Kena Upanishad

Kena Upanishad


Kena Upanishad oor die grense van kennis

Daar is 'n interessante en taamlik kriptiese vers in die tweede hoofstuk van die Kena Upanishad, wat so lyk.

3. yasyamatam tasya matam matam yasya na veda sah avijnatam vijanatam vijnatam avijanatam.

Vir wie dit onbekend is, aan hom is dit bekend. Vir wie dit ook al bekend is, weet hy nie. Dit is onbekend aan diegene wat dit weet en aan diegene wat dit nie weet nie.

Wat beteken dit? Hoe kan jy iets weet wat jy nie weet nie en hoe kan jy nie weet wat jy weet nie? Dit is die paradoks om die Self te ken, nie die bekende te ken nie en die onbekende te ken. Die verwysing hier is na die Self (Atman) of die Hoogste Self (Brahman), wat perseptueel en intellektueel die onkenbare is. Die vers verwys na die moeilikheid om transendentale bestaanstoestande te verstaan. Die self kan nie deur die verstand ervaar word nie. Daarom kan u geestelik nie self die siel ken of daarvan bewus wees nie. Tog kan jy die Self as Self ervaar en daarvan bewus word deur een te wees met die Self, in 'n toestand van nie-dualiteit. Aangesien u egter nie die toestand behou as u wakker is nie, sal u dit nooit in 'n wakker toestand bewus wees nie.

Kom ons neem die analogie van 'n mier en 'n mens. Vir die mier bestaan ​​jy nie, al bestaan ​​jy. Dit is omdat die mier nie die omvangrykheid van u kan begryp nie. Selfs as u voor dit staan, kan dit u bestaan ​​nie heeltemal begryp nie. Dit kan 'n vae gevoel hê van iets groots in die omgewing, maar dit ken u nie soos ander mense u ken nie. Om enigiets te weet, het u kennis, bypassende intelligensie en die vermoë om te verstaan ​​en te identifiseer wat waargeneem word, nodig. Met die Self is niks hiervan verstandelik moontlik nie, die instrument waarop ons normaalweg staatmaak om dinge te beleef en daarvan sin te maak.

Hierdie vers bied die moeilikheid en die byna onmoontlikheid om iets te weet wat u nie in u wakker fisiese toestand is nie. Ons kan nie sê dat ons ons innerlike self glad nie ken nie. Elke dag, as ons aan die slaap raak en in 'n droomlose toestand ingaan, ervaar ons die Self. In daardie nie-dubbele toestand ken ons die Self, maar as ons wakker word, weet ons nie of onthou ons wat in ons diep slaap gebeur het nie. Daarom, soos hierdie vers tereg verklaar, hoewel ons dink dat ons die Self nie ken nie, weet ons dit onbewustelik.

Die Self word ook ervaar in 'n toestand van selfopname, in dieper toestande van samyama ('n gevorderde toestand van gekonsentreerde meditasie), as daar geen tweeledigheid en onderskeid is tussen die kenner en die bekende nie en wanneer ons verstand en sintuie heeltemal teruggetrokke is. Dus, as daar 'n bewustheid van die kenner is, is dit onbekend en as die kenner afwesig is, is dit bekend. Daarom is dit onbekend vir diegene wie se verstand en sintuie aktief is en wat tweeledigheid ervaar, maar dit is bekend aan diegene wie se verstand en sintuie slaap en wat in 'n toestand van eenheid kom sonder die onderskeid tussen die kenner en het bekende.

Kortliks, ons praat hier oor die kennis van die onbekende of selfs die onkenbare. Aangesien ons gereeld wakker word tussen waaksaamheid en diep slaap, is ons in ons waaksaamheid bewustelik onbewus van die Self, maar in diepe slaap is ons onbewustelik daarvan bewus. Tog is ons nooit seker of ons dit enigsins weet nie, want ons ervaring van die transendentale Self is altyd onbepaald en buite ons verstand en sintuie.


Algemeen

Die Kena is een van die belangrikste Upanishads (nommer 2 in die Muktikā -kanon) en is verbonde aan die Sāma Veda. Dit is 'n mengsel van prosa en poësie en moderne geleerdheid meen dat die prosagedeelte baie ouer is as die poësie -gedeelte lank voor Pāṇini (

Upanishad -skrywers het 'n voorliefde vir doelbewuste mistifikasie en poëtiese versiering, wat albei hul nut ongelukkig ondermyn. Die Kena onderskei homself 'n bietjie in hierdie verband deur 'n paar direkte en baie nadenkende uitsprake te maak.

na tatra chakShurgachChati na vAggachChati na manaH |
na vidmo na vijAnImo yathaitadanushiShyAt || 1.3 ||

anyadeva tadviditAdatho aviditAdadhi |
iti shushruma pUrveShAM julle nastad.hvyAchachakShire || 1.4 ||

Hier is 'n eenvoudige, meestal letterlike vertaling van hierdie verse –

Die oog gaan nie daarheen nie, ook nie spraak of die gees nie.
Ons weet nie dat ons nie verstaan ​​hoe 'n mens dit kan leer nie.

Dit is anders as die bekende, dit is ook anders as die onbekende.
Dit is hoe ons dit gehoor het van die ou mense wat ons geleer het.

  • Dit is duidelik dat die skrywer meestal herhaal wat hy van sy leermeesters gehoor het en in die gees van openhartigheid erken, dat hy sy verwarring erken.
  • Die verstand gaan nie daarheen nie. as dit buite die verstand is, is dit dieselfde as om te sê dat dit nie bestaan ​​nie. Maar dit is nie heeltemal korrek nie, aangesien daar nie iets bestaan ​​wat nie bestaan ​​nie (omdat nie-bestaan ​​ook op die verstand gebaseer is). Ons kan dus nie sê dat dit bestaan ​​nie, maar ons kan nie sê dat dit ook nie bestaan ​​nie. Dit volg dus dat spraak nie daarheen gaan nie, aangesien dit onuitspreeklik is. Kena 2.1, 2.2 en 2.3 herhaal die nutteloosheid om te gaan met iets wat nie op die terrein van die bestaan ​​of nie bestaan ​​nie.
  • Dit is anders as die bekende. Dit sou gewoonlik beteken dat dit onbekend is, wat tans nie bekend is nie, maar elders bekend kan word of in die toekoms bekend sal word. Om hierdie moontlikheid uit te skakel, word dit uitdruklik uitgeroep dat dit ook bo die onbekende betekenis is, dat dit nooit bekend sal word nie. in kort, dit is nie bekend nie en kan nooit bekend word nie.

As ons alles bymekaar sit, het ons iets wat buite ons verstand is, wat nooit geken kan word nie en daarom nie uitgedruk of onderrig kan word nie (Die meer bekende Brhadāraṇyaka Upanishad poog in wese om dieselfde te sê met sy neti neti -benadering). Daar is niks wat 'n mens kan dink of doen nie. Die essensie is Zen-agtig en daar is geen pad om niks te leer om te ontdek nie. Daar moet op gelet word dat lank voor die tyd van die Zen die idee sonder weg in die Katha Upanishad (nAyamAtmA pravachanena labhyo na medhayA na bahunA shrutena yamevaiSha vR^iNute tena labhyaH) te vinde is, maar soos die geval is met die Op die ou end, is hierdie idees geneig om te verdwaal te midde van die poësie.

Met reg moet die Upanishad op 1.4 eindig, aangesien enigiets anders net herhaling of teenstrydigheid kan wees. Dit gebeur natuurlik nie so nie, maar die Kena is steeds my #1 Upanishad.


Die wetenskap van Kena Upanishad

Ontvang ons daaglikse nuusbrief oor Hindoeïsme, joga, meditasie, Ayurveda en natuurlike genesing.

Dankie dat u ingeteken het.

In hierdie artikel, wat die vyfde in die reeks 'The Science of Upaniṣads' is, stel ons voor om Kena (केन) Upaniṣad te bestudeer. Dit is baie klein, maar dit is inhoudsgewys verbasend kort en bondig. Dit word ook Talavakāra Upaniṣad genoem, behoort aan Talavakāra Brāhmaṇa en bevat vier dele, waarvan ons konsentreer op die eerste twee dele, aangesien dit daarin is dat die rasionele gedagtes oor die aard van Brahman uiteengesit word.

Die ander twee dele is fabelagtig van aard en beskryf die reeds genoemde idees in mitologiese terme, met 'n mate van toeligting oor die wyses van meditasie oor Brahman. Verse in die Upaniṣad word geïdentifiseer deur onderdeelnommer en versnommer dienooreenkomstig, die tweede vers van deel 1 word aangedui deur die figuur '1.2'.

Die Upaniṣad trek sy naam aan die beginwoord 'kena', wat 'deur wie' of 'deur wat' beteken. Dit is duidelik dat die eerste vers 'n vraag is wat die hele Upaniṣad op die vraag rus. Daarom kan ons die eerste vers in detail bestudeer; ons sal die ander verse ook in diepte bestudeer, met inagneming van die soepele aard soos hierbo genoem. Laat ons nou die eerste vers hieronder sien:

केनेषितं पतति प्रेषितं मनः केन प्राणः प्रथमः प्रैति युक्तः
केनेषितां वाचमिमां वदन्ति चक्षुः श्रोत्रं क उ देवो युनक्ति || 1.1 ||

keneṣitaṃ patati preṣitaṃ manaḥ kena prāṇaḥ prathamaḥ praiti yuktaḥ
keneṣitāṃ vācamimāṃ vadanti cakṣuḥ śrotraṃ ka u devo yunakti (1.1)

Woordbetekenis: kena = deur wie iṣitaṃ = geslinger, geanimeerde patati = aanstap, afkom op preṣitaṃ = aangespoor, beveel, beveel, gedreven manaḥ = manas, verstand prāṇaḥ = vitale kracht, Prāṇa prathamaḥ = opperhoof, eerste praiti = arriveer, kom na vore yukta = verbonde gevestigde vācamimāṃ vadanti = (mans) spreek hierdie stem uit cakṣuḥ = oë śrotraṃ = ore ka = wie u = inderdaad devaḥ = die opwindende een yunakti = beveel, rig, aan die werk, bring saam.

Versbetekenis: Wie spoor en beweeg die verstand om op (voorwerpe) te gaan? Wie veroorsaak (dring en animeer) die Prāṇa om vir die eerste keer na vore te kom en (in die liggaam) gevestig te word? Wie laat (mans) hierdie stem uiter? Watter effense persoon rig die oë en ore (om te werk)?

Die vraag is prima facie gerig op die beginsel wat die fenomenale wêreld onderhou. Dit erken die siening dat die materiële wêreld afhanklik is van iets buite dit. Wat is daardie 'iets'? Dit is presies die ondersoek hier. Word daar ondersoek ingestel na 'n ding wat nie bestaan ​​nie, soos die materialiste sou beweer? Nee, glad nie die wêreldervaring dui daarop dat materie nie alleen kan bestaan ​​nie. Alle materiële stowwe disintegreer mettertyd in hul oorspronklike stof, hulle gedra hulle volgens 'n vooraf ingestelde patroon en heerskappy en kan daaruit nie ontsnap nie. Hulle is nie in staat om geestelike aktiwiteite te beheer of te dikteer as dit anders was nie, dieselfde materiële omstandighede sou dieselfde gedagtes en opinie by alle mense veroorsaak het, anders sou almal dieselfde les uit dieselfde ervaring getrek het. Maar ons weet dat dit nie die geval is nie. Daarom dikteer materie nie, maar word gedikteer. Wie bepaal die saak? Teoloë sê dat God alles geskep het en dat Hy alles beheer. Dit is hierdie bewering wat die afkeer van materialiste aantrek, wat niemand met 'n rasionele verstand by hierdie bewering kan aanpas nie. Die Upaniṣads kom op 'n rasionele uitweg, uit hierdie uiteenlopende aansprake, sintetiseer hulle hierdie twee sienings op 'n ongelooflik logiese manier en onthul die uiteindelike postulasies oor bestaan. Die onophoudelike veranderinge in die materiële wêreld behels die ontstaan ​​en ontwaking van materiële voorwerpe; hierdie voorwerpe word een keer uit 'n paar fundamentele stowwe geprojekteer, en dan, na verloop van 'n sekere tydperk, weer in dieselfde stowwe saamsmelt. Hierdie fundamentele stowwe is atome wat slegs energiedruppels is. Ons weet dat energie nie geproduseer of vernietig kan word nie. Dit moet dus uit 'n ewige bron kom. Maar energie is nie al wat daar lewe en bewussyn in die wêreld is nie. Materiële energie kan hierdie twee nie produseer nie; 'n konglomerasie van atome kan nie lewe en bewussyn veroorsaak nie, daarom moet hulle ook uit 'n bestaande bron kom, aangesien niks kan ontstaan ​​uit waar dit nie bestaan ​​nie. Die Upaniṣadiese sintese vind hier plaas, dit verenig hierdie twee bronne in 'n enkele entiteit genaamd Ātmā. As dit heeltemal anders was en totaal nie met mekaar verband gehou het nie, sou enige poging om 'n verband tussen die twee te bewerkstellig eindig in oneindige regressie, want as ons 'n derde een vir die doel voorstel, sou 'n ander nodig gewees het om hierdie derde aan die bestaande ander twee, ensovoorts.

Die gestelde vraag is dus 'n geldige en volhoubare vraag. Verder word beide bogenoemde strome daarin opgeneem, dit blyk uit die gelyktydige gebruik van die twee werkwoorde, naamlik 'drang' en 'animeer'. Puruṣa is 'n dringende agent en Prakṛti is 'n agent om saam te lewe, hulle staan ​​bekend as Brahma. Puruṣa is Ātmā self en Prakṛti of Māyā (illusie) is sy krag en instrument vir 'n gevarieerde voorkoms. (Puruṣa word altyd in manlik geslag genoem en Prakṛti in vroulike Brahma neem neutrale geslag aan, omdat dit nie manlik of vroulik is nie Ātmā sonder geslag is, maar dit word gemaklik of manlik of neutraal genoem). Die vraag wat in die vers gestel word, is blykbaar 'n ondersoek na die aard van Brahma, hoewel dit nie die woord Brahma gebruik nie. Dit wil slegs die entiteit ken wat die verstand inspireer om te dink, Prāṇa die eerste keer in die liggaam laat binnedring, spraak moontlik maak en die oë en ore laat funksioneer. In die antwoord vind ons dat die energie agter dit alles Brahma is; ons vind ook daarin 'n gedetailleerde bespreking oor die ware aard van Brahma. Kom ons gaan na die antwoord.

्रोत्रस्य श्रोत्रं मनसो मनो यत्
ाचोह वाचं स उ प्राणस्य प्राणः
चक्षुषश्चक्षुरतिमुच्य धीराः
प्रेत्यास्माल्लोकादमृता भवन्ति || 1.2 ||

śrotrasya śrotraṃ manaso mano yat
vācoha vācaṃ sa u prāṇasya prāṇaḥ
cakṣuratimucya dhīrāḥ
pretyāsmāllokādamṛtā bhavanti (1.2)

Woordbetekenis: śrotrasya śrotraṃ = oor van die oor manaso mano = verstand van die gees yat = watter vācoha vācaṃ = toespraak van die toespraak sa = hy (hier word Brahma beskou as 'n Deva, vandaar die manlike geslag) prāṇasya prāṇaḥ = prāṇa van die prāṇa cakṣuṣaścakṣuḥ = oog van die oë atimucya = opgegee, oorgegaan dhīrāḥ = die wyse pretya = vertrek asmāt lokāt = van hierdie wêreld amṛtā = onsterflik bhavanti = word.

Vers wat beteken: 'Dit is hy wat die oor van die oor is, die verstand van die gees, die spraak van die toespraak, die Prāṇa van die Prāṇa en die oë van die oë wat die sintuie oortref het, die wyse gaan van hierdie wêreld af en word onsterflik' .

Die 'oor van die oor, verstand van die gees', ens dui die energie aan wat die oor in staat stel om te hoor, die verstand in staat stel om te dink, ens. Ons het in 'The Science of Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad' (vers 3.7.23) gesien dat 'Ātmā word nie gesien, gehoor, gedink of geken nie, maar hy is die siener, hoorder, denker en kenner, daar is geen ander siener, hoorder, denker of kenner nie. Hy is die onsterflike innerlike beheerder '. Dieselfde idee word hier uitgedruk. Net so in 'The Science of Kaṭha Upanishad' (vers 3.15), het ons gesien dat deur te besef dat Ātmā wat buite die oor is, spraak, ensovoorts, onsterflik word. Om onsterflik te wees, moet 'n mens ophou om meegesleur te word deur sensoriese ervarings. Die uitdrukking 'weggaan van die wêreld' beteken presies dit. Dit beteken nie 'nadat hy die liggaam verlaat' het nie, want nadat hy die liggaam verlaat het, is almal net Ātmā en daarom onsterflik. Ons het hierdie idee reeds in die vorige artikels bespreek.

In die volgende ses verse word die aard van Brahma bespreek. Vers 1.3 sê dat Brahma buite die bereik van oë, spraak en verstand is; ons weet dit nie, ons weet ook nie hoe ons dit moet leer nie. Brahma verskil van wat deur die sintuie bekend is en ook verder as wat hulle nog moet weet. Uittreksels uit vers 1.3 kan hieronder gesien word:

‘न तत्र चक्षुर्गच्छति न वाग्गच्छति नो मनो, न विद्मो न विजानीमो यथैतदनुशिष्यात्
्यदेव तद्विदितात् अथो अविदितादधि …… || 1.3 ||

na tatra cakṣurgacchati na vāggacchati no mano na vidmo na vijānīmo yathaitadanuśiṣyāt anyadeva tadviditāt atho aviditādadhi …… (1.3)

In verse 1.4 tot 1.8 word hierdie idee verder uitgebrei. Al hierdie verse spreek van dieselfde idee, wat die vergelykingsvoorwerp agtereenvolgens verander, terwyl die voorwerpe spraak, verstand, oë, ore en Prāṇa is. As 'n verteenwoordigende vers, word 1.4 hieronder aangehaal:

्वाचानभ्युदितं येन वागभ्युद्यते
तदेव ब्रह्म त्वं विद्धि नेदं यदिदमुपासते || 1.4 ||

yadvācānabhyuditaṃ yena vāgabhyudyate
tadeva brahma tvaṃ viddhi nedaṃ yadidamupāsate (1.4)

Woordbetekenis: yat = wat, wat vācā = deur spraak anabhyuditaṃ = kan nie uitgedruk word nie yena = waardeur vāk = toespraak abhyudyade = word uitgedruk tat = dat eva = alleen, slegs tvaṃ = jy viddhi = weet nedaṃ - na idaṃ = nie hierdie yat = watter idaṃ = hier upāsate = aanbidding.

Verse beteken: 'Dit, wat nie deur spraak uitgedruk kan word nie, maar wat spraak tot uitdrukking bring, en dat alleen Brahma is, weet u. Brahma is nie die entiteit wat die mense hier aanbid nie (vir gunsies)

Uit verse 1.5 tot 1.8 sien ons dus: 'Brahma is dit wat Manas nie kan begryp nie, maar waarmee Manas dit begryp, is dit wat nie deur die oë gesien kan word nie, maar deur wat die oë sien, is dit wat nie deur ore, maar deur wat die ore hoor, is dit wat nie deur asem geruik kan word nie, maar deur wat die asem ruik. Dit is beslis nie dit wat mense hier aanbid nie ’. Die idee van onbereikbaarheid deur sintuie kom ook by baie ander Upaniṣads voor, soos Bṛhadāraṇyaka 3.7.23, Kaṭha 6.9, Īśa 4, ens.

Let verder op die bewering dat die Heerser van hierdie wêreld nie is wat die mense hier aanbid nie. Daar word gesê dat hierdie Heerser buite die bereik van ons sintuie is en dat diegene wat van die verliefdheid op sensuele ervarings ontslae raak, 'n toestand van onsterflikheid betree. Daarteenoor aanbid die mense gewoonlik sekere entiteite wat vir hulle sigbaar is, en bid hulle vir sensuele plesier en wêreldse winste deur hierdie praktyk, wat hulle eintlik van die werklike Heerser gaan. Aangesien slegs die Heerser wense kan verleen, is die gebede aan ander entiteite as Heerser nutteloos. Die lewe moet nie gemors word op sulke nuttelose oefeninge nie, dit is om nader aan die werklike Heerser te gaan en uiteindelik sy beginsel van suiwerheid van bestaan ​​te omhels, deur die verwydering van alle Kāma binne. Dit is die boodskap hier, en hiermee kom die eerste deel tot 'n einde.

In die tweede deel word die idees wat in die eerste deel ingevoer is, verder in definitiewe gevolgtrekkings gevoer. Wat in die eerste deel beweer word, is dat die heersende beginsel in alle opsigte buite die sintuie val, maar die tweede deel volg dit op deur te verklaar dat diegene wat beweer dat dit maklik bekend is, slegs die fisiese aspek daarvan ken. Sien die eerste vers van die tweede deel:

पि मन्यसे सुवेदेति दभ्रमेवापि
नूनं त्वं वेत्थ ब्रह्मणो रूपम्
्य त्वं यदस्य देवेष्वथ नु
मीमांस्यमेव ते मन्ये विदितम् || 2.1 ||

yadi manyase suvedeti dabhramevāpi
nūnaṃ tvaṃ vettha brahmaṇo rūpam
yadasya tvaṃ yadasya deveṣvatha nu
mīmāṃsyameva te manye viditam (2.1)

Woordbetekenis: yadi = as manyase = jy dink suvedeti - suveda + iti = dat dit maklik bekend is dabhramevāpi - debhram + eva + api = alhoewel 'n bietjie, die minste nūnaṃ = seker tvaṃ = jy vettha = ken brahmaṇo = van Brahma rūpam = vorm yat = wat asya = daarvan tvam = jy deveṣu = in devas (in sintuie - deva beteken hier sin) atha = nou nu = seker mīmāṃsyam eva = moet besin word oor te = they manye = ek dink viditam = verstaan.

Vers wat beteken: 'As u die minste dink dat Brahma maklik bekend is, ken u slegs die vorm daarvan. Wat daarvan (die ware Brahma) is jy? Wat is dit (waargeneem) in die sintuie? Hieroor moet nou beslis besin word, dink ek, u het verstaan ​​(wat ek nou gesê het) '.

In vers 2.3.1 van Bṛhadāraṇyaka Upaniṣad word verklaar dat Brahma twee vorme het, naamlik sterflik en onsterflik, waarneembaar en onmerkbaar, ens. Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad verklaar dat diegene wat Brahma ken Brahma word (3.2.9). Soortgelyke verklarings is daar ook in Taittirīya (2.1) en Kaṭha (4.15) Upaniṣads. In 4.4.7 van Bṛhadāraṇyaka en 6.14 van Kaṭha word gesê dat Brahma bereik word deur diegene wat al die Kāma uit die hart verwyder, maar Kama is natuurlik 'n baie moeilike ding om te bereik, wat dui op die moeilikheid om die onsterflike Brahma te ken. Dit wat maklik bekend is, is slegs die waarneembare, sterflike vorm wat fisies van aard is. Dit is hierdie feite wat die bewering in die eerste versreël aan die lig bring.

Die verwysing na 'vorm' in hierdie vers moet as fisiese vorm verstaan ​​word. Hierdie fisiese vorm word deur die sintuie aan ons oorgedra. Die kennis van Brahma bestaan ​​nie alleen hier nie, maar die onsterflike en onmerkbare vorm moet ook geken word. Dan besef ons net ons werklike wese (ahaṃ brahmāsmi – Bṛhadāraṇyaka – 1.4.10). Die vraag ‘wat daarvan is jy?’ Verwys na hierdie feit. Die frase 'mīmāṃsyameva te' beteken dat daar oor hierdie twee, die fisiese deel en die onmerkbare wese, besin moet word.

Aangesien die skriftuurlike standpunt is dat die een wat Brahma ken, die einste Brahma word, kan die stelling 'Ek ken Brahma' nie bestaan ​​nie; in hierdie stelling is daar 'n implikasie dat die kenner en die bekende apart is. Diegene wat Brahma regtig ken, spreek nie so 'n stelling nie. Daarom merk vers 2.1 op dat 'n persoon wat so 'n bewering maak slegs die (fisiese) vorm van Brahma ken.

In die volgende twee verse, 2.2 en 2.3, word die moeilikheid om die uiteindelike oorsaak te ken, verder verduidelik. Daar word beweer dat dit nie maklik bekend is of deur die sintuie waargeneem word nie. Sien vers 2.2 hieronder:

ाहं मन्ये सुवेदेति नो न वेदेति वेद च
नस्तद्वेद तद्वेद नो न वेदेति वेद च || 2.2 ||

nāhaṃ manye suvedeti no na vedeti veda ca
yo nastadveda tadveda no na vedeti veda ca (2.2)

Woordbetekenis: na = nie ahaṃ = ek nee – naḥ = vir ons, onder ons veda = weet, sien yo = yaḥ = wie tat = dit. (Vir die betekenis van ander woorde, sien vers 2.1 hierbo).

Verse betekenis: ek dink nie (nāhaṃ manye) dat dit makliker bekend is (suvedeti) nie; ek weet dit ook (veda ca) dat ons dit nie sien nie (no na vedeti). Wie onder ons dit ken (yo nastadveda), weet ook dat dit nie maklik bekend is nie (die tweede 'tadveda' in die tweede reël dui die uitdrukking 'na suveda iti' van die eerste reël aan) hy weet ook dat ons dit nie sien nie dit (no na vedeti veda ca).

In hierdie vers word die woord 'veda' in twee betekenisse gebruik, naamlik 'weet' en 'waarneem'. Om die strekking van die vers te verstaan, moet ons tussen hierdie twee sintuie onderskei met verwysing na die filosofiese konteks wat verkry kan word uit die Upaniṣadiese verklarings oor die uiteindelike beginsel, wat ook konsekwent elders verskyn. Hierdie verklarings bevestig eenparig dat die uiteindelike beginsel nie maklik bekend is nie en nie deur die sintuie waargeneem word nie. Wat ons hier vind, is juis 'n herbevestiging van hierdie verklarings.

Nou sal ons die volgende vers sien:

्यामतं तस्य मतं मतं यस्य न वेद सः
अविज्ञातं विजानतां विज्ञातं अविजानताम् || 2.3 ||

yasyāmataṃ tasya mataṃ mataṃ yasya na veda saḥ
avijñātaṃ vijānatāṃ vijñātaṃ avijānatām (2.3)

Woordbetekenis: yasya = vir wie amatam = onmerkbaar tasya = vir hom matam = bekend veda = weet avijñātaṃ = nie bekend nie vijānatāṃ = vir diegene wat dink om dit te begryp vijñātaṃ = bekend avijānatām = vir diegene wat nie dink om dit te begryp nie.

Vers wat beteken: 'Aan wie dit onmerkbaar is, aan hom is dit bekend. Vir wie dit waarneembaar is, weet hy dit nie. (Verder,) dit is nie bekend vir diegene wat meen dat dit aangehou moet word nie, en is bekend vir diegene wat dit nie dink nie '. Die implikasie is dat diegene wat hierdie uiteindelike beginsel beskou as deur die sintuie waarneembaar is, dit nie weet nie, dit is die ander wat dit werklik ken.

Die volgende vers sê hoe die uiteindelike beginsel eintlik bekend is. In Māṇḍūkya (माण्डूक्य) Upaniṣad word verklaar dat hierdie beginsel 'n vierpuntige projeksie het, naamlik die wakker, droom, slaap en transendente bewussynstoestande. In die wakker toestand is ons sintuie aktief in die proses van kognisie in die droomtoestand, die sintuie word afgesluit en die Manas bou kognisie op deur 'n legkaartproses, met behulp van die inligting wat reeds in die Chitta in die slaaptoestand beskikbaar is (dws diepe slaap toestand) daar is geen kennis oor 'n spesifieke ding nie, maar slegs die bewussyn van 'ek is'. In die transendente toestand is daar geen enkele differensiasie nie en alle kognisies versmelt tot suiwer bewussyn, slegs 'n ongekwalifiseerde saligheid is die ervaring in hierdie toestand, hierdie toestand is die uiteindelike beginsel genaamd Ātmā. As 'n mens die Ātmā in al hierdie vier bewussynstoestande kan onderskei, word gesê dat hy Ātmā werklik ken. Gita -verse 6.29, 6.30 en 6.31 beskryf hierdie visie van eenheid, waarin die beginsel van Ātmā alleen onder die groot diversiteit van fenomenale uitdrukking. So 'n visioenaris word nie gedemp deur tweeledighede soos plesier-pyn, haat-liefde, ens nie (6śa 6 en 7). Dit is die idee wat ons in die volgende vers vind, laat ons kyk hoe die vers dit lewer:

्रतिबोधविदितं मतं अमृतत्वं हि विन्दते
आत्मना विन्दते वीर्यं विद्यया विन्दते ഽ मृतम् || 2.4 ||

pratibodhaviditaṃ mataṃ amṛtatvaṃ hi vindate
ātmanā vindate vīryaṃ vidyayā vindate ഽ mṛtam (2.4)

Woordbetekenis: pratibodha = in elke bewussynstoestand (bodha - bewussyn) vidita = bekend matam = bekend, verstaan ​​amṛtatvaṃ = onsterflikheid hi = inderdaad, beslis vindate = weet, bereik, verkry ātmanā = deur eie wese vīryaṃ = krag, krag vidyayā = deur kennis amṛtam = onsterflikheid.

Verse betekenis: Die uiteindelike beginsel is bekend (viditam) in elke bewussynstoestand (pratibodha). As dit so bekend is (matam), word onsterflikheid beslis bereik (amṛtatvaṃ hi vindate). Krag (vīryaṃ) (om dit te weet) word verkry (regverdig) deur eie wese (ātmanā). By die wete (vidyayā) word onsterflikheid (amṛtam) verkry (regverdig).

Ons het hierbo gesien wat die frase 'pratibodha viditam' impliseer. Wat nog te verduidelik is, is 'ātmanā vindate vīryaṃ'. Die verduideliking daarvan word reeds in die vers gegee as 'krag word verkry deur eie wese'. In ons studie van die 'Wetenskap van Kaṭha Upaniṣad' het ons gesien dat 'n mens onsterflikheid kan bewerkstellig wanneer al die Kāma daarbinne uitgeskakel word (Kaṭha 6.14, 6.15). Dieselfde idee kan gesien word in Bṛhadāraṇyaka 4.4.7. Hoe kan dit gedoen word? Eerstens, deur die verstand en die sintuie te weerhou om die doelwitte van begeertes na te streef, wat 'n strawwe proses is genaamd Joga, uiteengesit deur die Great Pati Patañjali in sy Yogasūtra (hierdie joga het slegs 'n baie min verband met wat ons nou as Yogāsana beoefen) , deur die uitvoering van Karma in die lig van so 'n beperking. Dit is hoe die krag vir die bereiking van onsterflikheid verkry word, die hele proses is afhanklik van die liggaam en gees van die persoon. Die frase 'eie wese' in hierdie vers dui presies die kombinasie van liggaam en gees aan wat op hierdie manier die krag kan verkry. Saam met die verkryging van krag, verkry die persoon ook kennis en verhoog hy homself tot die uiteindelike doel om onsterflikheid te bereik. Die prosesse om krag te kry en kennis op te doen, gaan terselfdertyd voort, hulle word hier afsonderlik genoem met die doel om hul onderskeie identiteite te onderskei.

Kumulatief beklemtoon hierdie vers die belangrikheid van 'visie van eenheid in diversiteit', aangesien die pad na onsterflikheid om so 'n visie te ontwikkel, die fisiese liggaam as 'n instrument voorgeskryf word.

Volgende is die laaste vers van Deel 2. Dit sê dat deur te weet dat Brahma 'n mens Satyam word, indien nie, hy verwoes is. Dit sê ook dat deur die erkenning van Brahma in elke wese, 'n mens hierdie wêreld te bowe gaan en onsterflikheid bereik word. Die vers lui so:

चेदवेदीत् अथ सत्यमस्ति न चेदिहावेदीत् महती विनष्टिः
भूतेषु भूतेषु विचित्य धीराः प्रेत्यास्माल्लोकादमृता भवन्ति || 2.5 ||

iha cedavedīt atha satyamasti na cedihāvedīt mahatī vinaṣṭiḥ
bhūteṣu bhūteṣu vicitya dhīrāḥ pretyāsmāllokādamṛtā bhavanti (2.5)

Woordbetekenis: iha = hier cet = as avedīt = weet satyam = satyam (dit is nie 'waarheid' soos konvensioneel verstaan ​​nie, dit het definitiewe filosofiese betekenis) na = nie mahatī = graf vinaṣṭiḥ = ruïne, verlies bhūteṣu = by wesens vicitya = met onderskei dhīrāḥ = die wyse pretya = het vertrek, losgemaak geraak asmāt lokāt = van hierdie wêreld amṛtā = onsterflik bhavanti = geword

Vers wat beteken: 'As 'n mens (die uiteindelike beginsel) hier self weet, word hy' satyam ', indien nie, staar hy 'n ernstige ondergang in die gesig. Nadat hulle (die beginsel) in elke wese onderskei het, raak die wyse los van hierdie wêreld en word hulle onsterflik. '

Die betekenis is baie duidelik, behalwe 'n bietjie verduideliking oor die woord 'satyam'. In die studie van Bṛhadāraṇyaka (5.5.1) en Chāndogya (8.3.5) Upaniṣads het ons breedvoerig bespreek oor 'Satyam'. Dit word 'Asat' ondersteun deur 'Sat'. Brahma is 'Satyam' (Chāndogya 8.3.4). Muṇḍaka Upaniṣad sê in vers 3.2.9 dat iemand wat Brahma ken, self Brahma word, wat beteken dat hy 'Satyam' word. Hierdie feit word ook hier vermeld in 'cedavedīt atha satyamasti'. Verder sê Bṛhadāraṇyaka vers 3.8.10 dat iemand wat nie die onverganklike entiteit ken nie, 'n Kṛpaṇa (waardelose persoon) word. Hierdie degenerasie word hier as 'n ernstige ondergang genoem.

Weer sê vers 7 van Īśa Upaniṣad dat iemand wat Ātmā in alle wesens sien, van alle pyn en verdriet ontslae raak. En Gita vers 6.30 verklaar dat die een wat Ātmā in alles en almal in Ātmā sien, onsterflik word. Die implikasie van die tweede reël van die bogenoemde vers is dieselfde.

Deel 3 en 4 van hierdie Upaniṣad is, soos reeds gesê, slegs mitologiese illustrasies van die inhoud van die ander dele. Ons laat hulle dus sonder enige bespreking.

Voordat ons ons bespreking beëindig, laat ons die boodskap wat die Upaniṣad vir ons gegee het, weer vertel. Dit het aan die lig gebring dat daar 'n transendente entiteit bestaan ​​wat die sintuie in hul funksies aanspoor en aktiveer en ook die lewe onderhou wat die grense van die sintuie oorskry, onsterflikheid bereik. Hierdie entiteit staan ​​bekend as Brahma wat nie deur die sintuie bereik word nie. Brahma is baie moeilik om te bereik. Dit is verkrygbaar deur die bewussyn by diegene wat dit bereik, word 'Satyam' en ander word verwoes. Dit is kortliks die boodskap van Kena Upaniṣad.


Geskiedenis van joga in die Upanishads

Joga is een van die oudste vorme van mistieke en menslike ontwikkelingspraktyke wat in Indië ontstaan ​​het. Hierdie praktyk was baie eerbiedig in die vorm van 'n holistiese patroon van morele, geestelike en fisiese ontwikkeling. Ancient Hindu texts of Yoga called the HathaYogaPradipka, asserts that Lord Shiva as the first teacher of Yoga while the Bhagavad Gita, another sacred text of Hindus, asserts Lord Krishna as a teacher of Yoga. Yoga has been handed down from ancient times in India since the time of Vedas. A great sage Maharishi Patanjali systemized all Yoga practices with the advent of their Yoga sutras. Many sages have contributed greatly to the development of this field using their knowledge, into practices and treatises.

Study of this ancient technique can be divided into three main categories

  • Pre-Patanjali Period (before 500bc)
  • Patanjali Period (500bc to 800ac)
  • Post-Patanjali Period(after 800ac)

Pre-Patanjali period before 500 BC provides source of few Yoga scriptures up to 4500 BC. The main sources of Yoga at this time are given as Vedas, Upanishads, Buddhism, Jainism, Panini, Epics and Puranas. Study Yoga in India as in the Upanishads has a different meaning from the other scriptures of pre-Patanjaliperiod. The Upanishads are secret teaching or esoteric doctrine, which is a strong proponent of the spiritual philosophy of the Vedas. The Upanishads are of the following categories associated with three Vedas Rig, Sama and Yajur.

Associated Upanishads to Rig Veda are Aitareya and Kausitaki Upanishads.
Sama Veda is associated with Chandogya and Kena Upanishads.
Yajur Veda (black) is associated with Taittiriya, Mahanarayana, Katha, Svetasvatara and Maitri Upanishad.
Yajur Veda (white) is associated with Bhradaranyaka and Isha Upanishad.
Added to this list are Prasna, Mundaka and Mandukya Upanishad.

This list of the major Upanishads provides a clear glimpse of the Yoga treatise and summaries from the Upanishads provide the necessary guidelines in study Yoga in India. There are further smaller treatises totaling more than 200 in number which are minor Upanishads. Atharva Veda also provides guidance to further Yoga study within which thirty nineUpanishads have been found. All these Upanishads are based on the Yoga sutra itself. Yoga sutra itself presents Vitarka which is reflection, contemplative inquiry, logic and reasoning as well as comprehensive perception. This Yoga system is mature and is as old as Vedas itself, Upanishads provide a reasonable inquiry into Yoga beliefs, customs, practices as well as meditation. Upon careful examination, one would come to recognize profound psychic and psycho-cosmological inquiry underlying these Vedic hymns. A great insight is a fact that Yogais a heritage of and practical significance in the day to day lives of Hindus by being a medium of instruction, religion, gospel and spiritual path to salvation.


Upanishads

Now, we discuss to the concluding part of the Veda namely ‘the Upanishads. The Upanishads come towards the end of the Aranyakas. If the Samhita is likened to a tree, the Brahmanas are its flowers and the Aranyakas are its fruit yet not ripened, the Upanishads are the ripe fruits.

1. Nature of Upanishads

The Vedas are generally considered to have two portions viz., Karma-Kanda (portion dealing with action or rituals) and Jnana-Kanda (portion dealing with knowledge). The Samhita and the Brahmanas represent mainly theKarma-Kanda or the ritual portion, while the Upanishads chiefly represent the Jnana-Kanda or the knowledge portion. The Upanishads, however, are included in the Shruti. They are at present, the most popular and extensively read Vedic texts.

The Upanishads are often called ‘Vedanta‘. Literally, Vedanta means the end of Veda, Vedasya antah, the conclusion (Anta) as well as the goal (Anta) of the Vedas. Chronologically they came at the end of the Vedic period. As Upanishads contain difficult discussions of ultimate philosophical problems, they were taught to the pupils at about the end of their course. The chief reason why the Upanishads are called the ‘end of the Veda’ is that they represent the central aim of the Veda and contain the highest and ultimate goal of the Veda as they deal with Moksha or Supreme Bliss.

2. Meaning of the word ‘Upanishad’

The word ‘Upanishad’ has been derived from the root Sad (to sit), to which are added two prefixes: Upa en Ni. The prefix Upa denotes nearness and Ni totality. Thus, this word means ‘sitting near by devotedly’. This no doubt refers to the pupil’s sitting down near his teacher at the time of instruction. The word in course of time gathered round it the sense of secret teaching or secret doctrine (Rahasya) which was imparted at such sittings. Upanishads are frequently spoken of as Rahasya (secret) or Guhya (mystery) also. We find in Upanishads, that due to secrecy and mystery of the teachings, a teacher refuses to impart instruction to a pupil who has not proved his worthiness to receive the instruction. Through another definition, the word primarily signifies knowledge, yet by implication it also refers to the book that contains that knowledge.

3. Number of the Upanishads

There is a good deal of speculation concerning the number of Upanishads. Traditionally, the old Upanishads had their place in the Brahmanas and Aranyakas. There is only one instance of a Samhita containing Upanishad – the Vajasaneyi Samhita comprises the Ishavasya Upanishad forming the 40th Book.

In later times, the Upanishads obtained a more independent position but still they professed to belong more particularly to one or the other of the four Vedas.

It is difficult to ascertain the exact number that should be regarded as authentic Upanishads. A religious system is considered valid in India only when it is supported by Shruti, hence the founders of religious sects have sometimes written books and called them Upanishads in order to give their views scriptural authority. Die AllahUpanishad, for instance was composed in the sixteenth century, at the time of emperor Akbar.

Different estimates of their number have been given by scholars and they have been put by some scholars at as many as 200.

One hundred and eight Upanishads are enumerated in the Muktikopanishad and a popular edition contains them. However, among these Upanishads, ten Upanishads, the names of which have been mentioned in the Muktikopanishad, are considered the most important Upanishads from the point of view of Vedantic Philosophy.

Ten Principal Upanishads known as ‘Dashopanishad’ are :Isha, Kena, Katha , Prashna , Munda , Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya and Brihadaranyaka.

Besides, Shvetashvatara, Kaushitaki and Maitrayaniya Upanishads are often listed in old Upanishads.

4. Division of the Upanishads

According to the Muktikopanishad 108 Upanishads are divided according to four Vedas are as follows:

  1. 10 Upanishads from the Rigveda
  2. 19 Upanishads from the Shukla-Yajurveda
  3. 32 Upanishads from the Krishna-Yajurveda
  4. 16 Upanishads from the Samaveda and
  5. 31 Upanishads from the Atharvaveda.

The Principal thirteen Upanishads, related to the Vedas are:
(A) Upanishads of the Rigveda :

(B) Upanishads of the Shukla-Yajurveda:

(C) Upanishads of the Krishna-Yajurveda:

  1. (5) Taittiriya Upanishad,
  2. (6) Katha Upanishad,
  3. (7) Shvetashvatara Upanishad,
  4. (8) Maitrayaniya Upanishad

(D) Upanishads of the Samaveda:

(E) Upanishads of the Atharvaveda:

5. Major Theme of the Upanishads

The Upanishads are religious and philosophical treatises. They constitute the last phase of the Vedic revelation. They represent the knowledge of Brahman (Brahma-Vidya). Wat is hierdie wêreld? Wie is ek? What becomes of me after death? – Such questions are asked and answered in these Upanishads. The essential theme of the Upanshads is the nature of the world and God. Already in the hymns of the Rigveda, we notice here and there a shift of emphasis from the innumerable gods to the one Infinite as in the famous passage. ‘Ekam sad vipra bahudha vadanti ‘. This becomes more pronounced in the Upanishads and is very well illustrated here. The doctrine of true knowledge and salvation are major subjects of the Upanishadic philosophy. These treatises mark the culmination of the earlier line of investigation into the nature of ultimate reality.

In the Upanishads, we get an intelligible body of verified and verifiable spiritual insights mixed with a mass of myths and legends and cosmological speculations relating to the nature and origin of universe. Besides, Brahman and His creation, are also discussed in these texts.. The principal contents of the Upanishads are philosophical speculations. The spirit of their contents is anti-ritualistic. Although the subject-matter of most of the Upanishads is almost the same, yet each Upanishad has its own unique idea or ideas and its own method of enquiry.

6. Importance of the Upanishads

(1) The Upanishads occupy a unique place in the development of Indian philosophical thought. They contain the highest authority on which the various systems of philosophy in India rest. So Vedanta Philosophy is directly related to the Upanishads. Not only the Vedanta philosopher professes his faith in the ends and objects of the Veda, but the Sankhya, the Vaisheshika, the Nyaya and Yoga philosophers, all pretend to find in the Upanishads some warranty for their tenets.

(2) The Upanishads are associated with the Vedas and make the entire range of Vedic knowledge as complete. ‘The Upanishads generally mention the Vedas and their study with respect. Certain verses from the Vedas, such as the Gayatri, form the subject of meditation here.

(3) Brahmavidya or the knowledge of Brahman, the Supreme Reality is the great kingdom of the principal Upanishads. They give importance to ‘Knowledge’ alone. Any one having knowledge may be Guru or Acarya. Even kings approached to them for the attainment of knowledge. The story of Satyakama Jabala, who though unable to give his father’s name, was yet initiated into spiritual life, shows this fact. In the Chandogya Upanishad (4.1-3) Raikva a Brahmana not by caste but by his knowledge, instructed king Janashruti. In the same Upanishad (5.3), the king Pravahana instructed the Brahmana Gautama in the new doctrine of transmigration. This story together with the one in which king Ashvapati kaikeya instructed five Brahmanas in the doctrine of Atman (Chan. Up. 5.11) shows that for Upanishads knowledgeable person is the most important and not the Brahmana, Kshatriya or anyone else.

(4) Each of the Vedas has many Mahavakyas or great sayings. But four Mahavakyas found in the Upanishads related to four Vedas are very important, thought-provoking and powerful. These spell out the non-duality of the Jiva and the Brahman-Prajnanam Brahma- –RigvedaAham Brahmasm – YajurvedaTattvamasi –- SamvedaAyamatma Brahma –Aharvaveda


Kena Upanishad – Who moves this universe?

The Upanishads are an acknowledgement of the systematic and relentless pursuit of truth. They embrace the realization that in order to weet the truth, we have to understand both the medium of knowing and the identity of the knower.

This acknowledgement turns mere knowing into realization and objective science into mystical awareness.

The literal meaning of Kena is – deur wie? “By whose mere presence does that desire arise that moves this universe”?

What is the nature of Brahman?

The message of the Kena is that it is through brahman that all action – including that of the mind – is possible. We may think that all action is being performed by us through our sense organs or our indriyas, it is not so. The sense organs are under the control of the mind, which is under the control of Brahman. So, the Kena implores us to use our mind to meditate on the Brahman.

Sometimes (and particularly in times of extreme troubles), we are not sure whether our prayers to God are being heard or not. The Kena reminds us that it is Brahman himself that provides us the power to pray – so, we need not be concerned! It is not possible for the een who is giving us the power to pray to ignore our prayers.

We are not the doers of our actions – we are the instruments through which the energy of Brahman is manifested. Yes, the victory of good over evil is guaranteed – but not by the doer. Mahatma Gandhi said – “….we need to make ourselves zero…” – and let Brahman be in control of our lives. That indeed is the path to eternal peace, knowledge and realization.

What is spiritual wisdom?

Meditation, control of the senses and passions, and service to all – these three constitute the liggaam of spiritual wisdom the scriptures are its limbs and truth is its heart.

Those who realize Brahman shall conquer all evil and enter the supreme state. Those who meditate upon him will be dear to all.

The light of Brahman flashes in lightning,

The light of Brahman flashes in our eyes.

It is the power of Brahman that makes the mind to think, desire and will.

So use this mind to meditate on Brahman!

What is the nature of the Self?

That which makes the tongue speak, but cannot be spoken

That which makes the eyes see, but cannot be seen

That which makes the ears hear, but cannot be heard

That which makes the mind think, but cannot be thought of

That which makes you draw breath, but cannot be drawn by your breath –

That is the nature of the Self. It is not someone other than you.

How does one know the Self?

Those who say they know the Self really do not know it. The Self cannot be known by the intellect because it is beyond the duality of the knower and the known.

What is the goal of life?

The shining goal of life is to know the Self. The Self is beyond the body and beyond birth and death. When one sees the Self in all, he goes beyond death.

Conclusion of the Kena Upanishad

The Upanishad concludes with this prayer which teaches the ideal relationship between the guru (teacher) and the shishya (student).


AUM sah nAvavatu sah nau bhunaktu, sah vIryaM karvAvahai
tejasvi nAvadhItamastu, mA vidviShAvahai.

ॐ सह नाववतु सह नौ भुनक्तु, सह वीर्यं कर्वावहै. तेजस्वि नावधीतमस्तु, मा विद्विषावहै..

This mantra states that the transference of mental, spiritual and intellectual energies from the teacher to the student can be achieved through a mutually nourishing relationship which is based on (mutual) respect, joy (of giving and receiving), and absence of malice or negative thoughts.


Contemplation upon Brahman

The following statements about Brahman reveal a few important truths about him as found in the Upanishads. They are as good as those found in any Upanishad. They are good for contemplation. Study them. Contemplate upon them to known Brahman and develop a deeper understanding of his true significance. You can use them to contemplate upon Brahman and develop an understanding of his true significance.

1. Brahman is the Reality. He is the Absolute Truth. All else is unreal and mere illusion, a mere shadow that disappears when the Sun shines.

2. Brahman is constant and fixed. He is unchangeable, immutable, permanent , incorruptible and inexhaustible. All else is transient, fleeting and changing. Since He is the only fixed factor in an every changing impermanent world, the seers advise us to make Him the center of our lives and activities

3. Brahman is eternal and timeless. Since He is the Absolute, Time does not exist in Him. The Past present and future flow in Him simultaneously. The Master of Time and Knower of all events, past., present and future, He creates Time as a part of His play and subjects us all to the motions of Time.

4. Brahman is the Creator of all. The world is his projection. He descends into the material universe and subjects Himself to the laws of nature.

5. Brahman is the sacred OM. The sound (nada) of the verbal (akshara) form of Brahman is the sacred syllable Aum.

6. Brahman is beyond the senses, but is the mover and enjoyer of senses.

7. Brahman is the first principle. He is the Ancient. No one truly knows Him for He is without a beginning and without an end.

8. Brahman is pure love. He is described as Lord of Love.

9. Brahman is immortal. He in fact is the creator of death and the wheel of life.

10. Brahman is the law giver and law maker. He maintain Dharma and Rita (harmony). But He Himself is not subject to any laws.

11. Brahman exists in all and all exists in Him. Yet He is beyond all and different from all.

12. Brahman is Supreme Bliss. Pure Delight, which is the delight of pure love.

13. Brahman is the eternal soul, the Atman, the indweller of mortal bodies, the silent witness, the enjoyer of life and the power behind all the movements of life breath.

14. Brahman is above all Gods. None could ever approach Him closely except Indra.

15. Brahman is duality personified from the rationale point of view. But strangely in Him all conflicts and contradictions resolve themselves into perfect harmony.

16. Brahman is unified awareness, the eternal indivisible One where there is no enjoyer and the enjoyed, the knower and the known.

17. Brahman is radiance, effulgence and brilliance of thousands of suns. He is the wielder of pure energy and possessor of pure consciousness.

18. Brahman is pure and untainted. He is without desires, without attachment, without vibration, complete, fulfilled, self-satisfied and self- absorbed.

19. Brahman is without sleep. He is the lord and dispeller of darkness and the witness, who remains awaken when we are all asleep.

20. Brahman is the source of all knowledge. He is pure intelligence and knower of all that is, that was and that which is yet to come.

21. Brahman is the Self of all. He is the ultimate truth which every human being realizes at the end of his spiritual journey. (Isa Upanishad)


Uma Instructs the Gods (Kena Upanishad)

Brahman, according to the story, obtained a victory for the gods and by that victory of Brahman the gods became elated. They said to themselves: “Verily, this victory is ours verily, this glory is ours only.”

Brahman, to be sure, understood it all and appeared before them. But they did not know who that adorable Spirit was.

They said to Agni (Fire): “O Agni! Find out who this great Spirit is.” “Yes,” he said, and hastened to It. Brahman asked him: “Who are you?” He replied: “I am known as Agni I am also called Jataveda.” Brahman said: “What power is in you, who are so well known?” Fire replied: “I can burn all-whatever there is on earth.” Brahman put a straw before him and said: “Burn this.” He rushed toward it with all his ardour but could not burn it. Then he returned from the Spirit and said to the gods: “I could not find out who this Spirit is,”

Then they said to Vayu (Air): “O Vayu! Find out who this great Spirit is.” “Yes,” he said, and hastened to It. Brahman asked him: “Who are you?” He replied “I am known as Vayu I am also called Matarisva.” Brahman said: “What power is in you, who are so well known?” Vayu replied: “I can carry off all-whatever there is on earth.” Brahman put a straw before him and said: “Carry this.” He rushed toward it with all his ardour but could not move it. Then he returned from the Spirit and said to the gods: “I could not find out who this Spirit is,”

Then the gods said to Indra: “O Maghavan! Find out who this great Spirit is.” “Yes,” he said and hastened to It. But the Spirit disappeared from him. Then Indra beheld in that very region of the sky a Woman highly adorned. She was Uma, the daughter of the Himalayas. He approached Her and said: “Who is this great Spirit?”

She replied: “It is, indeed, Brahman. Through the victory of Brahman alone have you attained glory.” After that Indra understood that It was Brahman.

Since they approached very near Brahman and were the first to know that It was Brahman, these devas, namely, Agni, Vayu, and Indra, excelled the other gods.

Since Indra approached Brahman nearest, and since he was the first to know that It was Brahman, Indra excelled the other gods.

This is the instruction about Brahman with regard to the gods: It is like a flash of lightning It is like a wink of the eye.

Now the instruction about Brahman with regard to the individual self: The mind, as it were, goes to Brahman. The seeker, by means of the mind, communes with It intimately again and again. This should be the volition of his mind.

That Brahman is called Tadvana, the Adorable of all It should be worshipped by the name of Tadvana. All creatures desire him who worships Brahman thus.

The disciple said “Teach me, sir, the Upanishad.” The preceptor replied: “I have already told you the Upanishad. I have certainly told you the Upanishad about Brahman.”

Austerities, self-restraint, and sacrificial rites are Its feet, and the Vedas are all Its limbs. Truth is Its abode.

He who thus knows this Upanishad shakes off all sins and becomes firmly established in the infinite and the highest Heaven, yea, the highest Heaven.


Twelve Essential Upanishads (Two Volumes): Isha, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka, Svetasvatara and Gopalatapani Upanishads with Original Sanskrit Text, Transliteration, Translation and Purport

After the Krurkshetra- battle when Sri Yudhistira alongwith his brothers and Sri Krishna went to Sri Bhishma to get his guidance and advice Sri Bhishma said: "I deem that all your miseries are Providential. How strange that danger befall even where king Yudhistira, the son of Dharma is the ruler where are present Bhima armed with the mace and Arjuna holding the invincible Gandiva and above all where the Supreme Lord Sri Krishna Himself is the Friend and Well-wisher ! None, indeed, can know the purpose of the Mission of Sri Krishna for which He takes His devotees as instruments even great seers get bewildered in their seeking to find it out". So, for a self-surrendered aspirant, it is certain, that all that happens is brought by Providence.

My Divine Master Nityaleelapravista Sri Srima Bhakti Vilas Tirtha Goswami Maharaj, was the dearest disciple (Guru-prestha) of Om Vishnupad Sri Srimad Bhakti Siddhanta Saraswati Goswami Maharaj, the illustrious Founder of Sri Chaitanya Math and its branches Sri Gaudiya Maths. They both are eternally related in relation to their servitor-ship in that plane of transcendence as Vimalamanjari and Nayanamanimanjari respectively in their roles of service to the Two Moiety-Counter-Wholes Sri Radha Krishna. I am the most unworthy disciple of my Guru Maharaj, but his grace and affection towards me was abounding. I could not realise earlier why he used to say ofter, 'burn always in labyrinth of fire of sufferings which brings the clue for perennial happiness'. But after his demise which took place in September 1976 when as it is usual in such cases viz after the demise of the Mahapurushas a section of the so-called followers become blinded to their self-enjoying propensities and aggrandisement like asuras with their power-mongering sordidness the same history repeated itself at which the mighty mission of my Guru Maharaj faced the greatest of dangers and the ship of my life was tossing in the hurricane on the bed of high seas. As good luck could have it, I have the guiding principle of my life in the very benediction of my Divine Master:- 'My advice to you, even though if there is crash of thunderbolt on your head or the Pralaya of the whole world takes place before your eyes yet knowing all these as the Will of Sri Krishna be calm and unperturbed'.

At such a condition of my life I envisaged a Divine Hand. The way how I got the inspiration for translating the Upanishads is a Divine Mystery which I first felt not proper from my part to disclose as it might be bringing spiritual conceit but subsequently I realise that it would be an act of impeity to my Divine Master which might stand as an obstacle on the path of my spiritual progress and therefore without any sense of shame I record the fact: While I was at Sridham Mayapur, one day, my Divine Master in a daydream appeared before me and instructed me: 'this is the time for you to penitrate upon the sophisticated philosophy of the Upanishads and get all the essential Upanishads translated into English in accordance with the Achintya-bheda-abheda-Philosophy of Bhagavan Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and you will be marvelled to get light at times, from Srimad Bhagavatam so that the book will be read with great interest and delight by the loving devotees of the Lord' further he guided me by giving a wonderful explanation of the first Shloka of the Isha Upanishad and also instructed me how I have to explain them.

Thereupon under the benediction of my Divine Master, this most humble self started the work during the Urjjva Vrata corresponding to Oct.-Nov.'77.

As per the chronological order that I recorded in the very beginning of my work that 'Isha' is the first and 'Brihadaranyaka' is the last among the eleven essential Upanishads and accordingly therefore, I followed my order of translating in that chronological way starting from 'Isha' and ending with 'Brihadaranyaka' Upanishad. I felt extremely delighted while I was translating Isha, Kena, Katha, Shvetavatara, Mundaka, Itariya etc. and when I touched 'Chandogya' I felt much strain. As I was proceeding, my brain was terribly affected even I has to go for some Aurvedic treatment, But when I passed over the profane and reached to the Transcendent, particularly when I could have a vision of Sri Krishna's Esoteric Pastimes blossomed forth in it, it carried me to the greatest delight. Finally when I took up 'Brihadaranyaka' I was put in the midst of the ocean and I was almost puzzled and practically became half-mad, yet my tenacity didn't permit me to stop. Above all it was the God's Providence that I have to complete the work so, soon here too I could have a wonderful flash or Divine light within which (Jyotir-abhyantare rupam atulam shyamasundaram) the merrily dancing Honey-moon Sports of Rasaraja with Mahabhava, the Two Moiety-Wholes, Sri Radha and Sri Krishna I could notice. Particularly the most synonymous mantras such as Ch. Up. I. 6.5-7 III. 17. 6-7 VII. 25.2 and Brih. Up. II. 3.6 IV. 2. 2-3 and Tail. Up. II. 4-5 and such many others- where I was puzzled to get synthitical reconciliation but finally I could be enlightened with their most esoteric meanings by the direct inspiration and guidance from my Divine Master which was the Supreme gain of My delight.

I thought that with this Brihadaranyaka I would be completing my task on Upanishads but the concluding chapter of the 'Brihadaranyaka' Upanishad is so profane that I felt a void in my heart on completing the work with this ! I was mentally perturbed feeling like a fish out of water, when in a dream my Divine Master consoled me behesting : 'How do you think that with this your Upanishadic task is completed ? There is a purpose of creating this void in your mind-see, generally the scholars in the chronological order take up 'Brihadaranyaka' Upanishad as the first in the order whereas in your order you maintain the 'Brihad-aranyaka as the eleventh and last in the order which is also recognised by all the great Acharyas. But how could you stop your task with this? The void is created to look forward to the fully bloossomed aspect of (Leela Svayamvara Rasam labhate jayasrih) that Transcendental Dalliance of Sri Krishna(Rasaraja) with Sri Radha (Mahabhava) 'Chandogya's atmarati-atmacrida-atmamithuna-atam-nanda' statement is most honoured in the glorious Gopalatapani Upanishad. As among all the Shastras Sirmad Bhagavatam is the most delightful one to the Paramabhagavata devotees so also among the all Upanishads Sri Gopalatapani is the most favourite one to the Vaishnavas and to the Gaudiya-Vaishnavas in particular. Therefore you should soon look upto that and make the completion of your present task with that. Your unquenching thirst will soon be fully saturated with the drink of that Divine Nectarine Bliss'. Further instruction he gave, 'although you have translated the 'Brihadaranyaka' as teh tenth in order'.

So forthwith, by his behest I took up the 'Gopalatapani' Upanishad and now I feel my cup is full with abounding Bliss.

A dwarf makes a high jump to catch the moon, so it may be impracticable for a poor soul as am I, but as it were, whose grace makes a dumb converted into a bard, a lame duck to climb a high mountain-at the lotus feet of that my Divine Master I find my sole solace. During those days of turmoil when my life was at a peril I found, above all, the merciful hands of my Divine Master, who ever guides me in my walk of life.

I had practically very little hope that the entire work could be published in book form as it required a large amount which was not possible at present, to spend by our mission, so we started to get that printed serially in 'The Gaudiya', our English monthly organ. Sri Chapalakanta Bhattacharjee, the former Editor of the 'Anandabazar Patrika' (the most renowned daily of Bengal) and also was former Member of Parliament as well as a Member of Sanskrit Board of Govt. of India, appreciating the work gave a recommandation letter to the Sanskrit Dept., Govt. of India for a substantial financial grant. Govt. of India (Sanskrit Dept.) anyhow gave a grant of Rs. 8,000/- only, besides we got the paper at concessional rate that is generally provided for the printing of religious books. It is once again the Providence of God that T.T.D. (Tirupati Tirumala Devasthanam) has kindly agreed to give a grant of Rs. 5,000/- for each volume for bringing out all the twelve essential Upanishads into a book form in four volumes. Apart from this my god-brothers such as Tridandiswami Sri B. P. Sadhu Maharaj and Sripad Nityananda Brahmachari encouraged me in all respects, but for whom even the benediction that I received from my Gurudeva would not be flowing so aboundingly upto me. It is they too who equally share the joy. My another god- brother Sripad Narasimha Brahmachari took great pains to go through the proofs. And Sriman Lalita Krishna Brahmachari most enthusiastically typed the entire matter which spread over a thousand a pages.

How adequately can I express my heartfelt thanks to Porf. Dr. R. N. Sampath, Head of the Dept. of Sanskrit, Madras Presidency College, who took such a pain to go through the entire manuscripts and made the necessary corrections of my English Language. I should be also thankful to the management of the Rathnam Press for their kind co-operation in getting this book printed. I should be thankful to 'Gopi' who gives the cover page designs for all our books.

I have got no literary competency nor have I any good disposition. It is the Grace and Grace alone which worked in me to render this service. This is the task undertaken for the sole delight of my Divine Master and for the Vaishnavas who are Gunagrahis as well as Saragrahis. Therefore my omissions and commissions they would be over-looking.

For composing this entire Volume in our Math computer Sri Bhakti Swarup Sannyasi Maharaj gave his great labour and Dr. Debaprasad Mukopadhyay, the Head Master of our Thakur Bhakti Vinode Institute very carefully went through the proofs. Therefore they will be the recipient of God's Blessings.

In the introduction of the 1st Vol. of this edition in Page 2. line 6 after Sri Ramanuja Sri Madhvacharya will be added.


Kyk die video: Beyond the Known and the Unknown- The Wisdom of the Kena Upanishad. Swami Sarvapriyananda