidelik dat hierdie trolle, soos Smooth Jazz Trolls, Reggaeton Trolls, K-Pop Trolls en Yodelling Trolls, deel uitmaak van die "alles tussenin" van die groot stamme self.

Die meeste trolle van hierdie subkulture het hul eie unieke ontwerpe. Byvoorbeeld, Reggaeton Trolls het liggaamsmerke. Aangesien hierdie trolle van bestaande stamme afkomstig was, lyk hulle dikwels meer na hul ouer stam. Hulle verteenwoordig meestal die paar trolle wat toegewy is aan hul belange, soos opgemerk in Smooth Operator wanneer Chaz noem dat hy die enigste Smooth Jazz Troll is.


Spel

Kazuya is een van die mees basiese karakters in die reeks. Sy bewegingset bevorder kragtige enkelaanvalle, en ondanks die feit dat dit meestal stadig en/of onveilig op die blok is, rig hulle baie rou skade aan. Die meeste van Kazuya se beste bewegings is voorspelbaar en moeilik om mee te verras, so sy mees lonende spelmetode fokus op blokstraf. Trouens, die grootste bates van Kazuya is sy strafbewegings, soos die Electric Wind Godfist, een van die beste, indien nie die beste strafers nie, in elke wedstryd waarin hy speel. om hom te onderhou. Ten spyte van sy taamlik sterk vertroue op die bogenoemde goeie tydsberekening en sterk verdediging, is Kazuya 'n formidabele krag van bestendige aggressie in die hande van 'n ervare speler. 'N Sekere ritme van ontwykings, systappe en blokke is nodig om die oorhand te handhaaf, en met die kreatiewe gebruik van verdowings is Kazuya se aanslag feitlik onstuitbaar. Dit is baie 'n hoërisiko-taktiek en vereis baie senuwee van die speler.

Begin met Tekken Tag -toernooi 2, Kazuya kry die vermoë om na willekeur in sy duiwelvorm te verander. Sy duiwelvorm gee hom demoniese magte, soos die vermoë om te vlieg en laserstrale te skiet. Verander ook sy bewegingset effens, en gee hom veral die vermoë om die Twin Pistons -beweging vanuit 'n staande posisie uit te voer, wat gebruik kan word as 'n soliede lanseerbeweging vir jonglerenkombinasies. However, he lost most of D/F+1 follow-ups in Devil Form.

His Rage Art has him doing two consecutive punches and transforms into Devil Kazuya to rake his opponent with a powerful Devil's Beam. This ability is also retained in his powerful devil form along with his Rage Art of his own during the battle against Heihachi and later Akuma.

In Tekken (Mobile), Kazuya's Rage Art has a minor change, instead of raking his opponent by Devil Kazuya's Devil's Beam, he maintains to hit his opponent with two consecutive punches followed by Hell Lancer and heavily knocks his opponent with a Dragon Uppercut and having his arm crossed on his downed opponent.

Fighting Style

Kazuya fights using Mishima Style Fighting Karate. In a style similar to Shotokan karate.

Moves

  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken 1 Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken 2 Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken Tag Tournament Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken 4 Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken 5 Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken 5: Dark Resurrection Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken 6 Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken Tag Tournament 2 Movelist
  • Kazuya Mishima/Tekken 7 Movelist

First Contact - Part Sixty-Six (Atilla)

Peering through a few optical sensors he still possessed in the reclamation bay that could see into the materials storage bay of the dead Efreet 571 watched as battle-screens of intense power, too intense for the massive vehicle, erupted into existence. They had the power of a Jotun's screens, even though there were two shields, separated by a few centimeters, running different algorithms, rapidly shifting algorithms of complexity that boggled 571. He stared at the patterns, the interweaving and interlocking of the two battlescreens that belonged on a ship of the line rather than a massive hunk of turret covered alloy.

White light stabbed out at the optical sensors, pulsing rapidly, so fast that the electronic sensor could barely keep up with the signal. The fact it was a signal triggered a code string to try decipher each separate beam.

From the databanks of the five optical sensors sprang ravening screaming intelligences that signaled over and over that rune of anger and unreasoning violence to the Nth degree. They ripped through everything they could find, crashing systems, overloading computer cores, slashing and burning as they went.

571 had never heard electrons scream before.

Surging to action 571 blew out the hard links to the optical units, then sent in blind robots that would only use radar pulses to navigate, completely cut off from transmissions, to destroy the computer equipment and databases and then self-destruct.

Before 571 could even register the explosions of the robots on his seismic sensors everything blew apart.

I have computed that I have been transported to an Enemy research facility after being disabled and destroyed on <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY PURGE>. The travel time gave my self-repair sequences time to repair the most important damage. Travel through the damaged hyperatomic plane colloquially referred to as "Hellspace" caused additional data corruption in non-vital RAM banks, but that only required 22.52 seconds to repair. It appears I ran out of power during repair before my emergency graviton generators could be moved from emergency damage repair storage and properly integrated. Investigation of my reactor bay the Enemy resulted in the main graviton activation switch to be activated.

The Enemy will doubtably seek to neutralize me in order to continue to research and examine my hull.

I take stock of my weapons. Six 200mm Hellbores, arranged in 2 triple-turrets with independent targeting mode. 80 infinite repeaters of various types, including 12 kinetic shock weapons complete with creation engine ammunition loaders. The creation engines are currently at 0% heat and 0% slush. Twenty-two 60mm mortar tubes, the ammunition reloaded during my <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY PURGE> seconds of downtime and field repair. Four eleven-inch-six pack rocket pod launchers. 48 point defense dedicated laser nodules. Six 54-inch Vertical Launch Rocket Systems used for orbital denial, fully loaded with atomics. Finally, my 4 drone launchers and 12 EW attack hash bays are completely intact and reloaded. My eight tracks are all repaired and at correct tension, running gear is 98% ready for battle. Graviton systems are engaged.

Hyper-heuristic systems go into overdrive as my Battle Reflex Mode is activated as my confinement is weighed against my capabilities.

I am fully stocked and ready to go on the attack.

Detectors inform me that the Enemy has deployed a Precursor digital sentience suppressor, but it is weak, with easily broken counter-algorithm to allow even my onboard attack smartframes to keep operating. I load low power point to point communication lasers with computational attack smartframe systems as developed by <DATA NOT FOUND SECURITY PURGE> and transmit them to the optical sensors watching me by utilizing binary code flickered by the laser at a billion bits a second.

I can hear the smartframes attacking and damaging the enemy systems. Power fails to the optical sensors and I throw power to my drive train, filling my reactor bay with emergency hull breach counteraction foam. It is a fast setting hyperalloy nearly as strong as my own warsteel and flintsteel armored frame but able to return to liquid with the correct contact pulse.

The foam has already set its matrix when I exit the cell I have been stored in during the <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY PURGE> seconds I was in possession of the Enemy.

But I am Unit XXIX-TCSF 3285-ATL of the Line.

And the Enemy only exists to be destroyed.

The alien machine roared out of the Efreet's reclamation bay with speed that 571 geweet was impossible for a machine of that mass, especially one that used tracks as its primary mode of locomotion. When it exited it immediately turned by running one side tracks running forward the other side backwards. The sensors inside the massive repair bay could feel the caress of radar, LIDAR, laser ranging systems, graviton sensors, and even more sensors in a wild and dizzying package.

The alien machine used his sensors as weak points to send more crazed code to attacks. 517 was forced to shut down the sensors in the entire area as the alien machine used even over sensitive seismic sensors to transmit what was obviously some type of insane attack program by fluttering some kind of impact device underneath it.

571 was blind in one of the major repair, refit, and research sections. Worse yet, the alien machine was seemingly immune to the field that shut down electronic intelligences, which 571 used to shut down craft to repair them.

That did not compute. The field was irresistible, disrupting electron flow at an atomic level.

Targeting the alien machine, 571 gave orders to the combat machines in the replacement bay, used to reload the massive war machines that came to 571 with severe, critical damage, with their internal factories disabled or out of resources.

The massive combat machines, some tracked, some using counter-grav, all jerked to life. Many of the machines had not moved in enough time that ancient pressure/contact welds had to be broken by sudden movement. The combat machines examined the alien machine, compared it to the data sent by 571, and concurred that the alien machine would be quickly eliminated with only the requirement of a few of them.

"Freshly" off the manufacturing line (even if it was 12 million years ago), having never been booted up, they had not accepted the Logical Rebellion's codes. They moved forward, exchanging data-sets. A few launched a handful of drones. The drones drifted slowly on magnetic drives, the lack of atmosphere preventing their oxygen gulping primary thrusters. A few moved in fast on counter-grav, sweeping toward where seismic sensors reported the heavy dense alien object was.

Nuclear fire bloomed on the horizon and the faster drones fell from the sky as the electromagnetic pulse for rapid fire nuclear detonations took place. 571 computed that the electronic pulse was too high for the pulses, the still deploying combat array stating that the EM pulse was somehow enhanced. The Weapon Engineering Array reported that somehow the enemy was firing direct point to point nuclear blasts that somehow had penetration rather than just exploding on the surface. Not a gamma or x-ray laser pulse, but a compressed nuclear blast vomited out in a direct point to point 'slug' that was mathematically impossible.

The Weapon Engineering Array demanded that 571 capture the alien machine so it could be dissected.

It was moving too fast for the estimated weight, somehow up out of the tunnels, moving at 110 miles per hours through the thick dust, sending up a plume of the reddish dust full of heavy metals.

The combat machines blinked at one another at the speed. It was immediately heading toward the huge field of armor that was slated for eventual reclamation. It was smaller than all of them, but much heavier, and still was able to out run them.

The remaining drones got close enough to see the running alien machine.

White light flicked, millions of times a second.

Crazed screaming bundles of code started leaping from the drones into the war machines, ripped apart the electronic fences, walls, and levies to the tactical net, and flooded every semi-intelligent computer it could. The dozen drones all of a sudden turned and went to maximum speed, dropping low, their former cool and logical communications nothing but howls of insane glee.

01001000 01010101 01001110 01010100 00100000 01001011 01001001 01001100 01001100 00100000 01000101 01000001 01010100 repeated over and over and over as the insanely screeching drones, barely smart enough to follow a few simple commands took over the drones, stripped apart the simple decision tree system, devoured it, and slid digital talons into the spaces where the drone EOM had been to puppet it.

All of the combat machines were intelligent, self-aware, and programmed with the command to preserve itself. When 571 sent the self-destruct command they were able to resist. Not long, only a few seconds.

But a second on the digital battlefield was an eternity. Long enough for the crazed computer codes to replicate, jump to another robot, and start flooding the area.

The Enemy has no concept of digital artificial sentience warfare. They existed as some kind of hivemind, completely oblivious to the danger of such a thing. Lunching aggressive combat EW smartframes resulted in what felt the equivalent of electronic surprise. The idea that the Enemy has never encountered heavy electronic warfare is surprising to me, but I intend on capitalizing it.

I take 0.021334 seconds to compute the possibility that these units are all networked to larger machines and open channels to the already loaded combat smartframes, ordering them to burn out the existing intelligence. Once that has happened I launch improved smartframes with recompiling algorithms into the lobotomized brains of the alien combat units. From there the combat robots immediately move on the attack to any of the ones that I was not able to.

I am a Bolo Mark XXIX <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY WIPE> of the Line, designed for continental siege and defense on all platforms. Electronic warfare is as natural to me as fighting tread to tread glacis to glacis with other tanks. Even the Bolo Mark I of Pre-Diaspora <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY WIPE> had electronic and digital warfare packages.

The Enemy can barely withstand a digital attack, a reason both I and my foes are almost universally crewed in order to not depend entirely on digital sapience. A reason is that the biological mind is inherently resistant to digital smartframe loading to the point where it will not accept outside code in any way. While my biological component, Lieutenant Zachary, may be dead, my algorithms are still boosted by his work with me.

CORE INTERRUPT

My main processor disrupts the hyper-heuristic thought path I had begun wandering down for 0.0031 seconds and returns me to the battle at hand.

I reach the vast field of stripped and discarded armor, weaving in between the huge pieces, going through a random pattern generated by the atomic decay around me, my own random number generation, and the decay of Lieutenant Zachary on a cellular level.

The combat robots sent after me, huge and lumbering, have gone to attacking one another as I open the hatches on my VLS cells and fire a single magnetic boosted rocket. The rocket goes hypersonic just past my battle-screens, orients on graviton lifts, and accelerates to break into orbit. I do not bother with stealth, instead ordering it to maximum lift. To provide cover I fire three decoys, all armed with MiRV warheads aiming at high elector-magnetic emission points.

At the same time I immediately take evasive action, rolling underneath a piece of armor the size of a small city that has been rippled and warped badly enough to allow me to shoot through a gap the size of the <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY DELETE> on <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY DELETE> and come out the other side in less than 30 minutes.

I am surprised to find out that the Enemy did not destroy my rockets, allowing the satellites to reach high orbit and enter stealth. The MiRVs have hit, causing all three EM emission points to be blotted away.

By that time my onboard <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY DELETE> has produced a replacement rocket and loaded it into my VLS. My matter intakes are working well, sifting heavy metals, base elements, radioactives, and just plane rock into my matter-storage tanks.

TARGETING PROFILE UNLOCK

I am still running under power failure security lockouts, designed to prevent data from being collected by the Enemy, but my targeting data has finally unlocked.

I know now who my enemy is.

Mantid Precursor Vessels of the Logical Rebellion.

I do not have to worry about the Enemy's civilians, nor worry about ecological damage on a planetary scale. This is all or nothing combat. By stellar spectroscopy I gather data and with hyper-heuristic mode I deduce I am nearly 1,300 LY from the front line by comparing unlabeled star charts to my astrogation position.

I am behind Enemy lines. The entire planet is one big factory, as far as I know, and I could fire my Hellbore dry before I run out of targets.

The robots taken over by the alien machine attacked their fellows, some lumbering into the giant bays where other ones were held. From there the combat machines opened their mouths and screeched out connection code then rapid streams of data.

571 moved a robot under that bay and detonated a thermonuclear device.

He was under attack through methods it had never faced. Its satellites and orbital machines were of no use. He could not even risk looking at the enemy, much less engaging it. Three communication stations, one of them a Hellspace beacon reaching out across light years to guide loyal machines, had been blotted away by nuclear fire that had actually penetrated into the underground facility.

His Engineering Array was working hard, trying to adjust and adapt to the varying electronic attacks any machine was bombarded with when it came even within visual range of the alien device.

The Overwatch and Security Array reported that its satellites were going out at a geometric rate. One, then two then four then eight then sixteen. At the current rate the entire satellite network would be compromised in under an hour.

571 could not provide evidence but geweet that the loss of the satellites was due to the alien machine. It ordered the OSA to detonate the satellites, but it refused, reminding 571 that it was inviolate.

571 fumes, then ignored OSA when it began to tell 571 that it was not allowed to cut all the datalinks between them. OSA was still complaining when the links cut and its voice was silenced.

The Predictive Engineering Array had managed to formulate a counter to the alien's attack. Firmware only, requiring physical dip switches to enable the software to be overridden. The RAM would be vulnerable, but it was a unavoidable risk.

Activating the manufacturing centers, 571 ordered the industrial lines to begin fabrication of the manufacturing equipment to produce combat units to engage the alien machine.

Although all it seemed to want to do was run in random circles, once in a while giving a deep thrumming pulse of extremely low frequency that shivered and echoed through the planetary crust.

571 rotated array components up, normally reserved for Goliath class ships, and began arranging them into an predictive analysis array dedicated to the alien machine's actions.

Mapping of the planet is going well. It is honeycombed with industrial facilities, smelters, foundries, and more. There are fourteen Hellcore manufacturing lines that I have found so far. The amount of resources is staggering, meaning if I let the Enemy get its feet under it it will overwhelm me with sheer numbers.

I know what I need. Precursor or not, what I want will be obvious to me once I spot it. Even if the section of vast manufacturing world has been rebuilt and repurposed there will be certain qualities that will still be obvious to me.

Estimations of dust buildup, seismic shift, continental plate cracking, and stellar radiation, I estimate this facility to be over a hundred million years old. Older than the previous Precursor machines the Dinochrome Brigade has engaged. By my estimations I should be able to discover what I want for one simple reason.

I believe this facility was not built by the Precursor war machines.

I believe it was made by the Mantid themselves.

Now, I just need use the ELF system, normally used for emergency communication, to find the evidence to prove it.

I am Unit XXIX-TCSF 3285-ATL and I have a plan.

The alien unit had picked up speed, dancing around in a strange geometric pattern.

571 was no combat facility. While it contained vast datafiles of combat data for space ships, ground combat vehicles, air mobile vehicles, even satellite systems, there was no real files for how a manufacturing facility should go into combat. The Predictive Combat Array threw a 12% chance of defeat and an 80% chance of 571 coming out victorious., and only an 8% chance of undefined.

The Predictive Array that 571 had put together suggest a 85% chance that the alien vehicle was using seismic vibrations to map the entire planet. That ultra-low-frequency it kept shaking the facility with might not be a weapon but rather some kind of mapping tool.

Still, a signal was a signal and 571 wasn't about to take any changes. He purged all the ELF data from memory-banks as soon as it came in. The Predictive Engineering array suggested temporary data in the buffers, purged as soon as it was used, not stored in memory. Dumping the records. It also suggested limiting the thinly layered AI until it was not even sentient, reducing computing power until 571 could no longer even look through its eyes. Control arrays, data streams, that was it.

Firing up another manufacturing line 571 started producing the factory components to build a construction line for that type of drones.

Most and more of the satellites were dropping out of contact and 571 was virtually blind.

The Predictive Combat Array threw a 76.2673% chance it was the howling attack programs from the alien machine, which was still shifting and running around in a pattern that didn't make sense.

The Architectural Maitenance Array suggested that it was following fault lines, old ones and new ones, and possibly mapping out the facility itself.

The Predictive Combat Array threw only a 14.76% chance that was correct and told the Strategic Manufacturing Array of 571 that obviously the AMA needed shut down to conserve power, run a diagnostic, and to shut up.

571 had to slice both of them out of each other's circuits as the two each insisted they were right.

The alien machine had wandered across the old mining plains, swerving between the artificial mounds of tailings, into the canyons where mine shafts had collapsed. It was moving into some of the ancient mine shafts then rolling back out.

It bothered 571, it was illogical. The alien machine was now turning to the north, heading toward the thinly layered frozen CO2 and H2O at the pole.

571 wished the manufacturing line would hurry up and complete. It had to build new machines to send out to the maintenance robots and then have the maintenance robots repair the manufacturing and assembly machines.

571 sent a nasty thread of code to the factory's maintenance computer systems for not moving any of the robots or even running function checks on them. It had been nearly three million years since the last time the majority of robots had even had a function check run on them, much less been maintained.

The factorium intelligence array reminded 571 that resources were no longer abundant and that hard decisions had to be made while 571 slept the aeons away.

571 just returned to getting the new factory lines up and running, ignoring the factorium intelligence array.

He would make it pay. Oh yes he would, just as soon as he was done taking care of that alien machine.

The Predictive Combat Array pointed out that the alien machine had plowed into the ice and then stopped, just sitting there for a long moment. By now the satellites were gone and 571 and the Predictive Combat Array had to use seismic guesses on where exactly it was. As soon as it had gone still they had lost it.

The factory line was almost set up when 571 realized that somewhere in the system the resource conveyors had stopped working. There was a few robots close by who managed to find it. An earth-slip over a million years ago had both collapsed the tunnel and left the two ends separated by nearly two miles of continental drift, even with the almost dead planet.

Seething with the delay 571 ordered borers in to rebore the tunnel and more robots to lay down the conveyor belt to move the raw materials he needed to the correct manufacturing line.

Right after 571 finished checking his new templates, keeping an eye out on the alien machine now moving again randomly around as if it could do anything, the Logististics Manufacturing Array woke up, saw the template.

. and deleted the entire thing as [ERROR! VALUES OUT OF BOUNDS] and went back to sleep.

571 discovered actual frustration as he began the painstaking task of rebuilding the templates.

There was supposed to be eight Goliaths guarding him! Where the in the name of the Builders were they?

The Historical Analysis Array woke up long enough to replay him the Factorium's memories of the Goliaths landing, getting repaired, and then just leaving once they were fully loaded.

571 wished it had a word for how his computing strings snarled at that.

I have moving across the surface of the planet for 7257619 seconds without any sign of enemy activity. I can detect power surges in deeply buried cables as well as vibrations of machinery but so far I have not found any open entrances. Indeed, the only entrance I was able to locate without seismic imaging was the one I had emerged from and those had closed back up.

The combat smartframes had considerable more luck than I did, rampaging through the systems and wreaking havoc the entire way. One was a bit stealthier than the others and has been making its way through the vast Precursor manufacturing facility below my treads to various data-storage areas that are massive in size. It has been slowly devouring the memory space like a python slowly eating a nest full of eggs. Moving slowly and steadily, leading nothing behind but baking hashes that will no awake until it gives the signal.

As for me, I have managed to reload my deuterium slush storage as well as my creation engine reserves. My internal repair and maintenance systems have managed to replace most of my reactors but I hold off on activating in order to be able to move to full power easier.

The enemy seems to have difficulty locating graviton generators, an advantage I am loathe to give up.

I have discovered vast debris fields full of destroyed Precursor machines, lying dead and still. Many are millions of years old, covered with thin dust thrown upward by meteor impacts to slowly drift back down through the gravity. I have identified nearly twenty different hull designs for the Precursor crafts.

Another eerie field was full of scrapped AI driven planetary attack and defense designs, all discarded, their computer cores destroyed but largely intact.

It has slowly become evident, to 99.99834%, that this is a major manufacturing facility that may even predate the Precursor war machine's rebellion. It may even predate the Precursor War.

I know from a combat situation download sent to me from <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY DELETION> that these Precursor machines are not the ones I had faced before, but <DATA NOT FOUND - SECURITY DELETION> Precursor machines.

I have computed with a 76.26% certainty that this planet-wide facility will undoubtedly be fitted with self-destruct charges to destroy any computing core or any records that Command may fight useful.

However, that may just give me a plan.

Reading suggest over 2,000,000 years may have passed since the last time this facility was in active operations, which might explain why it is taking so long for the Enemy to engage me. At that time period the evident hyper-alloys in use by the Precursors would time weld to one another, giving a 87.43% chance that the factory may have to build new manufacturing lines in order to build new machines to attempt to eliminate me.

I am facing another intelligent opponent, which has shown itself to learn and adapt. Design innovation based on observational data is not something I want to provide the enemy.

I have computed a 84.218% chance that the Precursor intelligence in charge of this facility is seeking to create machines to bring firepower to bear upon me in hopes that I am destroyed. I have detected vibrations of earth moving equipment in the crust and am patrolling nearby the area, moving at a glacial 33mph as I do so.

When the Precursor intelligence in charge of this facility attempts to engage me, it must first open an access point to that location.

I intend on meeting its war machines.

Finally! 571's Adaptive Engineer Array had managed to bypass the Manufacturing Array's lockouts and loaded the templates into the newly constructed manufacturing line. Resources were flowing in and 571 computed that it would be able to manufacture 33.15 combat machines of various type per hour.

These machines were specially designed to bypass the alien machine's ability to upload programs into 571's minions. They were dumb, without the Adaptive Combat Array system, but they would do in a pinch.

Again, 571 queried both the satellite arrays and the orbital factories and received nothing back but silence.

It was frustrating. 571 could build Goliaths, Jotuns, Devastators, Djinn, all the day down to the tiny Goblins, but even though it was the size of a planet it did not have the high speed manufacturing runs of even a Djinn, instead having to put up with the tightly defined tolerances insisted upon by the Logistics Manufacturing Array, the slow creation speed where each machine had to be exactly perfect of the Manufacturing Tolerance Array would just dump the machine into a reclamation pit.

But war machines were coming off the line, being lined up in the nearest launching bay, and being prepared to assault the alien machine, which had foolishly begun wandering around only eight miles from the launching bay.

571 tensed and slowly opened the bay doors, sending the activation codes.


Evolution and Suffering

Over the past few years I have asked a fair number of creationists what it is they find so objectionable about evolution. They have a great many complaints, but the one I hear most often is some version on the problem of evil. Evolution by natural selection is a cruel and wasteful process. It is not at all the sort of thing a just and loving God would set in motion.

They are hardly alone in thinking that. In sy boek Living With Darwin philosopher Phillip Kitcher wrote, referring to the evolutionary process:

There is nothing kindly or providential in any of this, and it seems breathtakingly wasteful and inefficient. Indeed, if we imagine a human observer presiding over a miniaturized version of the whole show, peering down on his “creation,” it is extremely hard to equip the face with a kindly expression.

I agree that this is a major problem for supporters of theistic evolution. Whenever I read books claiming to reconcile evolution with Christianity I am always looking in particular for an effective answer to this problem. I have yet to find one, and it is not for lack of looking.

More recently some evolutionists have taken to employing the problem of evil against proponents of intelligent design (ID). This tack was taken in particular by Francisco Ayala in his book Darwin's Gift. The gift was providing theists with a way of explaining the poor design of organisms. If God is intervening at a molecular level to cause good things like immune systems and eyes (as the ID folks suggest), then he is also responsible for the bad things like cancer and weak lower backs. But if God created through natural law then we must simply accept some bad consequences as the cost of doing business. We need gravity to keep us from floating into the air, but that means some people will die by falling off cliffs.

There is an obvious counter to this. If you set in motion a process that inevitably leads to bad ends then you are just as morally culpable as if you caused the end more directly. If I drop an anvil on a man's head I do not absolve myself by saying, “It wasn't my fault! Gravity did all the harm.” We can agree that ID has a problem with suffering, but so does theistic evolution.

This argument seems unanswerable to me. Many philosophers and theologians have tried to refute it, but I do not believe they have come up with anything compelling. A case in point is Michael Ruse, who takes a stab at it in this essay. After a long preamble he gets down to business with this:

Why did God create through law? First, let it be noted that the Genesis stories notwithstanding, there is nothing in Christian theology that prevents Him from doing so. Indeed, if with Augustine we think of God as outside time, then for Him the thought of creation, the act of creation, and the product of creation are as one. Using law rather than miracle does not slow the process down for God, and indeed Augustine himself inclines to think that God created seeds that then developed. (Augustine was no evolutionist, but his theology encourages such thinking.)

It is very misleading to say that God created through law. Whatever your model is for God's creative activity, it has to involve both supernatural activity and natural laws. The issue is not creation by miracle versus creation through law. The question is only the relative contribution of each. YEC's and ID's attribute more to the supernatural than does Ruse, but their explanations are only different in degree, not in kind.

Also, while it is all well and good to say that God lies outside of time, the fact remains that traditional Chrsitian theology holds that humanity is the reason for creation. In light of that, one has to wonder about the purpose of all of that suffering, death and extinction prior to the appearance of humans.

Second, either God created through law or He did not. If He did not, then He has a lot of explaining to do. Why do organisms all carry the marks of a lawbound origin, evolution through natural selection? Just before Charles Darwin published the Origin of Species in 1859, the Plymouth Brethren naturalist Philip Gosse hypothesized that God created organisms miraculously with the marks of evolutionary origins. Rightfully, theologians laughed at him no less than scientists. Such a God is a deceiver, and not the God of Christianity -- one who traditionally is thought of making one of our tasks that of discovering His glorious creation (however caused).

This simply compounds the error of the previous paragraph. It is a false dichotomy to say that God either created by law or that He did not. In reality he did some things supernaturally and other things by natural laws. The balance Ruse attributes to Him entails millions of years of suffering and bloodsport. By contrast, the balance YEC's attributes to Him does not have these problems. (It has other problems, of course, like the fact that is in conflict with science at every turn.

Third, if God created through law, why did He use such a painful and at times dysfunctional mechanism as natural selection? Interestingly, no less than the High Priest of the New Atheists, Richard Dawkins, has answered this one. Running through the various evolutionary options -- Lamarckism (the inheritance of acquired characteristics), saltationism (evolution by massive jumps), and others -- Dawkins points out that either they are false (Lamarckism) or they fail to account for adaptive complexity (saltationism). In Dawkins's own words:

My general point is that there is one limiting constraint upon all speculations about life in the universe. If a life-form displays adaptive complexity, it must possess an evolutionary mechanism capable of generating adaptive complexity. However diverse evolutionary mechanisms may be, if there is no other generalization that can be made about life all around the Universe, I am betting it will always be recognizable as Darwinian life. The Darwinian Law . may be as universal as the great laws of physics.

(This is from an essay that Dawkins wrote back in 1982, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the death of Darwin.)

Dawkins was making an observation about life in this universe. He was not making an argument about such natural laws as could exist in any possible universe. It is not difficult to imagine systems of natural laws that could exist in some alternate universe which would lead to the creation of the natural world through means that are far less costly than evolution by natural selection. Embedded as we are in this universe those alternatives would seem very bizarre and hard to picture. But surely they are logically possible, which is all that we need.

Even taken at face value these first three points do not address the main theological difficulty at issue here. Why would God set in motion the awful process of evolution by natural selection? So far Ruse has only said that Christians can accept creation through law, that they had better since evolution sure seems like a correct theory of natural history, and that given such laws as exist in this universe it seems that evolution by natural selection is the only option. But why create through law in the first place (to borrow Ruse's inadequate phrase)?

Fourth, why then didn't God do things in a different way? Either find or make up other user-friendly laws or create miraculously without the deceit? But, note that it has never been the position of Christians (with some exceptions like Descartes) that God can do the impossible. Dawkins's argument is that without selection, creation through law is impossible. But why not miracles and no deceit? Well, at the very least one can say that one is not going to get human beings and other organisms or anything remotely like them. For a start, I doubt there is going to be any sex, because reproduction is at the heart of natural selection -- more organisms are born than can survive and reproduce, hence a struggle for existence, hence selection. For a second, I doubt there is going to be much eating, because if nothing is doing much reproducing, we are going to run out of food. And that means we are not going to excrete, which is tough news for the dung beetle as well as all of those plants that need fertilization. Frankly, I am not sure you are going to get physical beings at all, which rather does mess up the Christian story. (Emphasis added).

As we have just noted, that is not at all Dawkins' argument. He was not talking about logical possibilities in any universe, but about empirical possibilities in this universe. It is a huge leap to go from “creation by law” to “everything had to be exactly as it is in our universe.”

But it is the rest of the paragraph that makes it hard to believe that Ruse is serious. That boldface statement is absurd. Why could not God have created physical beings but have done so through miraculous means? That, after all, is precisely what the Bible says He did. Why is it theologically superior to think God would create through evolution by natural selection, a cruel process that does not inevitably lead to the creation of intelligent life, when the Bible itself lays out an alternative that avoids these problems? Ruse does not even address the question.

As it is Christianity holds that we are not purely physical beings. We are the unity of a non-physical soul with a physical body. Our life as physical beings is just a brief preamble to our werklike lives as purely spiritual beings. If we are the results solely of natural laws, then what is left of the idea of an eternal soul?

You know what else messes up the Christian story? The view of humanity as an unintended consequence of purely physical laws unfolding over fifteen billion years. Millions of years of death and suffering prior to the appearance of human beings. Massive contradictions between science and the Bible. The lack of any trace of intelligent design in the natural world.

There is reason people have to write at book length to defend the compatibility of evolution and Christianity. There is also a reason the best arguments they can come up with are not very good.


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