Slag van Vitoria - Geskiedenis

Slag van Vitoria - Geskiedenis

Op 21 Junie het die Britte, onder generaal Wellington, die Franse beslissend verslaan tydens die Slag van Vitoria in Spanje. Die Britte het opgevolg met 'n aantal ander oorwinnings wat hul leërs teen November oor die Franse grens geneem het, waar hulle Bayonne in Desember binnegeval het.

Die Franse Revolusionêre en Napoleontiese oorloë

Die Franse rewolusionêre en Napoleontiese oorloë het in 1792 begin, net drie jaar na die begin van die Franse rewolusie. In die Franse Revolusionêre Oorloë, wat vinnig 'n wêreldwye konflik geword het, het Frankryk koalisies van Europese bondgenote bekamp. Hierdie benadering het voortgegaan met die opkoms van Napoleon Bonaparte en die begin van die Napoleontiese oorloë in 1803. Hoewel Frankryk tydens die beginjare van die konflik militêr oorheers het, verloor dit vinnig die oppergesag van die seë aan die Royal Navy. Verswak deur mislukte veldtogte in Spanje en Rusland, is Frankryk uiteindelik in 1814 en 1815 oorkom.


In die voorrekenaarsdae het ons skooluitdeelstukke op dieselfde masjiene of spieelduplikate gemaak wat in pers ink gedruk is. Sodra fotostaatmasjiene meer algemeen geword het, moes ons soms fotokopieë van hierdie bleek materiaal maak. Een truuk was om die vel met die pers druk in 'n deurskynende geel omslag te plaas, sodat die ink as swart teks verskyn. Op hierdie manier kan u 'n swart-en-wit fotokopie met donkerder afdrukke maak.

Ek het die prent afgelaai en 'n bietjie met Irfanview geëksperimenteer. Op die "Beeld" -kieslys is daar 'n instelling om die prent na 'n negatief te verander, wat soms die skryfwerk duideliker maak. Maar deur dit te doen, het die prentjie amper onleesbaar geword, so ek het teruggegaan na die oorspronklike en weer begin.

Toe ek met die verskillende kleurkanale rondspeel, het ek die skrif gekry om op 'n groenerige agtergrond swart te word. As u swart teks het, kan dit makliker wees om die brief te lees.

Miskien kan u met Photoshop hierdie en ander tegnieke gebruik om die proses van die oorlê van die dokument na te boots met 'n kleur wat oorkant die kleurwiel van die ink kleur is, soortgelyk aan wat ek met die pers-geel truuk gedoen het.

As u 'n fotostaat in repies sny of dit maskeer sodat slegs een reël op 'n slag verskyn, kan dit makliker wees om net op die lyn te fokus. Dit kan ook help om dit op te blaas.

Vir die handskrif self is daar 'n aanlyn -tutoriaal by die UK National Archives. Dit is makliker om die gekruiste lyne te lees as u dokumente in dieselfde handskrifstyl kan vind wat nie gekruisig is nie, en eers daarop kan oefen. Probeer om 'n letterkaart te vind of maak dit as verwysing. U het die opening "Vittoria 29th June 1813" en "Dear" (miskien "Dear Sirs"?) Om mee te begin.

Ons kan u algemene wenke hier gee, maar dit is nie prakties om antwoorde te skryf wat 'n transkripsie van 'n hele dokument met meer bladsye is nie. Sien die verwante vraag Lees 'n testament om grondinligting te kry en ander vrae wat paleografie bevat vir ander idees.

Een ding wat u kan probeer, is om gedrukte verslae van die Slag van Vittoria te vind, uit bronne soos Google Books of die British Newspaper Archives, wat u 'n gevoel kan gee van die woordeskat wat in 'n rekening soos hierdie gebruik kan word.

Aangesien u hulp nodig het om spesifieke reëls te lees, kan u gerus nuwe vrae plaas om hulp met reëllesings te vra.


Die Ryk slaan terug

30 April: Die belangrikste Franse leër, tesame met die van die Elbe, vorder op Leipzig. Napoleon het 200 000 man tot sy beskikking gehad en tussen 25 en 28 April het 140 000 van hulle in 'n nuwe weermag naby Weissenfels gekonsentreer. Die bondgenote wat die keiser in die gesig staar, onder Barclay de Tolly, het slegs 100,000 getel.

1 Mei: Toe Lauriston se avant -garde Leipzig begin beset, is maarskalk Béssières tydens 'n ontmoeting by Rippach deur 'n kanonskoot doodgemaak.

2 Mei: Franse oorwinning op Lützen.
Die bondgenote het probeer om voordeel te trek uit die leër van Napoleon tydens die optog en teen die Saale -rivier gerugsteun. Napoleon het hulle egter verwag. 'N Groot deel van die aksie aan die geallieerde kant is deur die Pruise volgehou, met die Rus eers later die middag. Nadat die dorpe rondom Grossgörschen baie ingeneem en verloor is, het die meerderheid van die getalle aan die Franse kant begin merk. Aan die linkerkant en aan die regterkant bedreig, is die bondgenote uiteindelik gered deur die nag, wat hulle in staat gestel het om terug te trek en 'n ondergang te vermy. Die tekort aan kavallerie het egter beteken dat die Franse nie hul oorwinning kon benut nie. Die bondgenote het ordelik teruggetrek en Bautzen op 12 Mei bereik.

8 Mei: Napoleon herower Dresden. Frederick Augustus, toe hy die resultaat by Lützen sien, keer hy terug na die alliansie met Frankryk en beveel die vesting in Torgau om vir Franse troepe oop te maak. Generaal von Thielmann, die bevelvoerder, het so lank as moontlik vertraag en vlug toe om by die bondgenote aan te sluit.

14 Mei: Die koalisie het by Bautzen ingegrawe en beplan vir 'n tweede Borodino.

20-21 Mei: Slag van Bautzen. Franse oorwinning. Die geallieerde troepe van 96 000 man was in die minderheid as die leër van Napoleon, wat teen die einde van die geveg twee keer soveel was. Die strydtaktiek van die Franse keiser (om 'n sterk punt langs die hele lyn te produseer, wat veroorsaak dat die bondgenote dit met reserwes versterk en die linkerkant versterk, terwyl die belangrikste Franse, oorweldigende aanval teen die geallieerde regs beplan was) 'n tweede Friedland. 'N Belangrike fout laat in die dag van marskalk Ney (hy het te opgewonde geraak en die geallieerde sentrum aangeval eerder as die verbrokkelde regterkant) het die Russe en Pruisen toegelaat om 'n merkwaardige toevlugsoord grootliks ongeskonde te maak. Die groter aantal beter ruiters het ook 'n deurslaggewende rol gespeel in die redding van die bondgenote. 'N Saksiese offisier in die personeel van Napoleon, Baron von Odeleben, beskryf die toevlugsoord as' 'n sjef van taktiek. Alhoewel die linies van die bondgenote in die middel was, kon die Franse nie daarin slaag om 'n deel van hul leër af te sny of hul artillerie te vang nie. Ten spyte van sy superioriteit in generaalskap en blote getalle, kon Napoleon nie die beslissende oorwinning afdwing nie. Dit het die bondgenote net agter hul toevlugsoord gedruk. Verder was die geallieerde slagoffers minder as die helfte van die Franse magte.

22 Mei: Metternich stel die strydlustiges 'n wapenstilstand voor. Alhoewel die Franse die terugtrekkende Russe en Pruisen ingehaal het, het hulle geen voordeel behaal nie, ten spyte van die merkwaardige vaardigheid in die Russiese agterhoede en kavallerie. Napoleon self, gretig om die Russe af te sluit, het op sy avant -garde gery, maar by Hollendorff, terwyl hy sy troepe deur die dorp gelei het, het 'n magiese kanonbal deur sy gevolg geskeur en generaal Kirgener doodgemaak en Duroc, 'n bitter slag vir Napoleon, aangesien hy laasgenoemde baie gehou het.

26 Mei: Geallieerde oorwinning in die slag van Hainau: die kavalerie-agterhoede van die koalisie het die Franse agtervolgers onder generaal Maison verras.

27 Mei: die Grande Armée bereik die riviere Katzbach en Oder.

28 Mei: Die Franse verlig die beleg van Glogau.

29 Mei: Barclay de Tolly vervang Wittgenstein as opperbevelhebber van die Pruis-Russiese leër.

30 Mei: Davout herwin Hamburg.

3 Junie: Oudinot, op pad na Berlyn, word deur die Pruisiese Bülow by Luckau gestop.

4 Junie: Die wapenstilstand van Pleiswitz, die groot fout van Napoleon.
Ongeag die voortsetting van vyandelikhede, het diplomasie steeds funksioneer. Die bondgenote het gehoop op die ingryping van Swede en 'n besluit van Wene om uiteindelik by hulle aan te sluit. Op grond van twee oorwinnings en in 'n kragtige posisie om die bondgenote te verdeel en te verower en om opstand te veroorsaak in Pole, kon Napoleon (miskien met 'n bietjie meer vrymoedigheid) die veldtog nog twee weke voortgesit het, 'n wig tussen die bondgenote en beter vredestoestande verkry. Die bondgenote was op hul laagste na die nederlaag by Bautzen, met die Russe wat desperaat gebrek het aan suplies en ammunisie wat 'n terugtog in Silesië en die verlating van Pruise oorweeg het. Die Pruise is oorweeg om 'n laaste standpunt in Pruisiese gebiede te maak wat hulle moontlik kan verdedig. Die Pruis het nie opgestaan ​​nie (dit sou geen tweede Spanje wees nie) en die Landwehr was nie 'n sukses nie. En Oostenryk het nog steeds hard gespeel. Vir die bondgenote om naby die Oostenrykse grens te bly in die verwagting van 'n alliansie, het dit onhoudbaar geword - die land naby Schweidenitz kon nie deur 100,000 man verdedig word nie. Napoleon het egter ook mans verloor, baie siekes en beseerdes gehad, en hy het nie die kavallerie gehad om 'n beslissende oorwinning af te dwing nie. Boonop het sy dienspligtiges 'n bietjie uitstel nodig gehad, hoewel hulle met dapperheid geveg het. En meer tyd sou hom toelaat om meer mans groot te maak en ook meer ruiters. Dus aanvaar hy die voorstel deur Oostenryk van onderhandelinge en 'n kongres (moontlik in Praag). Dit is baie waarskynlik dat Oostenryk 'n strik vir Napoleon gelê het, en hy was nie daarvan bewus nie. Hy het egter gedink dat hy die gebeure kan beheer, gegewe 'n rustyd. Toe hy die nuus hoor, ontvang Barclay de Tolly Langeron (so laasgenoemde in sy memoires) "met 'n groot lag: hierdie ontploffing van geluk was geensins normaal vir Barclay nie. Hy was altyd koud, ernstig en streng van gees en in sy manier. Ons twee het saam gelag op die koste van Napoleon. ”

10 Junie: Napoleon het Dresden binnegegaan en in die paleis van die koning van Sakse ingetrek. Hy het vinnig daarin geslaag om 'n leër op te stel, en spoedig bestaan ​​die kavallerie uit 40.000 soldate.

12 Junie: Ooreenkoms tussen Rusland, Pruise en Oostenryk. Die bondgenote het Oostenryk probeer oortuig om die alliansie met Frankryk te verwerp.

14 en 15 Junie: Konvensie van Reichenbach (Silezië), tussen Pruise, Rusland en die Verenigde Koninkryk. Brittanje het ingestem om finansiële steun (£ 2 miljoen) aan die bondgenote te verleen. Twee derdes het na Rusland gegaan, en een derde na Pruise. In ruil daarvoor het Pruise en Rusland belowe om geen ooreenkoms met Frankryk te sluit sonder Engelse goedkeuring nie.

21 Junie: Slag van Vitoria in Spanje. (sien onder)

26 Junie: Stormagtige ontmoeting tussen Napoleon en Metternich in Dresden. Die twee mans het ses uur lank in die Marcolini -paleis gestry. Napoleon besef toe dat hy nie op Oostenryk kan staatmaak nie.

27 Junie: Ten spyte van die argument van die vorige dag, aanvaar Napoleon die Oostenrykse bemiddeling van Metternich, uit vrees dat hy Oostenryk aan die bondgenote sal verloor. Metternich, namens Oostenryk, het belowe om sy diplomasie in ooreenstemming te bring met Pruise en Rusland, indien Frankryk die versoeke van hierdie twee monargieë sou verwerp. Oostenryk onderteken 'n ooreenkoms met Rusland en Pruise, waarin bepaal word dat Francis I daartoe verbind was om by die bondgenote aan te sluit en om oorlog te verklaar teen Frankryk, sou Napoleon nie sy voorwaardes aanvaar nie, naamlik: om die Groothertogdom Warskou en sommige Hansestede, waaronder , Hamburg, Bremen en Lübeck om die heropbou van Pruise toe te laat soos in 1806. Berlyn en Moskou het ook versoek dat die Konfederasie van die Ryn verdwyn (die gewapende invloed van Napoleon in Duitsland). Oostenryk het ook gehoop om die herstel van Illyria en van die hele Galicië te verkry indien 'n Europese vrede gesluit sou word.


Die gewapende historikus

As 'n mens aan die veldartillerie dink, is die beeld wat gewoonlik in gedagte kom, van groot manne wat groot rondtes in kanonne gooi. Dit word gevolg deur 'n enorme flits voordat die grond êrens in 'n groot vuurbal uitbars. Groot manne sukkel dan om die kanon skoon te maak en weer te laai, en die proses word herhaal. Dit is vuil, vuil, hard, uitputtend en gevaarlik werk wat nie tipies met vroue verband hou nie.

Ter ere van die vele Amerikaanse weermagartillerie -eenhede wat hierdie naweek hul Saint Barbara's Day Ball vier, Die gewapende historikus het besluit om twee beroemde vroue in die geskiedenis van die Amerikaanse artillerie te deel, asook nog 'n minder bekende vroulike artillerie -offisier.

St Barbara soos gesien in die Order of Saint Barbara Medal, United States Field Artillery Association

Die eerste vrou op hierdie lys moet Sint Barbara wees. Sy is immers die beskermheilige van die Veldartillerie.

Sint Barbara was die dogter van 'n ryk heiden, Dioscorus, wat in die 4de eeu die stad Nicomedia, Klein -Asië, regeer het. Dioscorus was 'n jaloerse en beskermende vader wat 'n toring laat bou het om Barbara van die buitewêreld te beskerm. Tydens haar gedwonge eensaamheid in die toring, het Barbara haar toegelaat om te studeer en te bid. Sy het tot die Christendom oorgegaan en is in die geheim gedoop. Terwyl haar pa weg was, het Barbara toringbouers oortuig om drie vensters in haar badhuis te installeer ter ere van die Heilige Drie -eenheid. Toe Dioscorus dit agterkom, was hy woedend en het Barbara voor 'n tribunaal laat sleep waar sy deur haar eie pa gemartel, skuldig bevind en onthoof is. Terwyl hy van die teregstelling huis toe ry, word Dioscorus deur weerlig getref en doodgemaak.

Vanweë die tydsberekening en aard van die dood van Dioscorus, toe sy heilig verklaar is, is die heilige Barbara beskermheilige van diegene wat deur weerlig gesterf het. Namate kruit op die slagveld algemeen geword het, was die geluide en ontploffings wat kruit produseer, soortgelyk aan weerlig. Artillerie, wat afhanklik was van kruit, was geneig om op die slagveld te ontplof weens swak berging van die poeier, vlieënde vonke uit die kanonne en onbehoorlike opruiming van kanonne tussen sarsies. As gevolg hiervan het die heilige Barbara haar plek ingeneem as die beskermheilige van die Koning van die Slag.

Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley (Molly Pitcher)

“ Sersant Molly ” Werper swaai die geweer tydens die Slag van Monmouth

Mary Ludwig is in die middel van die 1740's in Pennsylvania gebore. Sy het destyds die tipiese lewe van 'n koloniale vrou geleef en uiteindelik 'n man in die plaaslike kapper, William Hays, gevind. Toe die Revolusionêre Oorlog uitbreek, het William by die Kontinentale Weermag aangesluit by Proctor se 4de Pennsylvania Artillery. In navolging van die tradisie van 'n soldaat se vrou wat eeue oud is, het Mary vertrek om haar man te volg terwyl hy diens doen. Mary het by die kampvolgelinge aangesluit en gehelp om water na die soldate te bring terwyl hulle die stryd gestry het. Sy het waarskynlik die bynaam “Molly Pitcher” gekry terwyl sy as watermeisie gedien het toe die soldate “Molly! Kruik! ”

In Junie 1778 is die Kontinentale Weermag in Monmouth, New Jersey, opgestel en bereid om die Britte te beveg. Die temperatuur was ver in die 100's en Molly Pitcher en die ander watermeisies was voorbereid op 'n lang dag nadat hulle twee bronne naby die slagveld opgespoor het om die soldate te bedien. Die geveg begin en die hitte en verwarring styg op die veld. Op 'n stadium in die geveg het Molly water na haar man se artillerie -vuurlyn gebring, waar sy gesien het hoe William van die veld gedra word, hetsy deur hitte of deur vyandelike vuur.

Omdat hy geweet het dat die kontinentale weermag 'n tekort aan artilleriste het, en hy weet hoe noodsaaklik elke man vir die vuurlyn is, hardloop Molly na haar man se geweer. Sy tel vinnig sy ramrod op en neem sy plek in deur die kanon te vee en te laai. Op 'n stadium in die geveg het 'n Britse kanonbal direk deur Molly se bene gegaan en haar onderrokke afgeskeur. Volgens die hedendaagse berigte kyk Molly af en sien dat "dit gelukkig was dat dit nie 'n bietjie hoër verbygegaan het nie, want in daardie geval kon dit iets anders weggevoer het".

Aan die einde van die dag het die Britse leër teruggetrek na Sandy Hook. Generaal Washington het self begin vra oor die vrou wat hy 'n kanon sien laai het. Molly is na die generaal gebring wat haar die rang van sersant toegeken het ter erkenning van haar dapperheid.

Na die oorlog, "Sersant Molly", soos Mary nou bekend geword het, en William keer terug na Carlisle, Pennsylvania. William sterf in 1786, en sersant Molly trou met John McCauley in 1793. In 1822 ontvang sersant Molly 'n jaarlikse pensioen deur die Statebond van Pennsylvania vir haar dienste tydens die oorlog. Sy is een van 'n handjievol vroue wat militêre pensioen vir die Revolusionêre Oorlog ontvang het.

Ter herinnering aan haar heldhaftigheid op die slagveld, het die United States Field Artillery Association die Artillery Order of Molly Pitcher geskep. Die Artillerie -orde van Molly Pitcher is opgedra aan die eggenote van artilleriste in die Amerikaanse weermag wat hul tyd vrywillig bygedra het tot die verbetering van die veldartillerie.

Agustina de Aragon veg die Franse af tydens die Slag van Zaragoza

Die laaste vrou vir hierdie artikel is Agustina de Aragon. Agustina is die enigste vrou op hierdie lys wat nie persoonlike bande met die United States Army Field Artillery het nie, maar dit is moeilik om oor bekende vroue van die Field Artillery te praat sonder om Agustina te noem.

In 1808, Le Grande Armee onder Napoleon het Bonaparte suksesvol deur Spanje getrek. Begin Junie was die Franse magte buite die Spaanse stad Zaragoza geleë. Dit was 'n klein dorpie wat 450 jaar lank nie oorlog gesien het nie, oorstroom is met vlugtelinge en deur 'n klein provinsiale mag verdedig is. Op 15 Junie het die Franse dit reggekry om na Portillo te gaan. Agustina was op pad na die voorkant om appels by die honger artilleriste naby die Portillo te gaan aflewer, waar sy die Spaanse lyne sien breek het onder die Franse aanval. Met die Franse magte net 'n paar meter verder en die Spaanse magte terughardloop, hardloop Agustina vorentoe, laai 'n kanon en skiet in die aankomende Fransmanne af.

By die aanskoue van hierdie eensame vrou wat die kanon so naby die naderende vyand bedien, het die vlugtende Spanjaarde opgehou hardloop. Trouens, die Spaanse magte het omgedraai en teruggehardloop na die voorste linies om Agustina te ondersteun. As gevolg van haar optrede het Agustina die Spaanse magte bymekaargemaak. Na 'n bloedige geveg het die Franse die beleg van Zaragoza opgegee. Le Grande Armee het na 'n paar weke na Zaragoza teruggekeer, en hierdie keer het die Franse magte daarin geslaag om die stad tot oorgawe te dwing.

Agustina het egter nie haar stryd teen die Franse laat vaar nie. Sy dien daarna as leier in die versetmagte in Spanje. Agustina is deur die Franse gevange geneem, waar sy haar seun deur Franse hande sien sterf het. Hierdie aksie het veroorsaak dat Agustina 'n gewaagde ontsnapping kry. Uiteindelik het Agustina by die geallieerde magte aangesluit wat vir die hertog van Wellington geveg het. Agustina het 'n kommissie gekry en word die enigste vroulike offisier van Wellington. Agustina het tot die rang van kaptein gestyg, en tydens die Slag van Vitoria was sy 'n batterykommandant.

Die veldartillerie het deur sy geskiedenis baie kleurvolle en kragtige figure gehad. Daar was baie punte in die geskiedenis tydens die geveg, en die oorlog self is beslis bepaal deur die optrede van die artillerie en diegene wat die gewere bedien het. Dit is slegs 'n paar vroue wat gehelp het om hul onsterflike stempel op die trotse tak van die diens te plaas.


Historiese gebeure in 1813

    1ste Amerikaanse rou katoen-tot-doekmeule gestig in Waltham, Massachusetts 1ste federale inentingswetgewing wat die Amerikaanse kongres uitgevaardig het, gee toestemming vir die gebruik van stoombote om pos te vervoer Kantoor van chirurg-generaal van die Amerikaanse weermag vorm 1ste konsert van Royal Philharmonic David Melville, Newport, Rhode Island, patentapparaat vir die vervaardiging van steenkoolgas Lady Hester Stanhope vertrek na die antieke stad Palmyra, die eerste westerse vrou wat die eerste Amerikaanse vlag besoek het wat in die geveg op die Stille Oseaan deur die fregat Essex Amerikaners onder generaal Pike gevang word Toronto Pike word vermoor. aan Jacob F. Hummel In Australië lei William Lawson, Gregory Blaxland en William Wentworth 'n ekspedisie weswaarts vanaf Sydney. Hulle roete maak die binneland van Australië oop vir voortgesette uitbreiding gedurende die 19de eeu.

Gebeurtenis van Rente

23 Mei Suid -Amerikaanse onafhanklikheidsleier Simón Bolívar betree Mérida, lei die inval in Venezuela, en word uitgeroep tot El Libertador (& quotThe Liberator & quot)

    Amerikaners vang Fort George, Kanada In Australië bereik Lawson, Blaxland en Wentworth Mount Blaxland, wat die einde van 'n roete oor die Blue Mountains aandui, spreek kaptein John Lawrence van die vloot se leuse & quot; Moenie die skip opgee nie & quot; Amerikaanse inval in Kanada gestop by Stoney Creek ( Ontario) Skiereilandoorlog: Slag van Vitoria lei tot 'n oorwinning vir 'n Spaanse, Portugese en Britse alliansie teen die Franse Slag van Beaver Dams - Britse en inheemse magte verslaan Amerikaanse magte (Oorlog van 1812) Oorlog van 1812: Drie weke van Britse aanvalle op Fort Schlosser, Black Rock en Plattsburgh, New York, begin met die Britse inval in Plattsburgh, NY

Aanstelling van belang

12 Augustus Robert Southey word aangestel as Britse digterpryswenner deur koning George III

    Britse oorlogskip Pelikaan aanvalle en vang die Amerikaanse oorlogsbrigant Argus Gervasio Antonio de Posadas aan by Argentinië se tweede triumviraat. Slag van Grossbeeren - Pruise onder Von Bulow stoot Frans af

Oorwinning in Slag

27 Aug. Slag van Dresden Napoleon verslaan Oostenrykers

    Slag van Kulm: Franse magte verslaan deur Oostenryk-Pruis-Russiese alliansie. Eerste Amerikaanse godsdienstige koerant (Religious Remembrancer (Christian Observer)) & quotOncle Sam & quot; vroeër verwys na die VSA, deur Troy Post van New York, Amerikaanse vlootbevelvoerder Oliver Hazard Perry verslaan die Britte in Battle of Lake Erie Slag van Bárbula: Simón Bolívar verslaan Santiago Bobadilla Battle of Thames in Kanada Amerikaners verslaan Britte

Gebeurtenis van Rente

9 November Generaal Andrew Jackson, wat reageer op 'n pleidooi om hulp van White Stick Creek Indiane in Fort Leslie, dryf die aanvallende mag van Red Stick Creek Indiane in Talladega, Alabama, af

    Dresden gee oor aan geallieerde leërs Geallieerde troepe beset Zwolle Neth Geallieerde troepe beset Groningen Belastingopstand in Amsterdam Stettin gee oor aan geallieerde leërs Kosakke beset Utrecht Elias Canneman (Lib) word minister van finansies Prins Willem Frederik keer terug na Nederland Prins Willem Frederik aanvaar konstitusionele monargie Lübeck gee oor aan geallieerde leërs

Musiek Première

8 Desember Ludwig van Beethoven se 7de simfonie in A, het première in Wene met dirigering van Beethoven


Slag van Germantown

Plek van die Slag van Germantown: Noord van Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in die Verenigde State van Amerika.

Bestryders in die Slag van Germantown: Die Amerikaanse kontinentale weermag teen die Britse en Hessiese magte

Generaals in die Slag van Germantown: Generaal George Washington teen generaal-majoor sir William Howe

Grootte van die leërs in die Slag van Germantown: 11 000 Amerikaners teen 8 000 Britte en Hessiërs.

Uniforms, wapens en toerusting tydens die Slag van Germantown:

Die Britte het rooi jasse gedra, met kappies vir die grenadiers, tricorne -hoede vir die bataljonskompagnieë en kappies vir die ligte infanterie. Die Highland Scots -troepe het die kilt- en veerkap gedra.

Die twee regimente van ligte draakone wat in Amerika diens gedoen het, die 16de en 17de, het rooi jasse en helms van helm van kuifleer gedra.

Grenadier van die Britse 40ste voetregiment: Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Die Hessiese infanterie het blou jasse gedra en die grenadier verstekdop van Pruisiese styl behou met voorplaat van koper.

Die Amerikaners het so goed as moontlik aangetrek. Namate die oorlog vorder, het infanterieregimente van die Kontinentale Weermag meestal blou of bruin uniformjasse gedra. Die Amerikaanse milisie het in ruwe klere voortgegaan.

Albei kante was gewapen met muskiete. Die Britse en Duitse infanterie het bajonette gedra, wat onder die Amerikaanse troepe te min was. Baie mans in die Pennsylvania- en Virginia -regimente het gewapende wapens gedra, net soos ander agterbosmanne. Beide kante is ondersteun deur artillerie.

Wenner: Die Britte het die stryd gewen, maar het nie daarin geslaag om die sukses op te volg nie, en het Washington toegelaat om sy leër agter versterkte posisies terug te trek en te hervorm.

Britse regimente in die Slag van Germantown: Die Britse regimente wat tydens die geveg geïdentifiseer kan word, is: Ligte dragons (nie duidelik watter regiment 16de of 17de nie), twee saamgestelde bataljonne grenadiers, twee saamgestelde bataljons van ligte infanterie, twee saamgestelde bataljons van voetwagte (1 ste, 2 en 3de wagte), 5de voet, 25ste voet, 27ste voet, 40ste voet en 55ste voet.

Amerikaanse eenhede in die Slag van Germantown:
Kolonel Bland se eerste Dragoons, Wayne's Pennsylvania Brigade, Weeden's Virginia Brigade, Muhlenburg's Virginia Brigade, Maxwell's Light Infantry, Stephen's Division, Stirling's Division, Pennsylvania Militia, Maryland Militia en New Jersey Militia.

British Queen ’s Rangers: Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Agtergrond van die Slag van Germantown:

Na die Britse verowering van Philadelphia na die Slag van Brandywine, het Howe se troepe laer opgeslaan in Germantown in die noorde van die stad. Die kamp het in 'n lyn langs die noordelike hoofpad gestrek.

Washington was vasbeslote om die Britse leër in die kamp te verras. Sy plan vereis 'n sterk rubriek onder generaal-majoor Nathaniel Greene, saam met McDougall, Muhlenberg, Stephen en Scott, om die regtervleuel van die Britse leër, wat uit Grant en Donop se troepe bestaan ​​het, aan te val. Die tweede kolom, wat Washington beveel het, saam met Stirling en Sullivan, sou die hoofpad van Philadelphia afloop en die Britse sentrum aanval. Kragte van Amerikaanse milisie sou elke vleuel van die Britse mag aanval, gevorm uit die Queen's Rangers aan die regterkant, en, links naby die Schuylkillrivier, Hessian Jägers en British Light Infantry.

Washington se plan het vereis dat die vier aanvalle geloods is "presies om 5 uur met gelaaide bajonette en sonder afvuur”. Die bedoeling was om die hele Britse leër te verras op die manier waarop die Hessiërs in Trenton verras was.

Kaart van die Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog: kaart deur John Fawkes

Rekening van die Slag van Germantown:

Luitenant-kolonel sir Thomas Musgrave wat 40ste voet aan die bevel was by die Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Die Amerikaanse kolomme het op die aand van 3 Oktober 1777 langs hul onderskeie aanlooppaaie begin. Dagbreek het gevind dat die Amerikaanse magte baie ver van hul beginlyn af was vir die aanval, en daar was 'n ontmoeting met die eerste Britse piket wat sy gewere afgevuur het om te waarsku die aanval. Die buitepos is ondersteun deur 'n bataljon ligte infanterie en die 40ste voet, onder luitenant-kolonel sir Thomas Musgrave. Dit het 'n aansienlike deel van Sullivan se afdeling geneem om die Britse kontingent terug te dryf.

Generaal Howe het vorentoe gery en aanvanklik gedink dat die gevorderde mag deur 'n aanvalspan aangeval word, en sy siening word belemmer deur 'n verdikkende mis wat die veld die res van die dag vertroebel.

Tydens die gevegte het Musgrave veroorsaak dat ses maatskappye van die 40ste die aansienlike kliphuis van Chief Justice Chew, Cliveden House aan die hoofweg, versterk het en dit as 'n sterk punt gebruik het. Die Amerikaanse opmars het gestop, terwyl woedende aanvalle op die huis geloods is, ondersteun deur 'n Amerikaanse artillerie -spervuur.

Toe hy die vuur hoor, het generaal-majoor Adam Stephen, wat aan die hoof van die ander hoofkolom was, sy bevel geïgnoreer om langs die baan voort te gaan om die Britse regtervleuel aan te val, na regs geswaai en na die Chew House gegaan. Sy brigade het aangesluit by die aanval op die huis, wat 'n uur lank deur die infanterie en gewere van verskeie Amerikaanse brigades aangeval is.

Britse 40ste voet beset die Chew House in die Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog: foto deur Xavier della Gatta

Die res van Greene se afdeling het soos beplan 'n woeste aanval op die Britse lyn geloods en deurgebreek en verskeie Britse troepe gevange geneem.

Intussen het Sullivan en Wayne verby die Chew House gegaan en hul aanval begin. In die mis het Wayne se brigade Stephen se brigade teëgekom en die twee Amerikaanse brigades het vuur uitgeruil. Beide brigades het gebreek en gevlug.

Amerikaanse gewere vuur op die Chew House by die Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Sullivan se brigade is op beide flanke aangeval, aan sy linkerkant deur Grant met die Britse 5de en 55ste voetregimente, en aan sy regterkant deur Brigadier Gray. Sullivan se brigade het gebreek. Die Britte het toe die geïsoleerde afdeling van Greene aangeskakel en kolonel Matthews en sy 9de Virginia -regiment gevange geneem.

Aangeval deur die Britse wagte en die 25ste en 27ste voet, trek Greene die hoofweg na die noordweste terug, bygestaan ​​deur die pogings van die brigade van Muhlenberg. Toe die Amerikaanse weermag terugtrek, het sy toestand versleg en was Washington verplig om ongeveer 16 kilometer terug te trek, deur die Britse ligte draakies.

Die Amerikaanse aanval op die Chew House by die Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Die Amerikaanse militiese magte het nie hul aanvalle ontwikkel nie en uiteindelik teruggetrek.

Slagoffers in die Slag van Germantown:
500 Britte is in die geveg dood, gewond of gevange geneem. 1 000 Amerikaners is in die geveg dood, gewond of gevange geneem.

50 Amerikaners is dood toe hulle die Chew House aanval.

Die Amerikaanse aanval op die Chew House in die Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog: prent deur Edward Lamson Henry

Opvolg van die Slag van Germantown:
Daar word gesê dat die Slag van Germantown 'n diepgaande invloed gehad het om die Franse hof te oortuig dat die Amerikaanse saak die moeite werd was om te ondersteun met oorlog teen Engeland. Die Franse was meer beïndruk deur die vermoë van die Amerikaners om hul leër op te hef en 'n aanval op die Britte te lewer as deur die gebrek aan sukses.

'N Opmerklike kenmerk van die geveg was die mislukking van die Britte om hul sukses op die slagveld te benut deur die verslaande Amerikaanse mag te agtervolg en te vernietig.

Die Amerikaanse aanval op die Chew House by die Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog (die uniforms wat uitgebeeld word, is laat in die 18de eeu)

Anekdotes en tradisies uit die Slag van Germantown:

Amerikaanse kontinentale soldaat: Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

  • Generaal Stephen is aan die einde van die geveg deur die Amerikaanse owerhede ontdek, onbekwaam dronk. Hy is in die kassier gestuur en sy bevel is aan Lafayette gegee.
  • Generaal-majoor Adam Stephen (of Steven) was 'n ander Amerikaanse offisier wat sy militêre loopbaan in 1755 onder leiding van generaal Edward Braddock onder leiding van generaal Edward Braddock begin het (sien Defeat of Braddock Part 6).
  • Die Amerikaners het tydens die Slag van Germantown gely onder die meerjarige moeilikheid van die leërs uit die 18de eeu om hul troepe weer te voorsien. Baie van die Amerikaanse regimente het tydens die geveg opraak met ammunisie.
  • Generaal Sir George Osborn, die kolonel van die 40ste Regiment of Foot, het veroorsaak dat 'n medalje geslaan is ter herdenking van die verdediging van die Chew House deur die regiment tydens die Slag van Germantown. Silwer medaljes is aan die offisiere toegeken en kopermedaljes aan die soldate: 'n vroeë voorbeeld van 'n veldtogmedalje.

Voorste medalje van die 40ste regiment: Slag van Germantown op 4 Oktober 1777 in die Amerikaanse Revolusionêre Oorlog

Verwysings na die Slag van Germantown:

Geskiedenis van die Britse leër deur Sir John Fortescue

The War of the Revolution deur Christopher Ward

Die Amerikaanse rewolusie deur Brendan Morrissey

The Philadelphia Campaign Volume II Germantown and the Roads to Valley Forge deur Thomas J. McGuire

The previous battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Paoli

The next battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Saratoga

Chief Justice Chew’s Cliveden House: Battle of Germantown on 4th October 1777 in the American Revolutionary War

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Lord Liverpool

Robert Banks Jenkinson, Lord Liverpool is not generally viewed as one of Britain’s greatest prime ministers – Disraeli’s sneer at him as the “Arch-mediocrity” in his 1844 novel ‘Coningsby’ is only too well remembered. Yet, as my new book ‘Britain’s Greatest Prime Minister’ shows, when you look at what he achieved, as a wartime and a peacetime leader, he deserves to rank very high indeed.

Lord Liverpool

Liverpool’s greatest achievements were in economics, not the strong point of Disraeli, or of Liverpool’s remarkably few biographers. As War Secretary in 1809-12, he devised an economic and military strategy to beat Napoleon that relied on constant moderate pressure over several years, rather than the massive short-term coalitions that had previously been unsuccessful. By capturing France’s remaining colonies and the attritional Peninsular War, he increased the pressure on France’s loot-driven economy until Napoleon was forced into an invasion of Russia in 1812 that proved fatal.

After 1812 as prime minister, Liverpool increased the pressure further, providing subsidies to Britain’s potential allies, and pulling together a coalition that won the key Battle of Leipzig in October 1813. The road to victory was a rocky one, however in June 1813 Liverpool and Vansittart (Chancellor of the Exchequer) were reduced to begging the Bank of England for Treasury bill rollovers week by week, until Wellington’s victory at Vitoria improved Britain’s credit standing.

Battle of Vitoria.

As victory approached, Liverpool set out the basis for a peace settlement, which Castlereagh (his Foreign Secretary) followed at the Congress of Vienna. Instead of punishing Britain’s enemies after victory, Liverpool decided on a peace that imposed no direct reparations, left France with most of her colonies and brought Britain no additional colonial gains. His moderation, and the deft management of Castlereagh and the Austrian minister Metternich, produced a European peace that lasted for almost 100 years. Their distant successors at the 1919 Congress of Versailles would have done well to follow their example.

The Waterloo campaign was also a masterpiece of organization, with Wellington (then in Vienna) assembling the Allies into a coalition as soon as Napoleon’s return was known, and Vansittart raising £27 million of Consols four days before Waterloo – forty times the funds that Napoleon had available.

Once peace was restored, Liverpool faced three economic problems. The government debt was far too high, the highest it has ever been in terms of the economy. The pound was unanchored, its value governed largely by the Bank of England’s note issues Liverpool believed the country should return to gold. Agriculture had been over-expanded during the war, with marginal lands planted. Liverpool believed some protection was necessary, to avoid bankrupting landholders and ensure the maximum food self-sufficiency in any future war.

Liverpool tackled the agriculture problem first with Corn Laws that allowed free imports if the corn price was above 80 shillings per quarter, but blocked imports below that price. This allowed farmers to adjust it also stimulated corn growing in Ireland, which since 1806 could sell freely into the rest of the U.K. 30 years later, Irish corn crops were a modest offset to the notorious potato famine.

The debt was the biggest problem. Vansittart reduced non-debt-service public spending by 69% in three years, balanced the budget, and kept it balanced, raising taxes in 1819 to do so. Liverpool passed legislation that year returning Britain to the Gold Standard, which took effect in 1821. Sound debt management and the Gold Standard helped Britain’s credit rating and reduced interest rates, so holders of Consols (which had no maturity) received a capital gain of over two thirds of national output in the nine years 1815-24. That capital gain financed the industrial take-off of the early 1820s, and offset the deflation caused by the return to gold (prices fell by 40% in the same period). By the time Liverpool left office, economic growth had made the debt much less burdensome – Victorian chancellors like Gladstone had it very easy by comparison.

The first few years after the war were difficult. There was a deep recession in 1816-17, following the crop failure of the 1816 “Year without a summer” then another painful recession in 1819-20 caused by the deflation accompanying the return to gold. Both recessions caused unrest, which Liverpool and his Home Secretary Lord Sidmouth handled deftly. Sidmouth usied informants to watch for revolution, arresting the participants in the 1820 Cato Street Conspiracy before they could break into a Cabinet dinner and assassinate the ministers, for example. The Peterloo massacre, caused by inept Manchester magistrates, was a blot on the government’s record, but overall, order was maintained. Unrest died down once prosperity returned after 1820.

Peterloo massacre

One useful reform in these years was the Savings Banks Act of 1817, by which Trustee Savings Banks were set up, investing only in government bonds, to provide safe havens for worker savings. Liverpool’s next major innovation was to move the country towards free trade, which he did by a speech in May 1820, setting the path for British trade policy for the next 40 years, and opening British business to the world.

After 1820, things became easier as the economy recovered and then boomed. Taxes were reduced, as the budget was now in surplus. Peel, the new Home Secretary, instituted numerous legal reforms, and trades unions were legalized by 1824 and 1825 legislation.

At the end of 1825, a financial crash occurred, caused mainly by speculation by the English country banks, of which there were more than 800 (no bank was allowed to have more than six partners). Liverpool had warned against the speculation the previous March. After the crash he reformed the banking system, allowing the formation of joint stock banks, restricting note issues except by the Bank of England, and pushing the Bank of England to open branches. The new laws were passed early in 1826, and by the end of 1826 the post-crash recession had lifted.

Liverpool had major achievements in both war and peace over 15 years – for one thing, he won four successive general elections, more than any other prime minister. Although his main expertise was in economic policy, he produced an excellent post-war peace settlement and embarked on major programs of legal and social reform. Without his work, the Victorians’ lives would have been much less contented and prosperous. In war and peace, when you look at Britain’s 55 prime ministers, Liverpool deserves to rank No. 1.

Martin Hutchinson was born in London, brought up in Cheltenham, England, and has lived in Singapore, Croatia, London, suburban Washington, and since 2011 in Poughkeepsie, NY. He was a merchant banker for more than twenty-five years before moving into financial journalism in 2000. He earned his undergraduate degree in mathematics from Trinity College, Cambridge, and an MBA from Harvard Business School. Pre-order the new book ‘Britain’s Greatest Prime Minister’.


Battle of Vitoria - History


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Battle of Sullivan’s Island

Place of the Battle of Sullivan’s Island: At the mouth of the estuary outside Charleston Harbour, South Carolina, in the United States of America.

Combatants at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island: British Royal Navy and British Army against the American Continental Army and South Carolina Militia and Regiments.

Commanders at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island: Commodore Sir Peter Parker R.N. commanded the Royal Navy squadron. Major-General Sir Henry Clinton commanded the British troops. Major General Charles Lee commanded the American Continental garrison in Charleston. Governor Routledge commanded the local South Carolina forces. Colonel William Moultrie commanded the American troops in the fort on Sullivan’s Island.

Commodore Sir Peter Parker RN commander of the Royal Navy Squadron at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

Size of the armies at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island: 10 British warships and 2,500 British troops against 6,500 Americans.

Uniforms, arms and equipment at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:

The British wore red coats, with bearskin caps for the grenadiers, tricorne hats for the battalion companies and caps for the light infantry.

The Americans dressed as best they could. Increasingly as the war progressed infantry regiments of the Continental Army mostly took to wearing blue uniform coats. The American militia continued in rough clothing.

Both sides were armed with muskets. The British infantry carried bayonets, that were in short supply among the American troops. Both sides were supported by artillery.

Winner of the Battle of Sullivan’s Island: The attack on Sullivan’s Island was a resounding and unexpected success for the American troops.

British Ships and Regiments at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:
Royal Navy Squadron: HMS Bristol (Flagship), Captain John Morris, 50 guns, HMS Experiment, Captain Alexander Scott, 50 guns, Frigates: HMS Active, Captain William Williams, 28 guns, HMS Actaeon, Captain Christopher Atkins, 28 guns, HMS Solebay, Captain Thomas Symmonds, 28 guns, HMS Syren, Captain Tobias Fourneaux, 28 guns, HMS Friendship, Captain Charles Hope, 22 guns, HMS Sphinx, Captain Anthony Hunt, 20 guns, HM sloop Ranger, Captain Roger Willis, 8 guns, HM schooner St Lawrence, Lieutenant John Graves, 6 guns and HM bomb ketch Thunder, Captain James Reid, 6 guns and 2 mortars.

30 transports carrying the troops.

Major General Sir Henry Clinton: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

British Army Regiments: 15 th , 28 th , 33 rd , 37 th , 46 th , 54 th and 57 th .

American Units at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:
On the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, the South Carolina militia was divided in its loyalties between the two sides. To counter this problem the American authorities in the colony raised 6 new regiments of provincial troops and 3 artillery companies, amounting to 2,000 men.

In addition, there were 2 regiment of Continental troops: 2 North Carolina regiments and 1 Virginia regiment amounting to 2,000 men.

The country militia joined the garrison in Charlestown, adding a further 2,000 men.

The Charleston militia supporting the American cause amounted to 700.

The American troops holding Charlestown amounted to 6,500 men.

Background to the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:
The new Royal Governor for the colony of South Carolina, Lord William Campbell, arrived in Charleston on 18 th June 1775, the day after the Battle of Bunker Hill.

While there was a strong loyalist element in the population of South Carolina, the sentiment in Charleston was hostile to the British.

When, in September 1775, the Council of Safety in Charleston, after raising troops in support of the American Congress and arming a ship of war, seized Fort Johnson at the entrance to Charleston Harbour, Lord Campbell embarked on the Royal Navy sloop Tamar.

The Royal Governor of North Carolina was forced to leave his post in similar circumstances.

The British government decided to send a military and naval force to act in conjunction with the loyalist elements of the population of North Carolina. A naval squadron, commanded by Commodore Sir Peter Parker, was assembled at Cork in Ireland, with 30 transports to convey a military force, amounting to 2,500 men, to Cape Fear in North Carolina to carry out these operations.

At his request to King George III, Major General the Earl of Cornwallis was appointed to command the military element of the force.

The convoy sailed from Cork on 13 th February 1776, but was dispersed by storms, five days into the journey. It took to the 3 rd May 1776 for the fleet to arrive at Cape Fear, a journey of almost three months.

Major General Sir Henry Clinton was one of the British major generals despatched to America in 1775, to bolster the resolve of the British commander in chief in Boston, General Thomas Gage. Clinton was sent from Boston to engineer the loyalist uprising in North Carolina.

By the time the Cork re-inforcements were available, the loyalist uprising had taken place and been dispersed by the Americans.

British Royal Navy 50 gun ship at sea: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

On 30 th May 1776, the Cork flotilla with Clinton’s small force set sail again, this time for Charleston, persuaded by Lord Campbell’s urgings that the recovery of the port of Charleston would considerably advance the British cause. As the senior major general, Clinton commanded.

From January 1776, the Americans in Charleston planned and began to build a new fortification on Sullivan’s Island at the entrance to the estuary, to defend the city from an incursion by the British.

Colonel William Moultrie and his 2 nd South Carolina Regiment began building the fort on Sullivan’s Island in March 1776.

By the time the British flotilla arrived off Charleston at the end of May 1776, the fort on Sullivan’s Island was unfinished, but was sufficiently advanced to provide a substantial defence to the city.

The fort on Sullivan’s Island was planned as a square redoubt, with bastions at each corner. The construction was of an inner and an outer wall, made with palmetto trunks up to a height of twenty feet, with the sixteen-foot space between the walls filled with sand. The side facing the sea was complete, with bastions in place. The sides facing away from the sea appear to have been still under construction when the battle took place. The fort was, until being re-named Fort Moultrie after the Battle of Sullivan’s Island, referred to as Fort Sullivan.

On seeing the uncompleted fort, General Charles Lee recommended that it be abandoned, describing it as a ‘Slaughter Pen’. Acting on Colonel Moultrie’s advice, Governor Routledge refused to leave the fort.

Plan of the attack on Fort Sullivan 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War: plan by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas James Royal Artillery

Guns at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:

A plan of the fort was prepared by an officer of the Royal Artillery, Lieutenant Colonel Thomas James after the battle. The plan appears to show 28 pieces of artillery in Fort Sullivan. One is described as a mortar and the rest as being 32 and 26 pounders. It is apparent from the caption on the plan that Colonel James took his information from officers present at the battle, if he was not himself present, which is not clear. Possibly information was obtained when the fort, by then called Fort Moultrie, was taken by the British when they captured Charleston in 1780.

Ward describes the cannon in Fort Sullivan in these terms: ‘Along the front were mounted six 24-pounders and three 18-pounders. Along the southerly side were six guns, 9- and 12-pounders. In each bastion were five guns, ranging from 9 to 26 pounders.’ Ward describes three 12-pounders as mounted in each of the other two bastions. The difficulty with Ward’s description is that he puts the ‘front’ in contradistinction to the ‘southerly side’. It would seem that the southerly side of the fort was the front.

View of Charleston in 1771: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

It seems likely that the guns available to the Americans were those they removed from the other long-standing British coastal batteries. It is very unlikely that a coastal battery would have mounted a cannon smaller than an 18-pounder. James, the producer of an apparently contemporaneous and professionally informed plan, refers only to 32 and 26 pounders.

If James is correct the British ships were heavily out-gunned by Fort Sullivan.

The largest British ship, HMS Bristol, carried twenty-two 24 pounder guns, twenty-two 12 pounder guns and other smaller cannon. Experiment carried the same size and number of guns. The frigates deployed nothing larger than 9 pounders.

The report of damage suffered during the Battle of Sullivan’s Island by HMS Bristol describes being struck by 32 pounder cannon balls.

Account of the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:
The British flotilla arrived off Charleston on 4 th June 1776. There was much work to be done. It seems unlikely that the British had access to reliable charts of the estuary, an infinitely complex area with sandbanks and intricate channels giving access to the inner harbour. The Americans will have removed all navigation aids. Time was spent taking soundings and putting in buoys.

It took until 7 th June 1776 to get the frigates and transports over the bar and into ‘Five Fathom Hole’, an area of open water against the shore to the west of the main estuary.

Charleston was an important port for the southern colonies, and it is surprising that there was not a shipping channel giving access to the harbour. It may be that the Royal Navy ships were unable to find the normal shipping channel and were forced to cross one of the shoals, or, that the two 50 gun ships were too large to have access to Charleston harbour. Certainly, the Royal Navy found that its larger ships were limited in the access available to them on the American coast.

The attack on Fort Sullivan: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War: picture by Nicholas Pocock

The British plan was to land the military units on Long Island, the island next up the coast to the north-east of Sullivan’s Island, cross the channel between Long Island and Sullivan’s Island, called ‘the Broad’, and attack Fort Sullivan in the rear.

General Clinton received information that the channel between Long Island and Sullivan’s Island at low tide was only eighteen inches deep. This erroneous information was not checked before the operation was begun.

The attack on Fort Sullivan: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

On 9 th June 1776, 500 British troops landed on Long Island. An attempt was made by a force of the 15 th Regiment and the light infantry and grenadier companies of the other regiments to cross the channel to Sullivan’s Island.

In the light of the threat from the British on Long Island, General Lee hurried a force of 800 American troops commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William Thompson, comprising 3 rd Regiment of South Carolina Rangers, North Carolina Continentals, South Carolina troops and militia and the ‘Raccoon’ Company of riflemen onto Sullivan’s Island, and moved them to the north of the island to face the oncoming British. Two American guns were brought to the north end of Sullivan’s Island and installed in an earthwork.

Map of Charleston Harbour and Estuary: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

The channel between Long Island and Sullivan’s Island, ‘the Breach’, turned out to be a patchwork of shoals and subsidiary channels up to seven feet deep. The boats carrying the British soldiers grounded on the shoals and the soldiers found the channels too deep to wade across. In any case, there were only enough ship’s boats available to carry around 500 men across at a time, insufficient for an attack on a prepared position supported by guns.

On 10 th June 1776, the remainder of the British troops landed on Long Island, but there was now no prospect of a successful crossing of the difficult channel. The two sides relapsed into a long range and sporadic exchange of cannon fire.

It took two weeks, until 27 th June 1776, for Commodore Sir Peter Parker to kedge his two 50 gun warships across the bar and into Five Fathom Hole, an operation that required the removal of the ships’ guns to lighten them sufficiently.

On 28 th June 1776, the bomb ketch HMS Thunder, escorted by HMS Friendship, moved across the estuary, anchored a mile and a half from Fort Sullivan and opened fire on the fort, the Thunder firing ten inch mortar shells.

During the morning, the first line of British warships, HMS Active, Bristol, Experiment and Solebay anchored in a line within four hundred yards of the fort, and, regulating their movement by way of spring cables attached to their anchor lines, opened fire on the fort.

The second line of warships, HMS Syren, Actaeon and Sphinx, took up positions covering the gaps between the first line ships and also opened fire.

The American gunners began to return the fire, with the major disadvantage that there was only enough gun powder in the fort for thirty-five rounds per gun. Each shot was carefully aimed, in contrast to the broadsides fired by the ships. There does not appear to have been any shortage of cannon balls in the fort. Chain shot was used to destroy the ships’ rigging.

Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Henry Grey an officer of the American garrison in Fort Sullivan wounded during the battle

After an hour of firing, acting on the commodore’s order, the second line ships weighed anchor and moved off up the estuary. The intention was that these three ships would move around the headland into the inlet behind the fort, and bombard the garrison in enfilade, the shots striking the area of the fort that was incomplete and provided least protection to the American gunners.

The second line ships, Actaeon, Sphinx and Syren, sailing up the estuary, suddenly grounded on an area of shoal called the Middle Ground, positioned, as the name suggests, in the middle of the estuary.

As these ships went aground, Sphinx ran into Actaeon, losing her bowsprit. By the end of the day’s fighting, Sphinx and Syren got themselves clear, although damaged. Actaeon was stuck fast.

The bombardment between the first line ships and the fort continued.

Morning after the Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 in the American Revolutionary War: picture by Henry Grey an American officer present in Fort Sullivan and wounded during the battle: HMS Actaeon burning in the foreground

The fort was struck repeatedly by several thousand cannon balls, but the palmetto trunks used in the structure absorbed the shock of the strikes and the fort’s structure remained intact.

The American gunners were protected by the sixteen-foot-thick sand and timber walls and suffered few casualties.

It was quite the reverse for the British ships of the first line. Commodore Sir Peter Parker had little idea what to expect from the fort before he engaged it. What he clearly did not anticipate was a fully functioning battery, with immensely strong walls, the largest of cannon and a well-motivated garrison able to operate their guns with precision and determination.

American defence of Fort Sullivan: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

The British ships were too close to engage with such an enemy. Both 50 gun ships had their anchors shot away and, swinging round, took shots in the stern that hurtled the full length of the ship, killing and maiming crew, dismounting guns, smashing bulkheads and equipment and blasting holes at each end of the hull.

General Charles Lee visited Fort Sullivan during the afternoon. Seeing the low state of the ammunition supply he sent over a further 700 pounds of gun powder from the city. By the time the powder arrived, the fort’s guns had been silent for an hour. They resumed firing.

The bombardment continued until 11pm, when the British ships cut their cables and made their way back down the estuary. Die geveg was verby.

The next morning showed the Actaeon to be firmly stuck on the Middle Ground shoal. The crew set her on fire and came away in her boats.

Casualties at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:

The British casualties were all from the Royal Navy.

The American fire had been concentrated on the two largest ships, HMS Bristol and HMS Experiment. The captain of Bristol, Captain John Morris, was killed as were 39 others of his crew, with 71 wounded. Commodore Sir Peter Parker was wounded. Captain Alexander Scott of HMS Experiment lost an arm. 23 of his crew were killed and another 55 wounded. Active had 1 killed and 6 wounded. Solebay had 5 wounded.

The damage to HMS Bristol, reported by the ship, confirmed the presence of 32 pounder cannon in Fort Sullivan. Bristol’s mizzenmast was hit by seven 32 pounder cannon balls and had to be cut away. Twice, American gunfire cleared the quarterdeck of all personnel, other than the commodore, who was wounded in the leg. The top of the mainmast was carried away. Seventy cannon balls struck the ship in the hull. The comment is made that Bristol would probably not have survived had the weather been rough.

Experiment was heavily damaged, but not as badly as the flagship.

HMS Actaeon was lost entirely, although all her crew got away by boat.

Americans casualties were 17 dead and 20 wounded. 7,000 British cannon balls were collected on Sullivan’s Island after the battle.

British Squadron in ‘Five Fathom Hole’ the morning after the Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War: picture by a British officer present at the battle: Actaeon is on fire: HMS Bristol can be seen with a mast missing. Charleston is in the distance

Follow-up to the Battle of Sullivan’s Island: Clinton’s troops remained on Long Island for a further three weeks. Once it was clear that nothing further could be achieved against the Americans in Charleston, the British troops embarked on the transports and, escorted by HMS Solebay, headed for New York and the Battle of Long Island.

The other British warships remained in the estuary carrying out the repairs necessary to make them seaworthy.

Following the Battle of Sullivan’s Island, the British made no attempt to attack the Americans in the Southern Colonies for another two years.

Sergeant William Jasper fastening the South Carolina flag at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 in the American Revolutionary War

Anecdotes from the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:

  • Drayton’s Memoirs of the American Revolution in Relation to South Carolina records in the Appendix that an American deserter from Colonel Gadsden’s First South Carolina Regiment, called M’Neil, informed Commodore Sir Peter Parker that the guns in Fort Johnson had been spiked. If this is what happened, it may be an explanation as to why Parker appeared to treat the fort on Sullivan’s Island with so little care, in the belief that none of the big guns from Fort Johnson could be used against his ships.
  • A British surgeon in a Royal Navy ship at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island wrote of the Americans: ‘Their artillery was surprisingly well served. The fire was slow, but decisive indeed they were very cool and took care not to fire except their guns were exceedingly well directed.’

The attack on Fort Sullivan: Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 during the American Revolutionary War

The South Carolina flag at the Battle of Sullivan’s Island on 28th June 1776 in the American Revolutionary War

References for the Battle of Sullivan’s Island:

Drayton’s Memoirs of the American Revolution in Relation to South Carolina

History of the British Army by Sir John Fortescue

The War of the Revolution by Christopher Ward

The American Revolution by Brendan Morrissey

The previous battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Quebec 1775

The next battle of the American Revolutionary War is the Battle of Long Island

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