Johannes Brahms - Geskiedenis

Johannes Brahms - Geskiedenis

Duitse komponis bekend vir sy Variations on a Theme of Haydn, German Requiem, sonates for piano, en 'n magdom ander werke. In die volksmond word een van die drie B's genoem (die ander is Bach en Beethoven) wat die panteon van musikale grootheid beklee.

Die liefdesverhaal van Clara Schumann

Clara Wieck is op 13 September 1819 in Leipzig, Duitsland, gebore naby die begin van wat in die algemeen die romantiese tydperk in musiek genoem word. Haar pa, Friedrich Wieck, het haar naam gekies omdat dit briljant en helder beteken het. Hy het ten volle verwag dat sy 'n briljante musikant sou wees, wat hy van geboorte af deur hom opgelei het. Sy het grootgeword in 'n huishouding waar die geluide van musiek voortdurend gehoor word. Haar pa het klavierlesse gegee vir baie studente wat gekom en gegaan het, en instrumente in hul winkel in Leipzig verkoop het.

Die gesin het daagliks saam gaan stap. Dit was 'n gewoonte wat Clara liefgehad het en later aan haar gesondheid en lang lewe sou toeskryf. 'N Inskrywing in haar kinderdagboek wat haar pa vir haar begin het, onthul dat sy eers op vierjarige ouderdom gepraat het. Selfs nadat sy begin praat het, het haar ouers aangeneem dat sy hardhorend was omdat sy so selfversorgend was en onbesorg was oor wat om haar gebeur. Die mite dat sy 'stadig' was, het as gevolg hiervan ontstaan.

Sy was baie lief vir klavierlesse by haar pa en het sonder moeite musiek geleer. Dit was woorde waarmee sy sukkel. Dit blyk dat daar groot spanning tussen Clara se ouers was. Haar selfopname kon baie goed dien as 'n buffer vir die harde woorde wat sy as kind verduur het. Musiek, aan die ander kant, was nie kwaad of dreigend nie. Dit was 'n toevlugsoord. Haar hele lewe lank sou dit 'n veilige plek wees waarheen sy kon gaan om tragedie en pyn te verlig.

Die Wieck -huis was altyd 'n bymekaarkomplek vir plaaslike en reisende musikante. Hulle huis was altyd 'n wonderlike plek om nuwe geluide te hoor en nuwe mense te ontmoet, en daarom het Clara grootgeword in die teenwoordigheid van baie groot musikante uit die romantiese era.

Alhoewel sy bietjie skaam was, was Clara 'n wonderkind. Sy het aktief tot die hoogste elite musikante in Leipzig behoort. Sy is nie net musikaal geprikkel deur die leer van haar vader nie, maar deur soveel Duitse Romantici.

Clara se loopbaan

Clara Wieck op 16 -jarige ouderdom in Hannover, Duitsland. Op die klavier is die solo -deel van die derde deel van haar Concerto op. 7. Litografie deur J. Giere, 1835.

Haar eerste optredes was tuis en vir vriende van Leipzig en Dresden. In 1828 reis haar gesin na die nabygeleë Dresden, waar sy privaat optredes vir plaaslike musikante en vriende gee. Diegene wat dit bygewoon het, was beïndruk en die jong musikant het vroeg in haar lewe 'n reputasie begin opbou, tans slegs 8 jaar oud. Die reis na Dresden was so suksesvol dat die gesin dit kortliks oorweeg het om na die stad te verhuis.

Sy is uitgenooi om op 20 Oktober 1828 in 'n ensemble in die Gewandhaus te speel. Clara en haar pa het voortgebou op 'n reeds indrukwekkende reputasie in die destydse musikale gemeenskap. Die gesin sou af en toe na Dresden terugkeer, en in 1831 gaan sy op haar eerste lang toer.

Sy is 'n onmiddellike sukses oral waar sy speel en word uitgenooi na vele geleenthede. Aristokratiese dames het met mekaar meegeding om ringe, kettings en oorbelle aan Clara te skenk. Haar pa was versigtig om seker te maak dat haar kop nie gedraai word deur lof en geskenke nie. Hy het in sy joernaal geskryf: 'As ek iets die minste skade berokken, sal ek onmiddellik vertrek sodat sy in 'n ordelike omgewing van die middelklas kan wees. Ek is te trots op haar pretensieloosheid om dit vir enige wêreldse eer te verruil. ”

Robert Schumann

Die somer van 1830 word bestee aan die voorbereiding vir haar eerste solokonsert in Leipzig. Maar iets het plaasgevind wat 'n groot invloed op Clara se lewe sou hê. In Oktober verhuis 'n nuwe student na die Wieck -huishouding met die naam Robert Schumann. Hy het vroeër daardie jaar in Leipzig aangekom om sy passie vir musiek na te streef nadat hy 'n loopbaan in die regte verlaat het. Clara se pa was soos 'n legende vir Robert, en hy was baie gelukkig om klavierlesse by mnr. Wieck te neem.

Dit was duidelik dat Clara aangetrokke was tot Robert. Haar pa begin vinnig bekommerd raak dat sy afgelei sou word van haar musiek as sy verlief sou raak. In September 1831 neem haar pa haar op toer deur Duitsland en Frankryk, waar hy maande lank in Parys was. Haar pa bring 'n ander seuntjie saam om haar aandag van Robert af te skuif, en dit werk so lank.

Hulle het eers in April die volgende jaar na Leipzig teruggekeer. Terwyl hulle weg was, het Robert 'n verhouding begin met 'n ander meisie, Ernestine, wat nou vinnig afgekoel het. Robert en Clara begin weer tyd saam deurbring, musiek beoefen en stap soos voorheen.

Clara se joernaal onthul dat Robert al haar edelste en artistiekste eienskappe gestimuleer het. Hulle verhouding het baie elemente gehad. Hulle improviseer en speel saam klavier, deel herinneringe en ervarings en fantaseer oor musiek wat hulle kan skep. In 1831 dra Clara 'n werk van haar, Opus 3, aan Robert op.

Toe Robert sou vertrek om by die familie te gaan kuier, sou sy vir hom briewe skryf om seker te maak dat hy belangstel in die musikale toneel in Leipzig en belangstelling in haar. Sy eindig gewoonlik haar briewe met 'n versigtige neutraliteit: "U vriendin, Clara Wieck." Op hierdie tydstip, net 13 jaar oud, het Clara hom as 'n spesiale vriend beskou.

Teen 1835 het Robert sy verhouding met Ernestine beëindig. Clara is nou 16, en presteer steeds plaaslik. Robert respekteer dat sy 'n jong en indrukwekkende meisie is, en as sodanig bly dit net haar goeie vriend, en het selfs gedink dat dit duidelik is in sy joernaalinskrywings dat hy liefde vir haar voel.

Maar ná haar 16de verjaardag laat vaar hy alle beginsels en verseker haar dat sy verhouding met Ernestine verby is. Robert se dagboek onthul hoe hy vir Clara voel tydens hul eerste maande saam. Hy skryf: "Clara se verjaarsdag ... haar oë en haar liefde ... Heerlike ure in haar arms deurgebring. 'N Heerlike Kersfees saam."

Clara was uiters bly. Sy het later vir hom geskryf: "Toe jy my die eerste soen gee, het ek gedink ek sal flou word, alles is leeg en ek kon skaars die lamp vashou wat jou uitlig." Die twee word daaglikse metgeselle.

'N Onderbreking met Clara se pa

Clara se pa was eers onbewus van hul verhouding. Maar toe sy vermoede uiteindelik wek, was sy eerste reaksie om sy dogter in Januarie 1836 uit Leipzig te verwyder. Aanvanklik het Robert volgehou in die oortuiging dat Clara se pa hul huwelik sou goedkeur. Hy het gedink dat mnr. Wieck baie bly sou wees om sy dogter saam met 'n talentvolle musikant soos hy te sien. Ongelukkig was dit nie die geval nie.

Die stryd tussen Wieck en Robert vir Clara is bemoeilik deur die feit dat Robert en Clara beide Wieck op hierdie stadium in hul lewens nodig gehad het. Robert wou graag 'n seun en skoonseun vir sy ou klavieronderwyser wees. Hy was geskok toe hy ontdek dat hy nie 'n verhouding met beide Clara en Wieck kon hê nie.

Clara het geweet dat sy verlief was op Robert. Maar sy was mal oor haar pa en die musikale sukses wat sy geniet as gevolg van al sy harde werk as pa. Haar musiek en loopbaan bly steeds die middelpunt van haar lewe.

Wieck het briewe aan Robert geskryf waarin hy ingelig is dat alle verbintenisse met hul huishouding verby is. Hy en Clara het saam getoer. Dit was 'n jammerlik ongelukkige toer. Byna anderhalf jaar lank het Clara en Robert mekaar nie gesien nie en het hulle selde gekommunikeer. Binne die volgende twee jaar sou Clara egter haar eerste wankelende treë alleen neem na liefde.

Tydens hierdie lang skeiding het Robert hom in sy werk gewerp, gekomponeer, gestudeer, geskryf en saamgewerk met 'n paar van die groot musikante uit die Romantiese era. Dit was die jare toe Robert Schumann van sy bekendste werke geskep het.

Die verlowing

Gedurende die somer van 1837 het 'n gemeenskaplike vriend begin om briewe uit te ruil tussen Robert en Clara. Op 13 Augustus het Robert vir haar geskryf:

"Is jy nog steeds vas en waar? Net so onvernietigbaar soos my geloof in jou is, maar die sterkste gees verloor vertroue wanneer niks gehoor word van die een wat meer lief is as iemand anders in die wêreld nie. En dit is vir my. Ek het het dit al meer as duisend keer gedink, en alles sê vir ons: Dit moet wees, as ons dit wil hê, en tree op. Skryf vir my 'n eenvoudige "ja" as jy vir jou pa 'n brief van my op jou verjaardag sal gee. is goedgesind teenoor my en sal my nie verwerp as u u pleidooie by myne voeg nie. "

Haar antwoord, eenvoudig en mooi, het die band met Robert verseël. Vir die res van hul lewens het hulle die volgende dag, 14 Augustus 1837, die dag van hul verlowing beskou. In sy dagboek skryf Robert: ''n Vereniging vir ewigheid.'

Clara verklaar aan haar pa haar voorneme om weg te gaan en met Robert te trou. Die briewe wat die volgende paar weke tussen die twee geliefdes uitgeruil is, is pragtig. Die briewe onthul soveel vreugde dat die twee hulself aan mekaar belowe, selfs al het Clara se pa hul verhouding hardnekkig afkeur.

Die huwelik

In September 1839 vra Clara haar pa vir 'n paar van haar verdienste tydens hul toere saam om as bruidskat op te tree, maar hy weier. Sy besluit dus om haar eie bruidskat te verskaf deur self op te tree. Die jong kunstenaar was duidelik 'n bietjie senuweeagtig oor die nuwe lewe wat voorlê. Haar dagboek wys hoe sy twyfel oor hoe die twee hulself sou onderhou, of Robert haar werklik fisies aantreklik gevind het of nie. Hierdie twyfel sou vinnig verdwyn.

Daar was 'n vertraging in hul troue weens regs aangeleenthede rakende die seën van Clara se pa. Die tyd wat Clara en Robert saam in Berlyn en Leipzig deurgebring het terwyl hulle gewag het dat hierdie kwessies gedurende die lang maande van 1839 en 1840 opgelos moes word, was van hulle gelukkigste. Hulle het saam musiek gemaak en daagliks gaan stap, net soos Clara toe sy 'n kind was. Hulle het albei gesukkel om met woorde te kommunikeer, en daarom was die saamstel van musiek 'n wonderlike vorm van kommunikasie vir hulle.

Hulle is op 12 September 1840, die dag voor Clara se 21ste verjaardag, getroud. Robert was 30 jaar oud. Dit het die geskil tussen Clara en haar pa besleg, sy was nou die vrou van Robert Schumann.

Die huwelik tussen Robert en Clara Schumann was uniek in die musikale geskiedenis. Hulle was aangetrokke tot mekaar, nie net vanweë hul algemene liefde vir musiek en fisiese aantrekkingskrag nie, maar ook omdat hul kreatiewe neigings mekaar so goed aangevul het.

Die beginjare van hul huwelik was een van die gelukkigste in Clara se lewe. Toe hulle uiteindelik saam was, het hulle 'n huweliksjoernaal begin, die Ehetagebuch, waarin hulle albei afwisselend weekliks inskrywings gemaak het. Die tydskrif was veral nuttig omdat hulle albei so moeilik met woorde kon kommunikeer.

Haar pa het blykbaar gespot oor hul huislike geluk. 'N Inskrywing in hul huweliksjoernaal in Februarie 1841 onthul: "Ons geniet 'n geluk wat ek nooit geken het nie. My pa het altyd gespot met die sogenaamde huislike geluk. "

Op 5 Desember 1840 skryf Clara in die huweliksdagboek: "Ons is vandag 'n kwart jaar getroud, en dit is die gelukkigste kwartaal van my lewe." Sy spreek egter voort met die hartseer van die breuk met haar pa. Daardie Kersfees, hul eerste saam, skryf sy drie liedjies vir Robert as sy kersgeskenk.

'N Aangrypende verjaardaggeskenk

Vir Robert se 31ste verjaardag, sy eerste verjaardag tydens hul huwelik, is Clara geïnspireer om vir hom 'n geskenk te gee wat hom vir altyd bybly. Sy skryf musiek aan 'n gedig wat altyd gewys het hoe sy vir hom voel. Op 8 Junie 1841 bring sy haar lied aan hom voor, Liebst du um Schönheit, met woorde van Friedrich Rückert:

Liebst du um Schönheit
O nicht mich liebe!
Liebe die Sonne,
Sie trägt ein goldnes Haar!

Liebst du um Jugend
O nicht mich liebe!
Liebe den Frühling
Der jung ist jedes Jahr!

Liebst du um Schätze
O nicht mich liebe!
Liebe die Meerfrau
Sie hat viel Perlen klar.

Liebst du um Liebe
O ja, mich liebe!
Liebe mich immer
Dich lieb ich immerdar!

As jy lief is vir skoonheid
Ag, moet my nie liefhê nie!
Hou van die son
Dit het goue hare!

As u lief is vir die jeug
Ag, moet my nie liefhê nie!
Hou van die lente
Dit is elke jaar jonk!

As u lief is vir rykdom
Ag, moet my nie liefhê nie!
Hou van die meermin
Sy het baie helder pêrels.

As jy lief is vir liefde
O ja, wees lief vir my!
Hou my vir ewig lief
Ek sal jou vir ewig liefhê!

Robert en Clara publiseer gesamentlik musiek saam, insluitend hierdie liedjie. Die titelblad van die bundel, gelys as Opus 37/12, gee geen aanduiding van die outeurskap van elke lied nie. Hoewel Robert nege van die liedjies gekomponeer het en Clara drie, het hulle gevoel dat hulle almal saam gekomponeer het.

Byna presies 'n jaar na die huwelik het Clara geboorte geskenk aan hul eerste en mees geliefde kind, Marie. Oor die volgende 13 jaar het hulle nog sewe kinders. Clara was baie lief vir haar gesin, maar het nie toegelaat dat dit 'n einde maak aan haar liefde vir musiek nie. Hulle het albei af en toe gaan toer en baie sukses behaal. Teen 1842 geniet sy 'n volle herlewing van haar sololoopbaan.

Robert's Sickness and a Move to Dresden

In Augustus 1844 kry Robert 'n ernstige geestelike en fisiese ineenstorting. Hy het pyne gehad, hy het gebewe, gehuil, kon nie slaap nie en word uiteindelik so swak dat hy nie eers self deur 'n kamer kan loop nie. Clara laat vaar planne vir nog 'n konserttoer en wy haar heeltemal aan Robert en sy gesondheid. Daar word verskeie kure probeer, maar niks help nie.

In Desember 1844 verhuis die gesin na Dresden, 'n rit van vier uur van Leipzig op 'n nuutgeboude trein. Hulle het altyd gedink dat hulle eendag sou terugkeer na Leipzig, maar het nooit gedoen nie. Daar word vermoed dat hulle na Dresden verhuis het om 'n rustiger lewe te hê en om nader aan Clara se pa te wees, met wie daar 'n soort versoening was.

Johannes Brahms

In 1853 kom 'n jong man uit die Schumann -huishouding op soek na Robert. Een van hul kinders vertel die man dat hul ouers uit is, maar die volgende dag tuis sal wees. Die volgende dag ontmoet die man Robert en vra of hy nie klavierlesse by hom kan neem nie. Hy begin speel, maar Robert stop hom vinnig en jaag om Clara in te bring sodat sy die musiek saam met hom kan hoor. Die musiek wat op die klavier gespeel word, is een van die wonderlikste wat hulle in jare gehoor het, en hulle is albei verheug om weer so 'n talentvolle jong musikant in hul huis te hê. Die jongman se naam is Johannes Brahms.

Robert, Clara en Brahms bring die hele maand Oktober saam daardie jaar deur. Hulle leer Brahms -komposisie en skryftegnieke wat hom help om 'n werklik briljante musikant te word.

Die ondersteuning en onderrig van Clara het Brahms baie liefgehad en waardeer. Presies wat tussen die twee gebeur het, sal nooit bekend wees nie, maar dit is bekend dat hul verhouding veel verder gegaan het as blote verliefdheid. Hy het 'n geloof en vertroue in haar gehad wat hy nooit by 'n ander gevind het nie. In 'n brief aan 'n vriend in Junie 1854 skryf Brahms:

"Ek moet myself dikwels met geweld inhou om net rustig my arm om haar te sit en selfs - ek weet nie, dit lyk vir my so natuurlik dat sy dit nie verkeerd kon verstaan ​​nie. Ek dink ek kan nie meer lief wees vir 'n ongetroude meisie nie - ten minste Ek het hulle heeltemal vergeet. Hulle belowe maar die hemel terwyl Clara wys dat dit aan ons geopenbaar is. "

Robert het goeie en slegte dae beleef. Maar sy senuweeagtigheid en gesondheid het steeds versleg. Teen Februarie 1854 dring Robert daarop aan dat hy na 'n kranksinnige asiel gaan, aangesien hy voel dat hy beheer oor sy verstand verloor het. Clara skryf op 26 Februarie in haar joernaal:

"Hy was so weemoedig dat ek dit onmoontlik kan beskryf. Toe ek hom net aanraak, sê hy: 'Ag Clara, ek is jou liefde nie waardig nie.' Hy het hy gesê na wie ek altyd met die grootste eerbied opgekyk het. ”

Brahms maak homself deel van die gesin. Die versorging van die kinders terwyl Clara op toer is of vir haar man sorg. Clara beskryf hom as 'n ware vriend. Brahms het Clara sy jeug, ondersteuning, hartstogtelike bewondering en die geleentheid gegee om deel te hê aan die idees en werk van 'n kreatiewe genie.

Robert slaag

Brahms doen wat hy kan om Clara te troos oor die toestand van haar man. Sy besoek Robert vir twee dae in die hospitaal in Julie 1856 en deel wyn saam. Sy vertrek een middag kortliks en keer terug dat hy op 29 Julie 1856 oorlede is. Sy skryf dat hoewel sy hartseer is, sy baie verlig voel dat sy lyding verby is. Sy skryf in haar dagboek:

'Ek het by die liggaam van my geliefde man gestaan ​​en was rustig, al my gevoelens was dat ek dankbaar was dat God uiteindelik vry is, en terwyl ek by sy bed kniel, het ek so 'n heilige gevoel. Dit was asof sy wonderlike gees sweef bo my, o - as hy my net saamgeneem het! Ek het hom vandag vir oulaas gesien - ek het 'n paar blomme op sy voorkop geplaas - hy het my liefde met hom saamgeneem! "

Die oorsaak van die siekte en dood van Robert Schumann was baie onderonsies. Daar word voorgestel dat Schumann 'n ernstige affektiewe versteuring gehad het. Onvoldoende mediese behandeling kan depressie en senuweeagtigheid veroorsaak het wat deur oorwerk vererger is. Die oorsaak van die dood was moontlik selfhonger.

Die latere jare

In Julie 1856 nooi Clara Brahms en sy suster op 'n vakansie van een maand saam met hulle na die Rynvallei en Switserland. Hier bespreek hulle hul toekoms, moontlik selfs die huwelik. Dit blyk egter duidelik dat die twee tot 'n besluit kom wat hulle moet skei.

Die twee bly lewenslange vriende. Brahms stuur vir haar manuskripte wat hy geskryf het om haar mening en advies te vra, en hou haar op hoogte van wat hy skryf en beplan. Clara sou nooit weer trou nie.

Sy diepste liefde vir haar is geopenbaar in sy laaste groot liedjies, die Vier ernste Gesange, geskryf in Mei 1896 terwyl sy in Frankfurt sterf. Die liedjies is onmiddellik na Clara se begrafnis aan 'n groep goeie vriende gespeel. 'N Afskrif is aan Clara se dogter Marie gestuur met die volgende woorde:

'Ek het dit gedurende die eerste week van Mei geskryf ... diep binne ons is daar iets wat tot ons spreek en ons dryf, byna onbewustelik, en wat soms na vore kan kom as poësie of musiek. U sal dit nie kan speel nie liedjies nou net omdat die woorde te treffend sou wees. Maar ek smeek u om dit te beskou ... as 'n ware gedenkteken vir u geliefde moeder. "

Clara sterf op 20 Mei 1896. Brahms sterf elf maande later.

Liefde bedek alle sondes.
Spreuke 10:12

Oorspronklik gepubliseer op 6 Mei 2017
Ondersoek en geskryf deur: Thomas Acreman

Bronne:
Clara Schumann deur Nancy B. Reich
Concerto deur Bertita Harding
Bladmusiek Plus

Die steeds groter wordende grootte van die bekende heelal

Vroeë Christelike argitektuur

In die hoop om enige interessante historiese verhale wat ek in die toekoms teëkom, te deel, sal ek artikels skryf en plaas wanneer ek kan. Hopelik nogal gereeld.

Ek sal u ook op hoogte hou van alle goeie lesings wat ek in die aanbevole afdeling teëkom.

Op soek na iets spesifiek? Vind dit vinniger op die soekbladsy.


BRAHMS SE LULLABY GESKIEDENIS

Ongeag ons herkoms, die kans is groot dat ons eens as babas aan die slaap geraak het. 'N Lullaby is 'n sagte, sagte liedjie wat bedoel is om 'n baba aan die slaap te maak. Lullabies word dikwels wiegliedere genoem, en dit is baie kalmerend en melodieus wat al eeue lank gesing word om babas en klein kinders te laat slaap.

Die sing van wiegeliedjies is nie spesifiek vir 'n gegewe kultuur nie, aangesien dit in feitlik elke taal wat die mens ken, gesing is. Lullabies bestaan ​​uit 'n paar eenvoudige, ritmiese verse wat gesing word of op 'n instrument gespeel word. In sommige gevalle gaan hierdie slaapliedere gepaard met 'n sagte heen en weer wiegbeweging in 'n wieg of die arms wat die baba effektief kon laat slaap. Die stadige en ongelyke tempo van die slaapliedere is soortgelyk aan die hartklop van die moeder wat die baba selfs voor geboorte voel, wat die slaapliedere 'n uitstekende manier maak om 'n baba aan te gaan en te kalmeer.

Vandag, net soos vroeër genoem, is die handeling om die wiegelied te sing so verbeter dat die lied begelei of gespeel kan word op klavier of ander instrumente. Hierdie instrumente word gebruik om die kategorie van die wiegelied wat gespeel word, te bepaal, byvoorbeeld Brahms -wiegelied instrumentaal.

Van die vroegste tye af is eenvoudige melodieë en musiek van die grootste komponiste ter wêreld gesing of neurie deur liefdevolle ouers of versorgers met die doel om die babas te troos en te kalmeer. Die sagte, sagte en melodieuse klank van die musiek gee die baba of klein kinders 'n gevoel van rustigheid en sekuriteit wat die tempo waarmee hulle aan die slaap raak, vergemaklik.

Alhoewel die melodie of deuntjie van hierdie liedjies vir die ore baie aantreklik klink, is dit soms dat dit nie so aangenaam of aangrypend is as die storie daaragter nie. Hierdie liedjies het 'n wonderlike geskiedenis en les waaroor almal behoort te leer. As ons op hierdie sterkte fokus, sal ons die res van hierdie artikel kanaliseer om die geskiedenis van Brahms se Lullaby.

GESKIEDENIS VAN BRAHMS 'LULLABY

Brahms se wiegelied was oorspronklik 'n Duitse liedjie met die titel “Wiegenlied: Guten Abend, gute Nacht”, wat, as dit vertaal word, beteken "Lullaby: Goeienaand, goeie nag".

Dit is miskien een van die bekendste en maklik herkenbare van alle wiegeliedjies wat in 1868 gepubliseer is. Dit is deur Johannes Brahms geskryf vir sy vriend Bertha Faber ter herdenking van die geboorte van haar tweede seun.

Hierdie liedjie kom meestal voor in selfone wat bo bababedjies hang, musiekbakke en word dikwels in kinderspeelgoed geïntegreer of oor 'n instrument gespeel. Brahms Lullaby -klavier word ook gebruik as 'n refrein wat gepaard gaan met 'n tekenprentkarakter wat op die kop geslaan is.

As u die volgende keer die Brahms se wiegelklavier of die instrument van die wiegeliedjie van Brahms hoor, weet u dat dit verder gaan as net 'n liedjie, maar een wat toegewy is aan die geboorte van 'n wonderlike kind.


Brahms het die musiek van sy "Wiegenlied" gedeeltelik gebaseer op "S'Is Anderscht", 'n duet van Alexander Baumann [de] wat in die 1840's gepubliseer is. [2] [3] [4] Die wieggesang is opgedra aan Brahms se vriendin, Bertha Faber, by die geboorte van haar tweede seun. [5] [6] Brahms was in haar jeug verlief op haar en het die melodie van die "Wiegenlied" ontwerp om as 'n verborge teenmelodie 'n lied voor te stel wat sy vir hom gesing het. [7] Simrock het Brahms se Op. 49 in November 1868. [6] Die wiegelied is die eerste keer in die openbaar op 22 Desember 1869 in Wene uitgevoer deur Luise Dustmann (sanger) en Clara Schumann (klavier). [6] [8]

Die lied is as bedrieglik eenvoudig beskryf. [3] In sy oorspronklike publikasie het dit slegs 'n enkele vers gehad. [6]

Lirieke wysig

Die lirieke is van Des Knaben Wunderhorn, 'n bundel Duitse volksgedigte: [7] [9]

Guten Abend, gut 'Nacht,
mit Rosen bedacht,
mit Näglein besteckt,
schlupf 'unter die Deck':
Morgen früh, wenn Gott wil,
wirst du wieder geweckt.

Goeienaand, goeie nag,
Met rose bedek,
Met naeltjies versier,
Glip onder die deksels.
Môreoggend, as God wil,
jy sal weer wakker word.

Later, [ wanneer? ] Brahms het 'n tweede vers aangepas uit 'n gedig van 1849 deur Georg Scherer [de]: [5] [6] [3]

Guten Abend, gut 'Nacht,
von Englein bewacht,
die zeigen im Traum
regie Christkindleins Baum:
sklaf nun selig en süß,
schau im Traum se Paradies.

Goeienaand, goeie nag.
Deur engele gekyk,
Wie wys jou in jou droom
die Christus-kind se boom.
Slaap nou salig en soet,
sien die paradys in u drome.

Melodie Edit

In 1877 het Brahms die tweede tema van die eerste beweging van sy Tweede Simfonie gebaseer op die liedjie van die wiegelied. [10] Die melodie word die eerste keer in maat 82 bekendgestel en ontwikkel deur die hele beweging. [ aanhaling nodig ]

Die "Wiegenlied" is een van Brahms se gewildste liedjies. [5]

Reëlings Redigeer

In 1922 het die Australiese pianis en komponis Percy Grainger die "Wiegenlied" as een van sy "Free Settings of Favorite Melodies" vir solo -klavier verwerk. Hierdie studie is gekenmerk deur baie gebruik van suspensies en arpeggiëring, met die eerste verklaring van die melodie wat in die tenoorreeks van die klawerbord geplaas is. Hierdie laaste oefening was 'n gunsteling van Grainger. [11]

Kulturele verwysings Redigeer

'N Biografiese film van Brahms uit 1936 met Albert Florath as die komponis, het sy titel gekry uit die eerste reëls van hierdie lied, Guten Abend, gute Nacht. [12]

Wendy Cope se gedig "Brahms Cradle Song" verwys na hierdie liedjie. [13]

Kulturele interpretasies Redigeer

In 'n artikel wat in 2005 gepubliseer is, ontleed Karen Bottge Brahms se "Wiegenlied" as 'n uitdrukking van die moederstem, en baseer haar besinning op geskrifte deur teoretici soos Friedrich Kittler, Michel Chion, Gilles Deleuze, Félix Guattari en Theodor W. Adorno. [3]


Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms (uitgespreek jo ː ˈhan əs ⲋ ⠚ ːms 7 Mei 1833 – 3 April 1897) was 'n Duitse komponis en pianis, en een van die voorste musikante van die Romantiese periode. Brahms, gebore in Hamburg, het 'n groot deel van sy professionele lewe deurgebring in Wene, Oostenryk, waar hy 'n leier van die toneel was. Gedurende sy leeftyd was Brahms se gewildheid en invloed aansienlik na 'n opmerking deur die dirigent Hans von B ülow uit die negentiende eeu, soms word hy saam met Johann Sebastian Bach en Ludwig van Beethoven as een van die drie B's gegroepeer.

Brahms gekomponeer vir klavier, kamerensembles, simfonieorkes, en vir stem en koor. Hy was 'n virtuose pianis en het baie van sy eie werke in première gelewer. Hy werk ook saam met 'n paar van die voorste kunstenaars van sy tyd, waaronder die pianis Clara Schumann en die violis Joseph Joachim. Baie van sy werke het die belangrikste elemente van die moderne konsertrepertoire geword. Brahms, 'n kompromislose perfeksionis, het baie van sy werke vernietig en sommige daarvan ongepubliseer gelaat.

Brahms word dikwels as 'n tradisionalis en 'n vernuwer beskou. Sy musiek is stewig gewortel in die strukture en komposisietegnieke van die barok- en klassieke meesters. Hy was 'n baas van kontrapunt, die komplekse en hoogs gedissiplineerde kuns waarvoor Johann Sebastian Bach bekend is, en ook van ontwikkeling, 'n komposisionele etos wat deur Joseph Haydn, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart en Ludwig van Beethoven begin is. Brahms het ten doel gehad om die "suiwerheid" van hierdie eerbiedwaardige "Duitse" strukture te eerbiedig en dit tot 'n romantiese idioom te bevorder, terwyl daardeur gewaagde nuwe benaderings tot harmonie, melodie en veral ritme geskep word. Terwyl baie tydgenote sy musiek te akademies gevind het, word sy bydrae en vakmanskap bewonder deur daaropvolgende figure so uiteenlopend soos Arnold Schoenberg en Edward Elgar. Die ywerige, hoogs gekonstrueerde aard van Brahms se werke was 'n beginpunt en inspirasie vir 'n generasie komponiste.

Brahms se pa, Johann Jakob Brahms (1806 �), kom van Dithmarschen na Hamburg en soek 'n loopbaan as stadsmusikant. Hy was vaardig in verskeie instrumente, maar het meestal werk op die horing en kontrabas gevind. In 1830 trou hy met Johanna Henrika Christiane Nissen (1789 �), 'n naaister wat nog nooit getroud was nie, wat sewentien jaar ouer was as hy. Johannes Brahms het 'n ouer suster en 'n jonger broer gehad. Aanvanklik het hulle ses maande lank naby die stadsdokke, in die G ängeviertel -kwartier van Hamburg, gewoon voordat hulle na 'n klein huisie aan die Dammtorwall, 'n klein stad in die binneste Alster, verhuis het. Foto uit 1891 van die gebou in Hamburg waar Brahms gebore is. Brahms se gesin het 'n deel van die eerste verdieping, agter die twee vensters aan die linkerkant, beset. Die gebou is in 1943 deur bombardemente vernietig.

Johann Jakob het sy seun sy eerste musikale opleiding gegee. Hy studeer vanaf die ouderdom van sewe klavier by Otto Friedrich Willibald Cossel. Weens die armoede van die gesin het Brahms as seuntjie in danssale en bordele gespeel, 'n paar van die mooiste plekke in Hamburg, omring deur dronk matrose en prostitute wat die seuntjie gereeld liefgehad het terwyl hy speel. Vroeë biograwe vind dit skokkend en speel hierdie deel van sy lewe af. Moderne skrywers noem dit as 'n rede vir Brahms se latere onvermoë om 'n suksesvolle huweliksverhouding te hê, ens. Onlangs het Brahms -geleerdes Styra Avins en Kurt Hoffman voorgestel dat hierdie legende onwaar is. Aangesien Brahms self die verhaal duidelik ontstaan ​​het, het sommige egter Hoffman se teorie bevraagteken.

Brahms het ook 'n tyd lank die tjello geleer. Na sy vroeë klavierlesse by Otto Cossel, studeer Brahms klavier by Eduard Marxsen, wat in Wene by Ignaz von Seyfried ('n leerling van Mozart) en Carl Maria von Bocklet ('n goeie vriend van Schubert) gestudeer het. Die jong Brahms het 'n paar openbare konserte in Hamburg gehou, maar het eers as pianis bekend geword as hy op negentienjarige ouderdom 'n konserttoer onderneem het. (Later het hy gereeld deelgeneem aan die uitvoering van sy eie werke, hetsy as solis, begeleier of as deelnemer aan kamermusiek.) Hy dirigeer kore vanaf sy vroeë tienerjare en word 'n bedrewe koor- en orkesdirigent.

Ontmoeting met Joachim en Liszt

Hy begin redelik vroeg in die lewe komponeer, maar vernietig later die meeste eksemplare van sy eerste werke, byvoorbeeld, Louise Japha, 'n medeleerling van Marxsen, berig 'n klaviersonate wat Brahms op 11-jarige ouderdom gespeel of geïmproviseer het. vernietig. Sy komposisies het eers in die openbaar groot lof gekry toe hy in April en Mei 1853 as begeleier van die Hongaarse violis Eduard Rem ényi op 'n konsertreis gegaan het. ontmoet Franz Liszt, Peter Cornelius en Joachim Raff. Volgens verskeie getuies van Brahms se ontmoeting met Liszt (waarop Liszt Brahms se Scherzo, op. 4, op sigself uitgevoer het), was Rem ényi beledig deur Brahms se gebrek aan die prys van Liszt se sonate in b mineur van harte (Brahms het vermoedelik aan die slaap geraak tydens 'n uitvoering van die onlangs gekomponeerde werk), en hulle het kort daarna geskei. Brahms het homself later verskoon en gesê dat hy dit nie kon help nie, nadat hy uitgeput was deur sy reise.

Brahms en Schumann

Joachim het Brahms 'n inleidingsbrief aan Robert Schumann gegee, en na 'n staptoer in die Rynland het Brahms die trein na D üsseldorf geneem en by die aankoms daar by die Schumann -gesin verwelkom. Schumann, verbaas oor die talent van die 20-jarige, publiseer 'n artikel getiteld & quotNeue Bahnen & quot (New Paths) in die uitgawe van 28 Oktober 1853 van die tydskrif Neue Zeitschrift f ür Musik wat die publiek op die jong man waarsku, wat volgens hom was 'bestem' om 'n ideale uitdrukking te gee aan die tye. Terwyl hy in D üsseldorf was, het Brahms saam met Schumann en Albert Dietrich deelgeneem aan die skryf van 'n sonate vir Joachim, dit staan ​​bekend as die & quotF 𠄺 𠄾 Sonata & quot (Duits: Frei aber einsam). He became very attached to Schumann's wife, the composer and pianist Clara, fourteen years his senior, with whom he would carry on a lifelong, emotionally passionate relationship. Brahms never married, despite strong feelings for several women and despite entering into an engagement, soon broken off, with Agathe von Siebold in Göttingen in 1859. After Schumann's attempted suicide and subsequent confinement in a mental sanatorium near Bonn in February 1854, Brahms was the main intercessor between Clara and her husband, and found himself virtually head of the household.

After Schumann's death, Brahms hurried to Düsseldorf and for the next two years lived in an apartment above the Schumann's house, and sacrificed his career and his art for Clara's sake. The question of Brahms and Clara Schumann is perhaps the most mysterious in music history, alongside that of Beethoven's "Immortal Beloved." Whether they were actually lovers is unknown, but their destruction of their letters to each other may point to something beyond mere privacy.

Detmold and Hamburg

After Schumann's death at the sanatorium in 1856, Brahms divided his time between Hamburg, where he formed and conducted a ladies' choir, and Detmold in the Principality of Lippe, where he was court music-teacher and conductor. He was the soloist at the premiere of his Piano Concerto No. 1 in 1859. He first visited Vienna in 1862, staying there over the winter, and, in 1863, was appointed conductor of the Vienna Singakademie. Though he resigned the position the following year, and entertained the idea of taking up conducting posts elsewhere, he based himself increasingly in Vienna and soon made his home there. From 1872 to 1875, he was director of the concerts of the Vienna Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde afterwards, he accepted no formal position. He declined an honorary doctorate of music from University of Cambridge in 1877, but accepted one from the University of Breslau in 1879, and composed the Academic Festival Overture as a gesture of appreciation.

He had been composing steadily throughout the 1850s and 60s, but his music had evoked divided critical responses, and the Piano Concerto No. 1 had been badly received in some of its early performances. His works were labelled old-fashioned by the 'New German School' whose principal figures included Liszt and Richard Wagner. Brahms admired some of Wagner's music and admired Liszt as a great pianist, but the conflict between the two schools, known as the War of the Romantics, soon embroiled all of musical Europe. In the Brahms camp were his close friends: Clara Schumann, the influential music critic Eduard Hanslick, and the leading Viennese surgeon Theodor Billroth. In 1860, Brahms attempted to organize a public protest against some of the wilder excesses of the Wagnerians' music. This took the form of a manifesto, written by Brahms and Joachim jointly. The manifesto, which was published prematurely with only three supporting signatures, was a failure, and he never engaged in public polemics again.

Years of popularity

It was the premiere of A German Requiem, his largest choral work, in Bremen, in 1868, that confirmed Brahms's European reputation and led many to accept that he had conquered Beethoven and the symphony. This may have given him the confidence finally to complete a number of works that he had wrestled with over many years, such as the cantata Rinaldo, his first string quartet, third piano quartet, and most notably his first symphony. This appeared in 1876, though it had been begun (and a version of the first movement seen by some of his friends) in the early 1860s. The other three symphonies then followed in 1877, 1883, and 1885. From 1881, he was able to try out his new orchestral works with the court orchestra of the Duke of Meiningen, whose conductor was Hans von Bülow. He was the soloist at the premiere of his Piano Concerto No. 2 in 1881, in Pest.

Brahms frequently travelled, both for business (concert tours) and pleasure. From 1878 onwards, he often visited Italy in the springtime, and he usually sought out a pleasant rural location in which to compose during the summer. He was a great walker and especially enjoyed spending time in the open air, where he felt that he could think more clearly.

In 1889, one Theo Wangemann, a representative of American inventor Thomas Edison, visited the composer in Vienna and invited him to make an experimental recording. Brahms played an abbreviated version of his first Hungarian dance on the piano. The recording was later issued on an LP of early piano performances (compiled by Gregor Benko). Although the spoken introduction to the short piece of music is quite clear, the piano playing is largely inaudible due to heavy surface noise. Nevertheless, this remains the earliest recording made by a major composer. Analysts and scholars remain divided, however, as to whether the voice that introduces the piece is that of Wangemann or of Brahms. Several attempts have been made to improve the quality of this historic recording a "denoised" version was produced at Stanford University which claims to solve the mystery.

Later years

In 1890, the 57-year-old Brahms resolved to give up composing. However, as it turned out, he was unable to abide by his decision, and in the years before his death he produced a number of acknowledged masterpieces. His admiration for Richard Mühlfeld, clarinetist with the Meiningen orchestra, moved him to compose the Clarinet Trio, Op. 114, Clarinet Quintet, Op. 115 (1891), and the two Clarinet Sonatas, Op. 120 (1894). He also wrote several cycles of piano pieces, Opp. 116�, the Four Serious Songs (Vier ernste Gesänge), Op. 121 (1896), and the Eleven Chorale Preludes for organ, Op. 122 (1896).

While completing the Op. 121 songs, Brahms developed cancer (sources differ on whether this was of the liver or pancreas). His condition gradually worsened and he died on April 3, 1897, aged 63. Brahms is buried in the Zentralfriedhof in Vienna.

Werk Lists of compositions by Brahms by genre and and by opus number

Brahms wrote a number of major works for orchestra, including two serenades, four symphonies, two piano concertos (No. 1 in D minor No. 2 in B-flat major), a Violin Concerto, a Double Concerto for violin and cello, and two companion orchestral overtures, the Academic Festival Overture en die Tragic Overture.

His large choral work A German Requiem is not a setting of the liturgical Missa pro defunctis but a setting of texts which Brahms selected from the Lutheran Bible. The work was composed in three major periods of his life. An early version of the second movement was first composed in 1854, not long after Robert Schumann's attempted suicide, and this was later used in his first piano concerto. The majority of the Requiem was composed after his mother's death in 1865. The fifth movement was added after the official premiere in 1868, and the work was published in 1869.

Brahms's works in variation form include, among others, the Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel and the Paganini Variations, both for solo piano, and the Variations on a Theme by Haydn in versions for two pianos and for orchestra. The final movement of the Fourth Symphony, Op. 98, is formally a passacaglia.

His chamber works include three string quartets, two string quintets, two string sextets, a clarinet quintet, a clarinet trio, a horn trio, a piano quintet, three piano quartets, and four piano trios (the fourth being published posthumously). He composed several instrumental sonatas with piano, including three for violin, two for cello, and two for clarinet (which were subsequently arranged for viola by the composer). His solo piano works range from his early piano sonatas and ballades to his late sets of character pieces. Brahms was a significant lieder composer, who wrote over 200 songs. His chorale preludes for organ, Op. 122, which he wrote shortly before his death, have become an important part of the organist's repertoire.

Brahms strongly preferred writing absolute music that does not refer to an explicit scene or narrative, and he never wrote an opera or a symphonic poem.

Despite his reputation as a serious composer of large, complex musical structures, some of Brahms's most widely known and most commercially successful compositions during his life were small-scale works of popular intent aimed at the thriving contemporary market for domestic music-making indeed, during the 20th century, the influential American critic B. H. Haggin, rejecting more mainstream views, argued in his various guides to recorded music that Brahms was at his best in such works and much less successful in larger forms. Among the most cherished of these lighter works by Brahms are his sets of popular dances—the Hungarian Dances, the Waltzes, Op. 39, for piano duet, and the Liebeslieder Waltzes for vocal quartet and piano𠅊nd some of his many songs, notably the Wiegenlied, Op. 49, No. 4 (published in 1868). This last was written (to a folk text) to celebrate the birth of a son to Brahms's friend Bertha Faber and is universally known as Brahms's Lullaby.

Later that year, the British composer Hubert Parry, who considered Brahms the greatest artist of the time, wrote an orchestral Elegy for Brahms. This was never played in Parry's lifetime, receiving its first performance at a memorial concert for Parry himself in 1918.


Inhoud

Brahms began composing a D minor symphony in 1854, but this work underwent radical change before much of it was finally recast as his first Piano Concerto, also in D minor. [1] The long gestation of the C minor Symphony which would eventually be his first, may be attributed to two factors. First, Brahms's self-critical fastidiousness led him to destroy many of his early works. Second, there was an expectation from Brahms's friends and the public that he would continue "Beethoven's inheritance" and produce a symphony of commensurate dignity and intellectual scope – an expectation that Brahms felt he could not fulfill easily in view of the monumental reputation of Beethoven.

It was probably 1868 when Brahms finally realized what would become the final structure of his first Symphony. In September of that year, he sent a card to his lifelong friend Clara Schumann sketching the Alphorn tune which would emerge in the symphony's Finale, along with the famous message "Thus blew the shepherd's horn today!" Despite the evidence of the work's development, the symphony would not premiere for eight more years, in 1876. [2]

Fritz Simrock, Brahms's friend and publisher, did not receive the score until after the work had been performed in three cities – and Brahms still wished trial performances in at least three more.

The manuscript to the first movement apparently does not survive, yet the remainder has been reproduced in miniature facsimile by Dover Publications. The autograph manuscript of the second, third, and fourth movements is held by the Morgan Library & Museum in New York City.

The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, contrabassoon, four horns, two trumpets, three trombones (fourth movement only), timpani and the string section.

Although Brahms commonly specified "natural" (valveless) horn tunings in his compositions (e.g., Horn in F), performances are typically delivered on modern valved French horns.

The symphony is in four movements, marked as follows:

  1. Un poco sostenuto — Allegro – Meno allegro (C minor, ending in C major) sostenuto (E major)
  2. Un poco allegretto e grazioso (A ♭ major) — Più andante — Allegro non troppo, ma con brio – Più allegro (C minor – C major)

I. Un poco sostenuto — Allegro Edit

The first movement is in sonata form with an extended introduction, featuring a drawn-out and highly elaborated variation of the movement's theme.

Introduction Edit

Unique among Brahms symphonies, the First Symphony is ushered in via a formal introduction (an 1862 score of the symphony originally started with the second, Allegro, section). After a processional "poco sostenuto" opening section featuring chaotic syncopated rhythms underpinned by pulsating timpani, the woodwinds and pizzicato strings play with thematic phrases to be fully explored in the following exposition. A short and stormy return to the original development, this time in the dominant of G and supported by rolling timpani, is finally followed by further melodic introductions played by oboe, flute and cellos before resolving in a drawn-out 9
8 transitional passage ending with a plucked G note in the cellos.

Exposition Edit

The exposition begins abruptly, echoing the introduction's plucked final note with an orchestral exclamation, followed by a short motto which leads to the main theme, which is initially played, stridently, by the violins. The overall mood is "savagely energetic" [2] and "scherzo-like" in 6
8 time. As the responsibility for the main theme shifts from the violins to the woodwinds, the strings and timpani begin to sound out a da-da-da-DUM rhythm which is strongly reminiscent of the "fate" rhythm of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. [3]

An extended transition leads to the arrival of the key of E ♭ major which in turn introduces the flowing and heart-easing second theme. This theme, which is related to the motto used to open the movement, is carried out in the wind section, led by oboe and clarinet with support from the bassoon and eventually the French horns. Strong intervention from the violas ends this peaceful passage with a descending minor key sequence which opens to a new closing theme leading up to a final bombastic passage wrapping up the exposition. The score then calls for a full repeat, which requires an abrupt return to C minor.

Development Edit

The action in the development section begins with a full step descent into B major, and instability ensues as interplay between the "fate" motif and phrases from the original theme are played off each other. A series of modulations, each seeming to lead further away from the tonic, eventually leads the path back to the recapitulation. Starting with a murky rumble in the basses, the music gathers strength with a thrilling set of arpeggios in the violins with support from the brass, which repeat the "fate" motif with great alacrity. Finally, a "shocking digression" [3] in the bass line leads to a modulation to F ♯ , setting the stage for the recapitulation.

Recapitulation and coda Edit

A somewhat nebulous start to the recapitulation is followed by a foreshortened restatement of the first theme, allowing the music to proceed in the tonic, rather than taking up the tonal progressions originally followed in the exposition. The coda begins with pizzicato strings which quickly decrescendo, leading to a set of modulations played out in the strings with their bows leading to the closing cadence. The movement ends peacefully in C major.

II. Andante sostenuto Edit

The E-major second movement is in modified ternary form (A–B–A'). Written in 3
4 time, it possesses a "profound, but essentially lyrical" character. [2]

A Section Edit

A rising, flowing theme is introduced by the strings, initially doubled by bassoon. The initial phrase is finished by a darker, falling dotted rhythm passage underpinned by low horns. A swelling second phrase follows, featuring syncopated interplay of the higher strings set against the low strings and woodwinds.

After a short transitional passage, the oboe introduces a rising, song-like theme which is initially accompanied only by the violas and the other winds. As the theme moves through a sweeping crescendo, the rest of the strings provide lush harmonic support. As before, this theme is ushered out with a somewhat darker, falling passage, which is resolved with a closing statement led by the strings.

B Section Edit

PART I. A "lilting, leaping dotted rhythm" [3] is introduced by the strings. As the theme rises, the violins and violas develop it further, before it turns downwards to be joined with the low strings. Eventually, the mood darkens into C-sharp minor leading to the section's second part.

PART II. The oboe again emerges with a long, gentle solo in C-sharp minor. It is again initially paired with delicate support from the strings. This time, however, the clarinet picks up the main theme as the mood brightens briefly. After a short while, supporting action from the woodwinds is joined by string accompaniment, but the woodwinds eventually drop out, leaving the strings to move to darker harmonic territory. Finally, the music moves into a softer, mysterious transitional session, leading to the final section.

A' Section Edit

In a quasi-recapitulation, the winds enter brightly on a theme which is closely related to the movement's opening. After a series of passages which parallel—but do not echo—the opening A section, the principal violin enters with a rendition of the first oboe theme, this time with soft accompaniment from the horns.

Coda Edit

Solo horn quotes the beginning of the movement's second "oboe" theme, which is subsequently elaborated by the principal violin in solo.

III. Un poco allegretto e grazioso Edit

Like the second movement, the third movement is in ternary form. It is composed of the 2
4 Allegretto and contrasting 6
8 trio section, followed by a reprise of the Allegretto material and coda. A notable aspect of this movement is Brahms’s careful attention to symmetry.

The form could be described as:

Allegretto Edit

The Allegretto is in the key of A ♭ major and begins with a calm, stepwise melody in the clarinet. The four-bar figure is extended to an irregular five bars through a small bridge between the phrases by the strings. The clarinet rounds off the A theme in the Allegretto with an inversion of the first five bars heard.

The B theme enters in measure 11 and features a descending dotted-eighth-note pattern in the flute, clarinet, and bassoon with the strings echoing the rhythm in rising and falling figures. After eight measures, A1 appears with the violins iterating the first theme and a longer, chromatic bridge section that extends the phrase structure to seven bars. B1 is presented with an extension into C.

The C and D themes differ from the first two in that they are shorter and more angular rhythmically. The A and B themes feature an almost constant eighth-note pizzicato in the strings, whereas C and D are more complex with an interlocking sixteenth-note pattern accompanying the winds. Movement from the major mode to F minor also marks these sections as apart from preceding material. This obvious contrast in character and mood can lend one to think of the C and D sections as a sort of trio within the first Allegretto section in the larger ternary form displayed by the movement as a whole. [4] The symmetry within one section reflects the symmetry of the whole.

A2 closes off the first major section with the clarinet stating the first theme, much as it did in the beginning, finishing with a transition to the trio.

Trio Edit

The Trio offers a change of key, as well as a change of time. The key moves to B major, an enharmonic minor third away from A ♭ . This key movement balances with the C and D sections in F minor, also a minor third away from the home key but in the opposite direction. The time signature changes from a stately 2
4 to a more pastoral and dancelike 6
8 . The flute, oboe, and bassoon introduce a joyful melody in stepwise motion as in the A theme. The strings add a downward three-note arpeggio. These two motives make up the bulk of the trio material. Restatement and development of those themes ensue until the brass and winds join together for a final repeat of the melody. The second ending brings the orchestra back into 2
4 time and to A3.

Return of the Allegretto Edit

A major difference between A3 and the earlier iterations of A is the lingering effect of the trio upon the movement. The monotone call from the opening of the trio melody appears over the clarinet melody in the flute, oboe, and bassoon. The rhythmic effect of triplets also invades the pure eighth-note world of the A theme, producing polyrhythms. Instead of the inversion of the theme we expect in the second phrase of A, the strings take over and offer an entirely different melody, but with essentially the same contour as the inversion. B2 occupies a significantly larger space of the reprise than it does in the previous Allegretto. It leads through an extended transition to the last, quiet statement of A in unison by the strings. Strings of dotted eighth notes end the movement proper with ideas from the B theme.

Coda Edit

The entry to the coda is marked poco a poco più tranquillo and the movement ends with the gentle throbbing of triplets quoted from the trio section. The final few bars end somewhat abruptly with the downward arpeggio of the strings in the trio finishing on the downbeat of a new bar.

IV. Adagio — Più andante — Allegro non troppo, ma con brio — Più allegro Edit

As with the first movement, Brahms begins the final movement with a formal introduction in C minor. The finale, noted for its "vast scope" resolves all the tensions that the first movement had raised but was (magnificently) unable to dissipate. [2] Except for the cut-time ( ) Più allegro coda, the movement is in common ( ) meter.

Introduction (Adagio — Più andante) Edit

PART I (Adagio - C minor). The extended introduction begins with a murky and ominous descending four-note sequence in the strings, which is followed by a tragically-rendered "anticipation" of the movement's joyous 'Alphorn' theme. [3] This is followed by a passage of pizzicato string notes, plucked in two-note groups passed between the high- and low-pitched instrument sections, which rises in tempo and volume until the prior tragic theme re-emerges in a short reprise. This is followed by a second passage of pizzicato strings, which is resolved in a sudden shift to a rising set of modulations in the woodwinds followed by a set of rapid arpeggios in the strings leading to the grand entrance of the Alphorn theme in C major.

PART II (Più andante - C major). The horns, including the first entry of the trombones, introduce the Alphorn theme with a "noble and grand presentation" over a "shimmering cloudscape" of strings, [3] in "one of the classic orchestral moments of the nineteenth century". [2] As the horns conclude the performance of the Alphorn tune, it is given to the flutes to recite. This leads to a mellow chorale in the brass, to be concluded with the transition to the exposition. The first three notes of the Alphorn theme create are presented in a swelling crescendo which resolves in a drawn out conclusion over pounding timpani followed by a quiet chord dying in the brass.

Exposition Edit

The main theme commences immediately in C major, a "famous, grandly striding tune" which was likened by many to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony "Freude" theme mainly because it was the "solitary one among hundreds. great enough to suggest the resemblance". [5] This was an assertion which irritated Brahms, but which he nevertheless acknowledged--"any ass can see that". The theme is introduced in the violins and violas in alto register accompanied softly by horns and underpinned by pizzicato bass. After a few bars, the strings undulate through the second phrase with support from the bassoons. The woodwinds then pick up the song, with the strings in pizzicato accompaniment with gently trilling timpani. Finally, the full orchestra is unleashed in an energetic rendition which quickly fragments into transitional struggle. A passage led by arpeggio strings accompanied by bassoon and contrabassoon follows, including a brief variation of the Alphorn tune leading directly to the second theme.

The second theme arrives as a falling four note figure related to the opening sequence and related to the Alphorn tune. The theme is introduced softly in the low strings, and elaborated upon by the violins. The second statement of the theme is joined first by the bassoons, followed by the flutes and oboes. After an energetic transitional passage in the strings, the oboe continues with an inverted variation of the theme in G major but eventually modulates back to E minor, leading to the conclusion of the exposition.

Development/Recapitulation Edit

The development section begins with a full restatement of the movement's main theme the last time it will be heard in its entirety. The development section in fact provides a full recapitulation of both of the symphony's main themes and leads directly to the movement's coda there is no separate recapitulation section in the movement.

The recapitulation of the main theme is 'richly scored', with full strings carrying the tune supported by 'punctuating chords' in the winds and gently rolling timpani. The oboe leads a transition to E-flat and a development-heavy section marked by key instability and fragmented restatements and elaborations of phrases in the melody. These are parried between the winds, led by flutes, and (softly) by the horns and bassoons with pizzicato strings providing additional momentum. An energetic restatement of the theme by the orchestra follows, but this quickly digresses into a transitional section marked by string arpeggios and the arrival of a new thematic element for further development.

A distinctive 'turning' motif, derived from the main theme, appears in the winds, traded between flute and oboe with lush string harmony accompaniment. This is followed by an energetic passage, mainly in the strings, featuring falling arpeggio figures and elements of the main theme recited in C minor/F minor. [3]

The turning motif returns in a thrilling rendition led by the horns, followed by powerful syncopated descending figures which are traded between the strings and the wind instruments. This finally leads back to a rendition of the Alphorn theme, which begins tragically in the strings, but is recovered by a soothing harmonic motion initiated in the winds and followed by a major key restatement in the horns, this time without the shimmering strings of the exposition. The music begins to lose momentum as the strings play a descending procession that sounds as if it may lead to closing material for the section.

Instead, the second theme immediately follows in a full recapitulation, which is restated with little change from its original appearance in the exposition. However, after the theme's restatement is complete, a subtle change in the final passage avoids the key modulation taken in the exposition section, which allows the section to end in C minor. A lengthy coda follows without pause, which returns to C major, restates the chorale from the introduction, and ends with a triumphant pair of plagal cadences.

The value and importance of Brahms's achievements were recognized by Vienna's most powerful critic, the staunchly conservative Eduard Hanslick. [1] The conductor Hans von Bülow was moved in 1877 to call the symphony "Beethoven's Tenth", due to perceived similarities between the work and various compositions of Beethoven. [6] It is often remarked that there is a strong resemblance between the main theme of the finale of Brahms's First Symphony and the main theme of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. Also, Brahms uses the rhythm of the "fate" motto from the opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. This rather annoyed Brahms he felt that this amounted to accusations of plagiarism, whereas he saw his use of Beethoven's idiom in this symphony as an act of conscious homage. Brahms himself said, when comment was made on the similarity with Beethoven, "any ass can see that". [7] Nevertheless, this work is still sometimes (though rarely) referred to as "Beethoven's Tenth". [8]

The symphony begins with a broad introduction wherein three key elements are heard simultaneously: the low drumming, the rising figure in the strings, and the falling figure in the winds. This introduction was constructed after the remainder of the piece had been scored. The Allegro section of the movement is a large orchestral sonata, wherein musical ideas are stated, developed, and restated with altered relationships among them.

The second and third movements are lighter in tone and tension than the first and last movements. The slow movement, Andante sostenuto, exhibits gentle lyricism through three sections, the third of which is a new treatment of the themes from the first. The long violin solo is reminiscent of some of Beethoven's later works: the late quartets and Missa Solemnis. The third, scherzo-like movement, has an easy spirit yet is full of complex rhythms and interwoven textures.

The fourth movement begins with a slow introduction, where a new melody competes with "gloomy dramatic rhetoric". [1] In the Più andante section, the horns and timpani introduce a tune that Brahms heard from an Alpine shepherd with the words, "High on the hill, deep in the dale, I send you a thousand greetings!" [1] This movement contains melodies reminiscent of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. The last section—Allegro non troppo, ma con brio—contains a grand melody in a major key, as the novel, Beethoven-like main subject of the grand finale.


Johannes Brahms is Born

Today in Masonic History Johannes Brahms is born in 1833.

Johannes Brahms was a German Composer.

Brahms was born in Hamburg, Germany on May 7th, 1833. His father played several instruments and earned a meager living. When Brahms was young his father gave him his first music lesson. By the age of 7 Brahms was taking piano lessons. Since the family was living in poverty, Brahms had to contribute to the families finances. He played in various dance halls. Anecdotal evidence has Brahms composing starting at the age of 11. Brahms was often not a fan of his own works and his works from the age of 11 were destroyed. The only reason it's known the work existed was a fellow pupil of Brahms claimed to have seen it. Along with the piano, Brahms briefly studied the Cello.

Brahms played several concerts in his teens around Hamburg, he did not become famous as a pianist until the age of 19 when he went on a tour. He also conducted choirs and became a proficient choral and orchestra conductor.

In 1853, Brahms had traveled to Hanover and then to Weimer where he met several other prominent composers of the time including Franz Liszt. On their first meeting, Liszt performed one of Brahms pieces. Brahms fell asleep during the performance, he later stated he was sorry for it and the travel had taken too much out of him.

In Weimer, Brahms had met Joseph Joachim. Joachim gave him a letter of introduction to Robert Schumann. Brahms went to Düsseldorf and there was welcomed into the Schumann family. Brahms formed a close relationship with Schumann's wife Clara. There are indications Brahms had strong feelings for Clara, and the two corresponded frequently. In fact all of the pieces Brahms wrote in the future went through Clara's hands. When Schumann passed away in 1856, Brahms distanced himself form Clara physically, although they continued to correspond.

In 1890, at the age of 57 and after composing many musical pieces, Brahms was resolved to stop composing. He was unable to abide by his own decision and continued to compose until his passing.

On April 3rd, 1897, Brahms passed away from a form of cancer (it is debated whether it was liver or pancreatic).

Brahms is listed in many books and publications as a mason. Although Brahms did compose several pieces of masonic music, there is no evidence he ever joined the fraternity. Brahms lived much of his life in Vienna and Freemasonry was illegal there during Brahms life. This information was obtained thanks to support from the German National Masonic Museum.


Hungarian Dances

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Hungarian Dances, set of 21 dances composed by Johannes Brahms. Originally intended for two pianists, the dances were published in that form in two sets in 1869 and in 1880. Some were orchestrated by Brahms himself, and others were orchestrated by his colleagues, including Antonín Dvořák.

Die Hungarian Dances capitalized upon two musical trends of the 19th century. One such trend was for dance-style pieces written for piano four-hands (a single piano played by two pianists). The other was for compositions inspired by Europe’s diverse blend of minority cultures, particularly the Roma (Gypsy) culture, which was, if not specifically Hungarian, at least strongly identified with that nation.

Both Hungarian-style music and piano four-hands music made early entrances into Brahms’s life. He discovered the excitement of Central European folk music as a youth and began writing piano duets while still in his 20s. One important influence was the Hungarian violinist Eduard Reményi, whom Brahms had heard in concert at age 17. Three years later Brahms served as Reményi’s accompanist at the piano. Brahms’s familiarity with piano four-hands music and his exposure to authentic Hungarian dances led him to try his hand at composing Hungarian-style pieces, for which he knew there would be a ready-made audience.

Most of the dances are rapid, energetic pieces. Imitating the mercurial spirit of Hungarian folk music, some of the dances change tempo midway, as in the fourth dance, where a languid, melancholy introduction gives way to exuberance. The fifth dance begins with a quick tempo, then becomes even more frenzied.


May 07, 1833 - April 03, 1897

Johannes Brahms was born in 1833 in the German city of Hamburg. His father was a musician who played several instruments. Brahms loved music, too. By the time he was six, he'd invented his own system for writing notes down on a page. Of course, he took instrument lessons, learning to play cello, horn, and piano. By the time he was ten, he was such a good pianist that he performed in public, as part of a chamber music concert. Brahms also loved books and read everything he could find including novels, poetry, and folk tales.

When Brahms was older, he toured as an accompanist, playing piano for a Hungarian violinist. That music -- and the gypsy bands Brahms heard later on when he traveled to Hungary -- inspired his Hungarian Dances, which were a hit with the public. He wrote 21 dances in all. The most famous one is the Hungarian Dance No. 5.

Many people considered Brahms to be the successor to Beethoven. For a long time, he didn't want to write a symphony, because he was afraid his work would not be as good as Beethoven's. Brahms ended up writing four symphonies, plus pieces in every musical form except opera. You may know one of his most famous pieces, the Lullaby.

In fact, Brahms became so famous, he is now known as one of the 3 B's -- Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms -- of classical music.

Hungarian Dance No. 5

Duration: 2:17
Composed in 1869 (Romantic Period)
Performed by Budapest Symphony Orchestra István Bogár, conductor


Reference Works

In addition to encyclopedia articles, such as Bozarth and Frisch and Schmidt 2000, the essential reference tools for Brahms include various handbooks, bibliographies, and catalogues, including a catalogue of Brahms’s extensive library of books and music. Much of his correspondence has been published, and numerous biographies drawing upon primary sources are available.

Bozarth, George S., and Walter Frisch, “Brahms, Johannes.” In Grove Music Online.

A dictionary article discussing the salient features of Brahms’s life and music (by genre), accompanied by an extensive bibliography and list of works with dates composed, published, and first performed.

Schmidt, Christian Martin. “Johannes Brahms.” In Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. Vol. 3. Edited by Ludwig Finscher, 626–715. Kassel, Germany: Bärenreiter, 2000.

After surveying the salient features of Brahms’s life, Schmidt considers eight aspects of his music: motivic integration and form variations the influence of early music his work in lyrical forms (character pieces and songs) the choral and orchestral works of large dimension Hausmusik and other social choral and instrumental music folksong and posthumous views of his music. Accompanied by an extensive bibliography and list of works with dates composed and published.

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