George Hardwick is op 2 Februarie 1920 in Saltburn gebore. Hy het op die linker-agterspeler vir South Bank gespeel. Die Arsenal -bestuurder, George Allison, het hom sien speel, maar het vir hom gesê: 'U het baie vaardigheid en geweldige krag, maar ek dink u is te groot agter om ooit 'n voetbalspeler te behaal.'
Ten spyte van hierdie opmerkings teken hy in 1936 vir Middlesbrough. Hy ontvang £ 3 10 per week, met 'n bonus van £ 2 vir 'n oorwinning in die eerste span. Ander van die destydse klub was Wilf Mannion, George Camsell, Dave Cumming, Benny Yorston, Micky Fenton, Ralph Birkett en Harold Shepherdson.
Hardwick het sy buiging in die 1937-38-seisoen gemaak. In die eerste minuut van die wedstryd het Hardwick, die jongste agterspeler in die eerste afdeling, daarin geslaag om 'n eie doel aan te teken met sy eerste skop in die eerste span. Ondanks hierdie vreeslike begin het hy sy plek in die span behou totdat sy loopbaan deur die Tweede Wêreldoorlog onderbreek is.
Hardwick wen sy eerste internasionale ronde vir Engeland teen Noord-Ierland op 28 September 1946. Franklin behou sy plek en speel die seisoen teen Ierland (1-0), Wallis (3-0), Holland (8-2) , Skotland (1-1), Frankryk (3-0), Switserland (0-1) en Portugal (10-0). Die Engelse span het daardie seisoen spelers soos Raich Carter, Tommy Lawton, Wilf Mannion, Harry Johnston, Neil Franklin, Laurie Scott, Tom Finney, Stanley Matthews, Stan Mortensen, Billy Wright en Frank Swift ingesluit.
Hardwick het sy plek in die Engelse span behou en in die seisoen 1947-48 speel hy teen België (5-2), Wallis (3-0), Noord-Ierland (2-2), Swede (4-2) en Skotland (2 -0). 'N Ernstige kniebesering het egter sy internasionale loopbaan tot 'n einde gebring. Hardwick het egter daarin geslaag om sy plek in die Middlesbrough -span te herstel.
In 1950 het Hardwick as speler-bestuurder by Oldham Athletic aangesluit. Hy het 5 doele aangeteken in 143 wedstryde vir Middlesbrough. In sy eerste seisoen eindig die klub 15de in die derde afdeling. Oldham is na die Tweede Divisie bevorder nadat hy die ligatitel in die 1952-53-seisoen gewen het. Die volgende seisoen eindig Oldham egter in die 22ste plek en word gerelegeer. Hardwick tree in 1955 uit nadat hy 14 doele in 190 wedstryde vir Oldham aangeteken het.
Hardwick word bestuurder van PSV Eindhoven in 1957. Later is hy in beheer van die Nederlandse nasionale sokkerspan. Hy het ook Middlesbrough afgerig en Sunderland en Gateshead bestuur.
Mike McCullagh word die voorsitter van Middlesbrough in 1982. Hy beweer later dat sy eerste besluit was om 'n getuigskrif aan Hardwick en Wilf Mannion te gee. "Ek het geweet van die vele versoeke daarvoor en kon nooit verstaan waarom dit nie die eerste op die lys van wedstryde was nie. Wilf en George was twee van die bekendste spelers wat Middlesbrough nog ooit gesien het en twee van die mees geliefde spelers. "
Op 17 Mei 1983 bring Bobby Robson 'n Engelse XI om Middlesbrough te speel. 'N Skare van 13 710, 3 000 meer as die gemiddelde tuishek daardie seisoen, het die wedstryd gesien. Terry Jackson, ondervoorsitter van die getuieniskomitee, het gesê: "Toe Wilf en George uiteindelik voor die wedstryd uitgaan, het ek trane oor my wange geloop. Dit was die grootste bederf van my lewe en elke lid van die komitee voel dieselfde."
George Hardwick is op 19 April 2004 oorlede.
Ek voel dat die reputasie van George Hardwick vinniger teruggesak het as wat hy verdien het ná die wedstryd teen Engeland teen Skotland in Hampden Park in April 1948. Tot op daardie tydstip was hy 'n outomatiese keuse vir sy land, en ook kaptein, maar 'n besering het hom toe gekos plek op die toer van die Football Association, en hy kon nie terugkeer na die internasionale graad nie.
George is 'n groot man, met die gelukkige vaardigheid om 'n voorstel aan 'n speler te kan maak, selfs om te kritiseer, sonder om gewonde gevoelens agter te laat. Miskien was sy aanval nie altyd so dodelik soos een of twee ander agterspelers van sy tyd nie, maar hy was en is 'n eersteklas sokkerspeler. Sowel op as van die veld af het hy die sport toegeken.
Montgomery County, Kentucky
Dit is afkomstig van koerantuitknipsels wat in 'n genealogiese rubriek in die Mount Sterling Advocate verskyn het, geskryf deur Harry W. Mills. Die genealogiekolom van Harry W. Mills het oorspronklik in die 1940's en 1950's in die Sterling Advocate verskyn.
Eerste beskikbare rekords wat gesinne in Mount Sterling, Ky, bevat, is opgeneem in die Montgomery County -sensus van 1810. (Die 1800 -sensus van Kentucky is vernietig toe die Britte die Capitol in Washington tydens die oorlog van 1812 verbrand het). Die boek uit 1810 met die opsomming van die Montgomery -provinsie lui: "Bylae van die. Persone binne die afdeling toegeken aan Hardage Smith .. En die aanbieding van Mount Sterling begin:" Mount Sterling, 30 Augustus 1810. "
Gesinne in Mount Sterling, 1810
In 1810 was daar 40 gesinne in die berg Sterling, en dit is die "gesinnehoofde".
Totale bevolking van Mount Sterling, 1810: Blankes: Mannetjies, 89 wyfies, 154 in totaal 243 bruin, 50 of meer (die syfers is in baie gevalle onleesbaar)
Hier volg kort genealogiese sketse van sommige van die 1810 gesinne:
FERGUSON - William Ferguson, hoof van 'n gesin wat bestaan uit ses mans en een wyfie. William Ferguson is gebore in Virginia in 1787. Hy trou met Susanna Smith, gebore 1789, dogter van Enoch Smith (1750-1825), en hul kinders sluit die volgende in: (1) Franklin Ferguson, gebore 1827 (2) George Ferguson, gebore 1830 (3) Christopher Ferguson, gebore 1833 (4) Ellen Ferguson, gebore 1835. Enoch Smith, in sy testament, geproefde May Court, 1825, met die naam van dogter Susanna Ferguson, en Frances Ferguson. William Ferguson was 'n seun van Thomas en Priscilla (Ford) Ferguson. Hy het 'n broer, Josiah Ferguson, en 'n suster Susanna Ferguson, wat met Israel Wright getroud was, gehad. (Nota bygevoeg deur Bettie Cline McCaleb - Priscilla Ford se man was Josiah Ferguson. Dit word in haar pa, Thomas Ford, se testament vermeld. Ook toe Josiah Ferguson sterf, noem die nedersetting van sy boedel hom Josiah. Sy het ook 'n afskrif van 'n brief geskryf deur haar groot oom, dr. Josiah Ferguson Jones, waarin hy praat van sy grootouers as Josiah en Priscilla Ferguson. Miskien het Josiah Thomas Josiah genoem, maar sy het niks gevind om dit te bewys nie. In Fairfax Co. Va. noem John Ferguson seuns John, Joshua en Josia, maar geen Thomas nie.)
WILLIAMS - Samuel Williams was die hoof van 'n gesin bestaande uit vyf mans en drie wyfies. Daar was 18 ander gesinne met die naam Williams wat in die 1810 -sensus van die Montgomery -provinsie verskyn het. Geen verdere inligting oor Samuel Williams beskikbaar nie.
EIENDOMME - Die Owings-gesin vestig hulle vroeg in die Montgomery- en Bath-graafskappe, maar daar is tans geen verdere rekords van Richard Owings beskikbaar nie.
FERGUSON - William Ferguson (1786 - 1869), seun van Josiah en Frances (Smith) Ferguson trou met Susanna Smith (1789 - 1878). In 1810 was William Ferguson die hoof van 'n gesin wat bestaan uit 6 mans en 1 wyfie.
CHILES - William Chiles was 'n siviele ingenieur. Hy het aansienlike grond besit, was drie keer getroud en het 'n groot gesin opgevoed. Sy seun, co. Walter Chiles, is gebore in die Montgomery -distrik, oorlede in Frankfort, Ky., Gegradueerde van Transylvania College, het 'n prominente advokaat geword (1) Eliza Price, geen kinders getroud nie (2) Caroline Stith, en het 'n probleem gehad: Mary A., Landon C.
Baie mense wat tans lewe, onthou veral vir sy groot belangstelling in openbare skoolaangeleenthede, Landon T. Chiles, wat jare lank 'n handelaar van Mount Sterling was, hy trou met Mary Mitchell, en hul kinders was Carrie, getroud met dr. Sterling Annie, getroud met LT Young.
KOFFER - Henry Cofer, 'familie' van een persoon (ouderdomsgroep 26 tot 45 jaar). Daarom veronderstel ons dat hy op daardie stadium 'n bachelor was of ten minste sonder familie. Daar was Cofers in die vroeë Montgomery- en Bath -graafskappe.
DURRETT - Paul Durrett was waarskynlik 'n bachelor in 1810, aangesien hy in die sensusboek as 'hoof van 'n gesin' van een persoon (man, ouderdomsgroep 26 tot 45 jaar) gelys word. Onder die huwelike wat deur eerwaarde John "Raccoon" Smith in die Montgomery -land uitgevoer is, is dié van Paul Durrett en Gabriella L. Banks, op 1 Junie 1820. Hon. Wallace Gruelle, in sy historiese toespraak in Sterling, 1872, vertel staaltjies oor Paul Durrett, wat volgens hom 'seer gehou het'.
HENLEY - Osburn Henley (Hensley?) Was hoof van 'n groot gesin (11 mans en 3 wyfies), maar daar is geen verdere rekords oor hierdie man nie.
MILLS - Dr. John Augustus Mills (gebore in Maryland ongeveer 1780 oorlede in Fulton, Callaway county, Missouri), het hom in pionierdae in Montgomery County gevestig en was een van die eerste drie dokters in Mount Sterling. Daarna het hy na Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky, verhuis, waar hy prominente geword het. Ons is meegedeel dat 'n olieverfskildery van die gevierde dokter in die distrikshuis in Clark hang. Dr Mill se vrou heet Lucy (nooiensvan nie bekend nie), 'n boorling van Virginia, en hul gesin in 1810 het vier kinders ingesluit, maar slegs twee se name kom na ons toe: (I) John Mills, gebore in Kentucky ca. 1929 geen verdere rekord nie. (II) Emily Mills, getroud met Irvine Hockaday en in die vroeë tye na Fulton, Mo, verhuis. Hulle het agt kinders gehad, die oudste kind, Lucy Hockaday, getroud met Solomom Van Meter. Irvine Hockaday was die eerste klerk van die graafskap Callaway, Missouri. 'N Afstammeling van dr. Mills vertel ons dat "toe dr. Mills en sy vrou oud word, is ons ouma, Emily Hockaday, na Winchester en neem hulle terug na Fulton, Mo.' N Kamer is spesiaal vir hulle gebou, en daar het hulle het tot hul dood gelewe. Hulle word begrawe in die familieperseel in Fulton. "
GROOTTE - Andrew Biggs was die hoof van 'n groot gesin in 1810 - 15 mans en 4 vroue, altesaam 19 persone. Aangesien hy 'n hotelbewaarder was, word die persone vermoed dat gaste in sy onderneming sowel as lede van sy onmiddellike familiegroep ingesluit is. In sy historiese toespraak gelewer in Mount Sterling, 4 Julie 1872, het regter Wallace Gruelle gesê: "Die eerste taverne in die plek (Mount Sterling) is opgerig op die hoek wat nou deur Johnson & amp Thompson se droëgoedwinkel beset is. Joseph Simpson was die bouer en boniface (sic). Andrew Biggs het daarna 'n taverne geopen waar die Kentucky Hotel nou staan. " Andrew Biggs was waarskynlik een van die vroeë intrekkers van die Montgomery -provinsie, aangesien sy naam op die belastinglys van 1797 verskyn.
MERCKLEY - Frederick Merekley word in 1810 gelys as die hoof van 'n gesin van 6 mans en 1 wyfie. Hy word nie op die 1820 -sensus van Mount Sterling gelys nie. Geen verdere rekord nie.
EVERITT - Richmond Everitt, hoof van 'n gesin van 6 persone in 1810, was ongetwyfeld dieselfde familie as Samuel D. Everitt wat in Sterling. 1820 gelys is. Reid se "Historical Sketches": ". In 'n huis langs die weste van Simpson se taverne het Samuel en Peter Everitt hul suksesvolle loopbaan as handelaars begin. "
GROOMME - Moses Grooms, hoof van 'n gesin van 6 persone in 1810, word ook in die 1820-sensus van Mount Sterling gelys. Geen verdere rekord beskikbaar nie.
KELSOE - Hugh Kelso kom uit Kent County na Kentucky, Virginia, sy broer, John Kelsoe, vestig hom ook in die Montgomery-distrik, Kentucky. Hulle was seuns van James en Elizabeth (Sitlington) Kelso van Bath, Virginia, wat ook dogters gehad het, Mary (Polly) Kelso en Elizabeth (Betsy) Kelso. Betsy Kelso was die vrou van Thomas Hughart van Bath, Virginia, wat na Kentucky gemigreer het en in Bath County, Kentucky, gevestig het. gevestig in die distrik met dieselfde naam in Kentucky. Daar is slegs twee graafskappe in die hele land met die naam Bath - een in Virginia en een in Kentucky.
MCILVAIN - Die gesin van Archibald McIlvain het 4 mans ingesluit; alle volwassenes was James McIlvain, met 'n gesin van 2 mans en 3 vroue. Lede van die McIlvain -gesin trou met Banks, McBee (Mockbee) en ander vroeë Montgomery -provinsies.
FEAMSTER -Samuel Feamster (Feimster) van Mount Sterling, 1810, was 'n afstammeling van 'n Skotse gesin wat hom vroeg in die Bath-Highland-distrik, Virginia, gevestig het.
VERSKRYWINGS - Die gesin van William Hodges, berg Sterling, 1810, het twee volwassenes en drie kinders ingesluit. Geen rekord beskikbaar van die naam van sy vrou of van die kinders nie. William Hoges (Hodges) het William Hoges (Hodges) as eienaar van 'n 'lott' in die ouditeur se boekhouding van 'town lotts' in Mount Sterling, 1797, gelys. Gruelle se historiese skets van die Montgomery -provinsie lui: "'n Man met die naam Hodge het die eerste slypmeul opgerig aan die agterkant van die eiendom aangrensend aan die Metodiste -kerk, wat nou deur dr. Ashby besit word. Hy het dit met perdekrag bestuur." Die man wat die eerste slypmeule opgerig het, was moontlik die William Hodges van Mount Sterling, maar daar was ook ander met die naam wat in die Montgomery -distrik woon of daar eiendom besit, soos in die ouditeursboek van 1797 ook John Hodges, Andrew Hodge, genoem word. as William Hodges.
THOMSON - Hugh D. Thomson, hoof van 'n gesin wat uit twee volwassenes bestaan, was waarskynlik uit dieselfde familie as David Anderson Thompson, jr., Wat in die vroeë dae van Virginia na Kentucky gekom het en naby Mount Sterling gevestig het.
RINGO -Henry Ringgold (Ringo), wat in Augustus 1810 in Mount Sterling gewoon het, was ongetwyfeld die familie van Henry Ringo (1724-1802), wat saam met sy sewe seuns en dogters van New Jersey met Virginia na Montgomery gekom het County, Kentucky, in die vroeë dae.
STYF - Daniel Stiff, woonagtig in Sterling, 1810, met 'n gesin van twee volwassenes en Joseph Stiff, hoof van 'n gesin van twee volwassenes en vyf kinders, woonagtig in Montgomery, Kentucky, 1810, was waarskynlik naby familielede. Daar is egter geen inligting oor die oorsprong daarvan nie, hoewel daar teen die jaar 1710 'n familie met die naam in Middlesex County, Virginia, was. Die van Styf is afgelei van die bynaam "The Stiff", wat styf van karakter is of hardnekkig van aard. 'N Gesag oor die oorsprong van vanne sê dat' die klinker eens lank was ', dit wil sê uitgespreek as Stife, soos in die woord Strife.
CHEATHAM - In 1810 woon David Cheatham, James Cheatham en John Cheatham in die graafskap, en Leonard Cheatham in die stad Mount Sterling. Die federale opsomming toon Leonard Cheatham se hoof van 'n gesin van 2 volwassenes en 6 kinders. (Een van die offisiere van die graafskapmilisie van die Montgomery -provinsie, wat deur die goewerneur in 1798 op die been gebring is, was vaandrig Lewis Cheatham.)
FORBUSH - In 1776 was James Forbush een van die eerste intrekkers by Bryant's Station (in die Fayette-provinsie) wat hy later na die provinsie Broubon verhuis het. Gracy Forbush, hoof van 'n gesin wat in Mount Sterling, 1810, bestaan, bestaande uit 1 volwassene (vroulik) en twee kinders, was moontlik die weduwee van 'n afstammeling van hierdie James Forbush, wat voor 1810 in die Montgomery -provinsie gekom het.
SIMPSON - Joseph Simpson was hoof van 'n gesin van 2 volwassenes en 11 kinders in die opsomming van Mount Sterling in 1810. (Een van die beamptes van die Montgomery County Regiment of Militia, wat deur die goewerneur in 1798 opgerig is, was luitenant Joseph Simpson. Dit is ongetwyfeld die Joseph Simpson wat deur Reid genoem word: "Die eerste taverne (in Mount Sterling) is gebou op die hoek nou bewoon deur Wells en Thompson se droë winkel. Dit was 'n gekapte houthuisgebou met 'n groot, outydse stoep wat oor sy hele lengte strek. Joseph Simpson was die bouer en die verhuurder.).
SPURGEON (Spurgin) - Samuel Spurgeon (1779), wat 'in 1792 naby Mount Sterling met sy gesin gevestig het', is onder die name van 'besoekers en soekers' wat Reid genoem het in die verhaal van die pioniersgeskiedenis van Montgomery. Samuel Spurgeon, woonagtig in Mount Sterling in 1810, hoof van 'n gesin van 2 volwassenes en 5 kinders.
VIRT (Vert) - Jacob Virt was 'n vroeë setlaar van Kentucky, sy naam verskyn al in 1790 in die boeke van Bourbon. Hy het later na Montgomery County verhuis, waar hy sy testament gesterf het. , Keziah Virt, en die volgende kinders: (1) Adam Virt (2) Sibber Virt (getroud - Plek) (3) Polly Virt (getroud - Plek) (4) Betsy Virt (getroud - Wilson) (5) Jacob Virt ( 6) Rebecca Virt (getroud - Sutton) (7) Sally Virt (8) Nathaniel Virt (9) John Virt (10) Keziah Virt (11) Rede Virt (12) William Virt (13) Daniel Virt.
INGRAM (Ingrim) - Thomas Ingrim of Ingram het in 1810 in die distrik Montgomery gewoon, toe hy die hoof van 'n gesin van 4 persone was. Een Uriah Ingrim het eiendom in die distrik Montgomery, 1797, besit en was waarskynlik van dieselfde familie. Hierdie gesin verskyn in latere verslae van die provinsies Bath en Morgan, Kentucky, en het moontlik in die deel van die vroeë Montgomery gewoon, wat later afgesny is om Bath en Morgan te vorm.
KINCAID (Kinkaid) - Teen die tyd van die koloniale oorloë was hierdie familie redelik talryk in die suidweste van Virginia (Augusta, en graafskappe is daarvan afgesny, waaronder Greenbrier, Bath, ens.). Die pioniersgeskiedenis van Kentucky bevat baie van die name. David Kincaid en John Kincaid was vroeë eienaars van eiendom in die Montgomery -distrik (belastinglys van 1797). Die 1810 -sensus van hierdie land bevat 'n aantal gesinne met die naam Kincaid, insluitend: Archibald Kincaid, John Kincaid, Andrew Kincaid, Andrew Kincaid, Jr., Thomas Kincaid, George Kincaid en David Kincaid. Dit lyk asof hulle almal gewoon het in die provinsie Bath, 1811. Huwelike uitgevoer deur eerwaarde Joseph Price Howe, eerste leraar van die Springfield Presbyterian Church, Bath County, Kentucky, sluit dié in: Thomas Kincaid en Mary Bracken, op 13 Maart, 1800 John Caldwell en Mary Kincaid op 13 Maart 1800 en James Johnston en Ann Kincaid op 10 September 1810.
MAGOWAN - James S. Magowan, aangewys as hoof van 'n gesin van 2 volwassenes en 5 kinders. James Strode Magowan is gebore in Virginia, 1774, seun van James Magowan van Berleley county, Virginia, naby Mount Sterling. Hy was 'n groot grondeienaar. Regter Gruelle het in sy historiese skets van Mount Sterling gesê dat "in 1809 James Magowan 'n tanyard begin het op die perseel waarop die spoorwegdepot opgerig word." James S. Magowan dien as verteenwoordiger uit die Montgomery -provinsie, saam met William Hodges, 1808. James Strode Magowan sterf ongeveer 1852. Sy seun, James P. Magowan (gebore 1801 oorlede 1858), trou, 1827, Eliza Jane Banks (sy is gebore in wat nou Bath County is, 16 Mei 1806 oorlede 1871, dogter van Cuthbert en Elizabeth MeIlvaine Banks Kinders: (1) Anna Eliza (2) James Asa (3) John Trabue (4) William Cuthbert. John Trabue Magowan, seun van James T. en Eliza (Banks) Magowan, gebore 1834 oorlede 1909 hy is gebore, woon en sterf in Montgomery county. In 1872 is hy getroud met Emily G. Gatewood. Kinders: (1) James R. (2) Mary .
HEIGHTON - Die federale opsomming van 1810 toon Josiah Heighton met 'n volwasse man, ouderdomsgroep 45 jaar en meer in die gesin. Daar word dus veronderstel dat hy 'n bejaarde man was sonder 'n gesin wat alleen woon. Geen ander inligting is beskikbaar nie. (Daar was 'n John Heaton, 'n soortgelyke naam in die 1797 -belastinglys van Montgomery County.)
McFERRIN - John McFerrin was hoof van 'n gesin van 2 volwassenes en 5 kinders, woonagtig in Mount Sterling, 1810. Tans is daar geen inligting beskikbaar oor die name van die vrou en kinders van John McFerrin nie, maar onder die huwelike wat deur ds John uitgevoer is Smith, in Montgomery county was die volgende: Jonathan McFerrin en Rebecca Harper, 13 Oktober 1818 Dillingham Ward en Susan McFerrin, 26 November 1818 en Aaron McFerrin en Elizabeth Montgomery, 13 April 1830. Die familie van McFerrin is 'n ou van Virginia en 'n familielid kom in die vroeë pioniersdae uit die graafskap York, Virginia, na die distrik Lincoln, Kentucky. John McFerrin van Mount Sterling was waarskynlik van dieselfde familie.
FEATHERCHY - Andrew Featherchy was die hoof van 'n gesin wat bestaan uit 2 volwassenes en 8 kinders, woonagtig in Sterling 1810. (geen verdere inligting nie)
WHITLEDGE - Robert Whitledge was 'n lid van die eerste verkenningsparty in die lente van 1775, maar blykbaar het hy hom nie in die Montgomery -distrik gevestig nie. Die naam van Robert Whitledge word gevind op 'n versoekskrif aan die Virginia -vergadering deur ". Verskillende inwoners van die graafskap Bourbon," gedateer 27 Oktober 1788. Die versoekers word beskryf as 'woon naby die hof en op Licking Creek.' ons kom tot die gevolgtrekking dat Robert Whitledge naby die stad Hopewell (nou Parys, die provinsie Bourbon) geleë is. In die Bourbon -distrik was ook Thomas Whitledge en John Whitledge, broers en Robert Whitledge was waarskynlik uit dieselfde familie.
JUDY - John Judy en ander "het in 1779 uit Virginia gekom en die klein kolonie blankes saamgestel wat die eerste keer in die Montgomery -distrik gevestig was." Die familie van Judy (Tshudi) het vroeg in Switserland na Amerika gekom, waarna hulle eers in Pennsylvania gevestig is, en lede na Virginia en Kentucky verhuis.
THOMAS - Moses Thomas word aangewys as 'n lid van die klein kolonie wat 'die eerste keer Montgomery County gevestig het'. Een Benjamin Thomas word in die vroeë verslae van die Montgomery -provinsie genoem: Op 7 November 1803 het Weathers Smith van die distrik Bourbon volmag gegee aan Benjamin Thomas van Montgomery, "om 'n verdeling van grond in besit te neem van my en my broer George Smith". Benjamin Thomas is dood "ongeveer Februarie 1813 en laat die grond oor aan Benjamin Franklin Thomas en Washington Thomas, onder die ouderdom, van wie James French die voog was.
SADE - William Sade, nog een van diegene wat "in 1779 uit Virginia gekom het", het moontlik elders geen verdere rekord in die Montgomery -land gevind nie.
WIT - Benjamin White word genoem onder die vroeë "besoekers en soekers". Moontlik was hy 'n 'besoeker' eerder as 'n 'opspoor', aangesien geen verdere inligting oor hom gevind word nie. 'N Vroeë setlaar van die provinsie Montgomery was Aquilla White (met die hand geskrewe nota: A. W. Eerwaarde Soldaat), wat in 1779 na Kentucky gekom het en eers in Boonesborough geleë was, waarna hy later na die Montgomery -provinsie verhuis het. Hy was in die Amerikaanse rewolusie waarin hy as kaptein in die Pennsylvania Line gedien het. Hy is op die pensioenlys van 1835, 'n inwoner van die ouderdom van Montgomery County, gegee as 89.
ANDERSON - Nicholas Anderson was een van die vroeë "besoekers en opsporers" van die provinsie Montgomery. Die testament van noncupation van ene Nicholas Anderson is bewys deur die eed van David Bradshaw in Desember Court, 1823, Montgomery county. Sy vrou, Rachel en kinders word genoem (maar kinders se name word nie gegee nie.) Daar was 'n hele aantal mans met die naam Anderson in die vroeë verslae van die Montgomery -provinsie, wat moontlik afstammelinge of van dieselfde tak as Nicholas Anderson kan wees, maar voldoende data is nie byderhand om hierdie mense te identifiseer en 'n genealogiese skets te reël nie.
BLADSY - Nog een van die vroeë "besoekers en opsporers" was James Poage. Op 17 Desember 1796 het goewerneur James Garrard opdragte aan die regters van die eerste Court of Quarter Sessions uitgereik vir die nuutgestigte County Montgomery, een van die regters het die naam James Poage gekry. Vroeg in die jaar 1798 ontslaan die goewerneur 'n regiment van Militia vir die nuwe graafskap Montgomery. Hy het die luitenant-kolonel en kommandant, James Poage, aangestel. Belastinglyste uit Montgomery County, 1797, toon aan dat James Poage die eienaar van 1106 hektaar grond was. Geen genealogiese rekords gevind nie.
SPURGIN - Samuel Spurgin, onder die vroeë besoekers en opsporers, het geen verdere rekord nie. (Geskryfde nota: verkooprekening - boedel - 1838)
TURLEY - James Turley kom van die provinsie Culpeper, Virginia, naby Mount Sterling, Kentucky, voordat die graafskap Montgomery gestig is. Die eerste belastinglyste van die nuwe graafskap, 1797, toon die name van James Turley en Loenard Turley. Die Amerikaanse sensus van 1810 gee 'n lys van die naam van Leonard Turley as hoof van 'n gesin wat bestaan uit 5 mans en 3 vroue, maar daar is tans geen rekord van James Turley nie, daarom word vermoed dat hy oorlede is of elders verhuis het. (Daar was een James Turley gebore omstreeks 1762, 'n revolusionêre soldaat wat in 1835 in Sangamon County, Illinois, gebly het toe hy as 'n pensioenaris aangegee is, ouderdom gegee as 72). Ander Turleys wat in die vroeë rekords van die Montgomery -land gevind is, is ongetwyfeld afstammelinge van die pioniers, maar ons het 'n besliste rekord van slegs een kind van James Turley, vrederegter. Hy was Thomas J. Turley, gebore in die Montgomery -distrik, wat in 1830 na Gallatin County, Kentucky, verhuis het. Hy trou met Artie Lillard, 'n dogter van eerwaarde David Lillard, 'n vroeë Baptiste predikant van Kentucky. Dit lyk asof Leonard Turley in die deel van Montgomery, wat later Bath County geword het, gewoon het.
ROBINSON - Dit lyk asof daar meer as een tak van die Robinson -familie in die Montgomery -distrik was. Op die huidige stadium van ons ondersoek is dit onmoontlik om beskikbare rekords van die naam in die vroeë Montgomery -distrik te identifiseer en te rangskik.
HUGHES - David Hughes, een van die eerste Justices of the Peace of Montgomery, was 'n groot grondeienaar van die nuwe graafskap, soos blyk uit die belastinglyste van 1797. Een James Hughes was ook 'n vroeë grondeienaar. 'N Charterlid van die ou Springfield Presbyterian Church, Montgomery (later Bath), was John Hughes. (In die kantlyn neergeskryf: John Hughes M. Polly Pattterson - 9 November 1809)
ROSENBOROUGH - William Rosenborough, vrederegter, Montgomery County, 1797, het moontlik elders verwyder of moontlik woon hy in 'n deel van die graafskap wat spoedig van Montgomery County afgesny is. Geen rekord nie.
HARDWICK - John Hardwick (of Hardwicke), oudste, vrederegter, Montgomery County, Kentucky, is gebore in Virginia, ongeveer 1714 het hy kort ná die Amerikaanse rewolusie uit Bedford, Virginia, na Kentucky verhuis, en sy naam is een van die rekords van Fayette county, Kentucky, teen die jaar 1790. Die belastinglyste van 1797, Montgomery county, toon die name van John Hardwick, sen. John Hardwick, Junr. George Hardwick, Sr., getroud 1ste, 'n Miss Venable 2de, Dorcas Bush van Virginia.
COLVIN - Goewerneur James Gerrard het op 17 Desember 1796 kommissies uitgereik aan mans wat aangestel is as Justices of the Peace vir die nuwe graafskap Montgomery (wat ingestel is deur 'n Wet van die Kentucky -wetgewer wat op 14 Desember 1796 goedgekeur is om 1 Maart 1797 in werking te tree. ). Onder diegene wat as Vrederegters genoem is, was Joseph Colvin.
Hierdie Joseph Colvin het moontlik in 'n deel van die Montgomery -provinsie gewoon, wat later afgesny is om ander graafskappe te vorm, of andersins verwyder. (Daar was 'n Joseph Colvin wat hom vroeg in Lincoln County, Kentucky, gevestig het). Dit lyk asof afstammelinge al 'n paar jaar lank moeite gedoen het om die geskiedenis van die Colvin -familie te voltooi, en 'n aantal navrae het in publikasies verskyn en van verskillende plekke af ingedien om inligting te kry oor die vroeë setlaars van die naam Colvin in Virginia en Kentucky. Een ondersoek wat in 'n historiese koerant gedruk is, het inligting gevra oor een van Joseph Colvin, wat verband hou met die families van Anderson, Trimble Allen, wat in pionierdae van Augusta County, Virginia, na Kentucky gekom het en hulle in Kentucky gevestig het, insluitend Fayette County.
In die hoop om 'n klein hulpmiddel te wees vir almal wat inligting soek oor die vroeë geskiedenis van die Colvin -familie, word die volgende notas gegee wat die skrywer oor 'n tydperk van 'n paar dosyn jare versamel het:
Daar word gesê dat die Colvin -familie omstreeks 1744 uit Engeland na Amerika gekom het. Dit lyk asof hierdie familietradisie in die volgende item pas, uit Foote's History of Virginia: Ongeveer die jaar van 1735 het William Hoge uit Pennsylvania verhuis en hom op die Opeckon gevestig, drie myl suid van Winchester, Virginia .. Opeckon Meeting House staan op hierdie stuk grond. Die families van Vance, Allen, Colvin, White. en ander het by hom aangesluit en die Opeckon -gemeente gestig, die oudste wes van die Blue Ridge. (Die familie Vance was 'n vroeë familie uit die Presbiteriaanse geloof in Frederick, Virginia).
In Frederick Morton's History of Winchester, Virginia, in die skrywer [sic], is daar 'n afskrif van 'n antieke dokument oor die uitlê van lotte vir die stad Winchester. Onder die name wat genoem word, is Marquis Calmes, Andrew Campbell, Margan Morgan, John White en David Vance - almal name wat in die vroeë Kentucky -families verteenwoordig word. Die datum is 21 Maart 1744 (New Style Calendar).
Uit 'n ander kursus leer ons dat Andrew Vance, wat omstreeks 1700 van Ierland na Amerika gekom het, en hom in 1735 by Opeckon Creek, Frederick county, Virginia, gevestig het, met Elizabeth Colvin getroud is.
Lank voor die rewolusieoorlog het lede van die Colvin -familie hulle in Culpepper, Virginia, gevestig.
Jospeh Colvin, seun van Charles Colvin, is in 1778 in Culpepper County, Virginia, gebore en het saam met sy ouers na Kentucky gekom. Hy trou met Nancy Turner, dogter van Stephen en Mary Turner. Hul seun, Armistead Colvin, is gebore naby Lancaster, Ky., 23 April 1807, en sterf in Indiana, 1872, trou hy in Garrard County, Kentucky, 4 April 1809 met Leannah Wilson, dogter van William en Nancy (Banks) Wilson .
Die graafskap Montgomery is gevorm uit 'n deel van die distrik Clark op grond van 'n wet van die Kentucky -wetgewer wat op 14 Desember 1796 goedgekeur is om op 1 Maart 1797 in werking te tree. Op 8 Februarie 1798 het die goewerneur 'n nuwe militêre regiment ontslaan, synde die een-en-dertigste, om opgeneem te word in die graafskap Montgomery en benoem James Poage, luitenant-kolonel kommandant, en Andrew Swearingen, majoor van die eerste bataljon, en Samuel Downing, majoor van die tweede bataljon. (Ander offisiere wat vir hierdie Regiment of Militia aangestel is, is ook genoem). (Uit Kentucky -argiewe.)
BLADSY - James Poage word aangewys as die eerste ontdekkingsreisigers van die huidige Montgomery -land, waarvan hy na bewering naby Mount Sterling in 1792 gevestig het. belastinglyste, 1797, as 'n groot grondeienaar en hy is aangestel as kommandant van die eerste Regiment of Militia vir Montgomery county. Ongelukkig is daar geen verdere verslag van James Poage in hierdie land beskikbaar nie, maar 'n paar aantekeninge oor die familie in Kentucky en Virginia kan van belang wees: een William Poage het van 1776 tot 1778 in Harrodsburg gewoon, hy was 'n vernuftige man en het al die emmers gemaak , melkemmer, baddens en muggies wat deur die mense van die fort gebruik is. Sy weduwee trou in 1781 met Joseph Lindsey, en 'n paar jaar later trou sy met James McGinty. (Collins se geskiedenis van Kentucky). In 1739 kom twee broers, John en Robert Poage, na Amerika en land in Philadelphia en gaan later na Virginia. Robert Poage trou met Elizabeth Preston -kinders: Margaret, John, Martha, Sarah, George, Mary, William, Elizabeth, Robert, Thomas. Robert Poage was een van die eerste ouderlinge van die Old Stone -kerk, Augusta, Virginia. John Poage, seun van Robert, oudste, trou met Jean Somers se kinders: John, Grace, Martha, Robert, William, Anne, James, Jonathan, Thomas en Rebecca. Onder die offisiere van die Augusta -graafskap Virginia Virginia in die Revolusionêre Oorlog was James Poage, luitenant John Poage, vaandrig en George Poage, kaptein.
Daar was ook 'n bruin gesin van "Free Tom" wat in die berg Sterling, Kentucky, gewoon het tydens die opsomming van die federale sensus van 1810.
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Know more about George Hardwick?
Fiona Irwin on 15th July, 2020 wrote:
George Hardwick was born in 1810 to parents John and his wife Ann. George grew up in Ashbocking, a small town in the Parish of Ipswich, in the rural County of Suffolk in England. George was one of five surviving children with three siblings having died during their childhood: John born in 1804 died in 1811 Martin born in 1807 died in 1818 and Maria born in 1812 died in 1825.
In 1838, when George came in contact with the law for the first time for the offence of stealing fowls, he was already married to Amy with a daughter Cecilia and had another child on the way. Their son, George William Hardwick, was born in the second half of 1838. In 1840 when George was apprehended for the second time, he had a further child on the way and Miriam was born in 1840.
For his second offence George was sentenced for 7 years transportation for stealing lead from a Church Yard, and he was held at the gaol at Ipswich from 4 July to 14 July 1840 before being transferred to the prison hulk Warrior which was moored off Woolwich and at Chatham on the Thames.
After spending just over 20 months on board the Warrior, George who was found to be in good health was gathered up in leg irons with 279 convicts and transported to Van Diemen’s Land on the Eden which departed Woolwich on 12 March in 1842. For a male convict born in 1810, George’s height measured in 1842 of 70.5 inches was approximately 4.5 inches above the average height of convict men who had grown up in the rural areas of Great Britain. When George was transported on the Eden he was leaving behind his wife Amy and Cecilia, his seven year-old-daughter.
The Eden was under the command of Lieutenant Gordon, 29 rank and file of the 99th regiment with the ship’s crew and also four women and three children were on board. Eden’s surgeon, Mr Alexander Neill, indicated in the general remarks section of his daily sick book journal that the general appearance of the convicts was favourable, however, several had been affected by confinement and diet in the hulks and two were returned.
By 8 June Neill had written in the journal that serious health problems had arisen during the voyage when they encountered a huge storm off the Island of Amsterdam. During the storm the Eden was damaged, tarpaulins had washed off the hatchways and forty convicts in the prison and their bedding had been drenched by seawater. A week later Neill had noted the air in the prison and in the hospital had become ‘truly oppressive’. He continued to add in his journal the weather remained stormy from 8 June until the day of arrival in Van Diemen’s Land.
Fortunately, George Hardwick’s name did not appear in the journal but many of his fellow transportees were struck down by injury or ill health. The life-threatening diseases on Eden’s voyage were related to scurvy and consumption, an old term for what we now know is tuberculosis and Neill also noted one of the convict’s underlying health condition of syphilis had greatly reduced his capacity to overcome scurvy.
According to the journal, 20 percent of the convicts required medical treatment for illness or injury. In total Neill treated fifteen soldiers, four sailors, one of the children (a boy) and fifty-five convicts. Convicts Jonathan Brown aged 49 and John Kaye aged 55 had chronic illnesses diagnosed and had been hospitalised prior to the voyage and they made up two of the four deaths attributed to the later stages of scurvy (scorbutic dysentery). Given their age and their previous health problems it is surprising that Kaye and Brown had been selected fit for travel. The fifth convict death was due to tuberculosis.
After 105 days the Eden arrived in Van Diemen’s Land on 5 July 1842, and George was sent on 13 July to the Salt Water Creek Probation Station for a twelve-month period during which time his health remained good as was his conduct. Before he received his ticket of leave on 17 January 1846 he worked as a labourer in Brighton and in Glenorchy. By 1849 when he had received his freedom, George had settled in the Derwent Valley and he continued his trade of bootmaker.
Though George’s wife and daughter did not join him, he went on to cohabitate and have four children with Elizabeth Purdon until 1854 when Elizabeth died in childbirth. He then married Mary Cary in Richmond in 1855 and went on to have 6 more children. Of the ten children born, only one died in infancy.
George, however, did have a further brush with the law and in 1853 a charge of larceny that was brought against him was said to have been ‘ignored’. Perhaps George’s prosperity was underpinned by his good health, farming and labouring knowledge and skills that were in demand, he had settled in Brighton in the Derwent Valley, an area known for its fertile soils, and was able to successfully farm the land whilst still plying his trade as a bootmaker. And after his brush with the law in 1853 he was able stay on the right side of the law. George was able to live on until an old age and he died on 9 October 1889 in Brighton in his 79th year.
Many thanks to the Hardwick family for lending me their family history resources.
Convict Changes History
Fiona Irwin on 15th July, 2020 made the following changes:
date of birth: 1810 (prev. 0000), date of death: 9th October, 1889 (prev. 0000), occupation, crime
The southernmost part of the town of Hardwick along the Ware River featured a covered bridge, corn mill, saw mill, coal house, forge, and a scattering of residences by 1772. 1 A new furnace was erected by 1815 under the management of Col. Thomas Wheeler and Lemuel Harrington at which point the area became known as New Furnace. For a brief period between 1832 and the 1840s, a paper mill was located along the river.
Seeking to expand his woolen manufacturing lines in Ware, industrialist George Gilbert of the George Gilbert Manufacturing Company purchased land along the Ware River in the late 1850s. 1
Gilbert moved to Ware in 1841 and in partnership with Charles A. Stevens, purchased the former Hampshire Manufacturing Company. 1 It produced bread cloths, and later flannels. The company added a stone mill in 1846 which specialized in white and opera flannels. After the partnership dissolved in 1851, Gilbert’s nephew, Lewis N. Gilbert, joined him and was made a full partner in the George H. Gilbert & Company in 1857. In 1867, the company became known as the George H. Gilbert Manufacturing Company.
With demand outpacing supply, Gilbert sought ample land to expand. The first mill in New Furnace, Mill No. 1, was constructed in 1860 and was producing worsteds and flannels by 1862. 1 Mill No. 2 was added in 1863, followed by Mill No. 3 in 1864 and Mill No. 4 in 1867. A major addition was made to Mill No. 1 in 1883.
The mills were originally powered by the force of a canal via the Ware River, which was augmented by a coal-fired power plant in 1912. 1
By the early 20th century, the wool industry began to move to the South, and companies that remained did not invest in technological improvements to their production lines. The Gilbert Manufacturing Company mills operated at far less than capacity and Mill No. 3 was torn down in 1916.
Vested through powers granted from a legislative act in 1926, the Metropolitan Water Supply Commission began diverting floodwaters from the Ware River at Coldbrook in March 1931 to serve as a water supply for the city of Worcester. 4 The damming of the river lessened both the quantity and quality of the water to the point that it was no longer suitable for washing and treating the woolen cloth it manufactured nor was there enough water power to support the mills. The trial, the longest ever in the Hampshire County courts at 28 days, resulted in a favorable judgment for the company in January 1934, whereas it was awarded $305,708 in damages—but by that point, the company and its assets had been sold to a group of outside investors for $119,000. 1 It continued to operate at low levels of production before the facilities were severely damaged by a hurricane in 1938.
After the hurricane, the Sugarman Company of Coatesville, Pennsylvania was retained to liquidate the company holdings, a process that continued into the 1940s. 1 Mill No. 2 was dismantled and sold for salvage in the late 1940s while others were largely vacated. During the 1950s, Mill No. 1 was used by the William Carter Company to produce women’s and children’s clothing, complimenting its other mills in Springfield, Barnesville and Forsythe, Georgia and Senatobia, Mississippi. 2 3 Mill No. 4 was acquired by the Salem family and used as the Gilbertville Storage Company. 5
The Gilbert Manufacturing Company constructed a small company-owned village that consisted of: 1
- The c. 1863 Gilbertville Hall, a three-story mansard-roofed structure with a hall on the upper floors and a retail store on the lower level
- The c. 1912 Gilbertville Public Library funded by Col. Edward H. Gilbert and designed in the Classical Revival style
- The c. 1883 Gilbertville Union Hall that included a skating rink
- The c. 1874 St. Aloysius Church, a stone Gothic Revival style facility constructed at the cost of $50,000, the result of a bequest of George Gilbert’s will in 1869 and augmented by substantial family and company gifts. A chapel and parsonage were added c. 1884. Prior to the completion of the church, the congregation met in the Hall.
- A c. 1870 store operated by the Hitchcock family with a boardinghouse above on south Main Street
- A c. 1870 school at the corner of High and Highland Streets. It was replaced with an elementary school in 1903 and a high school in 1910, both designed by E.C. and G.C. Gardner. The high school was relocated from Hardwick Center.
- A passenger depot, freight station, and warehouse along the Ware River Railroad, which later became the Central Massachusetts Railroad
- A c. 1882 bandstand
- Approximately 69 multi-family residences, 186 tenements, and nine single-family structures.
The village of Gilbertville was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1991.
Hardwick Estate has a long and fascinating history including a role in the English civil war, and as one of the inspirations for Wind in the Willows.
At the time of the Battle of Hastings in 1066, Hardwick and its lands were owned by Wigod, the Saxon Lord of Wallingford. The Doomsday book records a dwelling on the current location of Hardwick House, whose cellars are believed to originate from this era.
1842 drawing of Hardwick House
In the thirteenth century, the house and grounds passed into the hands of a Norman French family called the de Hardwicks, and in 1527 the Estate was purchased by Richard Lybbe, a wealthy landowner with links to the royal family, who built the Elizabethan manor – Hardwick House. The family’s royal connection made them a target for Oliver Cromwell’s republican army during the civil war, and Hardwick was attacked and ransacked. Later, when King Charles I was imprisoned in Oxford he visited Hardwick to drink ale and play bowls on a green on the Estate.
Sir Charles Day Rose bought the Estate in 1909, having rented it since 1871 after the Lybbe Powys’s fell on hard times. He was a banker, sportsman and Liberal politician thought to be the inspiration for the character Mr Toad in Wind in the Willows, which was written by his banking contemporary Kenneth Grahame who lived in Pangbourne. As Liberal Member of Parliament for Newmarket and Cambridge he became a supporter of David Lloyd George’s ‘people’s budget’, advocating redistribution of land, and abolition of the House of Lords. The enormous wealth which he amassed via mining and railway investments in North America, India and Africa was spent on his passion for sports. At Hardwick he built a race horse breeding stud farm which turned out several Derby winners, and two Real Tennis courts, one of which is still an active club. He was also a pioneering motorist, yachtsman and aviator.
The Rose family continue to own and manage the Estate to this day. In the 1950s and 60s Sir Charles Rose placed emphasis on Hardwick’s forestry, and it became one of the first English woodlands to experiment with planting Thuja Plicata (Western Red Cedar), alongside high grade Beech for furniture making, winning several awards.
In 1975 the farmland was converted to organic status by Sir Julian Rose, the present Estate owner, and his mother Phoebe, and by 1983 Julian was running a thriving organic mixed family farm including a Guernsey dairy herd producing unpasteurised milk, as well as beef, woodland pigs, sheep, chickens, and arable. An award winning farm shop was established at Path Hill selling produce from the farm and its neighbours, and the raw milk, cream and bacon won national awards on a number of occasions. The now renowned horticulturalist Iain Tolhurst and his family took over the Estate’s historic market garden at the same time, producing high quality organic veg. Sadly, increasing government regulation, supermarket dominance, as well as the BSE and foot and mouth crises put the farm shop out of business, and Julian instead focused his energy on campaigning to save what he calls ‘Real Food’ and the family farms that produce it, from the forces of mechanisation and corporate agriculture.
The Old Dairy Farm Shop and farm events in the 1990s
There are several books and films with more information on Hardwick’s vivid history:
The Real Mr Toad: Merchant Venturer and Radical in the Age of Gold by Michael Redley is a mini biography of Sir Charles Day Rose documenting his role in shaking up Edwardian society, as well as the sadness and intrigue in his private life.
The booklet is available from the Bell Bookshop in Henley, Garlands in Pangbourne, and the Hardwick Estate Office for £7.
William Barefield Hutt, whose family lived and worked on the Estate from around 1900 until the 1970s, wrote a series of memoirs including Hardwick, which details his family’s experiences working for Sir Charles Day Rose as well as latterly. It can be purchased from the Whitchurch and Goring Heath History Society for £8.
George Hardwick history under the hammer
MAJOR Boro items of huge historic significance will come under the hammer next month.
MAJOR Boro items of huge historic significance will come under the hammer next month.
They come from Boro legend’s George Hardwick extensive and remarkable collection of rare and elusive artefacts.
The Hardwick material is going up for sale at the Mullock’s Ltd Football Auction at Ludlow Racecourse on July 7.
The remarkable collection includes the unique Great Britain shirt which George wore when he skippered the four nations in the 1947 match against the Rest of Europe to celebrate the return of peace to the continent.
The shirt has been on display at the Riverside Stadium for a few years.
The auction collection also includes nine of George’s international caps, plus an England blazer and an autographed 1950s England shirt.
Keith Hartwell from Mullock’s said: “We are delighted to be able to include George Hardwick’s collection in our football auction next month.
“The items available form the extensive part of all of George’s memorabilia. I am sure there will be a great deal of interest.”
Saltburn-born George, whose outstanding career is commemorated by a statue outside the Riverside, was a Boro player from 1937 to 1950.
He played 166 games for the club, most of them at left-back, though he lost seven years of his career because of the Second World War, when he served in the RAF.
He captained England in all 13 of his post-war international appearances, with the Great Britain captaincy being his greatest honour.
George went on to manage Oldham Athletic, coached in Germany and Holland, and later managed Sunderland, where he gave Brian Clough his first coaching role.
Hardwick was a regular attender at Boro home games until his death in 2004, at the age of 84.
Some of the extremely collectable items in the Mullock’s auction include junior medals which George was awarded when he was a teenager with South Bank East End.
The nine international caps include his first one, which came in a 7-2 victory against Northern Ireland in season 1946-47.
In addition to the shirt which George wore against the Rest of Europe, when he played at right-back, there is also an inscripted silver plaque from the match.
Another rare item is the winner’s medal which George received when he was player-manager of Oldham Athletic when they won the Division Three North Championship in 1953.
One of the last medals George received is also included in the auction.
It is the Football League 100 Legends gold medal which he was awarded in 1999, when the Football League celebrated the start of the 100th season of league football.
Mullock’s are based in Church Stretton in Shropshire. Further information is available from mullocksauctions.co.uk
Meanwhile, Boro forward Oliver Norris has died in Australia at the age of 82 after a long illness.
Derry-born Oliver came to Teesside as a 17-year-old in 1948 after being spotted playing for St Eugene&aposs Boys by Eddie Davis, who arranged for a trial with Boro.
Nicknamed “Narker”, he made his debut in a 2-0 win at Newcastle in 1952 and went on to make 13 appearances and score three goals before moving to Bournemouth in 1955.
Most of his eight seasons with Boro were spent in the reserves.
However he became one of the most talked about players in England in 1957 when he was part of the Bournemouth side that reached the FA Cup quarter-final, beating Danny Blanchlower’s Spurs and Billy Wright’s Wolves before losing 2-1 to Manchester United.
He later played for Northampton and Rochdale and managed Gloucester City before moving to Australia, where he worked as a coach for the Australian Soccer Federation.
After moving Down Under he continued to play and coach and he played a part in the early career of Mark Viduka, who went on to become a Boro and Socceroos legend.
BORO have reported that limited places are still available for the Father&aposs Day lunch at the Riverside on Sunday.
Prices are £25 for adults and £12.50 for children for a three-course lunch plus coffee and mints.
A tour of the stadium is included and there is a gift for each dad attending.
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George Hardwick - History
George Francis Moutry Hardwick, the son of an electrician and a schoolmistress, was born at Saltburn on February 2 1920 many of his forebears were Scottish smugglers. He weighed 12lb at birth.
His father was employed by Pease and Partners, and worked in an ironstone pit on the edge of the Yorkshire moors. When the pit closed he lost his job. "Everyone was unemployed," George remembered. "My mother and father went without food so that I would have enough to eat. I remember getting up with my father at 3am to go out in the fields gathering mushrooms. That was our meal for the day. My grandfather on my mother's side was an engine driver. He was still in work, and he and his associates used to collect old children's clothes, shoes, boots, anything, and pass it on to us. Mother tore apart old woollen jumpers to re-knit them as red and white jerseys and stockings for us to play football in."
Hardwick signed for Middlesbrough (for a 5 fee) in April 1937, scoring an own goal on his debut. The outbreak of war saw him join the RAF while training as an air gunner, he was nearly killed during a Luftwaffe attack on his base in Bedfordshire. He then became a sergeant in RAF Bomber Command.
During the war he turned out for Chelsea, appearing in two wartime Wembley cup finals he also played 17 wartime internationals for England, games which did not earn a full cap and were intended as morale-boosting exercises. Once, playing for Chelsea against Fulham, the sirens were sounded in the middle of the match all the players threw themselves flat on the ground: "The Germans bombed the other side of the river, and the referee blew his whistle to carry on." After the war, Chelsea wanted to sign Hardwick from Middlesbrough the Chelsea chairman travelled to Teesside, placed a blank cheque in front of his opposite number and invited him to fill it in. Middlesbrough declined.
At Hampden Park in 1947, Hardwick captained Great Britain against a FIFA side, Great Britain winning 6-1. In all he went on to make 166 appearances for Middlesbrough, scoring five goals. In November 1950 he was transferred to Oldham Athletic, for whom, as player-manager, he made 190 appearances and scored 14 times. After retiring as a player, Hardwick coached the United States 7th Army in Germany he then coached PSV Eindhoven (1957-59) and the Dutch national side (1959-61), before rejoining Middlesbrough as youth team coach.
In November 1964 Hardwick was appointed manager of Sunderland. Despite guiding the Wearside club to what was then their highest post-war position, he was sacked after only 169 days. During this period he started Brian Clough on his managerial career, by appointing him coach to the youth team. Hardwick never, of course, knew the lifestyle enjoyed by today's successful footballers. But he was a handsome man, and was friendly with actresses such as Kay Kendall, Shirley Eaton, Margaret Lockwood and Ava Gardner.
He was guest of honour at Wembley when England lost 2-0 to France in February 1999, and was not impressed by what he saw: "By God, they played without an atom of pride. I've never seen 11 players with less guts. My players would have walked home if they'd played like that." He added: "For the players, it's all too quick and easy now. For us it was about pride. I wanted to be somebody, so I worked for it."
He is survived by his second wife Jennifer (née Totterdell) they were together for 36 years and married in 1983. From his previous marriage he had two sons, who survive him. - The Telegraph obituary
History of Sodomy Laws
The Sensibilities of Our Forefathers, the definitive legal history of sodomy laws in the United States by George Painter. It puts everything else here to shame.
Survey of Key Developments Worldwide by Alan Freeman
Other history articles
The proscription of sodomy in the English tradition began in 1533 when King Henry VIII adopted contemporary church doctrine into a system of laws at the time of the English withdrawal from the Catholic Church. Sodomy became both a sin and a crime, since ecclesiastical law recognizes no distinction between the concepts of "sin" and "crime." Sodomy included any form of non-procreative acts including masturbation, oral and anal sex.
The original thirteen American colonies derived their laws from the English common law and continued the legal tradition in which sodomy carried the penalty of death.
The 1683 Pennsylvania law called sodomy an "unnatural sin" and the East New Jersey law listed it among the "Offenses against God."
Every state adopted some form of a sodomy law as it joined the United States, either in acceptance of an unwritten common law or in formal codification. A slow modernization of laws away from a religious doctrine into a secular system reduced penalties over time in a piece meal fashion. All states had laws against sodomy by 1960.
The 1955 edition of the American Law Institutes model penal code omitted sodomy laws for the first time. In 1961, the Illinois legislature revised their criminal code without prohibiting sodomy. The law went into effect in 1962 without fanfare.
Idaho was the second state to repeal its sodomy law through a general modernization of its laws. According to Dr. Franklin E. Kameny, the Advokaat, then a gay newspaper, ran a headline celebrating the repeal. This came to the attention of Idaho state legislators who called an emergency session "into which they marched waving copies of the Advokaat." The legislature repealed the just enacted modern criminal code. Connecticut was the next state to repeal its sodomy law in 1971 in a modernization of the penal code. Twenty-one other states followed suit. Gay activists had little or no involvement with most of these repeals. In fact, many of the states that repealed their laws are just beginning to form organizations that can lobby effectively for their rights.
Exceptions that trend came from California, Minnesota, New York and DC. Gay Activists in these places began explicit gay rights campaigns to repeal their sodomy laws. California was the only one of these states to successfully repeal its law prior to 1980.
Californias sodomy repeal effort began in 1969 with urging from Morris Kight, Rev. Troy Perry and others. The repeal bill was introduced to the California legislature starting in 1969 by Assemblyman Willie Brown, and every year afterwards until its passage in 1975. In 1975, the liberal Democratic state Senate Majority Leader, George Moscone running for Mayor of San Francisco twisted many arms for its passage. The Senate deadlocked on a 20-20 vote, Moscone locked the chamber doors, until Lieutenant Governor Merv Dymallyin could fly back from Denver and cast the tie-breaking vote. It was signed into law by Gov. Jerry Brown.
Moscones efforts won the support of the large gay population of San Francisco and Moscone beat Diane Feinstein in the primary, and edged out city superintendent John Barbagelata to become the first liberal mayor of San Francisco. Moscone was later assassinated by former supervisor Dan White along with the first gay supervisor, Harvey Milk. Brown and Feinstein later became Mayors and Feinstein is currently a US Senator from California.
In the late 1970s and early 1980s the growing strength and politicization of religious extremists significantly slowed the repeal efforts. The awaking of religious political extremists led to at least two states to enact specifically anti-gay sodomy laws at the same time as they otherwise modernized their criminal codes. Kentucky enacted a homosexual-only sodomy law in 1974. Arkansas did the same in 1977 with the approval of then state Attorney General Bill Clinton.
The Kentucky law was declared unconstitutional in Commonwealth v. Wasson under the equal protection and privacy rights of the Kentucky constitution. The Arkansas law is currently being challenged.
At the same time, the AIDS crisis took the fledgling gay political community away from gay rights issues, including sodomy repeal, and focused the efforts on care, treatment and other more immediate needs of people with HIV and AIDS.
Courts and lawmakers withdrew from repeal efforts in light of the potential criticism of promoting homosexual sex at a time that the HIV transmission modes were becoming known. Transmission of HIV through anal sex was a major factor blocking the 1987 Minnesota repeal bill.
In 1986 Bowers v. Hardwick was decided by the US Supreme Court and sparked a resurgence of interest in sodomy laws.
Michael Hardwick was a bartender in a gay bar in Atlanta, Georgia who was targeted by a police officer for harassment. In 1982, an unknowing houseguest let the officer let into Hardwicks home the officer went to the bedroom where Hardwick was engaged in sex with his partner. The men were arrested on the charge of sodomy. Charges were later dropped, but Hardwick brought the case forward with the purpose of having the sodomy law declared unconstitutional.
Bowers was a response to a particularly insulting police action and repeal advocates had hoped that the case would put an end to sodomy laws in the United States when it reached the Supreme Court. Unfortunately, the 5-4 decision found that nothing in the Constitution "would extend a fundamental right to homosexuals to engage in acts of consensual sodomy."
Justice Lewis Powell was the swing vote in the decision, switching from supporting invalidating all sodomy laws to denying homosexuals any right of privacy. In October of 1990, three years after his retirement, Powell told a group of New York University Law students, "I think I probably made a mistake in that one." He told the National Law Journal, "That case was not a major case, and one of the reasons I voted the way I did was the case was a frivolous case" brought "just to see what the court would do" on the subject. A more callous opinion is hard to imagine. As AIDS services became institutionalized and the benefits of direct action on AIDS issues waned, activists in the 1990s returned to gay issues and sodomy repeal efforts were again successful.
Sedert die Bowers decision two states, Nevada and Rhode Island, and the District of Columbia have repealed their laws. In all three successful efforts there was an explicit goal by mostly gay activists to repeal the law, in contrast to the code modernization of earlier efforts. Repeal advocates in other states also launched or continued to introduce repeal legislation.
In Washington, DC, activists had been successful in 1981 in passing the Sexual Assault Reform bill, which modernized DCs law on sex crimes. The bill passed the DC Council and was signed by then Mayor Marion Barry. The US Congress controls all of DC legislation bowing to anti-gay sentiment led by Jerry Fawell in a national campaign, killed the entire bill. New legislation was introduced every year starting in 1982 but it languished in the Judiciary Committee controlled by Wilhelmina Rolark.
In February 1992, a raid on a private gay club, the Follies Theater, resulting in 14 arrests㬇 on sodomy chargessparked the gay community to focus efforts on repealing the sodomy law once again.
A separate arrest in 1992 of two men engaging in consensual sex in their car parked in DC also evoked community outrage. The two fought the law in court before a jury and essentially admitted to the act in court, but argued that they had not done anything that should be criminalized. The jury agreed and neutralized the law in their case.
A group of repeal activists from the direct action group Queer Nation turned themselves in to the police for committing sodomy in the District. The police, shocked by this action, were left scrambling for a response. They eventually took sworn statements from 3 couples who could testify that they had committed sodomy with each other. No arrests were made and no one was prosecuted.
Facing considerable public opposition to the arrests, Mayor Sharon Pratt Kelly ordered the police chief to stop enforcing the law against consenting adults.
An amendment to an unrelated bill to reform the law was proposed in 1992 but defeated by the DC Council.
Mayor Marion Barrys unrelated personal and legal problems resulted in a 6-month jail term for crack cocaine possession. He had declined to run for Mayor in 1990, but in 1992 ran for City Council against Rolark. Rolark was defeated and in 1993, with a shift in committee chairs, the bill was introduced to the City Council.
Hearings on the bill lasted for nearly 9 hours without a break and were almost completely dominated by gay activists. Dr. Kameny, representing the Traditional Values Coalition of Washington, DC and the Mattachine Society, opened the hearing with strong testimony in favor of the bill. Kameny, who had worked for repeal of the law for more that 30 years, testified that sodomy should be legalized and considered "good, moral, and rewarding."
Kameny had incorporated Traditional Values Coalition in DC forcing the national anti-gay activist group to be identified as being from California where they are incorporated, significantly diminishing their impact on the locally elected officials. Most of the opposition testimony came from local Baptist ministers but they, and a Catholic official, admitted that they were most concerned about public sex which the sodomy-reform bill would not have legalized.
The reform bill, written by Kameny, stated simply "No act engaged in only by consenting persons 16 years of age or older shall constitute an offense under this section." Kameny had wanted to simultaneously repeal the adultery, fornication and similar laws, but met with opposition from DC Council members. The bill passed the Council unanimously and Mayor Kelly signed it in a public ceremony.
Representatives of national gay rights groupsincluding the Human Rights Campaign Fund, the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force and the Campaign for Military Serviceasked DC activists to delay sending the reform bill to Congress for approval, saying that the gays in the military fight strained their resources. The DC activists refused. Rep. Barney Frank (D-MA) asked the Republican leadership in the Senate not to support an amendment drafted by Sen. Jesse Helms (R-NC) and they, not wishing another fight on gay sexuality, complied, allowing the reform bill to become law.
The sodomy law was repealed completely in 1995 with the passage of the Sexual Assault Reform bill that finally modernized the DC criminal code.
After the Nevada Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Nevada gay-only sodomy law, the legislature in 1993 amended the law making four major changes.
The bill made oral and anal sex criminal only when performed in public and removed the qualification that made it apply only to acts committed between adults of the same-sex. The archaic, offensive and vague language "infamous crimes against nature" was replaced with "anal intercourse, cunnilingus, or fellatio." And the section stating that "any sex penetration, however slight is sufficient to complete the crime against nature" was removed, as it was no longer meaningful with the new language.
Nevada, unlike DC, benefited from the strategy of amending the sodomy law into a public sex law. By expanding reform of the law that only prohibited homosexual acts into a wider issue, the anti-gay activists were blunted.
The Rhode Island Supreme Court failed to overturn the states "Abominable and Detestable Crime Against Nature" law in four separate cases from 1962 through 1985. A reform bill was introduced in 1984 by Rep. John Harwood, a Democrat who later became Speaker of the House. The reformed law would have allowed "private, consensual sexual acts between adults." It was in response to sexual misconduct by police at a bachelor party and was not sought for the protection of gay and lesbian people. The bill passed the House, but was blocked by the Senate.
Jorge Lopes was charged with sexual assault after a woman accused him of forcing her to submit to vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Lopes testified that they had sex, but he argued that it was consensual. The jury believed him, acquitting him of sexual assault but, acting on instructions from the judge, found him guilty of committing an abominable and detestable crime against nature. The Supreme Court, in State of Rhode Island v. Jorge Lopes, upheld the decision but did not rule on the laws constitutionality. Lopes was given a 10-year suspended sentence with 10 years probation. ,
In frustration with the state Supreme Courts pro-sodomy law opinions, repeal activists started to introduce their own legislation. But they failed to repeal the sodomy law until 1998.
In September 1997, North Smithfield, Rhode Island police tried to make a case against two men who had allegedly committed consensual sex in the woods near Route 146.
The incident came to light when one of the two men went to the police to complain that his wallet was stolen during the sexual encounter, and the police charged both men the alleged thief and his alleged victim with "abominable and detestable crime(s) against nature." Attorney General Jeffrey B. Pine declined to prosecute.
The case received considerable attention in the press and led to resurgence in support for legislative repeal.
Added to the repeal efforts was Superior Court Judge Frank Williams decision in the Block Island rape trial, which threw out the sodomy charge and acquitted Edward F. McGovern, a prominent politician in New Shorem, and his co-defendants of sexual assault charges. Williams ruled that the Rhode Island sodomy law violates the equal-protection clause of the state Constitution because it treats married and unmarried couples differently. The Attorney General declined to appeal, but repeal advocates feared that the decision would be overturned by the state Supreme Court.
Repeal advocates turned away from the court as a possible avenue and began introducing repeal legislation in 1992. Finding the legislature to be unready to pass the bill, votes were not called for six years. The bill was even withdrawn in 1995, so as not to interfere with the passage of the non-discrimination law that passed that year. The House Judiciary committee did hold a hearing in 1996, but the bill did not move forward.
The repeal bills House sponsor, Rep. Edith Ajellostrategizing with gay and lesbian rights activistsfinally thought that passage was a possibility in 1998. On May 7, 1998 the repeal bill passed the Rhode Island House on a vote of 49 to 40. The Rhode Island Senate voted 26 to 17 on June 2, 1998 to repeal the law. Republican Governor Lincoln Almond signed the bill into law.
From Christopher Hardwick
Yours of the 8th Instant Came to hand the 20th1. I wou’d have wrote to you as often as you Desire, but that I have nothing material to Mention so often to write to you about, neither have I at this time any agreeable News or acct to Send to you in regard to our Crop the Weather being so excessive Dry, had not one Shower of rain since my Last Letter to you ’till Sunday last,2 makes me fear it will be but a poor Crop, tho. Better with you than with any other in our Neighbourhood, our last planting is but very small by the Drought & a great deal of it burnt up—According to your Directions I have sent the Mare with her four Colts to Mount Vernon, & wrote to John Alton to take particular Care of them,3 I shall have the Wheat Threshed out as soon as possible, people won’t ⟨ mutilated ⟩ hired to thresh at this Time, nor can I spare any of our own people ⟨ mutilated ⟩o it, as yet, Please to let me know what Quantity of wheat you’l have Sowed this year, your people are all well, I have nothing else material to Mention but am with due Respect Sir your most Humble & Obedient Servant
P.S. Sir please to write to me by the first opportunity concerning the Wheat.
1. GW’s letter of 8 Aug. has not been found.
2. The most recent letter found from Hardwick is dated 3 August.
3. See Humphrey Knight to GW, 24 Aug., for the arrival of the mare and colts at Mount Vernon on 23 August.