Slag van Granson, 2 Maart 1476

Slag van Granson, 2 Maart 1476

Slag van Granson, 2 Maart 1476

Switserse oorwinning oor die invallende magte van Karel die Uitslag, hertog van Bourgondië. Charles het 'n multinasionale leër versamel, met komponente uit Bourgondië self, Duitsland, Italië, Vlaandere en Engeland. Die Switsers het Charles die taktiese voordeel op die dag gegee, maar tog die stryd gewen. Die Switserse voorhoede het die hoofleër ver vooruit gekom en Charles alleen teëgekom. Nadat twee kavallerie -aanvalle daarop misluk het, het Charles sy infanterie beveel om die Switser te oorkom, terwyl die kleinseun van die lyn terugval, terwyl die vlerke die Switsers van die kant af getref het. Op hierdie stadium verskyn die grootste deel van die Switserse leër. Die Bourgondiese vleuels het die terugtrek van die Bourgondiese sentrum en die aankoms van die Switserse heroptrede gesien, en onmiddellik van die slagveld gevlug, voordat die nuwe Switserse troepe selfs die geveg bereik het. Charles het sy artillerie en die inhoud van sy kamp aan die Switsers verloor, maar as gevolg van die vinnige aard van die ineenstorting van sy leër, is daar min slagoffers gely.

Tydlyn vir militêre geskiedenis van 1401 tot 1600

Die militêre geskiedenis van die 1400's en 1500's was vol gevegte in die Honderdjarige Oorlog tussen Frankryk en Engeland en word gekenmerk deur die lewe en dood van Joan of Arc. In hierdie deel van die geskiedenis was die val van die Bisantynse Ryk, die uiteinde van die Engelse Roses Wars, die Tagtigjarige Oorlog, die Dertigjarige Oorlog en die Negejarige Oorlog onder vele ander bloedige konflikte.


Vandag in die geskiedenis - 2 Maart

537 - Belegging van Rome: Die leër van Ostrogote onder koning Vitiges begin die beleg van die hoofstad. Belisarius voer 'n vertragingsaksie buite die Flaminian -poort uit en hy en 'n deel van sy Bucellarii is amper afgesny.

986 - Louis V word koning van die Franke.

1121 - Dirk VI word die graaf van Holland.

1127 - Moord op Karel die Goeie, graaf van Vlaandere.

1444 - Skanderbeg organiseer 'n groep Albanese edeles om die League of Lezhë te vorm.

1458 - George van Poděbrady word gekies as die koning van Bohemen.

1476 - Boergondiese oorloë: Die Ou Switserse konfederasie oorhandig Karel die Stoute, Hertog van Bourgondië, 'n groot nederlaag in die Slag van Kleinseun in kanton Neuchâtel.

1484 - The College of Arms word formeel opgeneem by Royal Charter onderteken deur koning Richard III van Engeland.

1498 - Vasco da Gama se vloot besoek die eiland Mosambiek.

1561 - Mendoza, Argentinië word gestig deur die Spaanse veroweraar Pedro del Castillo.

1657 - Groot brand van Meireki: 'n Brand in Edo (nou Tokio), Japan, het meer as 100,000 sterftes veroorsaak wat drie dae geduur het

1717 - The Loves of Mars and Venus is die eerste ballet wat in Engeland opgevoer word.

1776 - Amerikaanse rewolusieoorlog: Patriot -milisie -eenhede arresteer die koninklike goewerneur van Georgia James Wright en probeer om die vang van voorraadskepe in die Battle of the Rice Boats te voorkom.

1791-Kommunikasie oor lang afstande versnel met die onthulling van 'n semafoormasjien in Parys.

1797-The Bank of England reik die eerste bankbiljette van een pond en twee pond uit.

1807 - Die Amerikaanse kongres aanvaar die wet wat die invoer van slawe verbied, wat die invoer van nuwe slawe in die land verbied.

1808 - Die inhuldigingsvergadering van die Wernerian Natural History Society, 'n voormalige Skotse geleerde samelewing, word in Edinburgh gehou.

1811 - Argentynse onafhanklikheidsoorlog: 'n Royalistiese vloot verslaan 'n klein vloot van revolusionêre skepe in die Slag van San Nicolás op die rivierplaat.

1815 - Ondertekening van die Kandyan -konvensieverdrag deur Britse indringers en die leiers van die Koninkryk Kandy.

1825 - Roberto Cofresí, een van die laaste suksesvolle Karibiese seerowers, word in 'n geveg verslaan en deur owerhede gevange geneem.

1836 - Texas Revolusie: Onafhanklikheidsverklaring van die Republiek Texas van Mexiko.

1855 - Alexander II word tsaar van Rusland.

1865 - Oos -Kaapse oorlog: Die Völkner -voorval in Nieu -Seeland.

1867 - Die Amerikaanse kongres aanvaar die eerste heropbouwet.

1877 - Amerikaanse presidentsverkiesing, 1876: Slegs twee dae voor die inhuldiging verklaar die Amerikaanse kongres Rutherford B. Hayes as die wenner van die verkiesing, alhoewel Samuel J. Tilden op 7 November 1876 die algemene stem gewen het.

1882 - Koningin Victoria ontsnap nouliks aan 'n sluipmoordpoging deur Roderick McLean in Windsor.

1885-Sino-Franse oorlog: Franse oorwinning in die Slag van Hòa Mộc naby Tuyên Quang, Noord-Viëtnam.

1901 - United States Steel Corporation word gestig as gevolg van 'n samesmelting tussen Carnegie Steel Company en Federal Steel Company, wat die eerste korporasie ter wêreld geword het met 'n markkapitaal van meer as $ 1 miljard.

1901 - Die Amerikaanse kongres aanvaar die Platt -wysiging wat die outonomie van Kuba beperk, as voorwaarde vir die onttrekking van Amerikaanse troepe.

1903 - In New York word die Martha Washington Hotel geopen en word dit die eerste hotel uitsluitlik vir vroue.

1917 - Die inwerkingtreding van die Jones – Shafroth Act verleen Puerto Ricans burgerskap van die Verenigde State.

1919 - Die eerste kommunistiese internasionale byeenkoms in Moskou.

1933 - Die film King Kong word in die Radio City Music Hall in New York geopen.

1937 - Die organisasiekomitee vir staalwerkers onderteken 'n kollektiewe bedingingsooreenkoms met U.S. Steel, wat lei tot vakbondlegging van die Amerikaanse staalbedryf.

1939 - Kardinaal Eugenio Pacelli word tot pous verkies en neem die naam Pius XII.

1941 - Tweede Wêreldoorlog: Eerste Duitse militêre eenhede betree Bulgarye nadat dit by die as -verdrag aangesluit het.

1943 - Tweede Wêreldoorlog: Slag om die Bismarcksee: Amerikaanse en Australiese magte sink Japannese konvooi skepe.

1949-Kaptein James Gallagher land sy B-50 Superfortress Lucky Lady II in Fort Worth, Texas, nadat hy die eerste vlugvliegtuig regoor die wêreld in 94 uur en een minuut voltooi het.

1949 - Die eerste outomatiese straatlig word in New Milford, Connecticut, geïnstalleer.

1955 - Norodom Sihanouk, koning van Kambodja, abdikeer die troon ten gunste van sy vader, Norodom Suramarit.

1956 - Marokko word onafhanklik van Frankryk.

1962 - In Birma neem die leër onder leiding van generaal Ne Win die mag oor tydens 'n staatsgreep.

1962-Wilt Chamberlain stel die rekord in enkelwedstryde in die National Basketball Association deur 100 punte te behaal.

1965 - Die Amerikaanse en Suid -Viëtnamese lugmag begin met Operasie Rolling Thunder, 'n volgehoue ​​bombardement teen Noord -Viëtnam.

1969-In Toulouse, Frankryk, word die eerste toetsvlug van die Anglo-Franse Concorde uitgevoer.

1969 - Sowjet- en Chinese magte bots by 'n grenspos aan die Ussuri -rivier.

1970 - Rhodesië verklaar homself as 'n republiek en verbreek sy laaste bande met die Britse kroon.

1972 - Die Pioneer 10 -ruimtesonde word vanaf Cape Canaveral, Florida gelanseer met die doel om die buitenste planete te verken.

1977 - Libië word die Libiese Arabiese Jamahiriya van die Sosialistiese Volk terwyl die Algemene Volkskongres die "Verklaring van die oprigting van die volksowerheid" aanvaar.

1978-Tsjeggies Vladimír Remek word die eerste nie-Russiese of nie-Amerikaner wat die ruimte in gaan, toe hy aan boord van Soyuz 28 gelanseer word.

1983 - Kompakte skywe en spelers word vir die eerste keer in die Verenigde State en ander markte vrygestel. Hulle was voorheen slegs in Japan beskikbaar.

1989 - Twaalf lande van die Europese Gemeenskap stem saam om die vervaardiging van alle chloorfluorkoolwaterstowwe (CFK's) teen die einde van die eeu te verbied.

1990 - Nelson Mandela word verkies tot adjunkpresident van die African National Congress.

1991 - Slag by Rumaila -olieveld maak 'n einde aan die Golfoorlog van 1991.

1992 - Armenië, Azerbeidjan, Kazakstan, Kirgistan, Moldawië, San Marino, Tadzjikistan, Turkmenistan en Oesbekistan sluit by die Verenigde Nasies aan.

1995 - Navorsers by Fermilab maak die ontdekking van die topkwark bekend.

1998 - Data wat van die Galileo -ruimtetuig gestuur is, dui aan dat Jupiter se maan Europa 'n vloeibare oseaan onder 'n dik yskors het.

2002-Amerikaanse inval in Afghanistan: Operasie Anaconda begin (eindig op 19 Maart nadat 500 Taliban- en al-Qaeda-vegters doodgemaak is, met 11 sterftes in die westelike troepe).

2004-Oorlog in Irak: Al-Qaeda voer die Ashoura-bloedbad in Irak uit, en 170 mense word dood en meer as 500 gewond.

2012-'n Tornado-uitbraak het plaasgevind oor 'n groot deel van die suide van die Verenigde State en in die Ohio Valley-streek, wat tot 40 tornado-verwante sterftes gelei het.


Die oorlog van die rose begin

In die openingsgeveg van Engeland ’s War of the Roses verslaan die Yorkiste koning Henry VI se Lancastriese magte in St. Albans, 20 myl noordwes van Londen. Baie adellikes uit Lancastrië het omgekom, waaronder Edmund Beaufort, die hertog van Somerset, en die koning was gedwing om hom aan die heerskappy van sy neef, Richard van York, te onderwerp. Die dinastiese stryd tussen die House of York, wie se kenteken 'n wit roos was, en die House of Lancaster, later geassosieer met 'n rooi roos, sou 30 jaar lank strek.

Beide gesinne, naverwant, het die troon geëis deur afstammelinge van die seuns van Edward III, die koning van Engeland van 1327 tot 1377. Die eerste Lancastriaanse koning was Henry IV in 1399, en rebellie en wetteloosheid het hoogty gevier tydens sy bewind. Sy seun, Henry V, was meer suksesvol en het groot oorwinnings in die Honderdjarige Oorlog teen Frankryk behaal. Sy seun en opvolger, Henry VI, het min koninklike eienskappe gehad en verloor die grootste deel van die Franse grond wat sy vader verower het. Tuis het chaos geheers en here met private leërs het Henry VI se gesag uitgedaag. Soms het sy ambisieuse koningin, Margaret van Anjou, die kroon effektief beheer.

In 1453 verval Henry in waansin en in 1454 stel die parlement Richard, hertog van York, aan as beskermer van die koninkryk. Henry en York se oupas was onderskeidelik die vierde en derde seuns van Edward III. Toe Henry aan die einde van 1454 herstel, ontslaan hy York en herstel die gesag van Margaret, wat York as 'n bedreiging vir die opvolging van hul seun, prins Edward, beskou het. York het 'n leër van 3000 man opgerig, en in Mei het die Yorkiste na Londen getrek. Op 22 Mei 1455 ontmoet York Henry se magte in St. Albans terwyl hy op die noordelike pad na die hoofstad was. Die bloedige ontmoeting het minder as 'n uur geduur, en die Yorkiste het die dag gedra. Die hertog van Somerset, die groot bondgenoot van Margaret, is vermoor en Henry is deur die Yorkiste gevange geneem.

Na die geveg is Richard weer 'n Engelse beskermer, maar in 1456 het Margaret die oorhand gekry. 'N Onrustige vrede word in 1459 verbreek, en in 1460 word die Lancastrians verslaan, en York kry die reg om op die troon te klim na Henry se dood. Die Lancastrians versamel daarna magte in Noord -Engeland en verras en vermoor York in Desember 1460 buite sy kasteel naby Wakefield.

Die seun van York, Edward, het Londen voor Margaret bereik en is tot koning Edward IV uitgeroep. In Maart 1461 behaal Edward 'n beslissende oorwinning teen die Lancastrians in die Slag van Towton, die bloedigste van die oorlog. Henry, Margaret en hul seun het na Skotland gevlug, en die eerste fase van die oorlog was verby.

Yorkistiese wedywering sou later lei tot die omverwerping van Edward in 1470 en die herstel van Henry VI. Die volgende jaar keer Edward terug uit ballingskap in Nederland, verslaan Margaret se magte, vermoor haar seun en sit Henry in die Tower of London, waar hy vermoor word. Edward IV regeer daarna ononderbroke tot sy dood in 1483. Sy oudste seun word tot Edward V uitgeroep, maar Edward IV se broer, Richard III, het die kroon gegryp en Edward en sy jonger broer in die Tower of London opgesluit, waar hulle verdwyn het, waarskynlik vermoor. In 1485 is Richard III verslaan en vermoor deur Lancastrians onder leiding van Henry Tudor tydens die Slag van Bosworth Field.

Henry Tudor is uitgeroep tot koning Henry VII, die eerste Tudor -koning. Henry was die kleinseun van Catherine van Valois, die weduwee van Henry V, en Owen Tudor. In 1486 trou hy met Edward IV se dogter Elizabeth van York en verenig daardeur die Yorkistiese en Lancastriese aansprake. Hierdie gebeurtenis word beskou as die einde van die War of Roses, hoewel sommige Yorkiste in 1487 'n onsuksesvolle opstand teen Henry ondersteun het, onder leiding van Lambert Simnel. Die War of Roses het die gewone Engelse volk weinig merk gelaat, maar het die geledere van die Engelse adel ernstig uitgedun.


Administratiewe hervormings

Intussen het Charles sy leër en die administrasie van sy gebiede herorganiseer. Statute wat op Thionville afgekondig is (1473) het kompanie van vier eskaders op sy koste ingestel en reëls vir dissipline en taktiek opgestel. Charles het ook baie uitstekende gewere laat gooi. Hy het soldate gehuur en baie Italiaanse condottieri (huursoldate) in diens geneem. Met die bedoeling om die regering te sentraliseer, het hy 'n enkele by die statuut geskep chambre des comptes om die hertoglike finansies vir Nederland te beheer, a chambre du trésor om die administrasie van sy eie domein te ondersoek, en a chambre des généraux om die invordering van belasting te beheer. Hy het inderdaad baie swaar belasting geëis van die State -generaal (parlement), wat 'n gereelde instelling in sy gebied geword het. Om geregtigheid te beoefen, het hy 'n hof genaamd die groot raad te Mechelen, met jurisdiksie om die van die parlement van Parys, en nog een wat afwisselend by Beaune en Dole ontmoet het.

Charles het 'n koninklike titel verwerf. Vir 'n kort tydjie het hy ontwerpe op die kroon van die Heilige Romeinse Ryk vermaak, maar dit het hy verloën. Aan die ander kant het hy geglo dat hy die keiser Frederick III tydens gesprekke in Trier oorreed het om in te stem om hom as koning van Bourgondië te kroon. Die koninklike tekens was gereed en die seremonie het gereël toe Frederick snags vlug (September 1473). Hy was waarskynlik agterdogtig oor die ambisieuse Charles.

In minder as drie jaar het Charles se droom verdwyn. Die kroon gly deur sy vingers. Hy was verplig om sy plan om die klein dorpie Neuss, wat hy vir 11 maande (Julie 1474 tot Junie 1475) sonder sukses beleër het, van die burgers van Keulen op te neem. Boonop het die Verdrag van Picquigny (29 Augustus 1475), wat deur Edward IV en Lodewyk XI gesluit is, die afwyking van sy Engelse bondgenoot verseker. Aanval deur René van Lorraine, wat 'n ooreenkoms met Louis XI onderteken het (Augustus 1474), en deur 'n koalisie van die Switsers, Sigismund van Oostenryk en die dorpe aan die Bo -Ryn, neem Charles Nancy in November 1475, maar in Maart en Junie 1476 word hy deur die Switsers verslaan, by Granson en by Morat. In Oktober verloor hy Nancy. Toe, op 5 Januarie 1477, is 'n verdere geveg buite Nancy gevoer, en Charles self is doodgemaak, sy verminkte liggaam is 'n paar dae later ontdek.

Die broosheid van sy prestasie word bewys deur die ernstige uitdagings tydens die minderheid van Maria van Boergondië, sy dogter deur Isabella van Bourbon. Tog was Karel die Stoute nie net 'n laat verteenwoordiger van die ridderlike gees nie; hy was 'n man met wye kennis en kultuur, reeds 'n prins van die Renaissance. Sy haas, sy gebrek aan aanpasbaarheid en sy hardnekkigheid verloor hom baie meer as sy visioenêre benadering en sy vrymoedigheid.


Koning Macbeth word deur Malcolm Canmore vermoor

In die Slag van Lumphanan word koning Macbeth van Skotland vermoor deur Malcolm Canmore, wie se pa, koning Duncan I, 17 jaar tevore deur Macbeth vermoor is.

Macbeth was 'n kleinseun van koning Kenneth II en het ook aanspraak op die troon gemaak deur sy vrou, Gruoch, wat die kleindogter was van Kenneth III, die Skotse koning wat deur Duncan se voorganger koning Malcolm II omvergewerp is. Onder koning Duncan was Macbeth goewerneur van die Skotse provinsie Moray en 'n betroubare militêre bevelvoerder. Hy het egter gekant teen Duncan se bande met die Sakse in die Suide, en hy het in opstand gekom. Op 14 Augustus 1040 vermoor Macbeth Duncan in 'n geveg naby Elgin, en hy word in sy plek as koning van Skotland gekroon.

In 1054, na 14 jaar van heerskappy, het koning Macbeth 'n groot militêre nederlaag gely tydens die Slag van Dunsinane teen Siward, die graaf van Northumbria. Siward tree op namens Malcolm Canmore, Duncan se seun. Malcolm verkry toe beheer oor die suidelike deel van Skotland en spandeer die volgende drie jaar agter Macbeth aan, wat na die noorde gevlug het. Op 15 Augustus 1057 is Macbeth verslaan en vermoor deur Malcolm in die Slag van Lumphanan met die hulp van die Engelse. Malcolm Canmore is in 1058 as Malcolm III gekroon.


Bewering van mag

By die toetreding van Johannes II het hierdie vredesverdrag hom verplig om sy jong kinders onder Spaanse voogdyskap naby die grens te plaas as 'n pand van hul huwelik met Castiliërs. Afonso is beperk deur die ambisieuse huis Bragança, die rykste gesin in Portugal. John ontbied die Cortes (vergadering) by Évora (November 1481) en lê 'n drastiese eed van gehoorsaamheid aan sy vasale af. Hy het ook die beneplacet, vereis dat pouslike briewe voor publikasie aan hom voorgelê moet word. Hy het met sukses 'n hersiening van die verdrag met Spanje beding, waardeur sy kinders aan hom herstel is. Daarna beskuldig hy die hertog van Bragança van verraad en laat hom by Évora laat onthoof (1483 Junie). Alhoewel daar bewyse gelewer is dat die Braganças met Castilië geïnteresseerd was, blyk dit duidelik dat John wraak geneem het omdat hy die dood van sy oupa aan moederskant, die regent Dom Pedro, veroorsaak het. Hy het beslag gelê op die uitgestrekte boedels van die Braganças en koninklike regters aangestel in die privaat jurisdiksies van die adel. Toe 'n tweede sameswering hom wou verwyder en die kroon skenk aan die broer van sy vrou, die hertog van Viseu, vermoor John sy mededinger met sy eie hand (Augustus 1484).


Renaissance of the Clan Maclean 20 th Century & mdash Present

In 1911 het sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean van Duart, Bt, 26ste hoof, met trots uitgeroep: Ek is bly om te sê dat die ou vesting van die Macleans nou my eiendom is aan die 400 Macleans wat by hom aangesluit het om die herwinning van Duart Castle te vier. Dit is 221 jaar sedert die Maclean -vaandel oor hierdie ou kasteel was. en ek weet baie goed dat die eer van die vlag en die eer van ons stam ooit veilig in u hande sal wees. Sir Fitzroy was 'n veteraan van die Krimoorlog, vriend van koning Edward VII, en 'n goeie kennis van beide koningin Victoria en Jefferson Davis, The Clan Maclean het sy leierskap as sy hoof baie te danke. Sir Fitzroy was 101, en op sy laaste geboortedag het die twis met die Campbells tot 'n einde gekom.

Alhoewel die Chiefs in die 17de eeu gesukkel het om die politieke landskap te beleef, het hulle teen die 18de eeu hul politieke ambagte onder die knie gekry terwyl hulle die trotse militêre tradisie van ons voorouers behou het. Onlangse Maclean Chiefs en Chieftains het die beliggaming van die moderne stryders van die stryd geword. Sir Fitzroy Hew Royle Maclean, van Dunconnel, Bt, wat deur premier Winston Churchill gestuur is om Tito by te staan, was die inspirasie vir vriend Ian Flemming en rsquos, James Bond. Sir Fitzroy het later 'n diplomaat en parlementslid geword. Lord Charles Maclean van Duart en Morvern, Bt, KT, GCVO, KBE, PC, Baron Maclean, 27ste Chief, het die Scouting -beweging gemoderniseer voordat hy gekies is om as hoof van koningin Elizabeth II en rsquos -huishouding as Lord Chamberlain te dien. Lord Maclean was waarskynlik die invloedrykste Skotse hoof van die moderne era. Sir Lachlan Maclean van Duart en Morvern, Bt, CVL, DL, 28ste hoof, het in die Special Air Service (SAS), 'n elite -spesiale magte -eenheid van die Britse leër, gedien voor 'n suksesvolle loopbaan in die sakewêreld. Sir Lachlan werk nou om die geskiedenis van die Clan Maclean & rsquos vir toekomstige geslagte te bewaar.

Sedert die herstel van Duart Castle, het Macleans wêreldwyd een van die aktiefste en mees betrokke moderne Skotse stamme geword. Die Clan Maclean vandag is werklik 'n wêreldwye gesin.

Verwysings

  1. 1. MacLean, J. P. 'N Geskiedenis van die Clan MacLean vanaf die eerste vestiging in Duard Castle, op die eiland Mull, tot die huidige tydperk. Cincinnati: R. Clarke, 1889. 1p22-34, 1bp160, 1cp243. Druk.
  2. 2. Sinclair, Alexander Maclean. Die Clan Gillean. Charlottetown: Haszard en Moore, 1899. 2p29-42, 2bp50.
  3. 3. Kennedy, Matthew. 'N Chronologiese, genealogiese en historiese proefskrif van die koninklike familie van die Stuarts. Parys: Gedruk deur L. Coignard, 1705. Druk.
  4. 4. N.p. MS 72.1.1. National Library of Scotland. c.1400.
  5. 5. O'Clery, Peregrine. O'Clery Book of Genealogies. 1632. MS 23 D 17, P33, kol A38 B. Royal Irish Academy, n.p.
  6. 6. Maclean-Bristol, Nicholas. Warriors and Priesters: The History of the Clan Maclean, 1300-1570. East Linton, East Lothian, Skotland: Tuckwell, 1995. p2-12, 6bp162. Druk.
  7. 7. Broun, Dauvit, & ldquoAedán mac Gabráin & rdquo in Michael Lynch (red.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2001. 7p40-42, 7bp161-162. Druk.
  8. 8. Magnússon, Magnús. Skotland: Die verhaal van 'n nasie. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2000. p38-40. Druk.
  9. 9. Campbell, Donald. 'N Verhandeling oor die taal, poësie en musiek van die Highland -stamme. Edinburgh: D.R. Collie, 1862. p211. Druk.
  10. 10. McGregor, James, Thomas Maclauchlan en W. F. Skene. The Dean of Lismore & rsquos Book A Selection of Ancient Gaelic Poetry. Edinburgh: Edmonston & Douglas, 1862. p39. Druk.
  11. 11. Bannerman, John. Studies in die geskiedenis van Dálriada. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic, 1974. p 68. Druk.
  12. 12. Anderson, Alan Orr, red. Vroeë bronne van Skotse geskiedenis: a.d. 500 tot 1286. 1922. p61-62.
  13. 13. White, Robert. 'N Geskiedenis van die Slag van Bannockburn wat 1314 n.C. gevoer is. Edinburgh Edmonston en Douglas, 1871. p160. Druk.
  14. 14. & ldquoPersoonblad - 5095. & rdquo Ons voorouers en neefs (meer as 157,000 name). N.p., n.d. Web. 17 April 2014.
  15. 15. Robertson, James A. Beknopte historiese bewyse met betrekking tot die Gael van Alban. Edinburgh: W.P. Nimmo, 1866. Druk.
  16. 16. 'Regesta 256: 1366-1367', Kalender van pouslike registers met betrekking tot Groot-Brittanje en Ierland, Deel 4: 1362-1404. 1902, pp. 59-66. URL: http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=96373 Toegang tot datum: 21 April 2014
  17. 17. Wit, Alasdair. & ldquoOne Clan, Two Families. & rdquo Clan MacLean. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 April 2014.
  18. 18. Thomson, A.T. Herinneringe van die Jakobiete van 1715 en 1745 Deel 2. S & amp J Bently, Wilson en Fley, 1845. Druk, 124-254.
  19. 19. Hoey, Brian. MacLean of Duart: The Biography of 'Chips' Maclean. Twickenham: Country Life, 1986. Druk, 168-169.

Artikel deur Kane McLean, 04 Februarie, 2016 vrygestel onder die Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0) Unported License.


Anne Neville was die grootste deel van haar man se bewind koningin van Engeland, maar sterf in Maart 1485, vyf maande voor Richard III se dood.

'N Loodglasvenster wat Richard III en koningin Anne op Cardiff Castle uitbeeld. Krediet: VeteranMP / Commons.


Epiese wêreldgeskiedenis

Ferdinand is gebore te Sos, Aragon, op 19 Maart 1452 as die seun van Johannes II van Aragon en Navarra (1397 �) en Juana Enriquez, sy tweede vrou. As erfgenaam van die troon van Aragon het Ferdinand koning geword van Sicilië in 1468. Hy was vaardig, genadeloos, ambisieus, selfgesentreerd en polities in al sy pogings. Ferdinand was dikwels bedrieglik in sy ooreenkomste en verwerp verdragte en ander ooreenkomste kort nadat dit onderteken is.

Ferdinand trou met sy ewe ambisieuse, vrome, maar wyser neef Isabella van Castilië en León. Sy is op 22 April 1451 gebore in Madrigal de las Torres in Castilië, die dogter van die swaksinnige koning John II van Castilië en León (1405 󈞢) en Isabelle van Portugal, sy sterk gemoedelike tweede vrou.


Isabella het 'n meer etiese karakter as Ferdinand. Sy erf 'n uitgebreide koninklike afstamming van verskeie generasies Europese dinastieë. Die egpaar het besonder noue bande met die pousdom gehad.

Isabella se onbeskaamde halfbroer Henry IV (1425 󈞶), ook bekend as die Impotent, het die troon bestyg nadat hul pa in 1454 gesterf het. Saam met haar jonger broer, Alfonso, is Isabella na Henry se hof gebring vir beskerming en strenger toesig. Isabella het 'n pion geword in haar broer se planne om haar toekomstige huwelik ekonomies voordelig en polities voordelig vir Castilië te maak.

Hy wou hê dat sy onder meer sou trou met die koning van Portugal, die Franse dauphin, of 'n Engelse prins, wat sy ten sterkste geweier het. Na die dood van Alfonso in 1468, verklaar Henry die verstandige en saggeaarde Isabella sy erfgenaam op 19 September 1468, toe hulle albei hul handtekeninge op die Accord of Toros de Guisiando aangebring het.

Isabella trou op 19 Oktober 1469 in die geheim met haar neef Ferdinand in Ocaña, sonder toestemming van Henry. Hy het haar ontken, onmiddellik die ooreenkoms van Toros de Guisiando herroep en sy vermeende dogter prinses Juana la Beltraneja (1462 �) prinses van Kastilië genoem en teen 1475 die vrou van koning Afonso V van Portugal (1432 󈞽) as sy erfgenaam . Juana was die buite -egtelike dogter van Henry se vrou en Beltrán de la Cueva.

Nadat Henry op 10 Desember 1474 gesterf het, het Isabella op 13 Desember in Segovia die troon bestyg. Haar aanspraak is onmiddellik deur Juana en Afonso betwis, die stryd het 'n burgeroorlog geword. Isabella het sterk steun van Aragon en haar landgenote gehad.

Mohammed XII (Boabdil) gee hom oor aan Ferdinand en Isabella

Ferdinand het Juana se magte verslaan tydens die Slag van Toro op 1 Maart 1476 en weer op 25 Februarie 1479. Die Verdrag van Alcaçova op September 1479 het die burgeroorlog beëindig. Juana betree die klooster Santa Clara van Coimtra in 1480.

Om 'n stewiger beheer oor Spanje te versterk sodra hulle die konings geword het, het Ferdinand en Isabella al die weerstandsgroepe onderwerp, die ondergeskikte dorpe en vestings ingeneem en alle rebellies teen hul heerskappy oorwin.

Daarna het hulle voortgegaan met die rekonstruksie van die Cortes (parlement), die regering se administrasie opgeknap en 'n wetlike raamwerk vir Spanje opgestel wat die monargie groter mag verleen ten koste van die adel, wat gevaarlik magtiger geword het onder vorige monarge.


Toe die vader van Ferdinand in 1479 sterf, het die vakbond van Ferdinand en Isabella die twee grootste koninkryke van die Iberiese Skiereiland saamgesmelt en 90 persent van die huidige Spanje geskep. Die skerpsinnige Isabella het daarop aangedring dat daar gesamentlike heerskappy is en dat sy self Castile bestuur.

Die gesegde “Tanto monta, monta tanto ” (Hulle is een en dieselfde), het hul leuse geword. Isabella het ook daarop aangedring dat albei hul name op elke koninklike dokument geplaas moet word en dat sy by elke staatstransaksie moet voorsit. Sy het ook toegelaat dat hul wapen verenig word.

Sy versamel belangrike kunswerke, is wyd gelees, leer Latyn na die ouderdom van 30, stig skole, en ondersteun die Franciskaanse orde van die Poor Clares. Saam hervorm hulle die kerk en die kloosters in Spanje, aangesien albei korrup en ondoeltreffend geword het.

Die egpaar het vyf kinders gehad: Isabella van Aragon (1470 󈟎), Juan van Aragon (1478 󈟍), Juana van Kastilië (1479 �), Maria van Aragon (1482 �) en Catherine van Aragon (1485 �) ), aan wie Isabella toegewy was. Hulle het almal dieselfde klassieke opvoeding ontvang en die basiese beginsels van huishoudelike pligte soos naaldwerk, beddens opmaak en skoonmaak geleer.

Die kinders is in die Europese koninklike dinastieë getroud, hoofsaaklik om die Franse territoriale ambisies te oortref. Juan trou met Margaret van Oostenryk, maar sterf binne ses maande en laat geen kinders agter nie. Juana het kranksinnig geword na die dood van haar man, Habsburgse aartshertog Philip the Handsome (1478 �). Isabella trou met koning Afonso V van Portugal (1432 󈞽) en daarna met koning Manuel I van Portugal (1469 �).

Sy sterf tydens die bevalling, en haar seun Miguel sterf binne twee jaar. Maria trou met haar swaer Manuel I van Portugal na haar suster se dood. Aan die einde van minstens 13 jaar se onderhandelinge trou Catherine op 14 November 1501 met Arthur Tudor, prins van Wallis (1486 �). Arthur is ses maande later oorlede.

Na die dood van Arthur, omdat haar pa nog nie die betaling van haar bruidskat voltooi het nie, sou Catherine op 11 Junie 1509 met die toekomstige koning Henry VIII (1491 �) trou. Hy skei haar op 30 Maart 1533. Ferdinand en Isabella &# 8217s se kleinseun deur Juana en Philip het hul en Philip se ouers se groot territoriale erfenis geërf, hy sou die Heilige Romeinse keiser Karel V word (1519 󈞤).

Ferdinand en Isabella was van mening dat godsdienstige ooreenstemming van kardinale belang vir Spanje was. Hulle het ook die politieke en ekonomiese voordele vir hul monargie besef en het die Spaanse Inkwisisie ywerig aangewakker, wat siele redden en kettery uitroei as hul heiligste plig.

Gedurende hul bewind het heterogene Spanje die grootste Joodse bevolking in Europa gehad. Ferdinand en Isabella het daarop aangedring dat Spanje wit (nie-Moorse) en van suiwer Christelike bloed, of sangre limpia, word. Oor die dreigement om militêre steun van die pous Sixtus VI (1521 󈟆) terug te trek, wat hul optrede as 'n komplot beskou het om Joodse eiendom te bekom, het Ferdinand geëis dat Spanje die Inkwisisie begin.

Na 'n aantal argumente tussen Ferdinand en Sixtus, het die pous die pouslike bul van 1478 uitgereik wat die Inkwisisie in Sevilla geskep het. Dit brei toe uit in Spanje en begin 'n lang periode van godsdienstige reiniging.

Pous Innocentius VIII (1432 󈟈) stel die Dominikaanse priester Tomás de Torquemada (1420 󈟎), belydenaar van Isabella en self 'n kleinseun van 'n bekeerling aan, aan die hoof van die Spaanse Inkwisisie. Die gedeeltelik bekeerde Jode, die Marranos, het in die geheim hul Joodse kulture en gebruike onderhou.

Om hulle te dwing om te bely, het Torquemada toenemend boetemetodes ingestel. Hy het Joodse eiendom verbeur, wat gerieflik 'n oorlog teen 'n ander minderheid in Spanje gefinansier het. Torquemada het die Marranos verneder deur hulle te dwing om 'n sambenito te dra, 'n geel hemp met kruise wat hul geslagsdele in die openbaar blootgestel het.

Sowat 130 000 conversos is van 1480 tot 1492 by tribunale verhoor. Sommige Marranos is op die brandstapel verbrand. Die genadelose Torquemada het die LaGuardia -skouverhoor in 1490 gehou, waar geen skuld bewys is nie, maar die slagoffers op die brandstapel verbrand is. Ongeveer 30 000 Jode is ritueel vermoor tydens die Spaanse Inkwisisie.

Ferdinand en Isabella het op 31 Maart 1492 die Edict of Expulsion uitgereik. Die Jode is beveel om Spanje te verlaat en nooit weer terug te keer nie. Met sy werk gedoen, het Torquemada teruggetrek na die St. Thomas -klooster in Ávila, waar hy in 1498 gesterf het. Historiese debat hang oor die aantal slagoffers van die Inkwisisie in Spanje.

Ferdinand en Isabella het grootliks staatgemaak op die kundigheid van haar volgende belydenis, kardinaal Francisco Gonzalo Jiménez de Cisneros (1436 �), wat gehelp het om Spanje tot ongekende oorheersing op die Europese vasteland te verhoog. Die egpaar het beheer gekry oor die militêre bevele van Calatrava, Alcántara en Santiago, wat hul mag, rykdom en grondgebied aansienlik verhoog het.

Ferdinand en Isabella het die eeue lange Reconquista laat herleef. Hulle het 'n duur oorlog van 10 jaar teen die Moors gevoer en uiteindelik Granada, die laaste Moorse vesting, verower in 1491. Hulle het Granada triomfantlik binnegegaan op 2 Januarie 1492. Isabella, meer as Ferdinand, was verantwoordelik vir die gruwelike slagting van die More. wat hulle nie tot die Christendom sou bekeer nie.

In 1501 bied Ferdinand en Isabella aan die Moors die alternatief van doop of ballingskap, diegene wat oorgebly het, word bekend as Moriscos. In 1492 verleen Pous Innocentius VIII (1432 󈟈) Ferdinand en Isabella die titel van “Most Catholic Majesties ” vir die geestelike vereniging van Spanje. Die Reconquista is voltooi.

Isabella was largely responsible for initiating the golden age of exploration for Spain. She financially supported the voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World. She had rejected his request numerous times, but when he threatened to petition funds from France she relented and Columbus sailed in August 1492.

When he brought 150 natives to Spain, she bought some and gave them their freedom. Ferdinand and Isabella were strongly involved with the establishment of the Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 that divided the non-Christian world overseas between Portugal and Spain.

Isabella died at Medina del Campo on November 26, 1504. Ferdinand married Germaine de Foix on October 19, 1505. Ferdinand served as regent of Castile after Juana died and later for his grandson Charles V. Ferdinand also fought in lengthy Italian Wars against France.

His generals conquered Naples in 1504, and in 1512 he annexed Navarre. He also joined the League of Cambrai in 1508 to thwart Venetian objectives and the Holy League in 1511 to counteract France. Ferdinand also founded universities.

Ferdinand died at Midrigalejo, Spain, on January 23, 1516. He is buried beside Isabella, at the Capilla Real in Granada alongside Juan, Philip, and a grandson.


The Battle of Layla-tul-Harir

Next morning, Ali and Malik mounted their horses, and rode in front of the Syrian army surveying its disposition. They made some minor changes in the plan of the battle, and then, upon a signal from Ali, Malik attacked the left wing of the enemy.

The Syrians enjoyed a numerical superiority over Malik, and their generals tried to make the best of it. Whenever he attacked, they gave in but somehow managed to regroup.

Malik fought all day long. Normally, the two armies stopped fighting after sunset, and returned to the camp for prayers and for rest but that day Malik refused to return. He also didn't let the Syrians return to their camp, and kept them in the battlefield.

After a brief pause for his prayers, Malik launched his blitz upon the Syrian army. This time his charge was so impetuous that the Syrians were driven before him like sheep. After the night prayer, Ali also returned to the battlefield, and attacked the right wing of the Syrians. Between them, they began to grind the Syrian army.

They killed hundreds of Syrian warriors and spread terror and dismay in their ranks. The groans and screams of the Syrian wounded and the dying, the clangor of arms, the clash of steel, Malik's double-edged sword ripping through the Syrian armor, and his battle-cry of Allah-o-Akbar, filled the night sky of the desert.

Malik was, beyond all measure daring and intrepid. He did indeed seem in the presence of the enemy to be the very Genius of Victory. He was a special and a fatal instrument in the hands of the Providence. Wherever he rode, victory charged with him.

Edward Gibbon

In this sanguinary contest the lawful caliph displayed a superior character of valor and humanity. His troops were strictly enjoined to await the first onset of the enemy, to spare their flying brethren, and to respect the bodies of the dead, and the chastity of the female captives. He generously proposed to save the blood of the Moslems by a single combat but his trembling rival declined the challenge as a sentence of inevitable death.

The ranks of the Syrians were broken by the charge of a hero who was mounted on a piebald horse, and wielded with irresistible force his ponderous and two-edged sword. As often as he smote a rebel, he shouted Allah Akbar, ‘God is Victorious!' and in the tumult of a nocturnal battle he was heard to repeat four hundred times that tremendous exclamation. (The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire)

The hero who broke the ranks of the Syrians, was Malik. But already he had killed so many of them – the rank-and-file Syrians – that he began to lose interest in them. He searched for quarry of a higher grade. In the battle of Basra, he had put an end to fighting by killing the camel which carried Ayesha on its back. His aim now was to kill or to capture Muawiya, and thus to put an end to the battle of Siffin. With the instinct of a hunter, therefore, he began to move toward his prey.

Malik rode through pools of blood and over high banks of the Syrian slain, irresistibly, inexorably and perhaps inevitably. Whoever challenged him or stood in his way, was cut into pieces.

Muawiya now could see with his own eyes that the crunch was coming. What he saw closing in on him, was not Malik, Ali's Chief of Staff, but the Angel of Death. The solid ground under his feet appeared to him to be turning into a quicksand.

His bodyguards, though hand-picked for their bravery, strength and devotion to him and to his house, were powerless before Malik. They could not stop him from advancing toward his prey but they did the second best thing – they got fresh horses ready for him (for Muawiya) to mount and to escape from the battlefield under the cover of darkness.

In this dire distress, Muawiya turned to Amr bin Aas, and said:

“Is there any hope that we can still save our lives or this desolate plain is destined to become our graveyard? And incidentally, do you still want Egypt? If you do, then think at once of some stratagem to check Malik or else all of us including you, will be killed in the next few moments.”

The instinct for survival was very strong in Amr bin Aas. He could rise equal to almost any occasion, and was, in fact, ready with a stratagem for this very moment. Amr's stratagem was going to wrest not only the prey but victory itself out of Malik's hand!

The battle that Malik was fighting, is famous in history as the “Battle of Layla-tul-Harir.” It was the climax of the grim contest in the plain of Siffin on the bank of the Euphrates. It was also the high point of the political and military careers of both Ali and Malik, as events were very soon to show.

Ever since Ali had demanded the pledge of loyalty from Muawiya, he (Muawiya) had opened a psychological war against him. One of the weapons, he had used in his psychological warfare against Ali, was gold or the lure of gold. His mother, Hinda, had used sex as a weapon in her warfare against Islam in the battle of Uhud.

With the weapon of gold, Muawiya had success – fully seduced many of the senior officers in the Iraqi army, and had dented their will-to-fight. He had not only loaded them with gold and silver but had also promised to appoint them as governors of the provinces and commanders in his army if they betrayed Ali at the critical moment in the battle.

The critical moment had arrived. Malik's immense strokes had thrown the Syrians into hopeless disorder. Their only hope for their safety was in the darkness of the night which would or might conceal them from the sight of Malik.

Malik who figured that he was on the point of killing or capturing Muawiya and Amr bin Aas, did not know that both of them were in possession of a secret weapon which would save their lives and would baffle him. The secret weapon of Muawiya was already working silently and insidiously but effectively. It was the seed of treason that he had planted in the Iraqi army. The seed suddenly burgeoned in the battle of Layla-tul-Harir!

Malik was still clobbering the Syrian army savagely when Amr bin Aas ordered his soldiers to hoist copies of Qur’an on the points of their lances as a gesture of their wish to refer the dispute to the Judgment of God to be found in it.

Those officers in the Iraqi army who had been bought by Muawiya, and were ready to act their part, were awaiting a signal. As soon as they saw copies of Qur’an on the lances, they put their swords in the scabbards and stopped fighting, to the great surprise and consternation of Ali, Abdullah ibn Abbas, and the handful of their faithful officers. Just then, Abdullah ibn Abbas also caught sight of the spiked copies of Qur’an, and he understood what was afoot. His terse comment was:

“The battle is over treachery has begun.”

And so it was. Muawiya and Amr bin Aas had appealed to the arbitration of arms, and they had failed. They now appealed to treachery, and as events were soon to show, they were going to succeed! The first man in the Iraqi army who stopped fighting, was Ash'ath bin Qays, the same whose daughter, Jo’dah, was to kill Hasan ibn Ali with poison some years later. He was the ringleader of the traitors in the Iraqi army. He came to see Ali and said to him:

“The Syrians do not want to see any more bloodshed among the Muslims. They want the Book of God to be a judge between them and us. We, therefore, cannot fight against them any more.”

The leaders of other tribes who were also in league with Muawiya, stopped fighting in imitation of Ash'ath bin Qays. The tribesmen followed the example of their leaders, and they too stopped fighting. Thus fighting came to a virtual halt over most of the front. Only one squadron - the one led by Malik – was left in the field fighting and battering the Syrians.

It did not occur to the traitors in the Iraqi army that if Muawiya and Amr bin Aas had any respect for Qur’an, they would have invited it (the Iraqi army) to make the Word of God the Arbiter in their dispute before or even during the battle but they did not. They remembered Qur’an only when the defeat and the destruction of the Syrian army suddenly loomed before them over the horizon.

Ash'ath bin Qays was suddenly gripped with love for the lives of the Muslims. He seized a copy of Qur’an, stood facing his army, and shouted:

“O Muslims! Compel Ali to accept arbitration of the Book of God, and thereby put an end to this bloodshed.”

The bloodshed of the Muslims alarmed Ash'ath only when he saw that Ali was on the point of winning the battle. Ali's victory, he knew, would not change anything for him. But in the event of Ali's failure, he was assured of rich rewards from Muawiya. His “anxiety” to save the lives of the Muslims, therefore, was understandable.

Presently, Ali was surrounded by the leaders of the tribes in his army, and they began to urge him to stop fighting against the Syrians, who, they said, at that very moment, were appealing to him, in the name of the Book of God, to stop killing the Muslims. Ali warned them that they were being duped by the enemy, and exhorted them to press their advantage to victory. He also told them that the appeal in the name of the Book of God was nothing but a ruse to deprive them of the fruits of their victory, and to escape defeat and death.

But Muawiya's gold and silver proved to be much more powerful argument than anything Ali could say. The traitors soon became insolent they asked Ali to recall Malik from the battlefield, and to declare a cease-fire immediately. Ali hesitated but realized that he did not have much of a choice in the face of an impending mutiny in his own army, and sent a messenger to Malik calling him from the front-line.

Malik had been so engrossed in grinding the remnants of the Syrian army that he had not even noticed that his own army was not fighting any more. He, therefore, told the messenger that it was no time for him to leave the battlefield, and to leave his job unfinished.

Malik was very soon going to find out that his ponderous and double-edged sword which had decimated the Syrian army, would become powerless against a new weapon forged by Muawiya and Amr bin Aas – the weapon of the double-cross!

When Muawiya's agents and hirelings in Ali's camp heard Malik's reply, they told him that if he (Malik) did not return from the battle immediately, they would seize him (Ali), and would deliver him into his (Muawiya's) hands. This time Ali had to send a signal of distress to Malik who was told that if he did not return to the camp at that very moment, he would not see his master any more.

Malik ground his teeth in anger as he could now see his quarry slip from his grasp. He came into the camp in a towering rage, raring to kill the traitors but sensed the danger to his master who was in their midst, and all of them had their hands at the hilts of their swords. When he sharply reproved them for their stupidity and treachery, they moved menacingly toward him with their drawn swords. But Ali interposed between them, and said to the traitors:

“You may not fight against your enemy but at least do not kill your own greatest friend.”

Ali did not want Muawiya to see the in-fighting in his own camp.

The battle of Siffin was over. Where Muawiya's power had failed, his craft and guile had succeeded. Victory eluded Ali's grasp, and thenceforth he was to be on the defensive in a losing war against Muawiya. The cease-fire marked the beginning of his political decline.

After the cessation of hostilities, it was agreed that the civil war of the Muslims should be referred to arbitration, and the decision of the arbitrators should be accepted by all parties. It was clearly stipulated in these early negotiations that the arbitrators would make their decision only “in the light of the Book of God.” Muawiya designated Amr bin Aas as the arbitrator representing his side and the rebels in Ali's army proposed the name of Abu Musa al-Ash’ary to represent Iraq.

Abu Musa was a man who combined stupidity with questionable loyalty to Ali. He was soon to demonstrate both qualities, one of his head, and the other of his heart, in his encounter with Amr bin Aas for whom he was no match in anything, least of all in the subtleties of diplomacy and negotiation.

Ali instinctively rejected Abu Musa whom he had always found repulsive. His own choice was Abdullah ibn Abbas or Malik ibn Ashter. But both of them were acceptable neither to Muawiya nor to his agents in the Iraqi army like Ash'ath bin Qays and others. They said that they wanted an “impartial” and a “non-partisan” man such as Abu Musa was but Abdullah ibn Abbas and Malik ibn Ashter were not. Ali asked them: “If that is so, then why don't you raise objection to the designation of Amr bin Aas who is neither impartial nor non-partisan?” They replied that they were responsible only for their own affairs, and not for the affairs of others.

Ali resisted the pressures of the traitors but they were all fattening on Muawiya's gold which they were not ready to forfeit at any price. It was, in fact, arranged beforehand that Abu Musa would represent Iraq. Eventually, the traitors succeeded in foisting the dim-wit Abu Musa upon their master as his “representative.”

When the cease-fire agreement was being drafted, an incident occurred which harked back to Hudaybiyya. The secretary wrote the words: “This is an agreement between Ali ibn Abi Talib, the Chief of the Believers, and Muawiya bin Abu Sufyan. ” Amr bin Aas, the representative of Muawiya, raised objection, and said: “Delete the words, ‘the Chief of the Believers.' If we had acknowledged Ali as the Chief of the Believers, we would not be fighting against him.”

Thereupon, Ali remarked: “How true was the Apostle of God when he foretold this very incident. When the Treaty of Hudaybiyya was being drafted, and I had written the words, ‘This is a Treaty between Muhammad, the Messenger of God, and . ' the idolaters interrupted me, and said that if they had acknowledged Muhammad as the Messenger of God, then they would not be fighting against him, and they insisted upon the deletion of the words, ‘Messenger of God,' from the text of the Treaty.”

At Hudaybiyya, Muhammad had deleted the words “Messenger of God” from the draft treaty at Siffin, Ali, walking in his (Muhammad's) footsteps, allowed the words “the Chief of the Believers” to be deleted from the draft treaty. The cease-fire agreement was duly signed and witnessed by both sides, and copies were exchanged for preservation in the archives.

The terms of the cease-fire agreement were:

1. Both arbitrators would be subject to the rule that their decisions would be taken in the light of the Book of God. If they are unable to decide anything on this basis, then they would take their decision in the light of the precedents and traditions of the Messenger of God.

2. The decision of the arbitrators, if based upon the Book of God, would be binding on both sides.

3. The arbitrators would investigate the causes that led to the murder of Uthman, and the civil war of the Muslims (to suggest remedial action for future).

4. The arbitrators would publish their decisions within six months from the date of the cease-fire.

5. The belligerents would observe a truce. They would protect the arbitrators who would have complete freedom of movement in the country.

6. The arbitrators would meet at a place on the frontier between Iraq and Syria.

The most important clause in this agreement was that the arbitrators would make the Book of God their guide, and that they would not be governed by their own lusts and desires.

The Battle of Siffin was officially over but Malik ibn Ashter, now “the chained dragon of the Arabs,” resolutely refused to witness the document of agreement. He considered it a document of infamy and iniquity.

R. A. Nicholson

A great battle was fought at Siffin, a village on the Euphrates. Ali had well-nigh gained the day when Muawiya bethought him of a stratagem. He ordered his troops to fix Korans on the points of their lances and to shout, “Here is the Book of God: Let it decide between us!” The miserable trick succeeded.

In Ali's army there were many pious fanatics to whom the proposed arbitration by the Koran appealed with irresistible force. They now sprang forward clamorously, threatening to betray their leader unless he would submit his cause to the Book. Vainly did Ali remonstrate with the mutineers, and warn them of the trap into which they were driving him, and this too at the moment when victory was within their grasp.

He had no choice but to yield and name as his umpire a man of doubtful loyalty, Abu Musa as-Ashari, one of the oldest surviving companions of the Prophet. Muawiya on his part named Amr bin al-Aas, whose cunning had prompted the decisive maneuver. (A Literary History of the Arabs, p. 192, 1969)

The two arbitrators, Abu Musa Ashari and Amr bin Aas, announced that they would meet, six months later, in Adhruh, to give their verdict in the dispute between the two parties. Ali and Muawiya then retired from Siffin to await the decision of the arbitrators.

When Ali returned to Kufa, he set to work to reorganize the government, but unfortunately, he was compelled to defer his plans because of the outbreak of a new rebellion in his army.

During the battle of Siffin, Muawiya had planted seeds of treason in the army of Iraq, as noted before. This he had done by making presents of gold and silver, and by making promises to grant lands, estates, and high civil and military ranks, to the key figures in Ali's army, in exchange for their support to him.

His “investments” had paid off rich dividends to him. The recipients of his gifts had forced Ali to stop fighting and to accept arbitration, and in this manner, he (Muawiya) had succeeded in dodging disaster and death at Siffin. They now sat expectantly, awaiting fulfillment, by Muawiya, of his promises.

But when Muawiya returned to Damascus, he felt that he could now afford to dispense with the services of most of his clients in Ali's army. He, therefore, told them that he did not promise them anything.

The clients realized that they had been tricked by Muawiya. In sheer chagrin and frustration, they turned to Ali, and asked him to repudiate the cease-fire agreement, and to resume fighting against Muawiya. But Ali refused to do this, and said that he had to wait and see if the decision of the arbitrators would be in conformity with the commandments in Qur’an or not before making any other move.

But the ex-clients of Muawiya did not want to wait. They pressed Ali to fight, and when he did not agree, they and their supporters left his army en masse, and broke their pledge of allegiance to him. There were 12,000 of these men who repudiated their oath of loyalty to Ali after the battle of Siffin. They are called Kharjis (Khawarij), and they gathered in a place called Harura from where they began to plunder the surrounding country, and to kill the innocent people, and in fact, everyone who disagreed with their views on government and politics.

Ali tried to persuade the Khawarij to return to Kufa, and to put before him the points of their disagreement with him. He answered all their questions and objections most satisfactorily, and some of them, being convinced that he was right, renewed their pledge of loyalty to him but many others did not. They now claimed that by agreeing to submit his dispute with Muawiya for arbitration by fallible human beings, instead of the Book of God, Ali had become an “apostate,” and that his “repentance” along could bring salvation to him.

Ali tolerated the insolence and the impudence of the Khawarij in the hope that they would realize their error but this only made them more insolent and more impudent. Presently, their leaders decided to leave Kufa, and to set up their headquarters in some other place. They selected a village called Nehrwan for this purpose, and ordered all Kharjis to assemble there. From Nehrwan, the Khawarij spread terror in the country. They committed new excesses to cover their guilt, shame and remorse. They went around killing people indiscriminately, not sparing even women and children. Then news came that they were planning to attack Kufa itself.

Ali had to act immediately to check Kharji lawlessness and anarchy, and he went in person to Nehrwan to meet their leaders. He told them that there was safe-conduct for all those among them who would leave their camp, return to their homes, and live in peace with their neighbors. Many of them realized that they had no reason to fight against Ali, and they left Nehrwan to go back to their homes. But a core of 4000 die-hards remained adamant in their demand that Ali had to “repent” before they would acknowledge him the leader of the Muslims.

They, then raised their battle-cry “No one to govern except Allah,” and attacked Ali's troops. Though they had attacked with reckless abandon, they didn't do much harm to Ali's troops. When the latter counter-attacked, the Khawarij were defeated most of them were killed, and only a few escaped from the battlefield.

Though the Khawarij had adopted as their slogan the Qur’anic verse No one is to govern except Allah, they had neither the intention nor the ability to set up the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. They only wanted power for themselves They were an explosive mixture of terrorism, politics and religious fanaticism.

In the event of their success, they would only have revived the tribal particularism of the pre-Islamic Arabs. To this day, they remain peculiarly unassimilated in the history of the Muslim people.

Dr. Hamid-ud-Din

The Kharjis prevented people from enlisting in Ali's army. And if anyone disagreed with their beliefs, they killed him on the spot. In this way, many Muslims were killed. Ali sent an emissary to dissuade them from committing crimes against innocent people but they killed him also.

The Kharji camp was at Nehrwan. Ali also led his army to Nehrwan. He asked the Khawarij to give up those men for trial and justice who had killed innocent Muslims. But they shouted with one voice that all of them had killed them, and that they considered the killing of such people (those Muslims who did not share their beliefs) a sacred duty. Ali once again pointed out their errors to them, and appealed to them to return to their homes but their response was negative.

At last, Ali sent Abu Ayub Ansari with the banner of Islam in the middle of the two opposing forces. Abu Ayub unfurled the banner, and announced that whoever from the Kharji camp would come beneath it, would be safe.

Many Kharjis realizing their error, came under the banner planted by Abu Ayub. But 4000 of their warriors still refused to leave their camp. They were determined to fight against Ali. They shouted, “No one to command except Allah,” and then they attacked Ali's army. They fought with the courage of fanatics but were surrounded and defeated, and nearly all of them perished. (History of Islam, Lahore, Pakistan, p. 202, 1971)

The battle-cry of the Kharjis, “No one to command except Allah,” was only a gimmick, designed to take political power into their own hands, and to deny it to everyone else.

In the meantime, Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa al-Ashari, the two arbitrators, had completed their secret negotiations, and were ready to make an announcement. Both of them had agreed that it was in the interests of the Dar-ul-Islam that Ali and Muawiya both should abdicate or should be deposed, and the Muslim umma should select a new ruler for itself.

The arbitrators and their staff met in Adhruh. Four hundred men of each side also arrived at the scene, as per the terms of the cease-fire agreement. The Syrian delegation was led by Abul Awar Salmi, and the Iraqi delegation was led by Abdullah ibn Abbas and Shurayh ibn Hani.

Many other people also came to Adhruh to hear the verdict of the arbitrators on the fate of the Dar-ul-Islam. Among them were Abdullah bin Umar, Abdullah by Zubayr, Abdur Rahman bin Abu Bakr, Saad bin Abi Waqqas, and Mughira bin Shaaba.

Amr bin Aas told Abu Musa that he held him in very high esteem since he (Abu Musa) was not only a companion of the Apostle of God but also was a great scholar, and for this reason, he deferred to him in everything, and also for this reason, he (Abu Musa) ought to be the first to make the announcement of their joint decision, which he (Amr) would confirm later.

Abdullah ibn Abbas warned Abu Musa that Amr might try to outwit and outmaneuver him, and suggested that he should let him (Amr) be the first to make the announcement. But Abu Musa did not pay heed to this advice of sagacity, and said:

“The case is airtight and there is no room in it for Amr bin Aas to maneuver or to score.”

Abu Musa had been utterly carried away by the show of “deference” made by Amr bin Aas to him. He then went into the pulpit to make the historic announcement, and said:

“O Muslims! Much sorrow and travail have been visited upon the umma of Muhammad by the wars of Ali and Muawiya. Therefore, both of us have decided to depose both of them, and we have agreed that the right of choosing a new khalifa should be given to the Muslim umma itself - to all of you.”

The Iraqi delegation was mortified to hear this announcement but decided, nevertheless, to hear what the other arbitrator had to say.

Abu Musa sat down after making his announcement, and then Amr bin Aas rose to make his announcement. Hy het gesê:

“O Muslims! All of you have just heard what Abu Musa said regarding the deposition of Ali. He has deposed Ali as khalifa. I uphold his decision, and declare that Ali is desposed as khalifa. And in Ali's place, I appoint Muawiya as your new khalifa. ”

Amr bin Aas had not concluded his remarks yet when there was an uproar of outrage. Abu Musa screamed in confusion and fury: “Liar! I never said this. You are the most brazen liar. You are a dog which is loaded with books and which pants and puts out its tongue when under the load.” Amr rose equal to the occasion, and returned the compliments by saying: “You are a donkey which is loaded with books, and which brays aloud when under a heavy load.”

The “dog” and the “donkey” snapped, snarled and glowered for a few moments, and then attacked each other fiercely. They bit and kicked each other, and they “barked” and “brayed” in the midst of pandemonium until they were hoarse. There was laughter too, though at the expense of Abu Musa alone.

After six months of in camera deliberations, the only “fare” that the arbitrators – Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had prepared for the “edification” of the hundreds of Muslims who had flocked to Adhruh for the “feast,” was “music” which was provided by the first of them by “barking,” and by the second, by “braying.”

The “concert” was, at last, over, and the Muslims who had come from distant places, left Adhruh to return to their homes.

Abu Musa realized that he had become the laughing stock of all Arabs, and he fled to Yemen to hide his shame. He was a man of rather modest abilities but a coincidence of events had put him in a position where he perhaps assumed that he was in control of the destiny of the Muslim umma. His conceit was in conflict with prudence, and conceit won.

The job he was called upon to handle, was just too big for someone so handicapped by lack of ability as he was, and he botched it. He was one of the confidantes of Umar bin al-Khattab who had appointed him governor, first of Basra and then of Kufa.

The threat to Muawiya had passed forever, and in his struggle to seize the khilafat, the initiative had now passed to him. His claim to khilafat rested upon the judgment that Amr bin Aas, the “king-maker,” gave in Adhruh.

Amr's judgment was a piece of political legerdemain that would have thrilled Machiavelli but for the Syrians, it had the authority of a fiat from heaven itself, and was, therefore, irreversible.

R. A. Nicholson

It is characteristic of Arabian notions of morality that this impudent fraud was hailed by Muawiya's adherents as a diplomatic triumph which gave him a colorable pretext for assuming the title of caliph. (A Literary History of the Arabs, p.192-193, 1969)

The arbitration turned out to be a farce and a fiasco. Its decision, at any rate, had been ultra vires. No one had given the arbitrators a mandate to pronounce judgment upon the caliphate or to depose or to appoint a caliph. Muawiya's supporters were seeking vengeance for the murder of Uthman. Muawiya had convinced them that Ali was responsible for the death of Uthman, and it was for this reason that they had fought at Siffin. They did not wage a war against Ali to enthrone Muawiya.

But the arbitrators did not investigate the origins of the civil war. They talked only about the caliphate even though it was not the matter in dispute. Their only duty was to find out who had killed Uthman, and if Muawiya had the right to seek vengeance for the crime.

Abu Musa gave his “Jovian” verdict by “deposing” Muawiya. What did the “deposition” of Muawiya mean anyway? And what did he (Abu Musa) depose him (Muawiya) from? Muawiya was not the khalifa, nor had anyone proposed his name for khilafat.

On the other hand, Ali was the lawful khalifa of the Muslims. He was elected by consensus of the Muhajireen and the Ansar, and all parts of the empire, with the solitary exception of Syria, had acknowledged him their sovereign.

As arbitrators, or rather, as king-makers, Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had engaged in long discussions on politics and war, and perhaps on the future of the Muslim umma but one thing they had not done was to consult Al-Qur’an al-Majid. They had kept Qur’an out of their deliberations in Adhruh just as, many years earlier, their forerunners in king-making, had kept Qur’an out of their deliberations in the outhouse of Saqifa in Medina.

By a strange “coincidence,” all the king-makers of the Arabs, whether in Saqifa, or in the Electoral Committee of Abdur Rahman bin Auf, or in Adhruh, showed themselves “allergic” to Al-Qur’an al-Majid. Or, was it the other way round – Al-Qur’an al-Majid showing itself “allergic” to the king-makers?

The king-makers kept Qur’an out of their deliberations or Qur’an itself stayed out of them – either way, it was truly one of the most fantastic “coincidences” in the history of the Muslims. For some mysterious reason, all the king-makers on the one hand, and Al-Qur’an al-Majid on the other, remained apart and distant from each other.

Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa had to make Qur’an their guide in arbitration. They had a commitment to formulate their decisions in the light of the commandments of the Book of God. The commandment of God in this regard is clear-cut.

O you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Apostle, and those charged with authority among you. If you differ in anything among yourselves, refer it to Allah and His Apostle, if you do believe in Allah and the last day: that is best, and most suitable for final determination. (Chapter 4 verse 59)

The arbitrators, it appears, forgot both the commandment of God quoted in the foregoing verse, and their own commitment. But Qur’an did not forget them, and pointed out what they had done or what they had failed to do, in the following verse:

They are invited to the Book of God, to settle their disputes, but a party of them turns back and declines. (Chapter 3 verse 23)

Amr bin Aas and Abu Musa – the arbitrators made themselves a party of those who turn back from the Book of God. They had preferred to be guided by their own lusts, and for this reason, they invited the judgment of Qur’an upon themselves:

And if any do fail to judge by (the light of) what God hath revealed, they are (no better than) unbelievers. (Chapter 5 verse 47)

In the battle of Siffin, the armies of Iraq and Syria faced each other for 110 days. There were 90 engagements between them in which 25,000 Iraqis and 45,000 Syrians were killed.

This ghastly battle was the product of the ambition and the lust for power of Muawiya and Amr bin Aas. Muawiya was the governor of Syria, and was averse to nothing so much as to losing that position. Amr bin Aas was governor of Egypt but had been sacked by Uthman, and was dying to regain his old position. To retain or to regain their positions, both of them were willing to do anything and to pay any price Truth and Justice did not mean anything to them. They could deluge the Dar-ul-Islam with falsehood, and with the blood of the Muslims to realize their own wishes and ambitions.

The “triumvirs” of Basra (the Companions of the Camel), and Muawiya and Amr bin Aas recognized their great opportunity in the murder of Uthman, and they seized it. Vengeance for his blood was the thin veneer which imparted respectability to their naked lust for power. Uthman – dead was far more valuable to them than Uthman – alive.

Therefore, they gave him all the assistance they could – to be dead. But once he was dead, it became lawful, in fact, it became a duty, for them to commit mass murder in the name of seeking vengeance for his assassination.

The battles of Basra and Siffin were the mass murder of the Muslims dictated by the logic of “Realpolitik.”

Toynbee says that Muhammad and Ali were no match for the merchant princes of Makkah (the Umayyads) in realpolitik. In a sense, he may be right. Muhammad and Ali hesitated to kill even an idolater, not to speak of killing a Muslim. They could not kill anyone for the sake of material power. They were, therefore, handicapped in their “competition” with the Umayyads.


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