24 Februarie 2017 Dag 35 van die eerste jaar - Geskiedenis

24 Februarie 2017 Dag 35 van die eerste jaar - Geskiedenis

09:25 vertrek die PRESIDENT uit die Withuis op pad na CPAC

South Lawn

10:00 maak die PRESIDENT opmerkings by CPAC

Gaylord National Resort & Convention Center

11:30 kom die PRESIDENT by die Withuis aan

South Lawn

12:00 onderteken die PRESIDENT 'n uitvoerende bevel

Ovaal kantoor

14:00 Ontmoet die PRESIDENT goewerneur John Kasich van Ohio

Ovaal kantoor

15:00 vergader die PRESIDENT met president Pedro Pablo Kuczynski van Peru

Ovaal kantoor

16:00 neem die PRESIDENT sy weeklikse adres op

Ovaal kantoor


Die Pu'u'ō'ō -uitbarsting het 35 jaar geduur

* In 2021 het die Amerikaanse raad oor geografiese name die spelling van die geografiese kenmerk van 'Pu'u' Ō'ō 'na' Pu'u'ō'ō 'opgedateer, volgens Hawai'i Board on Geographic Names -riglyne. Pu'u 'Ō'ō en verskeie ander spellings word gebruik in vorige USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory -publikasies en multimedia -items, wat artikels, foto's, video's en kaarte van "Volcano Watch" insluit.

Lava -fontein bars uit Pu'u'ō'ō, Kīlauea -vulkaan, Hawai'i. (Publieke domein.)

Kupaianaha -uitlaat vorm 'n uitgestrekte lavadam 3 km (1.9 myl) oos van Pu'u'ō'ō (keël op die agtergrond). (Publieke domein.)

Die Pu'u'ō'ō -uitbarsting het in 1983 begin en word beskou as die langste en omvangrykste lawa -uitstorting uit die Kīlauea -vulkaan se East Rift Zone in meer as 500 jaar. Lava -fonteine ​​en -strome het die landskap ingrypend verander en inwoners herhaaldelik uitgedaag met lawa -oorstroming. Teen die einde van die uitbarsting in 2018 het lawastrome 144 km2 afgelê, ongeveer 4,4 km3 lawa uitgebars en 177 hektaar nuwe grond bygevoeg tot Kīlauea se suidooste strand. Lavastrome het ook 215 strukture vernietig en 14,3 km (8.9 mi) snelweg begrawe met lawa so dik as 35 m (115 voet).

Wetenskaplikes het die uitbarsting verdeel in 61 episodes van aktiwiteit, gedefinieer deur die styl van uitbarsting (byvoorbeeld diskrete lava -fonteine ​​en spleetgebeurtenisse of aanhoudende lava -effusie) en die ligging van die uitbarstingsventilasie. In die chronologie hieronder word die 61 uitbarstingsepisodes in vyf breë tydperke gegroepeer.

Huis brand terwyl lawastrome in 1990 in Kalapana, Hawaii, ingetrek het. (Publieke domein.)

Januarie 1983 - Julie 1986: Groei van Pu‘u‘ō‘ō

Die uitbarsting het op 3 Januarie 1983 begin toe die eerste van verskeie splete in Kīlauea se East Rift Zone uitgebreek het. Teen Junie 1983 het die uitbarsting gefokus op 'n enkele vent, en in die volgende drie jaar het 'n reeks van 44 lava-fonteine ​​'n kegel-en-spat-kegel gebou wat later Pu'u'ō'ō genoem is. Die fonteine, wat elke 3 tot 4 weke plaasvind en ongeveer 'n dag duur, het dik 'a'ā -strome gevoer wat die omliggende landskap begrawe het. Sommige van hierdie strome het die yl bevolkte onderdeel Royal Gardens bereik, waar verskeie huise vernietig is. Teen 1986 het tephra-val uit die fonteine ​​die Pu'u'ō'ō-keël gebou tot 'n maksimum hoogte van 255 m (835 voet) bo die oppervlak voor 1983.

Julie 1986 - Februarie 1992: Aktiwiteit skuif agteruit, bou 'n skild en begrawe Kalapana

Uitsig oor die westelike flank van Pu‘u‘ō‘ō in 1992, en die skild groei aan die voet van die kegel, Kīlauea -vulkaan Hawai‘i. (Publieke domein.)

In 1986 het die uitbarsting 3 km (1,8 myl) na die noordooste verskuif langs Kīlauea se East Rift Zone. Dit was die einde van episodiese hoë lawa-fonteine ​​en die begin van vyf-en-'n-half jaar se byna aanhoudende uitvloei van pāhoehoe-lawastrome uit die nuwe uitlaat. 'N Lavadammetjie wat bokant die ventilasieopening gevorm is, en gereelde oorstromings het in minder as 'n jaar 'n breë, lae skild, later Kupaianaha, tot 56 m (180 voet) gebou. Lava bereik die see die eerste keer op 28 November 1986 nadat hy deur die kusgemeenskap Kapa'ahu gesny het en 'n gedeelte van snelweg 130 bedek het (binne die Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park word die snelweg Chain of Craters road genoem).

Die uitbarsting het sy mees vernietigende tydperk in Maart 1990 binnegegaan, toe uitbarstings uit 'n lavabuis geleidelik die Kalapana -gemeenskap binnegekom het, 'n gebied wat gekoester is vir historiese plekke en swart sandstrande. Teen die einde van die jaar is die hele gemeenskap, insluitend 'n kerk, winkel en 100 huise, begrawe onder 15-25 m (50-80 voet) lawa. Aan die einde van 1990 het 'n nuwe lavabuis uiteindelik lawa van Kalapana weggelei en terug na die Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park.

Die hoeveelheid lawa wat uit Kupaianaha uitgebars het, het deur 1991 geleidelik afgeneem namate lawa -aktiwiteit in die krater van Pu'u'ō'ō toegeneem het. Aangesien nuwe splete tussen Pu'u'ō'ō en Kupaianaha in November vir ongeveer 3 weke uitgebreek het, het die lawa -uitset van Kupaianaha steeds afgeneem totdat dit op 7 Februarie 1992 gestop het.

Uitsig op die westelike flank van Pu‘u‘ō‘ō in 1997, nadat die kratervloer en die westelike rand, Kīlauea Volcano Hawai‘i, ineengestort het. (Publieke domein.)

Februarie 1992 - Junie 2007: Aktiwiteit keer terug na Pu'u'ō'ō en skeuring breek op

Tien dae nadat Kupaianaha opgehou het om uit te bars, het aktiwiteite na Pu'u'ō'ō teruggekeer. Die lava het toe uitgebars uit 'n spleet aan die westelike flank van Pu'u'ō'ō, die eerste van vele flankopeninge wat spoedig 'n breë skild van 130 m (425 voet) hoog aan die suidwestelike kant van die keël gebou het. Die byna deurlopende, stille uitvloei van pāhoehoe -lawaai uit verskillende flankopeninge oor die volgende 15 jaar het die bestaande vloeveld aansienlik verbreed en vloei die meeste van die tyd in die oseaan gestuur. Die oseaaninskrywings het 'n reeks lavadelta's aan die suidoostelike kus van Kīlauea gebou, wat, tesame met vroeëre oseaaninskrywings, 'n totaal van ongeveer 169 ha (418 hektaar) nuwe grond by Hawai'i gevoeg het.

Uitsig op die westelike flank van Pu‘u‘ō‘ō in 1999, nadat die krater oorloop, die voortgesette groei van die skild en die ineenstorting van die spatelkegel 1997, Kīlauea Volcano Hawai‘i. (Publieke domein.)

Gedurende hierdie tyd het die massiewe Pu'u'ō'ō -kegel baie ineenstortings beleef wat die krater vergroot het, die kraterrand laat sak en baie klein kuipe en kraters op die flanke van die keël gevorm het. Die grootste ineenstorting het plaasgevind op die nag van 30 Januarie 1997, toe die magma -kanaal tussen die top en Pu'u'ō'ō gebars het, wat die toevoer van magma tot die uitbarsting afgesny het. Die lawameer in Pu'u'ō'ō het afgetap, die kratervloer het ongeveer 150 m gedaal en 'n groot gaping het aan die westekant van die keël verskyn. Kort daarna breek nuwe splete oop en breek vlugtig uit in en naby Nāpau -krater, ongeveer 4 km opwaarts van Pu‘u‘ō‘ō. Die hele geleentheid was binne 24 uur verby.

Lava het op 24 Februarie 1997 weer in die Pu'u'ō'ō krater uitgebars, en binne 'n maand het lava buite die krater uitgebars van nuwe vents aan die westelike en suidwestelike flanke van die keël. Gedurende die volgende tien jaar het lava op verskillende maniere in Pu'u'ō'ō verskyn, wat soms oor die kraterrand loop, en het etlike maande tot 'n paar jaar uit nuwe flankopeninge uitgebars. Gewoonlik vorm 'n reeks wortellose skilde langs die lavabuisstelsels, waarvan sommige saamsmelt om 'n breë rif 2 km (1,2 myl) lank in die middel van die vloeiveld te bou.

Op 17 Junie 2007 het 'n indringing van magmainto Kīlauea se boonste East Rift Zone die magma -reservoir onder Pu'u'ō'ō drukloos gemaak. As gevolg hiervan het die vloer van Pu'u'ō'ō ineengestort om 'n kratgevulde krater van ongeveer 80 m diep te vorm, wat die toevoer van lawa na 'n buis wat sedert 2004 aktief was, onderbreek het. Die indringing het 'n hoogtepunt bereik op 19 Junie met 'n kort uitbarsting op die oostelike flank van Kāne Nui O Hamo, 'n lavaskild noordwes van Pu'u'ō'ō. 'N Pouse van 12 dae in die uitbarsting het gevolg.

Opmerking: Vanaf 1997 begin HVO se webwerf die uitbarsting van Pu'u'ō'ō in daaglikse tot maandeliks geïllustreerde opsommings. Bekyk die argief en die nuutste beelde.

Lava waterval uit die lawa -kanaal in die onderste kanaal, Pu'u'ō'ō in die agtergrond, Kīlauea -vulkaan, Hawai'i. (Publieke domein.)

Julie 2007 - Maart 2011: Skeur breek afwaarts, Pu'u'ō'ō word vol, en spleet breek opwaarts uit

Video wat die ineenstorting van die Pu'u'ō'ō kratervloer op 5 Maart toon. Die video begin om 04:00 en eindig om 23:00. Die vloer van die krater het binne slegs 'n paar uur ongeveer 115 meter (377 voet) geval. Amerikaanse geologiese opname (publieke domein).

Lugfoto van die Kamoamoa lava -fonteine ​​van 2011 wat noordoos kyk in die rigting van Pu‘u‘ō‘ō, op die agtergrond. (Publieke domein.)

Lava verskyn weer op 1 Julie 2007 in Pu'u'ō'ō en kom binne 30 m (100 voet) van die vul van die krater, toe daar op 21 Julie nuwe splete op die noordoostelike flank van die keël losbars en byna 3 afloop km (1,9 myl) tot by die basis van Kupaianaha. Aktiwiteit fokus gou oor 'n enkele spleet en lewer 'n reeks 'a'ā -strome wat tot 6 km (4 myl) na die noordooste gestrek het. Vanweë die toenemende kommer dat hierdie strome die dalingsgemeenskappe kan bereik, het HVO -wetenskaplikes 'n nuwe risiko -evaluering vir die uitbarsting opgestel. Die lawakanaal wat die strome voed, loop oor sy oewers en bou uiteindelik 'n kanaal wat so hoog as 45 m (150 voet) bokant die omliggende vloeiveld was. Aan die einde van November het 'n nuwe uitbraak uit die spleet al die lawa van Maart 2008 tot vroeg in 2011 na die suidooste en in die see naby Kalapana gelei. Tussen Julie 2010 en Januarie 2011 het uitbarstings uit die kusvlaktebuisstelsel drie huise vernietig wat is gebou op die vroeëre Kalapana -vloei.

Hierdie foto vanaf 06:30, HST, op Woensdag, 29 Oktober 2014, toon hoe lawa van die vloei van 27 Junie steeds afwaarts beweeg deur die eiendom wat dit die vorige oggend binnegekom het. Vanaf Woensdagoggend om 07:00 was die vloei 240 m (260 m) reguitlynafstand van Pāhoa Village Road. (Publieke domein.)

Na byna drie jaar van min aktiwiteite binne Pu'u'ō'ō, het lava in Mei-Junie 2010. in die krater Pu'u'ō'ō begin uitbars. Teen vroeg in Maart 2011 het lava die krater tot ongeveer 20 m gevul (65 voet) van die noordoostelike rand. Hierdie vulling en ander bewyse dui daarop dat die magmastelsel wat van Kīlauea se topreservoir tot by Pu‘u‘ō‘ō strek, toenemend onder druk was. Op 5 Maart begin 'n nuwe inbraak en uitbarsting, bekend as die Kamoamoa -uitbarsting, uit Pu'u'ō'ō. Hierdie uitbarsting het vyf dae geduur.

April 2011 - April 2018: Vents wat beperk is tot die krater en flanke van Pu'u'ō'ō, vloei kom Pāhoa binne

Na die Kamoamoa -uitbarsting het lawa herhaaldelik binne die krater en uit die flanke van Pu‘u‘ō‘ō uitgebars. Lava het weer op 26 Maart 2011 in die krater verskyn, en 'n hoë lawameer het vinnig gegroei namate die krater hervul het. Op 3 Augustus 2011 het die kratervloer skielik ineengestort toe lawa deur die westelike flank van die Pu'u'ō'ō -keël gebars het. 'N Massiewe stortvloed het vinnig versprei en in twee takke verdeel - 'n kort noordwestelike tak wat die volgende dag gestop het en 'n suidelike tak wat 3,5 km bereik het voordat dit op 15 Augustus onaktief geword het.

Lava het binne enkele dae na die uitbreek van 3 Augustus weer in Pu'u'ō'ō verskyn, en die krater het weer ongewoon vinnig gevul. Teen 10 September loop lawa oor beide die noordoostelike en suidwestelike rand van die krater. Lava het op 21 September opgehou om die krater te vul, toe 'n nuwe breuk hoog op die noordoostelike flank van Pu'u'ō'ō losbars. Hierdie kloof het weer 'n stroom gestuur - die 'Vrededagstroom', informeel vernoem na die vakansie van die Verenigde Nasies se vredesdag - weer na die suidoostelike kus van Kīlauea. Die vloei het in Desember 2011 kortliks die oseaan binnegedring, en daaropvolgende uitbrake het tussen November 2012 en Augustus 2013 die see binnegekom.

Dit is 'n nadere beskouing van die voorste deel van die stroom, na Pāhoa Village Road, wat bo -op die foto strek. Die rook dui aan waar 'n aktiewe uitbraak aan die noordkant van die vinger afneem, wat gister gestop het nadat hy deur privaat eiendom oorgesteek het. (Publieke domein.)

Na meer as 'n jaar van relatief swak aktiwiteit in die krater van Pu'u'ō'ō en op die stroomveld, het die aktiwiteit in die krater toegeneem in Januarie 2013. Op 19 Januarie het lawa uit 'n lavadammetjie gestroom wat 'n klein skild hierbo gebou het die noordelike kraterrand versprei langs die noordoostelike flank van Pu'u'ō'ō tot 8 km (5 myl). Hierdie lawastrome is die Kahauale‘a 1 en 2 strome genoem. Vroeg in November 2013 het die skaars aktiewe Vredesdag -vloei gestop toe die ventilasie hoog op die noordoostelike flank van Pu'u'ō'ō onaktief geraak het.

Nuwe splete het op 27 Junie 2014 op die oostelike flank van Pu'u'ō'ō uitgebreek. Hierdie splete het gelei tot die stilstand van die Kahauale'a -vloei en die begin van 'n nuwe lavastroom wat vinnig na die ooste gevorder het. Dit staan ​​bekend as die vloei van 27 Junie en het tussen Julie en einde Oktober 2014 20 km (12 myl) in die rigting van die gemeenskap van Pāhoa gevorder. . In November 2014 het die stroomfront weer in 'n effens ander rigting begin vorder, en teen middel Desember 2014 bedreig dit die Pahoa-mark. Maar weereens het die stroomfront gestagneer en die Marketplace is nie beskadig nie. Die vloei -aktiwiteit van die 27ste Junie het einde Maart 2015 heeltemal teruggetrek tot binne ongeveer 6 km (4 myl) van Pu'u'ō'ō, waar dit die res van die jaar gebly het.

'N Nuwe uitbreek vanaf die oostelike flank van Pu'u'ō'ō op 24 Mei 2016, het 'n nuwe vloei na die suide gevorm, bekend as die 61g -vloei (Episode 61, "g" lawastroom). Die nuwe uitlaat het die lawa -toevoer tot die 27ste Junie -stroom verminder, wat teen 8 Junie onaktief geraak het. Die vloei van 61 g het teen die einde van Junie die basis van die Pulama pali bereik en op 26 Julie 2016 die see ingevaar by Kamokuna.

Op 30 April 2018 het Pu'u'ō'ō se kratervloer en lawameer katastrofies ineengestort en die uitbarsting het geëindig. Meer inligting oor die einde van hierdie uitbarsting kan gelees word in die 31 Januarie 2019 -uitgawe van Volcano Watch.


Inwonende kommissarisse

Met die opening van die nuwe territoriale regering het die Filippynse wetgewer gedurende die winter van 1907–1908 sy eerste twee inwonende kommissarisse - Benito Legarda en Pablo Ocampo - na Capitol Hill gestuur. Sedertdien tot 1946, toe die Filippyne onafhanklik geword het, het die gebied altesaam 13 inwonende kommissarisse na die kongres gestuur.

Elke inwonende kommissaris kom van die hoofeiland Luzon behalwe Jaime C. de Veyra, afkomstig uit Leyte en wat naam gemaak het in Cebu, die tweede grootste stad in die gebied. Selfs al het die inwonende kommissarisse in een van die landelike provinsies buite Manila grootgeword, gebruik hulle die hoofstad as hul primêre wegspringplek vir hul politieke loopbane.

'N Aantal inwonende kommissarisse het deelgeneem aan die konflikte wat die eilande tydens die begin van die eeu verwoes het en teen die Spanjaarde, die Amerikaners of albei geveg het. Nadat hy teen Spanje geveg het, het Ocampo byvoorbeeld by die kragte aangesluit wat probeer het om die Amerikaanse besettingsleër af te weer, en het hy as die hoof -intelligensiebeampte vir die Filippynse generaal Emilio Aguinaldo gedien. Daarna het Amerikaanse amptenare Ocampo gearresteer en hom na die eiland Guam verban. Net 'n paar jaar later, in 1907, word Ocampo tot die kongres verkies.

Soos kongreslede tydens enige era, het inwonende kommissarisse dikwels hul politieke loopbane op plaaslike vlak begin en in hul tuisprovinsies gedien voordat hulle na hoër posisies in Manila gespring het. Drie inwonende kommissarisse was provinsiale goewerneurs, en ander beklee meer klein posisies. Sommige het egter nader aan die bokant begin. Camilo Osias was die eerste Filippynse superintendent van die eilande se skole, en Joaquin M. Elizalde was 'n ekonomiese adviseur van die Filippynse president.

Voor hul ampstermyn in Washington dien vyf inwonende kommissarisse in die onderste kamer van die territoriale wetgewer, hetsy in die Filippynse vergadering of, later, in die Filippynse huis van verteenwoordigers. Legarda en de Veyra het as twee van die enigste Filippynse lede in die Filippynse kommissie gesit. Drie ander dien in die Filippynse senaat, wat die kommissie in 1916 vervang het. 92


Julie 2021 Maandelikse vakansiedae

Julie 2021 Weeklikse vakansiedae



Boontjie- en spekdae: 1-5 Skakel
Bierpongdae: 1-4 (Verhuis vanaf 10 Junie 2020) Skakel (Let wel: ek het geen bevestiging dat Beer Pong -dag in Mei is soos ander webwerwe beweer.)
*Nasionale Tom Sawyer-dae: 1-5 ?? Link (ook bekend as Fence Painting Days)
*National Unassisted Homebirth Week: 1-7
Roswell UFO-dae: 1-3 skakel
*Vryheidsweek: 4-10
Wees aangenaam vir die week in New Jersey: 4-10 (Eerste volle week)
Naak ontspanningsnaweek: 4-10 (Eerste week)
Punxsutawney Groundhog Days: 4-10
Running of The Bulls (Spanje): 6-14

*Kreatiewe wanaanpassingsweek: 7-14 Skakel
Sports Clich Week: 9-13 Link (Always Week of Maj. League Baseball All-Stars Game)
Gesinsgholfweek: 11-17 Skakel
National Farriers Week: 11-17 (2de volle week)

National Vodka Week: 11-17 Link
National Theraputic Recreation Week: 11-17 Skakel (2de volle week)
Operation Safe Driver Week: 11-17 Skakel
Nasionale buiksprekerweek: 14-17 Skakel
National Cancer Survivor Sibling Week: 15-18 skakel (Tweede volle week)
*Konynweek: 15-21
(Re: Magician Rabbits Die borg is Melvin Rabbit in Kanada. Geen webwerf nie.)
Nasionale Suikermielieweek: 16-17
Hennepgeskiedenisweek: 17-23 Skakel
Nasionale motweek: 17-25 Skakel
*Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) Education & amp Awareness Week: 18-25
(Let wel: 'n ander borg as wat die viering van 23 September het.)
Captive Nations Week: 18-24 (3de week)
Almal verdien 'n masseringsweek: 18-24 Skakel (3de volle week)
Nasionale onafhanklike kleinhandelaarsweek: 18-24 Skakel (3de week met 21ste daarin.)
National Zoo Keeper Week: 18-24 Link (3de week)
Internasionale kantweek: 19-23 skakel (daar is 3 kantvieringe. Julie en Augustus = weekliks. Sept. = Kantdag)
National Baby Food Week: 21-24 Link (3de week)
Comic Con International: 22-25
Hemingway Look-Alike Days: 22-24 Skakel (Naaste sy verjaardag van 21/7)
Annie Oakley Days: 23-25 ​​(Laaste volle naweek)
Knoffeldae: 23-25 ​​en 30-8/1 skakel (afgelope naweke)
Nasionale Ouerskap Begaafde Kinderweek: 23-25 Skakel (Derde volle naweek)
National Scrabble Week: 23-27 2022 Link (Elke 3 jaar)
XXXII Olimpiese Spele (uitgestel vanaf 2020): 23-8/8 (Japan)
RAGBRAI: 25-31
Vroue in bofbalweek: 25-31 (laaste volle week)
Comi Great Texas Mosquitos Days: 29-31 Skakel (Laaste of 3de Donderdag, Vrydag)
Lollapalooza: 29-8/1
Quilt Odyssey Week: 29-31 (Laaste Donderdae tot Saterdae.)
Wêreldhouthakkerkampioenskappe: 29-31 (Verlede naweek)
Satchmo-week: 30-8/1
Superman-dae: 30-8/1 skakel
World Police and Fire Games: 22-31, 2022 Skakel 23-8/6,2023 Skakel
Gallop International Tribal Indian Powwow: 31-8/9 Skakel

Julie 2021 Daaglikse vakansiedae

*Kanada -dag: 1
*Estee Lauder -dag: 1
*Medicare se verjaardag: 1
*Nasionale GSA -werknemersdag: 1
*Nasionale Poswerkersdag: 1 skakel
*Vernuwingsdag vir resolusie: 1 (om u gebroke nuwejaarsvoorneme te hernu.)
*VSA Posseëldag: 1
*Poskode -dag: 1

*Ek het dag vergeet: 2
*Made in the USA Day: 2
Tweede helfte van die jaar: 2 skakel (nie-skrikkeljare, dit is 2 Julie)
*Wêreld UFO -dag: 2 skakel

*Komplimenteer u spieëldag: 3
*Drop A Rock Day: 3 Link (ook bekend as Rock Painting)
Hop A Park Day: 3 (Eerste Saterdag)
Internasionale dag van koöperasies: 3 (Eerste Saterdag)
Internasionale kersputdag: 3 Skakel (Eerste Saterdag)
*Internasionale plastieksakvrye dag: 3 skakel
*National Burnt End Day: 3 Link
*Nasionale gefrituurde mosseldag: 3 skakel (sien ook 1 November)
National Play Outside Day: 3 Link (Eerste Saterdag)
*Bly buite die son dag 3
*Superman -dag: 3 skakel

*Boom Box Parade Day: 4
*Vierde Julie of onafhanklikheidsdag: 4
*Onafhanklikheid vanaf vleisdag: 4
*Ondeelbare dag: 4 skakel
*Lou Gehrig -dag: 4
*Nasionale BBQ -ribbesdag: 4 skakel

*Bikini -dag: 5
Aarde by Aphelion: 5
*Werk sonder jou hande -dag: 5 skakel (SpongeBob SquarePants)

*Gebraaide hoenderdag: 6 skakels
*Internasionale soendag of Wêreld soendag: 6
*Neem u webmeester na middagete: 6

*Sjokolade -dag: 7 skakel
*Vader-dogter stap saam dag: 7
*Tell the Truth Day: 7
*Slagoffers van The Dallas, Texas Attack Day: 7 Link
*Wêrelddag vir vergifnis: 7 skakel

*Coca Cola -dag: 8 skakel
(Let wel: die werklike datum waarop Coca Cola uitgevind is, is onbekend. Daarom word die geboortedatum van die uitvinder gevier.)
Vas van Tammuz: 8
(teen sononder)
*Wiskunde 2.0 -dag: 8 (stigtingsdag) -skakel
*Nasionale vrieskas -popdag: 8 skakel
*Nasionale dag vir videospeletjies: 8 skakel
*SCUD -dag (geniet die strokiesprent, ontkoppel die drama): 8
Wêrelddag vir liggaamsverf: 8-10? Skakel gekanselleer

Waarderingsdag vir versamelaarmotor: 9 (2de Vrydag) skakel
Martelaarskap van die baba: 9
Nasionale motorfietsdag: 9 (2de Vrydag)
*Nasionale No Bra -dag: 9 -skakel (ook 13 Oktober)
Taos Pueblo Pow Wow: 9-11? Skakel gekanselleer
Wayne the Chicken Day: 9-11 Skakel (2de naweek)

Bald Is In: 10 (Tweede Saterdag)
Carver Day: 10 skakel (Tweede Saterdag)
*Clerihew -dag: 10
*Moenie op 'n byedag trap nie: 10
*Wêrelddag vir onafhanklike energie: 10 skakel
Grange Day: 10 (Tweede Saterdag)
*Oils & amp; Concentrates Day: 10 skakel
*Pi & ntildea Colada -dag: 10 skakel
*Teddiebere se piekniekdag: 10 skakel
Nota: ek weet nie hoekom 10 Julie gekies is nie, want Jimmy Kennedy, wat die woorde by die lied geskryf het, is op 20 Julie gebore
*VSA Energie -onafhanklikheidsdag: 10 skakel

*Bowdler's Day: 11
*Verbeter die eensame dag: 11
*Dag van die vyf biljoen: 11 skakel
*Maak u eie Sundae -dag: 11
*Nasionale Rainier -kersiedag: 11 skakel
*Slurpee-dag of 7-11 se verjaardag: 11 skakel
Wêreld Miniatuur gholfdag: 11 skakel
*Wêreldbevolkingsdag: 11
Ratha Yatro: 11

*Dag met verskillende gekleurde oë: 12
Internasionale Town Criers Day: 12 (Tweede Maandag)
*Nasionale Pekanneutdag: 12
*Night of Nights: 12 (Maritime Radio) skakel

*Eenvoudigheidsdag: 12 skakel

Chick-fil-A se koei-waarderingsdag: 13 (2de Dinsdag) Trek soos 'n koei aan en kry gratis voorgereg! Skakel gekanselleer
*Omhels u Geekness -dag: 13
*Gruntled Workers Day: 13
*Internasionale rockdag: 13 skakel
*Nasionale Beesvleisdag: 13
*Nasionale frietdag: 13 skakel
*Nasionale stikstof -roomysdag: 13
*Wêreldbeker -sokkerdag: 13 (herdenking)


*Bastille -dag: 14
*Internasionale naakdag: 14 skakel
*Nasionale Macaroni- en kaasdag: 14 skakel
*Dag vir haai -bewustheid: 14 skakel
*Slagoffers van die aanvaldag in Nice, Frankryk: 14 skakel

*Be A Dork Day: 15
Leer u dag van u kliënte ken: 15 (21 Januarie, 15 April, 15 Julie en 21 Oktober = 3de Donderdag van elke kwartaal)
*Gummi Worm Day: 15 skakel
Internasionale Sister Cities Day: 15 Skakel
*Nasionale Give Something Away Day: 15
*Nasionale brandveiligheidsdag vir troeteldiere: 15 skakel
*Saint Swithin's Day: 15
*Wêrelddag vir jeugvaardighede: 15

Viering van die perddag: 16-18 (3de naweek)
*Nasionale proefkonyndag: 16 skakel
*Nasionale persoonlike sjefdag: 16 Skakel (Ander borg as een op 26 Februarie)
*Wêreldslangdag: 16 skakel

*Disneyland -dag: 17
Nasionale Bruidsverkopingsdag: 17 (3de Saterdag)
*Nasionale Hot Dog Day: 17 Skakel
Record Store Day: 17 Link (en 12 Junie)
Aarbei Rabarber Wyndag: 17 (Derde Saterdag) Skakel
Tisha B'Av: 17
Gooi weg die & quotCould Haves & quot en & quotShould Haves & quot Dag: 17 (Derde Saterdag)
Woodie Wagon Day: 17 (Derde Saterdag)
Vroueduikdag: 17 (3de Saterdag)
*Slagoffers van Baton Rouge, Louisianna Attack Day: 17 Link
*Wêrelddag vir internasionale strafreg: 17 skakel
*Wêreld -emoji -dag: 17 skakel
*Verkeerde pad Corrigan -dag: 17
*Geelvarkdag: 17 skakel

Anne Hutchinson -gedenkdag: 18 (Altyd op 'n Sondag voor of na haar verjaardag 7/20)
Lake Superior -dag: 18 (Derde Sondag)
*Versekering Nerddag: 18 skakel
*Nasionale Kaviaardag: 18 skakel
Nasionale roomysdag: 18 (Derde Sondag)
*National Sour Candy Day: 18 Link (Gestart deur American Licorice 2015)
*Nelson Mandela Internasionale Dag: 18 Skakel
Tisha B'Av: 18

Eid-Al-Adha: 19
*Flitch Day: 19 skakel
(Nota: Sommige sê ook dat dit altyd die 3de Saterdag is. Ek het dit op 20 Junie ook met 'n meer gedetailleerde uiteensetting.
Maar op 19 Julie 1854 is die seremonie herleef nadat dit 103 jaar lank nie plaasgevind het nie. Daarom sê sommige dat dit op hierdie datum is. Dit word egter werklik elke skrikkeljaar amptelik gevier. Die volgende een is op 9 Julie 2016. Sien die Flitch of Dunmow -webwerf. )

Global Hug Your Kid Day: 19 (Derde Maandag)
National Get Out of the Doghouse Day: 19 (Derde Maandag)



*Maandag: 20
*Nasionale stokkielekkerdag: 20 skakel
*Ruimte -verkenningsdag: 20 skakel
*Wêreldskaakdag: 20 skakel
*Wêreldsprongdag: 20 skakel


*Wettige drinkouderdom: 21
*Dag met die laagste temperatuur (-128,6F Antarktika): 21 Dink koel gedagtes. :)
*National Be Someone Day: 21 skakel
*Geen troeteldierwinkel se hondjiesdag nie: 21
Neem u digter na die werkdag: 21 (3de Woensdag)

*Casual Pi -dag: 22 (22/7)
*Breekbare X -bewustheidsdag: 22
Nasionale verversingsdag: 22 Link (4de Donderdag)
*Dag vir rottevangers: 22
*Spooners (Spoonerism) Dag: 22

*Pragtige Ouma -dag: 23 (Let wel: webwerf is gekap. Geen skakel verskaf nie.)
*Warm genoeg vir jou dag: 23
Houthakkerdag: 23 (Laaste Vrydag van die laaste volle naweek)
Nasionale Pajamadag: 23 Skakel

*Kerk van Jesus Christus van die Heiliges van die Laaste Dae Pionierdag: 24 Skakel
*Neefs -dag: 24
*Internasionale Selfsorgdag: 24 skakel
National Body Painting Day: 24 (NYC) Link gekanselleer
National Day of the Cowboy: 24 Link (Vierde Saterdag)
Nasionale Klaagdag: 24 (Verlede Saterdag) Skakel
*Nasionale deurdag: 24
*Nasionale bevrore Margarita -dag: 24 skakel
*Nasionale Tequila -dag: 24 (VS) skakel (in Maart vir Mexiko)
*National Thermal Engineers Day: 24 Link (dit word beskou as die warmste dag van die jaar.)
*Tell An Old Joke Day: 24

Antie's Day: 25 (4de Sondag)
*Carrusel Day of Merry-Go-Round Day: 25 skakel
*Huur 'n veteraandag: 25 skakel
*Nasionale wapenstilstanddag vir Koreaanse oorlogsveterane: 25 skakel
Nasionale Ouersdag: 25 (Vierde Sondag)
*Rooi skoendag (Internasionaal): 25 Link Link (Lyme Disease)
*Thread The Needle Day: 25 skakel
(Let wel: dit is 'n tradisionele kerkspel wat in die lente gespeel word. Dit kan regtig altyd gespeel word.)

*Amerikaners met gestremdhede: 26 skakel
*Eenheidsdag van die weermag: 26
*Tannies en Ooms Dag: 26 Skakel

*Bagelfest Day: 26 Link Link (Nota: Anders as Bagel Day op 9 Februarie) Nog een op 9 Augustus)
*Internasionale dag vir die bewaring van die mangrove -ekosisteem: 26
*Een stem: 26

*Barbie-in-'n-blender-dag: 27 skakel
*Love Is Kind Day: 27 skakel
*Nasionale wapenstilstanddag vir Koreaanse oorlogsveterane: 27
*Neem u huisplant vir 'n stapdag: 27
*Loop op Stiltsdag: 27


*Buffelsoldate -dag: 28 skakel
*Nasionale melksjokoladesdag: 28 skakel
*Nasionale Waterparkdag: 28 Skakel
*Wêrelddag vir hepatitis: 28 skakel

*Herdenking van die Army Chaplain Corps: 29 Link
*Wêreldwye Tiger Day: 29
*Internasionale hoendervlerkdag: 29 skakel
*Internasionale tierdag: 29 skakel
*Lasagnadag: 29
*Nasionale hoendervlerkdag: 29 skakel
Nasionale Chili Dog Day: 29 (verlede Donderdag)
Nasionale Intern Dag: 29 Skakel (Donderdag van die 4de volle week)
*Nasionale lipstiffiedag: 29
*Reëndag: 29 skakel

*Kaaskoekdag: 30 skakel
*Skoonpa: 30
*Vriendskapsdag: 30 skakel (ook 3 Augustus)
*Gesondheidsorg nou! Medicare se verjaardag: 30 skakel
*Internasionale dag van vriendskap: 30 skakel (begin deur die VN. Anders as 'vriendskapsdag' in Augustus.)
*Nasionale Hoender- en Wafeldag: 30
National Get Narly Day: 30 Skakel (Laas Vrydag)
*National Share A Hug Day: 30 skakel
Nasionale gesprek in 'n hysdag: 30 (verlede Vrydag in Julie) skakel
National Water Gun Fight Day: 31 Link (verlede Saterdag)
*Nasionale fluitjieblaserswaarderingsdag: 30 skakel
*Sagteband Boekedag: 30
*Wêrelddag teen mensehandel: 30
Waarderingsdag vir stelseladministrateur: 30 skakel (verlede Vrydag)


Internasionale sluimerpartydag: 31 skakel
*Nasionale avokado -dag: 31 skakel
*Nasionale #liefdesdag: 31 skakel
*National Mutt Day: 31 Link (ook 2 Desember elke jaar)
*Nasionale orgasmedag: 31 skakel
Paddle for Perthes Disease Awareness Day: 31 (Altyd verlede Saterdag)
*Seldsame bewustheidsdag vir instrumente: 31 skakel
*Wêreldwagterdag: 31 skakel


1791-1800

"Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland en Virginia Almanac and Ephemers," deur Benjamin Banneker (1792-97)

Nadat hy gehelp het om die District of Columbia te ondersoek, het Banneker sy eerste almanak saamgestel en Wheatley se "Gedigte" vervang as die beste skouspel van swart vermoëns van abolitioniste. Hy het die almanak bygevoeg in 'n brief aan Jefferson, met die skrywe: "Ek neem aan dat u elke geleentheid sal aangryp om die trein van absurde en valse idees en opinies uit te wis." Jefferson het nie uit die trein gespring nie, maar ander Amerikaners het dit gedoen terwyl hy hierdie merkwaardige boek gelees het.


Ongelukkige datums

As u bygelowig is, moet u moontlik op die uitkyk wees vir hierdie histories onaangename dae uit verskillende kulture wanneer u u troudatum kies.

Die Ides van Maart

Vir antieke Romeine was 'ides' bloot 'n datum wat die middel van die maand was - totdat Julius Caesar op 15 Maart in 44 vC vermoor is. Sedertdien het 'Pasop vir die Ides van Maart' die mantra geword van hierdie bygelowige ongelukkige datum.

Maandag, 15 Maart 2021
Dinsdag, 15 Maart 2022
Woensdag, 15 Maart 2023

Vrydag die 13de

Die ongelukkigste datum van die jaar het twyfelagtige oorsprong. Sommige historici sê dat dit afkomstig is van die 13 maaltye wat by die laaste aandete was, maar die beroemde Babylon's Code of Hammurabi bevat nie 'n 13de wet nie, wat daarop dui dat hierdie bygeloof so oud is as 1700 vC. En dit was eers tot 'n suksesvolle roman met die titel Vrydag, die Dertiende is in die vroeë 1900's gepubliseer, wat Vrydag deel geword het van die ongelukkige vergelyking.

13 Augustus 2021
13 Mei 2022
13 Januarie 2023
13 Oktober 2023

Skrikkeljare

Grieke en Romeine het gedink dat die begin van 'n nuwe lewensgebeurtenis - van trou tot die doop van 'n kind - in 'n skrikkeljaar 'n ongeluk sou inhou.


U sal waarskynlik die koronavirus opdoen

Die meeste gevalle is nie lewensgevaarlik nie, wat ook die virus 'n historiese uitdaging maak.

Opgedateer om 19:43 op 25 Februarie 2020.

In Mei 1997 ontwikkel 'n 3-jarige seuntjie wat aanvanklik soos die gewone verkoue gelyk het. Toe sy simptome - seer keel, koors en hoes - ses dae aanhou, is hy na die Queen Elizabeth -hospitaal in Hong Kong geneem. Daar het sy hoes vererger, en hy het na sy asem begin snak. Ondanks intensiewe sorg is die seuntjie dood.

Hy was verbaas oor sy vinnige agteruitgang en het 'n monster van die seuntjie se sputum na die Chinese departement van gesondheid gestuur. Maar die standaard toetsprotokol kon nie die virus wat die siekte veroorsaak het, volledig identifiseer nie. Die hoofviroloog het besluit om 'n deel van die monster aan kollegas in ander lande te stuur.

By die Amerikaanse sentrums vir siektebeheer en -voorkoming in Atlanta het die seuntjie se sputum 'n maand lank gesit en wag op sy beurt in 'n stadige proses van teenliggaamperspassing. Die resultate het uiteindelik bevestig dat dit 'n variant van griep is, die virus wat meer mense as in die geskiedenis doodgemaak het. Maar hierdie tipe is nog nooit by mense gesien nie. Dit was H5N1, of 'voëlgriep', wat twee dekades tevore ontdek is, maar slegs bekend is om voëls te besmet.

Teen daardie tyd was dit Augustus. Wetenskaplikes het noodsein oor die hele wêreld gestuur. Die Chinese regering het vinnig 1,5 miljoen hoenders doodgemaak (weens protesoptredes van hoenderboere). Verdere gevalle is fyn dopgehou en geïsoleer. Teen die einde van die jaar was daar 18 bekende gevalle by mense. Ses mense is dood.

Dit word beskou as 'n suksesvolle wêreldwye reaksie, en die virus is jare lank nie weer gesien nie. Gedeeltelik was dit moontlik omdat die siekte so ernstig was: diegene wat dit opgedoen het, het duidelik baie siek geword. H5N1 het 'n sterftesyfer van ongeveer 60 persent - as u dit kry, sal u waarskynlik sterf. Maar sedert 2003 het die virus slegs 455 mense doodgemaak. Die veel “ligter” griepvirusse doodmaak daarteenoor minder as 0,1 persent van die mense wat hulle besmet, maar is jaarliks ​​verantwoordelik vir honderde duisende sterftes.

Erge siektes wat deur virusse soos H5N1 veroorsaak word, beteken ook dat besmette mense geïdentifiseer en geïsoleer kan word, of dat hulle vinnig dood is. Hulle loop nie net 'n bietjie onder die weer nie, terwyl hulle die virus saai. The new coronavirus (known technically as SARS-CoV-2) that has been spreading around the world can cause a respiratory illness that can be severe. The disease (known as COVID-19) seems to have a fatality rate of less than 2 percent—exponentially lower than most outbreaks that make global news. The virus has raised alarm not despite that low fatality rate, but because of it.

Coronaviruses are similar to influenza viruses in that they both contain single strands of RNA.* Four coronaviruses commonly infect humans, causing colds. These are believed to have evolved in humans to maximize their own spread—which means sickening, but not killing, people. By contrast, the two prior novel coronavirus outbreaks—SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) and MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome, named for where the first outbreak occurred)—were picked up from animals, as was H5N1. These diseases were highly fatal to humans. If there were mild or asymptomatic cases, they were extremely few. Had there been more of them, the disease would have spread widely. Ultimately, SARS and MERS each killed fewer than 1,000 people.

COVID-19 is already reported to have killed more than twice that number. With its potent mix of characteristics, this virus is unlike most that capture popular attention: It is deadly, but not too deadly. It makes people sick, but not in predictable, uniquely identifiable ways. Last week, 14 Americans tested positive on a cruise ship in Japan despite feeling fine—the new virus may be most dangerous because, it seems, it may sometimes cause no symptoms at all.

The world has responded with unprecedented speed and mobilization of resources. The new virus was identified extremely quickly. Its genome was sequenced by Chinese scientists and shared around the world within weeks. The global scientific community has shared genomic and clinical data at unprecedented rates. Work on a vaccine is well under way. The Chinese government enacted dramatic containment measures, and the World Health Organization declared an emergency of international concern. All of this happened in a fraction of the time it took to even identify H5N1 in 1997. And yet the outbreak continues to spread.

The Harvard epidemiology professor Marc Lipsitch is exacting in his diction, even for an epidemiologist. Twice in our conversation he started to say something, then paused and said, “Actually, let me start again.” So it’s striking when one of the points he wanted to get exactly right was this: “I think the likely outcome is that it will ultimately not be containable.”

Containment is the first step in responding to any outbreak. In the case of COVID-19, the possibility (however implausible) of preventing a pandemic seemed to play out in a matter of days. Starting in January, China began cordoning off progressively larger areas, radiating outward from the city of Wuhan and eventually encapsulating some 100 million people. People were barred from leaving home, and lectured by drones if they were caught outside. Nonetheless, the virus has now been found in 24 countries.

Despite the apparent ineffectiveness of such measures—relative to their inordinate social and economic cost, at least—the crackdown continues to escalate. Under political pressure to “stop” the virus, last Thursday the Chinese government announced that officials in Hubei province would be going door-to-door, testing people for fevers and looking for signs of illness, then sending all potential cases to quarantine camps. But even with the ideal containment, the virus’s spread may have been inevitable. Testing people who are already extremely sick is an imperfect strategy if people can spread the virus without even feeling bad enough to stay home from work.

Lipsitch predicts that within the coming year, some 40 to 70 percent of people around the world will be infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. But, he clarifies emphatically, this does not mean that all will have severe illnesses. “It’s likely that many will have mild disease, or may be asymptomatic,” he said. As with influenza, which is often life-threatening to people with chronic health conditions and of older age, most cases pass without medical care. (Overall, about 14 percent of people with influenza have no symptoms.)

Lipsitch is far from alone in his belief that this virus will continue to spread widely. The emerging consensus among epidemiologists is that the most likely outcome of this outbreak is a new seasonal disease—a fifth “endemic” coronavirus. With the other four, people are not known to develop long-lasting immunity. If this one follows suit, and if the disease continues to be as severe as it is now, “cold and flu season” could become “cold and flu and COVID-19 season.”

At this point, it is not even known how many people are infected. As of Sunday, there have been 35 confirmed cases in the U.S., according to the World Health Organization. But Lipsitch’s “very, very rough” estimate when we spoke a week ago (banking on “multiple assumptions piled on top of each other,” he said) was that 100 or 200 people in the U.S. were infected. That’s all it would take to seed the disease widely. The rate of spread would depend on how contagious the disease is in milder cases. On Friday, Chinese scientists reported in the medical journal JAMA an apparent case of asymptomatic spread of the virus, from a patient with a normal chest CT scan. The researchers concluded with stolid understatement that if this finding is not a bizarre abnormality, “the prevention of COVID-19 infection would prove challenging.”

Even if Lipsitch’s estimates were off by orders of magnitude, they wouldn’t likely change the overall prognosis. “Two hundred cases of a flu-like illness during flu season—when you’re not testing for it—is very hard to detect,” Lipsitch said. “But it would be really good to know sooner rather than later whether that’s correct, or whether we’ve miscalculated something. The only way to do that is by testing.”

Originally, doctors in the U.S. were advised not to test people unless they had been to China or had contact with someone who had been diagnosed with the disease. Within the past two weeks, the CDC said it would start screening people in five U.S. cities, in an effort to give some idea of how many cases are actually out there. But tests are still not widely available. As of Friday, the Association of Public Health Laboratories said that only California, Nebraska, and Illinois had the capacity to test people for the virus.

With so little data, prognosis is difficult. But the concern that this virus is beyond containment—that it will be with us indefinitely—is nowhere more apparent than in the global race to find a vaccine, one of the clearest strategies for saving lives in the years to come.

Over the past month, stock prices of a small pharmaceutical company named Inovio have more than doubled. In mid-January, it reportedly discovered a vaccine for the new coronavirus. This claim has been repeated in many news reports, even though it is technically inaccurate. Like other drugs, vaccines require a long testing process to see whether they indeed protect people from disease, and do so safely. What this company—and others—has done is copy a bit of the virus’s RNA that one day could prove to work as a vaccine. It’s a promising first step, but to call it a discovery is like announcing a new surgery after sharpening a scalpel.

Though genetic sequencing is now extremely fast, making vaccines is as much art as science. It involves finding a viral sequence that will reliably cause a protective immune-system memory but not trigger an acute inflammatory response that would itself cause symptoms. (While the influenza vaccine cannot cause the flu, the CDC warns that it can cause “flu-like symptoms.”) Hitting this sweet spot requires testing, first in lab models and animals, and eventually in people. One does not simply ship a billion viral gene fragments around the world to be injected into everyone at the moment of discovery.

Inovio is far from the only small biotech company venturing to create a sequence that strikes that balance. Others include Moderna, CureVac, and Novavax. Academic researchers are also on the case, at Imperial College London and other universities, as are federal scientists in several countries, including at the U.S. National Institutes of Health. Anthony Fauci, the head of the NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, wrote in JAMA in January that the agency was working at historic speed to find a vaccine. During the SARS outbreak in 2003, researchers moved from obtaining the genomic sequence of the virus and into a phase 1 clinical trial of a vaccine in 20 months. Fauci wrote that his team has since compressed that timeline to just over three months for other viruses, and for the new coronavirus, “they hope to move even faster.”

New models have sprung up in recent years, too, that promise to speed up vaccine development. One is the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness (CEPI), which was launched in Norway in 2017 to finance and coordinate the development of new vaccines. Its founders include the governments of Norway and India, the Wellcome Trust, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. The group’s money is now flowing to Inovio and other small biotech start-ups, encouraging them to get into the risky business of vaccine development. The group’s CEO, Richard Hatchett, shares Fauci’s basic timeline vision—a COVID-19 vaccine ready for early phases of safety testing in April. If all goes well, by late summer testing could begin to see if the vaccine actually prevents disease.

Overall, if all pieces fell into place, Hatchett guesses it would be 12 to 18 months before an initial product could be deemed safe and effective. That timeline represents “a vast acceleration compared with the history of vaccine development,” he told me. But it’s also unprecedentedly ambitious. “Even to propose such a timeline at this point must be regarded as hugely aspirational,” he added.

Even if that idyllic year-long projection were realized, the novel product would still require manufacturing and distribution. “An important consideration is whether the underlying approach can then be scaled to produce millions or even billions of doses in coming years,” Hatchett said. Especially in an ongoing emergency, if borders closed and supply chains broke, distribution and production could prove difficult purely as a matter of logistics.

Fauci’s initial optimism seemed to wane, too. Last week he said that the process of vaccine development was proving “very difficult and very frustrating.” For all the advances in basic science, the process cannot proceed to an actual vaccine without extensive clinical testing, which requires manufacturing many vaccines and meticulously monitoring outcomes in people. The process could ultimately cost hundreds of millions of dollars—money that the NIH, start-ups, and universities don’t have. Nor do they have the production facilities and technology to mass-manufacture and distribute a vaccine.

Production of vaccines has long been contingent on investment from one of the handful of giant global pharmaceutical companies. At the Aspen Institute last week, Fauci lamented that none had yet to “step up” and commit to making the vaccine. “Companies that have the skill to be able to do it are not going to just sit around and have a warm facility, ready to go for when you need it,” he said. Even if they did, taking on a new product like this could mean massive losses, especially if the demand faded or if people, for complex reasons, chose not to use the product.

Making vaccines is so difficult, cost intensive, and high risk that in the 1980s, when drug companies began to incur legal costs over alleged harms caused by vaccines, many opted to simply quit making them. To incentivize the pharmaceutical industry to keep producing these vital products, the U.S. government offered to indemnify anyone claiming to have been harmed by a vaccine. The arrangement continues to this day. Even still, drug companies have generally found it more profitable to invest in the daily-use drugs for chronic conditions. And coronaviruses could present a particular challenge in that at their core they, like influenza viruses, contain single strands of RNA. This viral class is likely to mutate, and vaccines may need to be in constant development, as with the flu.

“If we’re putting all our hopes in a vaccine as being the answer, we’re in trouble,” Jason Schwartz, an assistant professor at Yale School of Public Health who studies vaccine policy, told me. The best-case scenario, as Schwartz sees it, is the one in which this vaccine development happens far too late to make a difference for the current outbreak. The real problem is that preparedness for this outbreak should have been happening for the past decade, ever since SARS. “Had we not set the SARS-vaccine-research program aside, we would have had a lot more of this foundational work that we could apply to this new, closely related virus,” he said. But, as with Ebola, government funding and pharmaceutical-industry development evaporated once the sense of emergency lifted. “Some very early research ended up sitting on a shelf because that outbreak ended before a vaccine needed to be aggressively developed.”

Op Saterdag, Politiek reported that the White House is preparing to ask Congress for $1 billion in emergency funding for a coronavirus response. This request, if it materialized, would come in the same month in which President Donald Trump released a new budget proposal that would cut key elements of pandemic preparedness—funding for the CDC, the NIH, and foreign aid.

These long-term government investments matter because creating vaccines, antiviral medications, and other vital tools requires decades of serious investment, even when demand is low. Market-based economies often struggle to develop a product for which there is no immediate demand and to distribute products to the places they’re needed. CEPI has been touted as a promising model to incentivize vaccine development before an emergency begins, but the group also has skeptics. Last year, Doctors Without Borders wrote a scathing open letter, saying the model didn’t ensure equitable distribution or affordability. CEPI subsequently updated its policies to forefront equitable access, and Manuel Martin, a medical innovation and access adviser with Doctors Without Borders, told me last week that he’s now cautiously optimistic. “CEPI is absolutely promising, and we really hope that it will be successful in producing a novel vaccine,” he said. But he and his colleagues are “waiting to see how CEPI’s commitments play out in practice.”

These considerations matter not simply as humanitarian benevolence, but also as effective policy. Getting vaccines and other resources to the places where they will be most helpful is essential to stop disease from spreading widely. During the 2009 H1N1 flu outbreak, for example, Mexico was hit hard. In Australia, which was not, the government prevented exports by its pharmaceutical industry until it filled the Australian government’s order for vaccines. The more the world enters lockdown and self-preservation mode, the more difficult it could be to soberly assess risk and effectively distribute tools, from vaccines and respirator masks to food and hand soap.

Italy, Iran, and South Korea are now among the countries reporting quickly growing numbers of detected COVID-19 infections. Many countries have responded with containment attempts, despite the dubious efficacy and inherent harms of China’s historically unprecedented crackdown. Certain containment measures will be appropriate, but widely banning travel, closing down cities, and hoarding resources are not realistic solutions for an outbreak that lasts years. All of these measures come with risks of their own. Ultimately some pandemic responses will require opening borders, not closing them. At some point the expectation that any area will escape effects of COVID-19 must be abandoned: The disease must be seen as everyone’s problem.

* This story originally stated that coronaviruses and influenza viruses are single strands of RNA in fact, influenza viruses can contain multiple segments of single-strand RNA.


NATIONAL HISTORY DAY:

Each year more than half a million students participate in the National History Day Contest. Students choose a historical topic related to the annual theme, and then conduct primary and secondary research. You will look through libraries, archives and museums, conduct oral history interviews, and visit historic sites. After you have analyzed and interpreted your sources, and have drawn a conclusion about the significance of your topic, you will then be able to present your work in one of five ways: as a paper, an exhibit, a performance, a documentary, or a website.

Read the rules

Before you begin work on an entry for competition, you, your teacher, and your parents should carefully read the Contest Rule Book. Contact your regional or state/affiliate coordinator to learn if any rules have been revised since the publication of this rule book, and for more information on topics, sources, and deadlines. Find your affiliate coordinator.

Understand the Theme

Each year your research must connect to the NHD theme. The theme changes each year so if you do NHD every year, you will not repeat a theme. The themes are chosen to be broad enough to encourage investigation of topics ranging from local history to world history, and from ancient time to the recent past. To understand the historical importance of your topic you need to ask questions about time, place and context, cause and effect, change over time, and impact and significance. You must consider not only when and where events happened, but also why they occurred and what factors contributed to their development.

Choose a Topic

Topics for research are everywhere! Think about a time in history or individuals or events that are interesting to you. Start a list.
• Read books, newspapers or other sources of information and add to your list.
• Talk with relatives, neighbors, or people you know who have lived through a particular time in history that interests you and add more ideas.
• Keep thinking, reading and talking to people until you have many ideas that are interesting.

Now go back through the list and circle the ideas that connect with the theme. From the ideas that you circled, select one to begin your research. Keep your list because you might need it again. Selecting a National History Day Contest topic is a process of gradually narrowing down the area of history (period or event) that interests you to a manageable subject.

For example, if you’re interested in Native Americans and the theme is Leadership and Legacy in History, a natural topic would be treaty rights. Now from there, you would consider the resources you have available to you—perhaps your local historical society—and possibly choose a Native American/U.S. treaty based in your affiliate’s history.

Theme: Leadership and Legacy
Rente: presidential power
Topic: Andrew Jackson and the removal of the Cherokee Nation
Uitgawe: the refusal of a president to enforce a Supreme Court ruling

Nothing in history happens in a vacuum. To understand the connections between your topic and the time period, begin reading about the time period and as you read ask yourself questions:

  • Why did my topic happen at this particular time and in this particular place?
  • What were the events or the influences that came before my topic?
  • How was my topic influenced by and how did it influence the economic, social, political, and cultural climate of the time period?

All of these questions will help you to build the story of your topic and grasp the historical significance. This will also help you begin thinking about your thesis.

Develop a Thesis Statement

NHD projects should do more than just tell a story. Every exhibit, performance, documentary, paper and website should make a point about its topic. To do this, you must develop your own argument of the historical impact of the person, event, pattern or idea you are studying. The point you make is called a thesis statement. A thesis statement is not the same as a topic. Your thesis statement explains what you believe to be the impact and significance of your topic in history. Example:

Topic: Battle of Gettysburg
Thesis Statement: The battle of Gettysburg was a major turning point of the Civil War. It turned the tide of the war from the South to the North, pushing back Lee’s army that would never fight again on Northern soil and bringing confidence to the Union army.

Primêre bronne

A primary source is a piece of information about a historical event or period in which the creator of the source was an actual participant in or a contemporary of a historical moment. The purpose of primary sources is to capture the words, the thoughts and the intentions of the past. Primary sources help you to interpret what happened and why it happened.

Examples of primary sources include: documents, artifacts, historic sites, songs, or other written and tangible items created during the historical period you are studying.

Sekondêre bronne

A secondary source is a source that was not created first-hand by someone who participated in the historical era. Secondary sources are usually created by historians, but based on the historian’s reading of primary sources. Secondary sources are usually written decades, if not centuries, after the event occurred by people who did not live through or participate in the event or issue. The purpose of a secondary source is to help build the story of your research from multiple perspectives and to give your research historical context.

An example of a secondary source is Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era by James M. McPherson, published in 1988. They are a great starting point in helping you see the big picture. Understanding the context of your topic will help you make sense of the primary sources that you find.

The primary and secondary sources McPherson used are listed in the bibliography. Another researcher might consult these same primary sources and reach a different conclusion.

Citations/Bibliographies

To record the information the two acceptable styles of writing for NHD projects are Turabian and MLA. Historians use Turabian but we know that many classes in middle school and high school teach the MLA style. It does not matter which of these two styles you use, but it is important to be consistent. For help with questions about citations, you can check out Turabian or MLA guides from your local library.

Annotated Bibliographies

An annotated bibliography is required for all categories. The annotation for each source must explain how the source was used and how it helped you understand your topic. You should also use the annotation to explain why you categorized a particular source as primary or secondary. Sources of visual materials and oral interviews, if used, must also be included.

List only those sources that you used to develop your entry. An annotation normally should be only 1-3 sentences long. Visit our Annotated Bibliography page for more information.

NoodleTools: NHD and NoodleTools partner together to bring teachers and students the opportunity to organize their research. Teachers can sign up and receive account access for all of their students to help complete their NHD projects. Noodle Tools can help students track their sources, take notes, organize their ideas, and create their annotated bibliographies. The program allows the teacher to see the progress the students have made and offer direct electronic feedback.

Conducting Interviews

Interviews are not required for an NHD project. Requests to interview historians or other secondary sources are inappropriate. Historians do not interview each other. You are encouraged to read and learn about your topic on your own. Consider interviewing primary sources- eyewitnesses to the events. Learn more at the link below.


Summary of the 2017-2018 Influenza Season

Let wel: See Frequently Asked Flu Questions for 2018-2019 Influenza Season for flu and flu vaccine information specific to the current flu season.

Season Summary Reports

What was the 2017-2018 flu season like?

The 2017-2018 influenza season was a high severity season with high levels of outpatient clinic and emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI), high influenza-related hospitalization rates, and elevated and geographically widespread influenza activity for an extended period. In 2017, CDC began using new methodology to classify seasonal severity and applied the methodology to the 2003-2004 through 2016-2017 seasons. The 2017-18 season was the first season to be classified as a high severity across all age groups.

When did the 2017-2018 flu season peak?

During the 2017-2018 season, influenza-like-illness (ILI) activity began to increase in November, reaching an extended period of high activity during January and February nationally, and remained elevated through the end of March. ILI peaked at 7.5%, the highest percentage since the 2009 flu pandemic, which peaked at 7.7%. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was at or above the national baseline for 19 weeks, making the 2017-2018 season one of the longest in recent years.

How many people died from flu during the 2017-2018 season?

While flu deaths in children are reported to CDC, flu deaths in adults are not nationally notifiable. In order to monitor influenza related deaths in all age groups, CDC tracks pneumonia and influenza (P&I)-attributed deaths through the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Mortality Reporting System. This system tracks the proportion of death certificates processed that list pneumonia or influenza as the underlying or contributing cause of death. This system provides an overall indication of whether flu-associated deaths are elevated, but does not provide an exact number of how many people died from flu.

During the 2017-2018 season, the percentage of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was at or above the epidemic threshold for 16 consecutive weeks. During the past five seasons, the average number of weeks this indicator was above threshold was 11 (range of 7 to 15 weeks). Nationally, mortality attributed to P&I exceeded 10.0% for four consecutive weeks, peaking at 10.8% during the week ending January 20, 2018.

As it does for the numbers of flu cases, doctor&rsquos visits and hospitalizations, CDC also estimates deaths in the United States using mathematical modeling. CDC estimates that from 2010-2011 to 2013-2014, influenza-associated deaths in the United States ranged from a low of 12,000 (during 2011-2012) to a high of 56,000 (during 2012-2013). Death certificate data and weekly influenza virus surveillance information was used to estimate how many flu-related deaths occurred among people whose underlying cause of death on their death certificate included respiratory or circulatory causes. For more information, see Estimating Seasonal Influenza-Associated Deaths in the United States and CDC&rsquos Disease Burden of Influenza page.

How many children died from flu during the 2017-2018 season?

As of April 19, 2019, a total of 186 pediatric deaths had been reported to CDC during the 2017-2018 season. This number exceeds the previously highest number of flu-associated deaths in children reported during a regular flu season (171 during the 2012-2013 season). Approximately 80% of these deaths occurred in children who had not received a flu vaccination this season. For the most recent data and more information visit FluView: Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality.

Since flu-associated deaths in children became a nationally notifiable condition in 2004, the total number of flu-associated deaths among children during one season has ranged from 37 (during the 2011-2012 season) to 186 (during the 2017-18 season, as of April 19, 2019) this excludes the 2009 pandemic, when 358 pediatric deaths from April 15, 2009 through October 2, 2010 were reported to CDC.

How many people were hospitalized from flu during the 2017-2018 season?

From October 1, 2017 through April 28, 2018, 30,453 laboratory-confirmed influenza-related hospitalizations were reported through the Influenza Hospitalization Surveillance Network (FluSurv-NET), which covers approximately 9% of the U.S. population. People 65 years and older accounted for approximately 58% of reported influenza-associated hospitalizations. Overall hospitalization rates (all ages) during 2017-2018 were the highest ever recorded in this surveillance system, breaking the previously recorded high recorded during 2014-2015 a high severity H3N2-predominant season when CDC estimates that hospitalizations captured through FluSurv-NET translated into a total of 710,000 flu hospitalizations that seasons. (For more information on these estimates, see CDC&rsquos Disease Burden of Influenza page.) Estimates on the total number of flu-related hospitalizations during 2017-2018 will be available in fall 2018.

What flu viruses circulated during the 2017-2018 season?

Influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominated overall during the 2017-2018 season. However, influenza B viruses became more commonly reported than influenza A viruses in early March 2018 through May 2018.

How much flu vaccine was produced and distributed during the 2017-2018 season?

Flu vaccine is produced by private manufacturers, so supply depends on manufacturers. For the 2017-2018 season, manufacturers originally projected they would provide between 151 million and 166 million doses of injectable vaccine for the U.S. market. As of February 23, 2018, manufacturers reported having shipped approximately 155.3 million doses of flu vaccine a record number of flu vaccine doses distributed. More information about flu vaccine supply is available at Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Supply & Distribution.

How effective was the 2017-2018 flu vaccine?

The overall vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 2017-2018 flu vaccine against both influenza A and B viruses is estimated to be 40%. This means the flu vaccine reduced a person&rsquos overall risk of having to seek medical care at a doctor&rsquos office for flu illness by 40%. Protection by virus type and subtype was: 25% against A(H3N2), 65% against A(H1N1) and 49% against influenza B viruses. These VE estimates were presented to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices on June 20, 2018.

While flu vaccine can vary in how well it works, flu vaccination is the best way to prevent flu and its potentially serious complications and prevents millions of flu illnesses and related doctors&rsquo visits and tens of thousands of hospitalizations. For example, during the 2016&ndash2017 influenza season, CDC estimates that flu vaccine prevented an estimated 5.3 million illnesses, 2.6 million medical visits, and 85,000 hospitalizations associated with influenza. Similar estimates for 2017-2018 will be released in fall 2018. Influenza vaccination also has been shown to reduce the risk of flu death in children.

For more information about previous vaccine effectiveness, visit How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?.

Was this season&rsquos flu vaccine a good match for circulating viruses?

Ja. The majority of the influenza viruses collected from the United States during the 2017-2018 flu season were characterized antigenically and genetically as being similar to the cell-grown reference viruses representing the 2017&ndash18 Northern Hemisphere influenza vaccine viruses.


The List of the Most Famous DDoS Attacks — By Year and Month

Want to see some others who have unwittingly competed for the title of sustaining the largest DDoS attacks on record? Check out our timeline to see the progression of the largest and most famous distributed denial of service attacks that have occurred within the past six years (both traffic-based and packet-based attacks):

February — Amazon Web Services (AWS) reported in their TLR for Q1 2020 that they observed and mitigated a 2.3 Tbps UDP reflection vector DDoS attack. Not only is this the largest DDoS attack that AWS reports ever facing, but it’s also thought to be the largest DDoS attack in history on record in terms of bit rate.

April — Imperva reports one of their clients was able to thwart a DDoS attack that peaked at 580 million packets per second. To date, this is considered the largest DDoS attack by packet volume to date.

January — Another Imperva client sustained a 500 million packets per second DDoS attack.

March — NETSCOUT reported that its Arbor ATLAS global traffic and DDoS threat detection system confirmed a 1.7 Tbps memcached reflection/amplification attack on an unnamed U.S.-based service provider.

February — The GitHub DDoS attack inundated the company with 1.35 Tbps of data (129.6 million PPS) — the largest DDoS attack on record as of that time — via memcaching. This means that the attackers spoofed GitHub’s IP address to send small inquiries to several Memcached servers to trigger a major response in the form of a 50x data response.

October — The Czech statistical office websites relating to the Czech Republic’s parliamentary elections — volby.cz and volbyhned.cz — failed temporarily due to DDoS attacks during the vote count.

August — Web host company DreamHost, which was said to host the Nazi Daily Stormer website under its new name Punished Stormer, suffered a DDoS attack of unannounced proportion. This attack followed a Department of Justice request for visitor data relating to the stormer site.

June — Throughout the second half of the year, video game software developer Square Enix’s Final Fantasy XIV online role-playing game (RPG) sustained intermittent DDoS attacks via botnets. The attacks spanned the summer and another set of attacks occurred during the fall.

October — The Dyn DDoS attack, which measured in at 1.2 Tbps and was considered the largest DDoS attack at the time, brought down much of the internet across the U.S. and Europe. Using the Mirai botnet, the attack targeted Dyn, a company that controls much of the domain name system (DNS) infrastructure of the internet.

September — French web host OVH experienced a DDoS attack measuring in at nearly 1 Tbps. The attackers used a botnet of hacked IoT devices (CCTV cameras and personal video recorders) to launch their attack.

March — GitHub sustained a DDoS attack that was thought to be politically motivated because it focused on two GitHub projects that aimed to provide Chinese citizens with a way to circumvent Chinese state web censorship.

The website for Occupy Central in Hong Kong, which was campaigning for a more democratic voting system, experienced a 500 Gbps DDoS attack that was executed via five botnets. Also targeted were the online news site Apple Daily and PopVote, a mock election site, both of which supported OC’s message.

Have questions or want to share your thoughts about DDoS attacks? Feel free to do so below.

This article was originally written by Patrick Nohe in 2018, it was updated by Casey Crane for 2019 and, most recently, 2020.


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