Het klassieke Romeine enige swemdrag gedra?

Het klassieke Romeine enige swemdrag gedra?

Sê dat 'n klassieke Romein besluit het dat hulle in 'n meer of op 'n strand wil gaan swem, en hulle het verwag dat ander mense hulle sou kon sien. Sou hulle 'n soort swemdrag gedra het of naak geword het? Hoe sou dit gelyk het as hulle wel swemdrag gedra het?


Die Romeine, en inderdaad die klassieke wêreld in die algemeen, sou gewoonlik in die naak geswem het. Kyk byvoorbeeld na die volgende afbeeldings van naakte duikers, hoewel hulle nie juis Romeins is nie.

Fresco's van die Etruskiese graf van jag en visvang in Sentraal -Italië. Bron: Die databasis van antieke kuns

Fresco van die Griekse graf van die duiker in Suid -Italië. Bron: Lapham's Quarterly

Hou in gedagte dat klassieke Grieke in die algemeen naak atletiek uitgevoer het en dat die Romeine hul gebruike aangeneem het - oor die protes van konserwatiewes, wat die naaktheid oproerig gevind het. Dit sou nogal vreemd wees om 'n uitsondering te maak vir swem, van alle sportsoorte. Trouens, antieke swem hou so nou verband met naaktheid dat afkeer daarvan voorgestel word as verduidelikings waarom sommige groepe nie weet hoe om te swem nie.

'N Ander en nie onredelike verklaring kan gevind word in die barbaarse houding teenoor naaktheid nie ... maar as die houding teenoor naaktheid van kleins af in die gedagtes van Persiese seuns was, is dit voldoende om te verduidelik waarom hulle nooit moes leer swem nie.

Couch, H. N. "Swem onder die Grieke en Barbarians." Die Klassieke Tydskrif, vol. 29, nee. 8, 1934, pp. 609-612.

'N Ander punt wat in ag geneem moet word, is dat Romeine gereeld in die openbaar en naak gebad het in hul beroemde thermae sedert ten minste die Republiek. Maer dompel is nie 'n sprong om na 'n openbare bad te gaan nie. Daar word gesê dat Romeinse soldate van die Campus Martius in die Tiber gaan swem het nadat hulle opgelei het om hulself te reinig. Soos Plutarchus in sy Parallel Lives opgemerk het:

[Romeins] Skoonseuns het vroeër vermy om saam met skoonvaders te bad, en nie daarvan om mekaar naak te sien nie; maar nadat hulle mettertyd geleer het van die Grieke om voor mans uit te trek, het hulle die Grieke sedertdien geleer om dit selfs met die vroue self te doen.

Dit is natuurlik denkbaar dat sommige individue moontlik gaan swem het sonder om hulself uit te trek, of miskien in hul onderklere. Veral die Romeinse weermag het baie rekords gelaat van soldate wat oor riviere swem, soms selfs met hul wapenrusting aan. Plutarchus beweer byvoorbeeld dat Sertorius die Rhône oorgesteek het terwyl hy gewond en in volle wapenrusting was. Horatius Cocles het 'n brug na Rome verdedig terwyl dit gesloop en teruggetrek is deur te swem, vermoedelik ook in pantser. Vermoedelik het nie een van hulle die vrymoedigheid gehad om uit te trek voordat hulle vyande aankom nie. Tog is die waarheid van sulke buitengewone prestasies in twyfel, en dit was beslis nie die norm nie.

In elk geval het doelgemaakte swemklere in die algemeen eers na die Renaissance as badpak verskyn. Naak swem het tot relatief onlangs nog steeds wydverspreid in Europa, ten minste vir mans, voorgekom. Terwyl die ontwerp van die moderne bikini teruggevoer is na die Romeinse subligaculum en strofium (onderbroek en borsbande, dit wil sê 'n 'tweedelige bikini'), is dit nie as swemdrag gedra nie. Die Romeinse vroue wat so geklee is, word uitgebeeld as betrokke algemene atletiek op land, sonder teken van swem. Die strophium het basies dieselfde funksies as 'n moderne sportbh.

Romeinse vroue het borsbande gedra, en soms kledingstukke soos 'n onderbroek, maar slegs selde word hulle aangetoon: die klassieke voorbeeld is die sogenaamde 'bikini-meisies' op 'n mosaïek van Piazza Armerina (Sicilië, vierde eeu nC). Sulke kledingstukke blykbaar deur vroue -atlete of akrobate gedra te word - daar is geen bewyse dat hulle gedra is om te swem of om te son nie.

Cleland, Liza, Glenys Davies en Lloyd Llewellyn-Jones. Griekse en Romeinse rok van A tot Z. Routledge, 2007.

Mosaïek uit die Villa Romana del Casale. Bron: Wikimedia Commons


Lucius ' € ™ Romeine


Inleiding
Antieke Rome het deur 'n groot deel van sy geskiedenis 'n ongelooflike uiteenlopende bevolking gehad. Op die punt waarin die Ryk tot sy verste grens uitgebrei het, vind ons Rome 'n stad van wonderlike verskeidenheid. Haarstyle en mode van al die nasies van die Ryk kon in die stad gesien word, en hul tale en aksente kon op die strate en openbare plekke gehoor word. Wat het die Romeine gedink van hierdie buitelanders wat voortdurend by die stad se bevolking opgeneem word?

In hierdie blog vind u antieke literêre bronne wat lig werp op wat Romeine van die wêreld rondom hulle gedink het en oor die verskillende mense wat saam in die oorvol en bruisende stad Rome gewoon het.


Inhoud
1. Diversiteit in Rome
2. Die wêreld volgens die Romeine
3. Romeinse siening van buitelanders
4. Die aantrekkingskrag na Rome
5. Verbeel jou 'n Romeinse Straat Toneel

Verskeidenheid in Rome
Cicero
Dit is Rome, 'n staat wat gevorm is deur die samekoms van nasies.
(Q. Cic. Pet. 14, klik vir skakel)

Atheneus
Hoeveel nasionaliteite is daar in Rome volgens Athenaeus? Kan u hierdie plekke op 'n moderne kaart vind? Watter nasionaliteit is volgens Athenaeus die beste? Kan u die nasionaliteit van Athenaeus raai?
Rome kan redelik die nasie van die wêreld genoem word. En hy sal nie ver wees nie, wat die stad van die Romeine 'n toonbeeld van die hele aarde uitspreek, want daarin kan u elke ander stad gesamentlik gereël sien, en baie ook afsonderlik, daar sien u byvoorbeeld die goue stad van die Alexandriërs, die pragtige metropool Antiochië, die uitnemende skoonheid van Nicomedia en behalwe al hierdie die glorierykste van al die stede wat Jupiter ooit vertoon het, bedoel ek Athene. En nie net een dag nie, maar al die dae in 'n hele jaar sou te kort wees vir 'n man wat sou probeer om al die stede op te som wat in die uranopolis van die Romeine in die uranopolis van die Romeine beskou kan word, die stad Rome is so talryk. hulle. - Want daar is inderdaad 'n paar volke gevestig, soos die Kappadosiane, die Skithiërs, die mense van Pontus en vele ander.
(Athenaeus, The Deipnosophists, 1.36, klik vir skakel)

Die wêreld volgens die Romeine


Seemonster, Sala Rotunda, Vatikaanmuseums, Rome. Krediet: Julia Peters

Wat dink u vertel die volgende uittreksel uit Plinius se natuurgeskiedenis ons oor die Romeinse siening van die wêreld?

Plinius
Daar word gesê dat die Arimaspi bestaan ​​in die omgewing van diegene wat in die noordelike streke woon, en nie ver van die plek waarvandaan die noordwind opkom nie, en die plek wat sy grot genoem word en wat bekend staan ​​onder die naam Geskleithron. , wat ek voorheen genoem het, 'n nasie wat merkwaardig is met net een oog, en wat in die middel van die voorkop geplaas is. Daar word gesê dat hierdie ras 'n ewigdurende oorlog voer met die Griffins, 'n soort monster, met vlerke, soos dit algemeen voorgestel word, vir die goud wat hulle uit die myne grawe, en wat hierdie wilde diere behou en waak oor. 'n eiesoortige graad van koppigheid, terwyl die Arimaspi ewe graag daarvan hou om dit in besit te neem.
Op baie van die berge is daar weer 'n stam mense wat die koppe van honde het en hulle beklee met die velle van wilde diere. In plaas daarvan om te praat, blaf hulle en, met kloue, leef hulle deur te jag en voëls te vang. Volgens die verhaal, soos deur Ctesias gegee, is die getal van hierdie mense meer as honderd -en -twintigduisend: en dieselfde skrywer vertel ons dat daar 'n sekere ras in Indië is, waarvan die wyfies slegs een keer in die verloop van hul lewens, en dat die hare van die kinders wit word sodra hulle gebore word. Hy praat ook van 'n ander ras mans, bekend as Monocoli, wat net een been het, maar met verrassende ratsheid kan spring. Dieselfde mense word ook Sciapodæ genoem, omdat hulle die gewoonte het om op hul rug te lê tydens die uiterste hitte en hulself teen die son te beskerm deur die skaduwee van hul voete. Hy sê dat hierdie mense nie baie ver van die Troglodytæ in die weste woon nie, van wie daar weer 'n stam is wat sonder nekke is en oë in hul skouers het.

Die natuur het in haar vindingrykheid al hierdie wonderwerke in die menslike ras geskep, met ander van soortgelyke aard, soos soveel vermaaklikhede vir haarself, al lyk dit vir ons wonderbaarlik. Maar wie is daar wat al die dinge wat sy elke dag teweeg bring, kan ek byna elke uur sê? As 'n opvallende bewys van haar mag, laat dit my voldoende wees om hele nasies in die lys van haar wonderkinders te noem.
(Plinius, NH, 7.2., Klik vir skakel)

Romeinse siening van buitelanders
Die keiser Claudius, soos opgeteken deur Tacitus, verduidelik aan die Romeinse senaat waarom die manne van Gallië die reg moet kry om 'n openbare amp te verkry. In jou eie woorde, hoe regverdig Claudius sy besluit? Vind u sy argument oortuigend?

Tacitus
In my eie voorouers, waarvan die oudste, Clausus, 'n Sabine by ekstraksie, tegelyk 'n burger en die hoof van 'n patriciaanse huis was, vind ek aanmoediging om dieselfde beleid in my administrasie te volg, deur alle ware uitnemendheid hierheen oor te dra, laat dit sal gevind word waar dit wil. Want ek is nie onbewus daarvan dat die Julii na ons toe gekom het van Alba, die Coruncanii van Camerium, die Porcii van Tusculum dat lede - om nie die oudheid te ondersoek nie - in die senaat uit Etruria, uit Lucania, uit die hele Italië opgestel is en uiteindelik Italië self is uitgebrei tot die Alpe, sodat nie slegs individue nie, maar lande en nasionaliteite een liggaam sou vorm onder die naam van Romeine. Die dag van stabiele vrede by die huis en oorwinning in die buiteland het aangebreek toe die distrikte buite die Po tot burgerskap toegelaat is, en toe ons van die feit gebruik dat ons legioene oor die hele wêreld gevestig was, het ons die sterkste van die provinsies bygevoeg en ons het geslaag. 'n vermoeide ryk. Is dit betreur dat die Balbi van Spanje en gesinne oorgesteek het ewe onderskei van die Narbonese Gallië? Hulle afstammelinge bly nie en gee ook nie voor in onsself in liefde vir hierdie geboorteland van hulle nie. Wat anders was noodlottig vir Lacedaemon en Athene, ondanks hul mag, maar hul beleid om die verowerde afsydig as vreemdelinge te hou? Maar die sagtheid van ons eie stigter Romulus was van so 'n aard dat hy in dieselfde loop verskeie kere 'n volk beveg en genaturaliseer het! Vreemdelinge was konings oor ons: die toekenning van magistrasies aan die seuns van vrymanne is nie die nuutheid wat algemeen en verkeerdelik gedink word nie, maar 'n gereelde gebruik van die ou gemenebes. hulle met onsself vermeng het, laat hulle hul goud en hul rykdom onder ons bring, in plaas daarvan om hulle buite die bleek te hou!
(Tacitus, Annale 11.24 klik vir skakel)

Horatius skryf aan die keiser Tiberius en beweer dat die verowerde volke van die Romeinse Ryk hul keiser 'aanbid'. Die nasies word beide genoem en verwys na riviere. Hierdie beskrywingsmetode gee die leser 'n verstandelike beeld van hoe groot 'n gebied deur die Romeinse Ryk beslaan word. Let op hoe elke nasie gekenmerk word. Vind u hierdie kenmerke positief of negatief? Is Horace van plan om vir Tiberius bly te wees dat hierdie mense hom aanbid?

Horatius (1ste eeu vC/1ste eeu nC)
Die Spanjaarde, nog nooit verower nie, die Mede,
die Indiane, verwonder jou, die rondloper
Skithiërs, o gretige beskermer
van Italië en die keiserlike Rome.
Die Nyl, wat sy oorsprong verberg, hoor jou,
hoor die Donau, en die vinnig vloeiende Tigris,
die Oseaan, gevul met monsters, brullend
rondom die verre eiland van Brittanje,
en die streke van Gallië, onbevrees vir die dood,
en die hardnekkige Iberiese land, hoor jou:
Sygambri, verheug oor die slag,
staan, met grondwapens, en aanbid u.

Poet Martial beskryf 'n toneel in die Colosseum waarin toeskouers van regoor die Ryk bymekaarkom om die spele te sien. Net soos Horace gebruik Martial karakterisering om die verskillende nasionaliteite te identifiseer. Wat vertel die beskrywings van Martial ons oor hierdie verskillende kulture? Wat probeer Martial kommunikeer in hierdie uittreksel uit de Spectaculis?

WATTER ras is tot dusver vasgestel, watter ras is so barbaars,
Caesar, waaruit 'n toeskouer nie in u stad is nie?
Daar het die boer van Rhodope gekom van Orphic
Haemus, daar het die Sarmatian ook gevoed
trekke perde ’ bloed, en hy wat daaraan kwaf
die stroom van die eerste gevind Nyl, en hy 3 wie se
langs die golf van die verste Tethys klop die Arabier
het spoed, Sabaeërs gehaas, en Cilici het
hier deurdrenk in hul eie saffraandou. 4 Met
Sygambriërs het in 'n knoop gedraai, en,
met slotte anders gedraai, Aethiopiërs. Diverse
klink die spraak van die mense, maar dan is dit een
as u 'n lofprysing van u land se vader het.

Baie van die vreemdelinge wat in Rome gewoon het, was slawe of slawe. In 'n wet wat in Uplian's Digest gevind word, word vereis dat die nasionaliteit van 'n slaaf aan voornemende kopers verklaar word. Watter rede word in die teks hiervoor gegee? Wat kan hierdie wet ons vertel van Romeinse vooroordele vir ander nasionaliteite?

Ulpian
Persone wat slawe verkoop, moet altyd hul nasionaliteit aandui, ten tyde van die verkoop, omdat die plek waar die slaaf gebore is, die koper aantrek of afskrik, en daarom is dit ons belang om te weet in watter land hy gebore is want dit word vermoed dat sommige slawe goed is omdat hulle uit 'n nasie kom wat nie 'n slegte reputasie het nie, en ander word as sleg beskou omdat hulle afkomstig is van 'n volk wat eerder onbetwisbaar is as andersins. As die oorsprong van die slaaf nie genoem is nie, sal 'n aksie op grond hiervan toegestaan ​​word aan die koper en aan almal wat in die saak belangstel, waardeur die koper 'n slaaf kan dwing om teruggeneem te word.
(Ulpian, Digest, 21.1.31.21 klik vir skakel)

Die wet hierbo vertel ons dat Romeine verskillend aan buitelanders gedink het, afhangende van hul nasionaliteit. Om die Romeinse siening van buitelanders beter te verstaan, kyk na beskrywings van verskillende nasionaliteite wat in antieke literatuur voorkom.

Watter positiewe en negatiewe sienings vind u oor die Romeine teenoor die Grieke deur bewyse in die onderstaande tekste te gebruik? Wat dink jy het die negatiewe sienings van die Grieke beïnvloed?

Cicero
Maar ek sê dit vir die hele ras van die Grieke: ek laat hulle toe om te leer, ek laat hulle kennis van baie kunste toe. , Ek sal geen beswaar maak nie, maar 'n nougesette agting van die waarheid deur hul getuienis te lewer, is nie 'n deug wat die nasie ooit gekweek het nie; hulle is heeltemal onkundig wat die betekenis van die kwaliteit is; hulle weet niks van die gesag of die gewig daarvan nie.
(Cic. Pro Flacco, 9 klik vir skakel)

Jeugdige
En wat van al die Grieke?
Die ras wat nou die mees aanvaarbare is vir ons ryk Romeine,
Daardie ras wat ek hoofsaaklik wil vlug, sal ek vinnig onthul,
En sonder verleentheid. My vriende, ek kan nie verdra nie
'N Rome vol Grieke, maar min van die droging is Grieks!
... Sien, Romulus, die rustieke van jou wat Griekse pantoffels dra,
Griekse salf, Griekse prysmedalje om hul nekke.
Hy is van die hoogtes van Sicyon, en hy is van Amydon,
Van Andros, Samos kom hulle, van Tralles of Alabanda,
Op soek na die Esquiline en die Viminal, vernoem na sy wilgers.
Om beide die binneste en meesters van ons groot huise te word.
Vinnig, van skaamteloos vermetelheid, gereed vir spraak, meer
Lip as Isaeus, die retorikus. Sê net wat jy wil hê
Om te wees. Hulle bring u in een persoon, wat u ook al nodig het:
Die onderwyser in tale, redenaar, skilder, geometer, afrigter,
Augur, tou-danser, dokter, towenaar, hulle weet alles,
Jou honger Grieke: sê vir hulle om na die hemel te suis, hulle gaan.
... Moet ek nie in pers vlug vir hierdie mense nie? Moet ek kyk hoe hulle teken
Dus, voor my, en gaan lê op 'n beter rusbank as myne.
Manne wat deur die wind na Rome gedryf is, met die pruime en die vye?
Is dit niks dat ek in my kinderjare die Aventynse lug ingeasem het nie,
Is dit niks dat ek in my jeug op Sabine -olywe gekoester is nie?

Plutarchus - Lewe van Cato
Op soek na sy seun se vooroordeel teenoor die Griekse kultuur, gee hy vir sy jare te veel uitslag toe en verklaar in die toon van 'n profeet of 'n siener dat Rome haar ryk sou verloor as sy met Griekse letters besmet was. Maar die tyd het beslis die leegheid van hierdie slegte toespraak van hom getoon, want terwyl die stad op die hoogtepunt van sy ryk was, het sy elke vorm van Griekse leer en kultuur haar eie gemaak.
(Plutarch, Life of Cato, 23.3, klik vir skakel)


Op watter maniere het die ou Romeine Galliërs anders as hulself gevind?

Diodorus Siculus
Die Galliërs is lank van liggaam, met kabbelende spiere, en wit van die vel, en hul hare is blond, en nie net natuurlik nie, maar hulle maak dit ook met kunsmatige middele prakties om die onderskeidende kleur wat die natuur dit gegee het, te verhoog. Want hulle was altyd hul hare in kalkwater, en hulle trek dit terug van die voorkop na die bokant van die kop en terug na die nek, met die gevolg dat hulle voorkoms soos Satirs en panne lyk, aangesien die behandeling van hul hare maak dit so swaar en grof dat dit in geen opsig van die maanhout van perde verskil nie. Sommige van hulle skeer die baard, maar ander laat dit 'n bietjie groei en die edeles skeer hul wange, maar hulle laat die snor groei totdat dit die mond bedek. As hulle eet, raak hul snorre dus verstrengel in die kos, en as hulle drink, gaan die drank as 't ware deur 'n soort sif.
(Diodorus Siculus, V.28.1 klik vir skakel)

Die Galliërs is skrikwekkend en hul stemme is diep en heeltemal hard as hulle mekaar ontmoet, gesels hulle met min woorde en in raaisels, wat meestal duister na dinge dui en een woord gebruik as hulle 'n ander beteken en hulle hou daarvan om in superlatiewe te praat , tot die einde, sodat hulle hulself kan verheerlik en alle ander mense kan waardeer. Hulle is ook grootpraters en bedreigers en hou van pompeuse taal, maar tog het hulle skerp verstand en is hulle nie slim om te leer nie.
(Diodorus Siculus, V. 31.1 klik vir skakel)


Wat het antieke Romeine skokkend gevind oor die Britte? Wat dink jy het die Romeine daarvan bewonder vir die taal in die volgende tekste?

Cassius Dio
Daar is twee belangrikste rasse van die Britte, die Caledoniërs en die Maeatae, en die name van die ander is saamgevoeg in hierdie twee. Die Maeatae woon langs die kruiswand wat die eiland in twee sny, en die Caledoniërs is verby hulle. Beide stamme bewoon wilde en waterlose berge en verlate en moerasagtige vlaktes, en beskik nie oor mure, stede of bewerkte landerye nie, maar leef van hul kuddes, wilde wild en sekere vrugte, want hulle raak nie die visse wat daar in groot en onuitputlike hoeveelhede. Hulle woon kaal en onbeskaamd in tente, besit hul vrouens in gemeen en agter al die nageslag. Hulle vorm van heerskappy is meestal demokraties, en hulle hou baie daarvan om te plunder, daarom kies hulle hul dapperste manne as heersers. Hulle gaan in strydwaens die stryd aan, en met klein, vinnige perde is daar ook voetsoldate, baie vinnig hardloop en baie stewig staan. Vir arms het hulle 'n skild en 'n kort spies, met 'n bronsappel aan die einde van die spiesas, sodat dit, as dit geskud word, bots en die vyand kan skrik, en dat hulle ook dolk het. Hulle kan honger en koue en enige soort swaarkry verduur, want hulle duik in die moerasse en bestaan ​​daar baie dae met net hul koppe bo water, en in die woude ondersteun hulle hulself op bas en wortels, en vir alle noodgevalle berei hulle 'n sekere voor soort kos, waarvan die eet van 'n klein gedeelte, die grootte van 'n boontjie, verhinder dat hulle honger of dors voel.
(Cassius Dio, Romeinse geskiedenis, 77.12.1, klik vir skakel)

Herodiaan
Vreemdes van klere, die Britte dra ysterversierings om hul middel en keel en beskou yster as 'n simbool van rykdom; hulle waardeer hierdie metaal, aangesien ander barbare goud waardeer. Hulle tatoeëer hul lywe met gekleurde ontwerpe en tekeninge van allerhande soorte diere, daarom dra hulle nie klere nie, wat die versierings op hul lyf kan verberg.

Uiters wreed en oorlogsugtig, hulle is slegs gewapen met 'n spies en 'n smal skild, plus 'n swaard wat aan 'n gordel hang van hul andersins naakte liggame.
(Herodiaan, Romeinse geskiedenis, 3.14.1, klik vir skakel)

Uit die volgende uittreksels, watter assosiasies het Romeine gemaak met mense uit Sirië? Dink u dat meer Siriërs vryelik of as slawe na Rome gekom het?
Jeugdige
Want die Siriese Orontes het die Tiber lankal besoedel,
Sy taal en gebruike, pype en harpsnare bring,
En selfs hul inheemse timbrels word ook meegesleur,
En die meisies gedwing om hulself in die sirkus aan te bied.

Julius Capitolinus
Historia Augusta

Verus onderhou ook die akteur Agrippus, met die bynaam Memphius, wat hy uit Sirië saamgebring het, amper as 'n trofee van die Partiese oorlog, en noem Apolaustius. Hy het ook spelers van die harp en die fluit, akteurs en narre van die mimespelers, jongleurs en allerhande slawe saamgebring in wie se vermaak Sirië en Alexandrië plesier vind, en in sulke getalle, inderdaad, dat dit lyk asof hy 'n oorlog gesluit het, nie teen Partiërs nie, maar teen akteurs.

(Julius Capitolinus, Verus, 8.10, klik vir skakel)
Cicero

... Jode en Siriese nasies, self gebore vir slawerny.

(Cicero, De Provinciis Consularibus, 10, klik vir skakel)

Die provinsie Africa Proconsularis het uit 'n groot deel van Noord-Afrika bestaan, waaronder die stad Leptis Magna, in die huidige Libië. Een beroemde Romein kom uit hierdie stad-Septimius Severus, keiser van 193-211 nC. Hoe is Severus se Afrikaanse oorsprong deur die volgende bron beskou?

Septimius Severus, Capitoline Museums, Rome bron

Statius
Kan dit so ver Leptis op die verre Syrtes is
jou geboorteplek? Hoekom, binnekort sal sy Indiërs oplewer
oes en beroof geurige Sheba
van haar kosbare kaneel.

Wie sou nie dink dat die geliefde Septimius geplant het nie
trap sy baba op elk van die sewe heuwels van Romulus?
Wie sou dit as 'n speenkind dink
het hy nie gedrink van Juturna se rill nie?

Ook nie vreemd nie: in u seuntjie
jy het nie die waters van Afrika geken nie,
maar vaar in die Ausiese hawens en swem,
ons aangenome verwant, in Tiber's poele …
[Daar is] geen spoor van Kartago in u toespraak of in u opsig nie:
geen vreemde hart is joune nie: Italië, Italië is u geboorteland.

Wou Septimius Severus sy Afrikaanse oorsprong vergeet? In sy uitgebreide bouloopbaan bou Severus 'n groot monument (nou verlore) genaamd die Septizonium langs die Circus Maximus in Rome. Wat vertel die volgende aanhaling ons van die doel daarvan?

Aelius Spartianus, Historia Augusta

Toe hy die Septizonium bou, het hy geen ander gedagte gehad as dat sy gebou diegene wat uit Afrika na Rome gekom het, die oë moes tref nie.

(Aelius Spartianus, Severus klik vir skakel)

Die aantrekkingskrag na Rome


Baie buitelanders is teen hul wil as slawe na Rome gebring. Wat was hulle motivering vir diegene wat vryelik gekom het, volgens die volgende teks om te reis en na Rome te immigreer?

Seneca
Kyk tog, by hierdie groot menigtes, vir wie al die ontelbare dakke van Rome skaars skuiling kan vind: die grootste deel van die skares het hul geboorteland verloor: hulle het hierheen gestroom uit hul plattelandse dorpe en kolonies, en in goeie toestand uit alle dele van die wêreld. Sommige is deur ambisie gebring, sommige deur die nood van die openbare amp, sommige deur ambassades, ander deur luukse wat 'n geskikte plek, ryk aan ondeugde, soek vir die uitoefening daarvan, sommige deur hul wens vir liberale opvoeding, ander deur 'n wens om die openbare vertonings te sien. Sommige is hierheen gelei deur vriendskap, sommige deur die industrie, wat hier 'n wye veld vind om sy magte te wys. Sommiges het hul skoonheid te koop gebring, sommige hul welsprekendheid: mense van elke soort kom bymekaar in Rome, wat hoë deugde en ondeugde hoog stel. Sê vir almal om opgeroep te word om op hul name te antwoord, en vra elkeen uit watter huis hy gekom het: u sal agterkom dat die grootste deel van hulle hul eie woonplekke verlaat het en na 'n stad reis wat hoewel groot en pragtig daarbuite was alle ander, is nietemin nie hulle eie nie.
(Seneca, ad Helviam, 6.2-3, klik vir skakel)

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Verbeel jou my van 'n Romeinse straattoneel

Daar is baie standbeelde, mosaïeke en selfs 'n paar skilderye wat uit die Romeinse tydperk oorleef het, wat mense met 'n goeie verbeelding in staat stel om 'n Romeinse straat met die gesigte van diegene uit die verlede te bewoon.


Onbekende kunstenaar
Mummieportret van 'n baardman, ongeveer 150 – 170, Encaustic op hout
37 x 21 cm (14 9/16 x 8 1/4 in.)
Die J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa Collection, Malibu, Kalifornië (bron)

Toegeskryf aan die (naamstuk) Isidora Master (Romano-Egipties, aktief 100 – 125)
Mummieportret van 'n vrou, 100 – 110, Encaustic op hout vergulde linne
48 x 36 x 12,8 cm (18 7/8 x 14 3/16 x 5 1/16 in.)
Die J. Paul Getty Museum, Villa Collection, Malibu, Kalifornië (bron)

Dying Gaul - Capitoline Museums, Rome (krediet: Julia Peters)


Fragment van 'n monumentale standbeeld van 'n Daciaanse gevangene uit Trajan's Forum in Rome, Italië. (2de eeu nC), gefotografeer deur George Shuklin (bron)


Romeinse vroulike rok

Romeinse vroue het ook tunika op dieselfde manier as die mans gedra. Daar was twee tipes, albei aangepas op Griekse manier. Die een is gemaak van twee reghoekige stukke lap wat gedeeltelik aan beide kante aanmekaar vasgewerk is, met die oop gedeeltes aan die voorkant en agterkant gevou. Dit is oor die kop getrek en met twee groot penne vasgemaak en 'n moulose rok gevorm. 'N Riem is toe oor of onder die voue vasgemaak.

Die meer algemene tuniek wat deur vroue gedra is, was soortgelyk aan die Griekse chiton. Hierdie moukledingstuk is gemaak van twee wye stukke lap wat naby die bokant aanmekaargewerk is. Hierdie kledingstuk is oor die kop getrek en met verskeie penne of knope vasgemaak om 'n rok te vorm met verskillende style en pasvorms. 'N Riem kan onder die borste, middellyf of heupe gedra word. Elke tuniek kan van verskillende kleure en stofsoorte gemaak word, afhangende van sosiale status en rykdom.

Getroude vroue moes die los, toga -gelykstaande stola dra. Hierdie lang moulose tuniek is om die skouer vasgemaak, bymekaargemaak en om die middel gordel, terwyl die kledingstuk tot by die voete strek. Boonop was die pulla 'n soort sjaal om oor die hele figuur te gooi en buite deure gedra te word. Die mode van die verskillende tye dui ook aan hoeveel grimering, juweliersware en parfuum gedra sal word. Dit is genoeg om te sê dat sulke versierings in die antieke wêreld net so gewild was as ooit.


Kleredrag in die antieke wêreld

Tipes klere wat in die antieke wêreld gebruik is, was afhanklik van die tegnologie wat in daardie tyd uitgevind is. Ons het bewyse oor wat mense dan gedra het uit voorstellings van mense in die destydse kuns en uit argeologiese bevindings van stofvesels en leer wat soms baie goed bewaar is. Die werklike tekstiel is waarskynlik gevoel. Nålebinding was ook 'n ander vroeë tekstieltegniek en dateer uit 6500 vC.

Die vroegste geweefde tekstiele uit die Nabye Ooste kan weefsels wees van ongeveer c. 6000 vC. Hulle is gebruik vir die toedraai van dooies en word gevind op 'n neolitiese terrein in Çatalhöyük in Anatolië. Vlas is verbou vanaf c. 8000 vC en teling van skape met 'n wollerige vag van 3000 vC.

In antieke Indië is katoen gebruik as materiaal vir klere vanaf 5000 vC.

In die ou Egipte was die meeste tekstiel uit vlas. Wol was bekend, maar is selde gebruik (slegs vir jasse wat byvoorbeeld in tempels en heiligdomme verbied is) omdat dit as onrein beskou is omdat diervesels as taboe beskou word. Komplekse klere was voorbehou vir hoër klasse, terwyl die laer klas slegs 'n lendendoek of skenti gedra het. Beide vroue en mans het dieselfde skoene gedra - sandale gevleg met leer of, as dit burokrate en priesters was, met papirus gevleg. Hulle het ook tunies, gewaad, hemde met kort moue, geplooide rompe gedra. Vroue het ook gedrapeerde rokke van wit of ongebleikte materiaal gedra.

Kretenzer klere is gemaak van wol en vlas waaruit lendene gemaak is. Die vroue van Kreta het langer lende doeke gedra as onderrokke met 'n gordel waarop 'n groot dolk vasgemaak was. Hulle het ook 'n lang of kort jas en 'n hoed gedra. Die rokke is vasgemaak met borsspelde. Lende doeke wat mans gedra het, was in die vorm van 'n kort romp of voorskoot. Lang klere was in die vorm van 'n jas van wol en gedra vir beskerming teen slegte weer.

Antieke Griekse kledingstukke bestaan ​​uit lengtes van linne of wolstof met 'n reghoekige vorm. Hulle is vasgemaak met klampe of penne aan die skouer en gordel, gordel of gordel in die middel. Vroue het peplos gedra, 'n swaarder wollerige kledingstuk met 'n skouersluiting. 'N Eenvoudige tuniekleed van ligter linne genaamd chiton wat deur mans en vroue gedra word. 'N Strophion was 'n onderkleed wat vroue in die middel van die liggaam gedra het. Mans het 'n soort mantel van 'n naatlose reghoek van wolmateriaal gedra en chlamys genoem.

Een van die beroemdste kledingstukke uit Antieke Rome is toga - 'n een -stuk wolkledingstuk wat los om die skouers en langs die lyf gehang het. Daar is bewyse dat toga deur alle vrye Romeine gedra is tydens die Romeinse monargie en die Romeinse Republiek, terwyl slawe en kinders tuniek gedra het. Na die 2de eeu v.C. is mans deur mans togaa gedra terwyl vroue stola gedra het, 'n lang rok met 'n geplooide rits, soortgelyk aan die Griekse chitons. Meisies en seuns jonger as puberteit het 'n toga praetexta gedra. Dit was 'n spesiale tipe toga met 'n pers band aan die onderkant.


Geskiedenis van vrouebadpak

Dit lyk miskien net na 'n stuk rek stof. Selfs nie 'n greep nie - meer soos lap. Dit is liggewig, droog vinnig en laat min aan die verbeelding oor.

Die huidige vorm van die swembroek lyk moontlik onvermydelik. Dit is moeilik om volledig geklee te swem (of selfs te waai). En tog, dit is omtrent wat vroue ongeveer honderd jaar lank gedoen het, en voor dit het hulle moontlik niks gedra nie.

Hier, 'n paar mylpale langs die kronkelpad van niks tot alles en weer terug. Dit is 'n pad met historiese betekenis, wat die evolusie van seks, geslagsrolle, kruiskulturele invloed en die haas om 10 pond voor die somer te verloor, opspoor.

Dit is nog meer die rede om dit op te gee vir die gewaagde dames van antieke Griekeland, so ons begin daar ...

Skaars beklee (Antieke Griekeland/Rome)

Die badhuise van antieke Griekeland en Rome was nie plekke van beskeidenheid nie - dit was immers plekke om letterlik te bad. Hoe meer vel jy wys, hoe skoner word jy. Mans en vroue het elkeen hul eie ruimtes gehad, en dit was dus nie 'n probleem om geslagte tussen geslagte te sien nie.

Vroue in hierdie tye, van ongeveer 200 v.C. tot 500 n.C., was dit waarskynlik heeltemal naak of het 'n baie klein baadjie gedra wat bestaan ​​uit 'n bandeaul -top en klein onderkant. Tekeninge uit hierdie antieke beskawings beeld vroue uit wat hierdie bikini's dra, wat baie, baie dieselfde is as dié wat vandag deur vroue gedra word. (So much for the "invention" of the bikini in the 1940s -- but we'll get to that later.)

The bath houses of ancient times gave way to the Dark Ages, when public bathing disappeared. The next time we see a bathing suit is in the Victorian era -- and it's barely recognizable as such.

If you didn't see the water and the sand, you'd never know Victorian women were at the beach.

Modesty was, to put it mildly, a virtue, and it helped distinguish the gentility from the lower classes. Accordingly, an upper class woman's bathing suit (which was the only kind, considering the time and money it took to get to the beach) left everything to the imagination. It was, at first, a long "bathing dress," complete with weights along the hem so it wouldn't float up and black stockings to prevent show-through.

There was also, at some resorts, a small, fully enclosed room-on-wheels called a "bathing machine" that carried women from the fully-clothed shore to the water-costumed water, so they were never seen in swimwear by male bathers.

The Victorian-era suit went through a few changes -- at one point it was something of a jumpsuit, a one-piece, wool trouser-and-shirt set -- until the 1800s came to an end. At this point, the bathing suit starts getting (somewhat) functional .

Let Them Swim! (Early 1900s)

Gender roles began to alter slightly at the start of the 20th century. By 1920, women would have the right to vote. About a decade before that, they stopped being arrested for showing their legs and shoulders at the beach.

Part of what changed was that women started swimming -- really swimming. It was a competitive sport by this time, and women swam both in school and recreationally.

Accordingly, the bathing suit became more functional. It was still made of wool, but it was smaller. A bathing suit in the early 1900s was a one-piece, tank-style jumper that stopped at the thigh, and it was snug enough to allow for real movement in the water.

Sexy it was not, although it did look good on women with the boyish figure that was popular at the time. In the '30s, though, the popular shape would change, and it took the bathing suit along with it …

A Little off the Middle (1930 to 1940s)

Here's where we started to see swimsuits that looked like swimsuits. The 1930s version was figure-hugging, made of swim-worthy fabric like latex, and left not only the arms completely bare but also the legs -- cut straight up to you-know-where.

The leg was cut in a not-very-flattering way unless you were Lana Turner, straight across the top of the thigh but if you were Lana Turner, you looked sexy in a way never seen before outside of nudie mags.

By the early 1940s, the two-piece had arrived, but it was not the bikini-style two-piece. It was simply the 1930s one-piece cut in half above the belly button, showing a few inches of skin above the waist.

This belly-button distinction is important. It was the unveiling of the button (and below) that made what happened mid-decade so scandalous even French models were appalled …

Gasp! (Meet the Bikini, 1946)

Whether French models at this time were quite as, um, free-spirited as their reputation implies is unclear, but the fact that they refused to model the invention of the decade says a lot. It was, in the fashion and morality worlds, on the level of the atomic bomb testing at Bikini Atoll for which it's named.

The bikini stunned the world in 1946 by the simple, scandalous fact that it revealed the navel -- the taboo zone beneath the belly button that no decent girl would show in public.

Two designers came up with it simultaneously, and it made its debut on the beaches of Cannes during the 1946 film festival and on a Paris runway, where it was modeled by a stripper.

The bikini trickled onto beaches and pool decks in Europe over the following years, but in the United States it provoked mostly a collective "I never!" for some time to come. As the '50s came around, women in America actually took a step in the opposite direction …

The curvy ideal of the 1950s (see Marilyn Monroe) was, for many, an attainable one, since "real women have curves." But the question was, were they the right curves?

And the other question was, what were corset manufacturers to do when women stopped wearing corsets?

The answer to both of these questions was the structured swimsuit of the '50s. This one-piece had built-in corsetry, basically boning in the bodice to flatten the tummy, cinch in the waist, pop out the bust, and keep the whole thing generally secure in the water. It had a low leg that, while unflattering on most of the "real women," provided some added modesty for coed sunbathing.

And then, oh my, came the '60s.

The design that provoked a nation-wide gasp of indignation in the 1940s became nothing short of a phenomenon as the '60s took hold.

By the start of the decade, it was not only acceptable but even somewhat common to see young girls wearing bikinis at beaches and backyard pools. It's the rise of the latter that may have paved the way: Suddenly, women had a private swimming area in which to get accustomed to being so bare.

The 1960s bikini was pretty tame by today's standards: The tops covered every centimeter of the bust-line, and the bottoms stretched all the way from just below the navel to the top of the thigh, and they were not, typically, skin tight. -- at least not until about mid-decade, when a swimwear revolution came about. Around 1965, textile makers changed everything …

Like a Glove -- Lycra/Spandex (1960s)

In the mid-'60s, the look of the bathing suit took a turn toward the revealing, but not in the cut. It was the material that began to show so much more.

Spandex came on the swimsuit scene around 1965, and it was a huge hit. Suddenly, bathing suits were shiny when dry, glistening when wet, and left absolutely nothing to the imagination either way. God help the good girl if it suddenly turned cold.

The second-skin bathing suit we know today was born, with all of its quick-dry and easy-swim charms.

In the following decade, women's swimwear designers would take the daring, baring fabric to (what we thought was) the limit of skimpiness -- a move that put Farrah Fawcett on millions of bedroom walls …

Hello, free love. The 1970s saw the death of bras, chastity belts and good old-fashioned decency, and swimwear was right there, inching up the legs of young women everywhere.

Now, the '70s high-cut leg was not the '80s high-cut leg, but it was a whole lot more baring than the '60s bikini bottom. String bikinis hit the scene, covering (what we thought was) the bare minimum, but even one-pieces revealed things never before seen in swimwear. Witness Farrah Fawcett's famous red tank suit, which showed just enough upper thigh to keep boys (and men) staring at that 1976 poster for years on end. Incidentally, that suit was donated to the Smithsonian in 2011.

In more recent times, "advances" in swimsuit design have made Fawcett's attire seem downright prudish. Styles of the '80s and, even more so, the '90s, took some cues from Brazil, thrusting beachgoers into a brave new world of, well, butts …

You won't find a lot of nude beaches in the United States, but really, these days, who needs 'em?

In the '80s, full butt coverage faded practically into oblivion, and side-boob made its first acceptable appearances in public. Thank you, "Baywatch"! The 1990s took it even further, bringing Brazilian beachwear (and the waxing that goes with it) to American shores in the form of the tanga, the thong and the three-inch triangle tops that might as well not be there at all.

But they are there, and that means everything: Somehow, there's a big difference between wearing nothing and wearing the tiny swatch of fabric called the bathing suit. How much a woman reveals can, maybe, say a lot about her. Or maybe it says nothing at all. No one knows. And that's the point.

For more information on swimwear, fashion, and other style topics, look over the links on the next page.


The earliest walls built in Europe were constructed placing stones one upon the other without any mortar to bind them together (dry-stone walls). Near Rome examples of such walls can be seen at Alatri, Segni and at other locations south of the city: they are called cyclopean, because the first archaeologists felt that only the mythical Cyclopes could have moved the enormous boulders which made up these walls.
Improvements in the tecnique used for cutting stones led to the construction of walls with stones having the same size (Isodomum - Vitruvius - De Architectura). In order to strengthen the wall, blocks were placed alternately with the longer side (stretchers) or the shorter side (headers) on the face of the wall (opus quadratum).
Romans were so fond of the texture effect of opus quadratum that they continued to use this technique even after having developed more effective kinds of masonry. The wall built at Foro di Augusto with the blocks projecting from the surface inspired Renaissance architects in designing the bugnato (rustication) of many Florentine palaces.


11 Misconceptions About Ancient Rome, Debunked

Released in 1959, Charlton Heston's Ben-Hur is considered one of the greatest motion pictures of all time. Unfortunately, the film helped perpetuate a few mistaken beliefs concerning Rome and her citizenry. Met die Ben-Hur remake set to hit theaters on August 19, now seems like a good time to bust some myths.

1. ROMANS DIDN’T WEAR TOGAS 24-7.

In his epic poem The Aeneid, Jupiter talks about the future of the Romans as the “masters of the world, the race that wears the toga.” No article of clothing has ever been more synonymous with this ancient culture. Only a Roman citizen could legally wear one, and as years went by, different styles came to be used as a way of displaying the wearer’s socioeconomic status. But for most of Rome’s history, togas were not considered everyday attire.

At first, the toga emphasized function over form. During the Republic’s early days, men, women, and children alike wore these accessories as a kind of durable outerwear. Underneath, they’d don a tunic, which was a sleeved, t-shaped garment that extended from the collar to the knees. Inevitably, though, the region’s fashion standards evolved. By the 2nd century BCE, it became taboo for adult women to put on a toga (prostitutes and adulteresses notwithstanding). Within the next hundred years, the toga turned into a bulky, impractical article of clothing that was mostly reserved for formal occasions like religious services and funerals. In casual environments, the average male Roman citizen would instead wear one of his tunics, sans toga.

Because togas were made with large quantities of costly wool, they were also quite expensive. The Roman poet Juvenal once observed that “there are many parts of Italy, to tell the truth, in which no man puts on the toga until he is dead.” Toward the dawn of the 4th century CE, the toga was more or less replaced by a kind of cloak called the paenula.

2. CONTRARY TO POPULAR BELIEF, IT LOOKS LIKE THE “NAZI SALUTE” WASN’T INVENTED IN ROME.

You’ll often hear it said that the Romans created this now-infamous gesture. Supposedly, it was then copied by Adolf Hitler’s devotees many centuries later. The whole myth is so widespread that the motion is sometimes referred to as the “Roman salute.” And yet there’s no historical evidence to suggest that such a greeting was ever used in ancient Rome.

Instead, the salute can probably be traced back to a 1784 painting called The Oath of the Horatii. Created by French Neoclassicist Jacques-Louis David, it shows three Roman brothers pledging to defend their homeland. While the men do so, we see that they’ve raised their right arms and extended the fingers. Over the next century, other artists started to portray Romans in this pose and playwrights began writing it into their historical drama scripts.

Mussolini’s Italian Fascist Party later claimed the salutation as its own and celebrated the gesture’s allegedly Roman origins. Inspired by il Duce, Hitler created a German variant for his own fascist organization. “I introduced the salute into the Party at our first meeting in Weimar,” he recalled in 1942. “The S.S. at once gave it a soldierly style.”

3. WE DON’T KNOW WHAT JULIUS CAESAR’S LAST WORDS WERE.

But they probably weren’t “Et tu, Brute?” On March 15 in the year 44 BCE, Julius Caesar was murdered by a group of over 60 co-conspirators, one of whom was Marcus Junius Brutus, the son of the dictator’s longtime mistress. The Roman historian Suetonius later wrote that, according to bystanders, Caesar’s dying utterance was “Kai su, teknon?” which means “You too, child?” in Greek. For the record, however, both Suetonius and another scholar named Plutarch believed that when he was slain, the dictator didn’t say anything at all. The world-famous “Et tu, Brute?” line was made up by William Shakespeare.

4. NOT ALL GLADIATORS WERE SLAVES OR PRISONERS … OR MEN.

While it’s true that most gladiators were captives who’d been forced into this dangerous occupation, the lifestyle attracted plenty of freeborn citizens as well—including women. The appeal was plain to see: Like modern wrestlers, successful gladiators frequently became celebrities. A few of them even amassed small fortunes, since winning a big fight could mean taking home a cash prize.

Those who willingly became gladiators were usually impoverished people who sought the financial security that the profession offered. A good number of ex-Roman soldiers signed up as well. To receive training, they’d join what was known as a ludus—gladiator troupes that doubled as rigorous combat schools. Die tipiese ludus was owned by a wealthy politician or former gladiator, who’d rent out his fighters for use in organized shows. Julius Caesar himself once ran a troupe which may have contained up to 1000 gladiators.

Eventually, the government cracked down on freeborn combatants. To help keep young aristocrats out of the fighting pits, the Senate issued an age requirement in 11 CE. This made it illegal for free men who were younger than 25 and free women who hadn’t yet turned 20 from joining a ludus. A subsequent ruling enacted in 19 CE barred all upper-class ladies from becoming gladiators. Then, in 200 CE, Emperor Septimus Severus officially turned this into an all-male sport.

5. MANY—IF NOT, MOST—GLADIATOR FIGHTS WEREN’T TO THE DEATH.

Historian Georges Ville has calculated that during the first century CE, out of 100 fights (and 200 gladiators), 19 gladiators died, giving a death rate of around 10 percent (approximately 20 percent for the loser). By the year 300 CE, however, these confrontations became deadlier. In Ville’s estimation, half of all the man-to-man gladiator fights around that time ended with the loser’s demise.

Even so, those odds still might seem low to contemporary movie fans—after all, in “sword and sandal” flicks, gladiator fights almost always result in at least one fatality. However, Ville’s numbers make a lot more sense when you consider the real-life economics involved. Gladiators were expensive, and if one died in combat or was permanently disabled, the venue paid a steep fine to the owner of his ludus. To help keep the body count down, fighters might receive first-rate medical attention after leaving the arena.

But with that said, the crowd often demanded death. Throughout Roman history, most gladiator duels concluded when one party was rendered too weak or injured to keep fighting. Defeated athletes could surrender by throwing down their weapon or shield, or the loser would extend one arm and point upward. At that point, the bested fighter’s fate would be decided by the presiding event chairman, or editor. Generally, his verdict could be expected to appease the audience, whose cheers and jeers helped determine if the fallen warrior lived to fight another day.

6. THE ROMANS DIDN’T MAKE SLAVES ROW THEIR WAR VESSELS.

In an iconic sequence from Ben-Hur, we see a group of slaves being forced to row a Roman galley ship at increasingly demanding speeds. While a war beating drum sets the relentless tempo, wandering soldiers mercilessly flog those poor souls who collapse from fatigue. Though the scene is definitely compelling, it’s also inaccurate. Roman galleys were actually powered by paid and well-trained freemen unless absolutely necessary. Frankly, handing this job over to slaves would have been foolish—if a ship were captured, enslaved oarsmen might well side with the enemy and attack their masters.

7. CALIGULA’S HORSE NEVER BECAME A GOVERNMENT OFFICIAL.

Posterity remembers Rome’s third emperor as a sadistic, incestuous lunatic and a testament to the dangers of absolute power—but claims about his madness may have been grossly exaggerated. Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus—better known by his nickname, Caligula—began a brief stint as Rome’s supreme leader in 37 CE. His own guards assassinated him just four years later.

Eighty years after the Emperor’s death, our old pal Suetonius published some truly depraved anecdotes about him in an ambitious set of biographies called Die twaalf keisers. At certain points, Suetonius’s Caligula chapter reads like an excerpt from a particularly vile Speletjie van trone screenplay. (Among other things, he accuses the dictator of fornicating with his sisters—sometimes, while his dinner guests looked on.)

One often-quoted passage concerns Caligula’s beloved horse, Incitatus. According to Suetonius, the prized steed was kept in a marble stable, given precious jewelry, and waited upon by its very own slaves. Weirder still, the historian writes that Caligula “planned to make him a consul.” If true, this would have been a really strange power move because the consulship was one of the most prestigious offices in Rome.

But Caligula didn’t actually go through with the appointment, and today, some scholars dismiss the whole story as a myth. (Others, however, think the story has some truth, but it wasn’t because Caligula was crazy. As historian Aloys Winterling writes in Caligula: A Biography, “Besides symbolically devaluing the Roman consulars, Caligula’s designation of Incitatus as a consul sent a further message: The emperor can appoint anyone he likes to the consulship.”) Still, it’s often erroneously said that Incitatus became a genuine consul or, at the very least, joined the senate. This misconception was spread by Robert Graves’ classic novel Ek, Claudius and the wildly successful BBC television series it inspired, both of which depict Incitatus as crazy Caligula’s favorite senator.

8. THE ROMANS PROBABLY DIDN’T HAVE BRITISH ACCENTS.

It’s hard to find a film or TV show about ancient Rome in which the actors don’t sound like Royal Shakespearean players. The idea that all Romans spoke with an English accent was popularized by such Hollywood classics as 1959’s Ben-Hur en Quo Vadis (1951). A generation later, the aforementioned Ek, Claudius television series helped reinforce the trope.

So what sort of accent did the ancient Romans really have? The answer might be several. At its height, the Roman empire stretched from Portugal to Persia. Within this vast area, Latin (and Greek) was no doubt spoken through many different accents. As linguistic historian J.N. Adams has argued, “The combination of lexical and phonetic evidence establishes the existence (in e.g. Gaul, Africa, and Italy) of genuine regional varieties.” We also know that some Romans weren’t above snickering at those who pronounced certain words in a non-typical way. The Emperor Hadrian’s noticeable Spanish accent once triggered a chorus of audible laughter when he read an announcement before the senate. Poor guy.

9. ROMAN ELITES DIDN’T HAVE REGULAR ORGIES.

Gratuitous sex scenes filled with writhing masses of toga-clad aristocrats are a standard fixture in movies and TV shows set in ancient Rome. But firsthand accounts of orgies are fairly rare in the annals of Roman texts. As classics professor Alastair Blanshard contends, “There have been more orgies in Hollywood films than there ever were in Rome.” It would appear that—at least to some extent—religious propaganda begat our misapprehensions about the prevalence of wild, Roman sex parties. Medieval Christian writers would often peddle embellished stories of lecherous get-togethers in an attempt to paint the Empire as a morally-bankrupt cesspool.

Still, no modern person would mistake the Romans for prudes. Inside a typical household, married men would regularly have sexual affairs with numerous slaves. On the other hand, public displays of affection were frowned upon—particularly in the days of the old Republic. One senator was even expelled after word got out that he’d kissed his own wife in front of their daughter.

10. ROME’S FAMOUS MARBLE STATUES WEREN’T ALWAYS MONOCHROMATIC.

Today, the marble sculptures left behind by the Romans look bone white. Yet, archaeologists have known for over a century that when these sculptures were first created, they received vibrant, multicolored paint jobs. Using a technique known as multispectral imaging, historians can identify the pigments left behind by various paints on ancient statues. With this information, they can tentatively reconstruct an original coat in all its polychromatic glory.

Of course, the ancient paints were mostly washed away by time. Thus, future civilizations assumed that Rome’s wonderful sculptures had always been devoid of color. By and large, Hollywood has followed suit. Virtually all movies that take place in classical Rome are (anachronistically) filled with drab, white statues.

11. ROME’S PRE-CHRISTIAN GODS WEREN’T JUST GREEK IMPORTS.

Conventional wisdom holds that Rome simply adopted the Greek gods and gave them new names. What actually happened is a bit more complicated. As Rome grew increasingly enamored with Greek society, comparisons were deliberately made between Greece’s gods and some of the native Italian deities that many Romans already worshiped.

Early Roman religion had its own divine beings, each of whom came with a name and a role. For instance, the supreme god was Jupiter, an impersonal, ambiguously-defined entity that (among other things) controlled the weather. Over time, Rome’s size and influence grew. This expansion put the rising city into regular contact with the Greeks and, by extension, their gods. Gradually, Romans began to equate Italy’s existing deities with their Greek counterparts. Thus, by the third century BCE, Jupiter had transformed into a hybrid of his original Italian self and Zeus, the leader of Mount Olympus. Legends that Greeks traditionally associated with good old Zeus were now repeated as part of Jupiter’s backstory.

Despite this theological interchange, major differences between the Greek and Roman gods persisted. Many scholars have pointed out that the Greek deities were viewed as being more human-like, both in terms of appearance and behavior. Also, some Roman gods occupied slightly different roles than their Olympian equivalents did. Juno is a perfect example. As Jupiter’s wife, the goddess is seen as Rome’s answer to Hera. However, she was also considered the protector of women and childbirth. In Greek tradition, that job was more associated with Artemis (whose Roman analogue was called Diana) and not with Hera.


Tabula Peutingeriana

A section of the Peutingeriana including Rome.

A copy of a 4th century AD map of the road network of the Roman Empire, the Tabula Peutingeriana dates from the 13th century shows thoroughfares in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, Persia and India. The map highlights Rome, Constantinople and Antioch.


DISCOVERING THE PAST

The study of ancient cultures began in Italy, particularly in Rome, where citizens lived among the crumbling remains of a long-dead civilization. Scholars of the ancient world, known as antiquarians, searched these ruins for clues to life in lost civilizations. Meanwhile, historians in Britain and other parts of Europe worked to uncover their own countries' distant past.

Greece and Rome. At the beginning of the Renaissance, the ruins of ancient theaters, temples, columns, and arches dotted the landscape of Italy and other Mediterranean regions. However, maps and city guides from the Middle Ages reveal that citizens no longer understood the significance of these ancient monuments. Even in Rome, the ruins had become little more than landmarks in a Christian city. Although residents knew the names of such grand structures as the Pantheon and the Colosseum, they often knew little of their original functions. Nor did the Romans of 1400 have any idea of the full size and spread of the ancient city.

The works of scholars and historians of ancient Greece and Rome suffered much the same fate. The writings had survived, but no one truly understood their meaning. Knowledge of the great poets of the classical* world was even murkier. Medieval* legends had mislabeled the Roman poet Virgil as either a sorcerer or a prophet of Christianity. The Greek poet Homer had become little more than a name, his epics* unread. The dust and debris of centuries lay not only on the ancient cities but on nearly all that their cultures had produced.

Renaissance scholars devoted themselves to finding, unearthing, and collecting relics of the distant past. The ancient world lay closest to the surface in Rome. Residents of the city turned up many long-buried marvels simply by digging in their suburban vineyards or excavating the foundations for new buildings. An immense statue discovered in 1506, for example, proved to be a piece of art mentioned in the works of the ancient Roman writer Pliny.

From these fragments, scholars tried to piece together the societies that had created them. As antiquarians learned more about the values and practices of the ancient world, they began to adopt them as part of their own culture. For example, Renaissance architects such as Filippo Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti examined, measured, and sketched the spectacular ruins of ancient buildings, seeking to understand how they had been built and used. They then adapted these classical forms in the designs of their own buildings, linking their own world with the great cultures of the past.

At first, students of the ancient world focused on gathering as many relics and texts as possible. During the 1400s, however, historians developed a concern for the quality of evidence. They began comparing sources, trying to determine which were original and which drew on older works. They also developed standards for judging the value and authenticity of material. This newfound concern with the usefulness of sources formed the basis of the modern approach to history.

Ancient Britain. While scholars in Italy sought to uncover the ancient glories of Rome, researchers in England were busy delving into their own country's past. They pursued knowledge both for its own sake and to serve practical goals. Henry VIII hired the antiquarian John Leland to examine English relics for evidence that would support the king's claims to be the legitimate head of the English church.

An entire field of English antiquarianism focused on King Arthur and other legendary monarchs. Geoffrey of Monmouth had chronicled the reigns of several such rulers in the 1100s in History of the Kings of Britain. Throughout the 1500s scholars and poets debated the accuracy of Geoffrey's history. English patriots saw Geoffrey's accounts of King Arthur and the Round Table as proof of an ancient British history as glorious as that of Rome. Legal historians used them to support their view that English law was even older than Roman law. In the 1600s, however, a younger generation of antiquarians began disproving this legal myth, showing that English law had its origins in European feudal* law.

Some English antiquarians focused on specific regions of Britain. Richard Carew, for example, published a Survey of Cornwall in the 1580s. Others turned their attention to genealogy*, church history, and heraldry*. Explorers of the past shared their findings through groups such as the Society of Antiquaries, formed around 1586 in London. Its leading figure, William Camden, published a detailed survey of British geography and history in Latin. Another member, Robert Cotton, assembled a mass of books and manuscripts dealing with ancient Britain. This assortment later became the core collection of the modern British Library.


Female Fury In The Forum

The Oppian Law was passed following the disastrous defeat of the Romans by Hannibal at the battle of Cannae (216 B.C.). Because of the wars with Carthage, many men had died. Their wives and daughters had inherited their lands and monies, allowing many women to become quite rich. The state, in order to help pay for the cost of the wars, decided to tap into women's wealth by passing the Oppian Law. It limited the amount of gold women could possess and required that all the funds of wards, single women, and widows be deposited with the state. Women also were forbidden to wear dresses with purple trim (the color of mourning and a grim reminder of Rome's losses). Nor could they ride in carriages within Rome or in towns near Rome.

Roman women obeyed these restriction with little fuss. Yet, at the end of the successful Second Punic War in 201 B.C., male Romans and women in towns beyond Rome again donned their rich clothing and rode about in carriages. Women in Rome, however, continued to be denied these luxuries because of the Oppian Law. With the end of the wars, upper class women chafted at these continuing restrictions and now wished to keep their inherited money for their own use.

In 195 B.C., some members of the Tribunal proposed eliminating the Oppian Law. Women throughout Rome kept an eye on these proceedings. When it seemed that the majority of Tribunal was about to veto the proposed repeal, they poured into the streets in protest. It was the first time anything by women on a scale such as this was seen in Rome. As a result of the women's protest, the tribunes withdrew their veto and approved the repeal.

Livy, a Roman historian, described the women's demonstrations and a portion of the debate between Consul Cato and Tribune Lucius Valerius in the Tribunal.

"The matrons whom neither counsel nor shame nor their husbands' orders could keep at home, blockaded every street in the city and every entrance to the Forum. As the men came down to the Forum, the matrons besought them to let them, too, have back the luxuries they had enjoyed before, giving as their reason that the republic was thriving and that everyone's private wealth was increasing with every day. This crowd of women was growing daily, for now they were even gathering from the towns and villages. Before long they dared go up and solicit consuls, praetors, and other magistrates.

When the speeches for and against the law had been made, a considerably larger crowd of women poured forth in public the next day as a single body they besieged the doors of the tribunes, who were vetoing their colleagues' motion, and they did not stop until the tribunes took back their veto. After that there was no doubt that all the tribes would repeal the law."

2) The Debate in the Tribunal

Cato: "If each man of us, fellow citizens, had established that the rights and authority of the husband should be held over the mother of his own family, we should have less difficulty with women in general now, at home our freedom is conquered by female fury, here in the Forum it is bruised and trampled upon, and because we have not contained the individuals, we fear the lot.

Indeed, I blushed when, a short while ago, I walked through the midst of a band of women. I should have said, 'What kind of behavior is this? Running around in public, blocking streets, and speaking to other women's husbands! Could you not have asked our own husbands the same thing at home? Are you more charming in public with others' husbands than at home with your own? And yet, it is not fitting even at home for you to concern yourselves with what laws are passed or repealed here.'

Our ancestors did not want women to conduct any - not even private - business without a guardian they wanted them to be under the authority of parents, brothers, or husbands we (the gods help us!) even now let them snatch at the government and meddle in the Forum and our assemblies. What are they doing now on the streets and crossroads, if they are not persuading the tribunes to vote for repeal? Give the reins to their unbridled nature and this unmastered creature, and hope that they will put limits on their own freedom. They want freedom, nay license, in all things.

If they are victorious now, what will they not attempt?As soon as they begin to be your equals, they will have become your superiors. What honest excuse is offered, pray, for this womanish rebellion? 'That we might shine with gold and purple,' says one of them, 'that we might ride through the city in coaches on holidays as though triumphant over the conquered law and the votes which we captured by tearing them from you. '

Pity that husband - the one who gives in and the one who stands firm! What he refuses, he will see given by another man. Now they publicly solicit other women's husbands, and, what is worse, they ask for a law and votes, and certain men give them what they want.

I vote that the Oppian Law should not, in the smallest measure, be repealed whatever course you take, may all the gods make you happy with it."

Lucius Valerius: "I shall defend the motion, not ourselves, against whom the consul has hurled this charge. He has called this assemblage 'succession' and sometimes 'womanish rebellion,' because the matrons have publicly asked you, in peacetime when the state is happy and prosperous, to repeal a law passed against them during the straits of war. Not too far back in history, in the most recent war, when we needed funds, did not the widows' money assist the treasury.

What, after all, have they done? We have proud ears indeed, if, while masters do not scorn the appeals of slaves, we are angry when honorable women ask something of us.

Since our matrons lived for so long by the highest standards of behavior without any law, what risk is there that, once it is repealed, they will yield to luxury? Shall we forbid only women to wear purple? When you, a man, may use purple on your clothes, will you not allow the mother of your family to have a purple cloak, and will your horse be more beautifully saddled than your wife is garbed.

By Hercules! All are unhappy and indignant when they see the finery denied them permitted to the wives of the Latin allies, when they see them adorned with gold and purple, when those other women ride through the city and they follow on foot, as though the power belonged to the other women's cities, not to their own. This could wound the spirits of men what do you think it could do to the spirits of women, whom even little things disturb?

They cannot partake of magistracies, priesthoods, triumphs, badges of office, gifts, or spoils of war elegance, finery, and beautiful clothes are women's badges, in these they find joy and take pride this our forebears called the women's world.

Of course, if you repeal the Oppian Law, you will not have the power to prohibit that which the law now forbids daughters, wives, even some men's sisters will be less under your authority - [But] never, while her men are well, is a woman's slavery cast off. It is for the weaker sex to submit to whatever you advise. The more power you possess, all the more moderately should you exercise your authority."

Bron:

Livy, Die geskiedenis van Rome, Maureen Fant trans., in Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Fant, eds. Women's Life in Greece & Rome, Johns Hopkins Press, 1982.

- From Cato's complaints about women, what "freedoms" had he perceived Roman women had?

- On whom does Cato place blame for the actions of the women? What does he think men should do about it?

- Have one student read Cato's debate outloud another Valerius' arguments.

- Hold a session of the Roman Senate at which a debate about women's rights is being held. Some students, using their own words, passionately present Cato's views. Others present Valerius's arguments. Someone could become Hortensia. Other members of the class might create signs, or slogans, which reflect the demands of women.

- Make up a speech about an issue women in the United States today might debate. Byvoorbeeld:
Should women be combatants in war?
Should women be paid lower wages than men if the work they do is different than the work men do?
Should businesses provide day care for working families?

Agtergrond: Over a hundred years later, in 42 B.C., war again preoccupied the Romans. This time it was civil war, and the ruling triumvirs were badly in need of monies. To raise funds they voted to tax 1,400 of the richest women in the state. Fearing that taxes collected from them might be used in battles against their own families, the women mounted a protest. They chose Hortensia, the educated daughter of the famous orator Quintus Hortensius, to speak on their behalf. Rudely forcing their way into the forum, the women pushed Hortensia toward the triumvirs' tribunal. No female had ever spoken here before. A second century historian, Appian, in later years recorded what he understood to be Hortensia's speech.

"You have already deprived us of our fathers, our sons, our husbands, and our brothers on the pretext that they wronged you. But if, in addition, you take away our property, you will reduce us to a condition unsuitable to our birth, our way of life, and our female nature.

If we have done you any wrong, as you claimed our husbands have, punish us as you do them. But if we women have not voted any of you public enemies, nor torn down your house, nor destroyed your army, nor led another against you, nor prevented you from obtaining offices and honors, why do we share in the punishments when we did not participate in the crimes?

Why should we pay taxes when we do not share in the offices, honors, military commands, nor, in short, the government, for which you fight between yourselves with such harmful results? You say 'because it is wartime.' When has there not been war.

Our mothers did once rise superior to their sex and made contributions when you faced the loss of the empire and the city itself through the conflict with the Carthaginians. But they funded their contributions voluntarily from their jewelry not from their landed property, their fields, their dowries, or their houses, without which it is impossible for free women to live.

Let war with the Celts or Parthians come, we will not be inferior to our mothers when it is a question of common safety. But for civil wars, may we never contribute nor aid you against each other."

Furious at the women's demands, the triumvirs tried to drive them away. But the crowd yelled their support for the women, and the following day the triumvirs reduced to four hundred the number of women subject to taxation.

Bron:
Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Frant, eds. Women's Life in Greece & Rome, Johns Hopkins Press, 1982.

- What distinctions does Hortensia make between civil war and a war against outside invaders?

- Which arguments against paying taxes does Hortensia use that you have heard speakers use in other times and places?

- From what class were the women who demonstrated in 195 and 42 B.C.?
What issues might concern women of other classes?

- Identify the phrases in these documents that reveal Roman views of feminine "nature."
In what ways did Romans think women were different than men?
Given these views, what roles might they assign to men and women?

Let wel: This lesson was taken from our curriculum unit:

I Will Not Bow My Head
Documenting Political Women

Selective Bibliography

J.P.V.D. Blasdon, Roman Women: Their History and Habits, Harper & Row, 1962.
Richard A. Bauman, Women and Politics in Ancient Rome, Routledge, 1992.
Marjorie Bingham and Susan Gross, Women in Ancient Greece and Rome, Glenhurst Press, 1983.
John K. Evans, War, Women and Children in Ancient Rome, Routledge, 1991.
Jane Gardner, Women in Roman Law and Society, Indiana University Press, 1986.
Mary R. Lefkowitz and Maureen B. Frant, eds. Women's Life in Greece & Rome, Johns Hopkins Press, 1982.
Sarah Pomeroy, Goddesses, Whores, Wives & Slaves, Schocken Books, N.Y., 1975.
Beryl Rawson, The Family in Ancient Rome, Cornell University Press, 1986.

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