Koreaanse aardewerk

Koreaanse aardewerk

Die aardewerk van antieke Korea strek tot in die voorgeskiedenis toe eenvoudige bruin ware gemaak en met geometriese insnydings versier is. Pottebakkers sou baat by die idees en tegnieke van hul Chinese eweknieë en voortgaan met die vervaardiging van hul eie baie gesogte werke, insluitend grys steengoed, celadons of groenware, buncheong ware en wit porselein. Keramiek is innoverend in ontwerp en wissel van onmoontlik ingewikkelde wierookbranders tot die sublieme eenvoud en elegansie van die maebyeong vaas. Koreaanse keramiekversiering gebruik gewoonlik plante, blomme en wild, en weerspieël die land se godsdienstige erfenis met Boeddhistiese motiewe en minimalistiese Confuciaanse ontwerpe wat voorrang geniet.

Prehistoriese aardewerk

Vroeë Koreaanse aardewerk uit die Neolitiese tydperk, veral in die vorm van bruin bakke met 'n plat of puntige basis, albei met ingekapte versiering, toon 'n kulturele band met gemeenskappe in die Liaoning -provinsie en Liaodong -skiereiland van China. Die mees algemene versiering van hierdie tydperk is zigzag of kamagtige insnydings wat die naam van 'n tipe aardewerk gegee het: kamware (chulmun). Sommige vate het vierkantige spiraalsnitte, terwyl ander versierings verhoog het wat bereik is deur die klei te knyp.

Die erdewerk in Koreaanse Bronstydperk is geneig om nie versier te word nie, mure is dikker en daar is 'n groter verskeidenheid vorme - tipies stoomwaaie, bakke met voetstukke en potte met handvatsels. As daar versiering is, dek dit minder van die vaartuig en neem dit óf die vorm aan van die ingesnyde motiewe van die vorige tydperk, óf toegepaste kleibande. Gebrande goedere is óf swart (langnekpanne) óf rooi (klein bolvormige flesse). Dit is weereens 'n aanduiding van kontak met China.

Ystertydse erdewerk is van 'n grys tipe met spaan en ingekapte versiering, veral naby uitbroei. 'N Tipiese vorm van hierdie tydperk is die pot met ronde bodem met 'n klein voetjie en kenmerkende klein handvatsels in die vorm van horings op die nek. 'N Ander interessante vorm is die vierkantige koppie op 'n voetstuk wat dan swart gelak is. Dit is duidelik dat pottebakkers vaardiger en ambisieerder word in hul ontwerpe, wat die grondslag lê vir die fynere vaartuie wat in die periode van die drie koninkryke kom.

Grys ​​steengoed

Grys ​​steengoed van hoë vuur word vervaardig deur die koninkryke Baekje, Gaya en Silla (klein aardewerk uit die Goguryeo-oorlewing) vanaf die 1ste eeu vC tot die 10de eeu nC. Tipiese vorms is die beker met stamme, bakke met breë staanders (kobae), langnekpanne (veranderlike ho), ronde koppies met 'n deksel met 'n breë voetbasis, bekend as kobae, horingsbekers, staanders (kurut pachim) word gebruik om groot bakke, hoë bolvormige vase (soms met deurboorde stande), lampe en klokkies met klein stukkies klei in 'n hol onderste gedeelte te ondersteun sodat dit rammel wanneer dit opgehef word, en spuitvormige skepe wat diere, bote voorstel, tempels, perdrykrygers en selfs huise. Keramiek is met insnydings versier, ekstra klei stukke aangebring en die klei afgesny om 'n traliewerk -effek te skep.

Steengoed benodig 'n hoë vuurtemperatuur, en hierdie tegnologie is ongetwyfeld verbind met die oonde wat nodig is om yster te vervaardig in die Gaya -konfederasie wat ryk was aan die metaal. Gaya -pottebakkers het hierdie innovasie waarskynlik oorgedra aan Japan, waar die beroemde sueki (of dagvaar) gevolglik word steengoed vervaardig. Baekje-pottebakkers vervaardig ook laaggebrande erdewerk, ligbruin van kleur. Gloeilampe, vaartuie, driepote en dakteëls is algemene vorms.

Hou jy van geskiedenis?

Teken in vir ons gratis weeklikse e -pos nuusbrief!

Namate die periode van die drie koninkryke plek maak vir die Unified Silla-periode (668-935 nC), begin Koreaanse aardewerk 'n merkbare invloed uit die Boeddhisme hê. Verassing het die vervaardiging van ure vir as nodig gemaak en Boeddhistiese motiewe heers as gestempelde versiering soos lotusknoppe, lotusblomme en wolke. Die alledaagse erdewerk is onversierd gelaat, maar spesiale stukke toon 'n groter digtheid van versiering as voorheen, en daar is selfs 'n paar menslike figure, soos musikante wat die kayagum (siter). Daar is ook die eerste asglasuur wat sou ontwikkel tot die latere celadon -keramiek van die Goryeo -periode.

Die gewildheid en aansien waarmee celadons gehou is, word getuig van hul teenwoordigheid in koninklike Koreaanse grafte.

Celadon

Die keramiek van celadon (of groenware) wat tydens die Goryeo-dinastie (918-1392 nC) vervaardig is, word beskou as een van die beste en mees elegante aardewerkstukke wat oral vervaardig is. Hulle word gekenmerk deur hul liggroen glans wat herinner aan jade en 'n super gladde glans. Celadon, wat eers in China vervaardig is, het vinnig gewild geword in Asië en in Korea, veral vanaf die 9de eeu nC toe daar meer kontak met die Song -dinastie was. Dit kan wees dat die kleurassosiasie met kosbare jade nog 'n rede was vir die sukses van celadon. Die groen kleur word verkry deur die klei in 'n suurstofreducerende oond af te vuur met 'n glans wat 'n lae persentasie ysteroksied bevat (cheolhwa). Die metode gee 'n uiters gladde oppervlak aan die voltooide vat, hoewel baie fyn skeure in die glasuur tipies is, selfs wenslik.

Aanvanklik was die Koreaanse ware nogal ru, maar teen die 12de eeu was Koreaanse keramiek van celadon selfs fyner as dié wat in China vervaardig is. Die gewildheid en aansien waarmee celadons gehou is, word getuig van hul teenwoordigheid in koninklike Koreaanse grafte. Met die Mongoolse invalle van die skiereiland en die stelselmatige vernietiging van werkswinkels in die 13de eeu het produksie van celadons ongelukkig tot stilstand gekom.

Vase, kanne en bakke was die gewildste vorms vir celadons en die tipiese vorm was die lang vaas met 'n smal voet en bolnek, bekend as 'n maebyeong. Potters vervaardig ook 'n magdom ander items soos keramiek kussings, kanne in die vorm van monnike of mitiese draakvisdiere, wierookbranders bo -op dierefigure deur wie se mond die wierookrook uitgaan, kosmetiese bokse, waterdruppels (kundika, wat gebruik is om water te strooi in Boeddhistiese seremonies), en selfs krom dakpanne is almal uitgevoer met die fynheid wat in meer klassieke vaartuie gesien is.

Vaartuie is versier met lae of hoë reliëfontwerpe, veral blompatrone met die lotusblaar en blom, pioen- en krisantblomme, wingerdstokke en voëls soos watervoëls. Baie motiewe, veral hyskrane en wolke, hou verband met Boeddhisme. Vaartuie wat nie versier is nie, het dikwels eenvoudige lineêre ontwerpe daarop gegraveer, terwyl ander meer ingewikkelde inlegsels van swart, rooi, bruin en wit klei het in 'n tegniek wat uniek is aan Korea, bekend as sanggam. Hier word ontwerpe op die oppervlak gekerf en die inlegsels bygevoeg voordat 'n deurskynende strokie aangebring word. Sommige latere vaartuie is ook met goud ingelê. Die inlegsels is so fyn en die afwerking van so 'n hoë standaard dat dit op die voltooide vaartuig kwashale lyk. Die toevoeging van 'n donkerrooi kleur om ontwerpe uit te kies of vir buitelyne gebruik te word, het algemeen geword in die latere tydperk van Koreaanse celadons, wat bereik is deur 'n koperonderglas te gebruik - die eerste voorbeeld in wêreldkeramiek. 'N Ander gewilde dekoratiewe effek was om lyste by te voeg, wat dan ook in oopwerk gemaak kon word.

Buncheong ware

Buncheong (punchong) ware, blougroen keramiek bedek met 'n wit strokie, is die mees praktiese aanbod van Korea se keramiek. Hulle is in die 15de en 16de eeu nC tydens die Joseon-dinastie (1392-1910 CE) vervaardig en is aanvanklik baie soortgelyk aan celadons. Anders as ander soorte Koreaanse aardewerk, buncheong is vervaardig deur nie-staatsbeheerde pottebakkerye en het dus baie meer eklekties geword en beïnvloed deur streeksvoorkeure en die wense van die gewone mense wat die vervaardiging beveel het. Tipiese vorms sluit in maebyeong vase, bolvormige vase met hoë nekke, silinderkolwe met 'n enkele boonste tuit en plat skilpadvormige bottels met 'n klein sytuit. Al hierdie dinge het 'n praktiese gebruik in die huis gehad.

Buncheong ontwerpe het baie besiger geword as dié op celadon -goedere, met meer oppervlak wat gebruik is. Ontwerpe is op die wit strokie geëts (johwa) of met 'n skerp gereedskap in die klei gekerf en dan met 'n wit strokie gevul voordat dit geskiet word. Soms seëls (inhwa) is gebruik om eenvoudige meetkundige versiering (veral in die suidooste) aan te bring of met 'n kwas (kwiyal) met 'n bruin ysteroksiedonderglas, veral gewild in sentrale provinsies. Uiteindelik kan wit of rooi klei in die gesnyde ontwerp ingelê word (die sanggam tegniek wat met celadon gebruik word). Behalwe geometriese vorms, gebruik ontwerpe tipies pioenblomme (simbool van rykdom), voëls en kolletjies. Pare vis kom veral voor, aangesien dit geluk, vrugbaarheid en geluk verteenwoordig.

Maksabal & Onggi

'N Buitensporing of byproduk van buncheong was die nederige maksabal bak met klei wat nie goed genoeg geag word nie buncheong produksie. Maksabal beteken 'bak wat onmiddellik gebruik moet word', wat dui op hul lae kwaliteit, maar dit was nietemin 'n manier vir pottebakkers om hul kuns vrylik uit te druk. 'N Ander algemene tipe vaartuig wat bloot funksioneel is, is die onggi stoorvase en kookvate. Die wat vir opberging was, het deksels gehad, en as gevolg van die onsuiwerhede in die klei van swak gehalte, het daar klein gaatjies in die vate ontstaan ​​wanneer dit afgevuur word. Hierdie klein gaatjies laat lug sirkuleer, en so onggi is gebruik om voedsel soos sojasous en vispasta te bêre. Onggi is ook gereeld in die grond begrawe en selfs as toilette gebruik. Hulle is dikwels versier met vet geboë lyne wat die pottebakker met sy duime gemaak het toe die glasuur nog nat was.

Wit porselein

Wit porselein (paekcha) is ook tydens die Joseon -dinastie gemaak en vervang buncheong in gewildheid, veral na die vernietiging van baie pottebakkery tydens die Japannese invalle aan die einde van die 16de eeu nC. Wit porselein is eintlik sedert die 9de eeu nC vervaardig, maar dit was in hierdie tydperk dat die vervaardiging daarvan uiteindelik vervolmaak is, sodat dit dunner en duursamer was as enige vorige Koreaanse keramiek, witter as ooit tevore, en baie glad was. glans. Een groot produksiesentrum was Bunwon in Gwangju, waar 300 oonde opgegrawe is, maar dit was die gewildheid van wit porselein dat pottebakkers regoor die land ontstaan ​​het om aan die vraag te voldoen. Dit was belangrik dat wit porselein uiteindelik slegs in amptelike stowe wat deur die staat geborg word, geproduseer kan word, en die kwaliteit daarvan blyk uit sy verskyning op huldeblyke aan Ming China.

Skale, afgeronde bottels, peervormige vase, bolvormige bolvormige potte met deksels, 'maan'-potte (sogenaamd vanweë hul sirkelvorm), kwashouers, grafskriftablette en waterdruppels in diere- of vrugtevorms was algemeen. Soms word vorms doelbewus asimmetries gemaak, wat veral opvallend is by maankanne en iets wat Koreaanse keramiek onderskei van Chinese of Japannese ware.

Die minimalistiese ontwerpe op Koreaans wit porselein weerspieël die sober eenvoud van Confucianisme wat gevolg is deur die heersende klas Joseon, hoewel vroeëre voorbeelde meer gevul is as met Chinese blou en wit porselein van die tyd. Ontwerpe sluit in blomme (veral lotus, orgidee en krisant), plante, bamboes (simbolies van integriteit as dit reguit en eg groei), gras, wingerdstokke, wilgerbome, pruimbome, voëls, takbokke, jakkalse en wolke, en is gewoonlik ingelê op dieselfde manier as celadons. Blou (aanvanklik van kobalt en dan 'n goedkoper plaasvervanger wat bekend staan ​​as 'Mohammedaanse blou') of 'n bruin (van ysteroksied) onderglasuur is die gewone kleure wat gebruik word om die ontwerpe weer te gee.

Nalatenskap

In die laat 16de eeu nC is baie Koreaanse pottebakkers en kunstenaars met geweld na Japan geneem na die inval van die land op die Koreaanse skiereiland in 'n konflik wat soms 'pottebakkersoorloë' genoem word. Hierdie kunstenaars, wat reeds bewonder is vir hul wit porselein, sou 'n beduidende invloed op die Japannese Satsuma -ware hê. Ou Koreaanse aardewerk leef ook vandag nog voort. Moderne werkswinkels wat tradisionele metodes gebruik, produseer weer celadon -keramiek, veral in die 16 oonde van Gangjin, waar 'n jaarlikse celadonfees gehou word. Intussen lok veral die oorspronklike seladons steeds groot belangstelling by versamelaars en kan hulle die hoogste pryse by veilingshuise haal van enige keramiek wat oral vervaardig word.

Hierdie inhoud is moontlik gemaak met ruim ondersteuning van die British Korean Society.


Verskillende periodes van die Koreaanse geskiedenis kan beskryf word, en word weerspieël in die Koreaanse kuns van pottebakkery. Baie van wat was, het in die geskiedenis verlore gegaan. Oorloë en bloot die verloop van tyd het 'n geweldige tol geëis. Argeoloë, historici en kunsversamelaars het baie moeite bestee aan die ligging en bewaring van hierdie belangrike werke van Koreaanse kreatiwiteit. Dit is vanweë hierdie individue dat baie goeie voorbeelde van Koreaanse aardewerk tot vandag toe daarin geslaag het om te oorleef. In museums en privaat versamelings kan ons die ontwikkeling en transformasie van hierdie kuns aanskou, van die eenvoudige pottebakkery van die Neolitiese tydperk meer as 3000 jaar gelede tot die gesofistikeerde keramiek van die Joseon -dinastie wat in die vroeë deel van die twintigste eeu eindig .

Koreaanse keramiek is al lank gewaardeer en gesog in die Weste vir hul artistieke skoonheid en vakmanskap. Die gevierde Franse hofmaker, Madame Pompadour (1721 - 1764) het 'n Koreaanse vaas in haar versameling,#911 ].

Behalwe die groter Koreaanse keramiekversamelings op die skiereiland [Korea] en Japan, is Amerikaanse versamelings, beide privaat en publiek, verreweg die grootste hoeveelheid. Amerikaanse belangstelling in die keramiek van Korea dateer uit 1883 toe sestig voorbeelde van aardewerk aan die Smithsonian in Washington DC geskenk is Na die bevryding het die tempo van keramiekversameling vinnig toegeneem. In byna elke groot Amerikaanse stad, met 'n kunsmuseum wat oor Asië handel, sal Koreaanse keramiek verteenwoordig word.

Hierna volg 'n uitstalling wat talle voorbeelde bied vir die studie van Koreaanse aardewerk, wat al die belangrikste tydperke in die Koreaanse geskiedenis verteenwoordig. Die Drie Koninkryke van Korea, die Silla tydperk, die Koryo -dinastie en die Joseon -dinastie. As u die verskillende tydperke ondersoek, sal u agterkom dat daar soms na die Silla -tydperk verwys word as Shilla, die Koryo -periode as Goryeo of Goguryeo, en die Joseon, Choson, Chosun.

Koryo -dinastie (918 �): Westerlinge het deur die jare 'n groter belangstelling in Koyro -celadon -produkte gevind as ander style van Koreaanse keramiek. Die eerste Amerikaanse uitstalling was in 1957, gevolg deur een in Europa in 1961. Die uitstalling van 1969 van Vyfduisend jaar van Koreaanse kunste in die VSA 'n blywende impak gehad, terwyl 'n uitstalling uit 1984 in Europa gehelp het om Koreaanse keramiek en#912 ] verder te bevorder.

Joseon -dinastie (1392 �): Die pottebakkers van die eeu, verbied deur streng Confuciaanse voorskrifte, kon slegs ware vir daaglikse gebruik vervaardig, soos rysbakke en potte vir ingelegde voedsel. Selfs binne hierdie noue raamwerk het hulle egter 'n instinktiewe kennis getoon dat reëlmaat en verfyning nie die enigste kriteria vir skoonheid is nie. Hulle produkte is dikwels skeef en asimmetries, maar dit is juis vanweë hierdie onvolmaaktheid dat hulle hoog op prys gestel word. Die dekoratiewe motiewe is eenvoudig en pretensieloos, wat wissel van blomme en diere tot abstrakte ontwerpe Α ].

The Three Kingdoms (57  BC �  AD): Old Silla, Koguryo en Paekche

( 1.2.3.) Perdfigure uit die Three Kingdoms -era. Perde met grys glans, maar rooierige afwerking, moontlik verwant aan begrafnis. Hulle is mense soos perde wat waarskynlik in 'n graf geplaas is as vervoer vir wie dit besit het. Kan ook as speelgoed gebruik word. Hulle toon tekens van begrafnis en talle breuke wat soos die kop aan die liggaam vasgeplak is. Dit is tipies. Ander areas soos die bene is vasgeplak. Baie vroeg (200  BC �  AD). Soortgelyke voorbeelde van hierdie perdebeeldjies kan gevind word in 2000 jaar Koreaanse kunste Β ]. Perdebeeldjies is die afgelope tyd op afgeleë plekke aanbid as beskermers van die dorp en perde het waarskynlik 'n godsdienstige betekenis gehad, hoewel dit plaaslik moes wees, te oordeel na die skaarsheid waarmee dit voorkom in Silla art Γ ].

( 4.) Groot urna van die Silla -dinastie: bo -aan 'n deursnee van 12 "hoog en 12½" in deursnee. Hierdie voorbeeld lyk baie soos 'n voetstukkom wat in gevind word Koreaanse keramiek, 'n kunsvariëteit, deur Gregory Henderson. Daar word dit beskryf as 'n voetstuk of staanplek wat tipies is vir geen ander Koreaanse streek as die suidoostelike kus nie. Dit kon gebruik gewees het om 'n groot hoeveelheid rys voor te berei of te bestee,#916 ]. ( 5.) Groot Silla -opbergkruik: 'n graan-/voedselhouer. Skaars houer in die tradisionele grysware, maar met 'n mosgroen glans. Soms word dit 'n "voetpot" genoem en#917 ]. ( 6.) Silla Urn/ Storage Jar: Vaasvormig met vyf reghoekige openinge langs die hoë voet met ongewone dekoratiewe detail, maar algemeen in vroeë Koreaanse werk. Daar word vermoed dat die reghoekige perforasies die gewig van die ware (wat reeds dun mure gehad het) verlig het en verhoed dat dit kraak terwyl dit in die oond was. ( 7.) Verassing Urn: Ongeglazuurde gladde begraafoorn. Boeddhisme het die amptelike godsdiens van Silla geword in 528 nC en verassing het in die middel van die sewende eeu gewild geword. Die groot opgehoopte grafte het plek gemaak vir die eenvoudige begrawe van verassende bene in 'n urn tussen 550-650 n.C. Een stuk van dieselfde styl wat in die museumversameling van Ducksoo Palace (Deoksugung) is (of was) word geïllustreer in Vol. 5 van die Koseki Zufu gekies Η] .

( 8. ) Groot vaartuig: 9 ¾ ”hoog en 6 in” in deursnee is indrukwekkend en goed gevorm. Daar is geen versiering nie, behalwe drie bande met 'n uitgebreide ontwerp of golfpatroon in die bande om die nek. Daar is 'n mosgroen glans in 'n deel van die vaartuig, toevallig of opsetlik is nie bekend nie, maar aantreklik. Laat Silla -dinastie, 10de/11de eeu. Kleiner vaartuig wat 4 7/8 ”hoog en 6 ¼” in deursnee is. is 'n ruwe celadonvat met min onderskeid. . ( 9. ) 'N Voetlose beker: Sulke bekers het 'n dun, regop rand wat gerieflik is om te drink, en#9110 ]. Die unieke kenmerk is die handvatsel. ( 10. ) Silla -dinastie 8/9 eeu Hierdie grysvaartuig, waarskynlik gebruik as voedselhouer, is 9 ½ duim hoog en 9 ½ duim in deursnee. Die ritmiese patroon op die oppervlak van hierdie stuk is geskep deur 'n oop weefstof wat baie soos 'n mandjie geweef is en in die nat stadium om die houer gedraai is. As dit droog word, is dit die subtiele patroon wat ons waarneem. Relatief skaars in die mark. Verwysing: Koreaanse keramiek 'n Kunstenvariëteit Henderson -versameling.( 11. ) Gemonteerde koppies. Grys ​​steengoed. 'N Vergelykbare stuk opgegrawe uit graf No.116, kyo-dong, Ch'angnyong-gun, Kyongsang Namdo uit die Kaya-periode (Gaya-konfederasie) 5de-6de eeu kan gevind word in Die Nasionale Museum van Korea katalogus ⎗ ].

( 12. ) Hierdie groot voedselhouer met 'n afgeronde basis is waarskynlik op 'n soort staander laat rus. Die ontwerp op die stuk maak dit nogal aantreklik sowel as bruikbaar. ( 13. )Hierdie Silla -stuk meet 6 ¼ "uur. en 5 "in deursnee met die byvoeging van 'n uitstaande tuit. Dit is waarskynlik gebruik om koel water na 'n werkplek soos 'n rysveld te vervoer. 'N Tuitprop word gewoonlik gemaak deur 'n stokkie of klip met 'n stuk lap te draai om te voorkom dat dit mors. 'N Baie funksionele stuk. Verw .: Koreaanse aardewerk, Gregory Henderson. ( 14. ) Die beker in die middel is waarskynlik gebruik om voedsel te bevat, aangesien dit blykbaar gemaak is om 'n toegeruste deksel te bied. Die koppies aan weerskante is gemaak om 'n vloeistof te hou. Die vellings van hierdie bekers is ontwerp om maklik toegang te kry om te drink.

( 15. ) Inlegde Celadon-kom: Die oudste dateerbare ingelegde celadon is opgegrawe uit die graf van Mun Kong-yu wat in 1159 (dertiende jaar van die bewind van koning Ye-jong) in Kaep'ung-gun, in die provinsie Kyongi, gesterf het. Daar kan aanvaar word dat tussen die heerskappy van koning Injong en koning Ye-jong ingelegde celedontegnieke ontdek is en vinnig gewild geword het onder die adel. Die grafopgrawing van koning In-jong wat in 1146 gesterf het, het geen ingelegde erdewerk aan die lig gebring nie#9112 ]. ( 16. ) Ingesnyde Celadon -kom: Arabiese ontwerpe was ook algemeen vir ingesnyde celadon -stukke. In die laat 12de eeuse grafte is ingeslote voorbeelde gevind, toe dit bekend was dat ingelegde celadons baie gewilder was. Ses voorbeelde van Incised and Inlaid Celadon Bowls kan gesien word in Korea se erfenis vir aardewerk ⎙] . ( 17. ) Celadon -vaas: 11 ¼ ”hoog en 6 ¼” in deursnee. Dit is 'n uniform aantreklike stuk met egalige glans. Joseon -dinastie, 13de/1/4de eeu. ( 18. ) Vaas: meet 7 "hoog en 5" in deursnee. Hierdie silindervormige vaas in celadonglasuur het nie die karakter van 'n verfynde stuk nie, maar dit dien as 'n baie funksionele stuk.

( 19. ) Lae bak: 4 ¼ ”hoog en 5 ¼” in deursnee. Grysware van die 12de/13de eeu, 'n oorgangstydperk tussen die Koryo- en Joseon -tydperk. 'N Funksionele bak, maar die versiering is onreg, omdat strooi van 'n kontrasterende ligte tint met pigment gebruik is om 'n kontrasterende ontwerp te skep wat 'n kwart van die pad na die bak geborsel het. Die grond is grys/groen en dan die witterige glans met strooi. ( 20. ) Kom, 13de ”/14de eeu. Hierdie bak, uit die Koryo -tydperk, is 'n tradisionele vorm van daardie tydperk. Dit het 'n deursnee van 5 ½ ". Dit het geen versiering behalwe die kleur van die gekraakte, groen, celadonglasuur nie. Daar is 'n aansporing op die oppervlak van hierdie stuk, maar wat in die Weste as 'n gebrek beskou sou word, het dikwels 'n spesiale aantrekkingskrag in die Verre Ooste, waar vreemdheid om sy eie waarde waardeer word en gelykgestel word aan karakter en patos. Verwysing: Korean Arts, Vol. Twee, 1961.

( 21. ) Wynbottel (of vaas) is 13 "hoog x 6 7/8" in deursnee naby die basis. Die bottel het 'n bolvormige basis wat afneem tot 'n uitsteeklike nek. Daar is 'n ontwerp met lotusbloeisel en blare rondom die hele vaartuig, 'n luierpatroon naby die nek, saggies in ligte tonaliteit en die gevolge van begrafnis merkbaar waar die glans weggevreet word, maar die vaartuig ongeskonde is. Joseon tydperk van die 15de eeu. Verwysing: John Gilmore Ford, ASA. ( 22. ) Vaas: meet 10 "hoog en 7" in deursnee. Vaas van gekraakte groen-grys glans as grond met onderglasuurblou versiering van 'n draaiende draak om die hele vaas en die tipiese simboliese wolkmotief afgewissel. Vroeë 19de eeu. ( 23. ) Vaas: meet 10 "hoog en 71/4" in deursnee. Beslaan klassieke vaas in Meiping-styl, soos beskryf in China, Korea en Japan, met die blou onderglas. Die hoofontwerp is 'n draak wat om die vaas gedraai is, 'n baie indrukwekkende formaat en 'n wolkmotief onder die draak. Die golfpatroon in die boonste deel van die nek, die luierpatroon om die rand van die nek en die klein ringe aan die onderkant is goed gevorm en pragtig uitgevoer. Die grond is 'n liggrys glans en die blou is baie duidelik in twee tonaliteite. 1650-1750. ( 24. ) Wyn- of watervat: 8 ¾ ”hoog en 5 ½” in ​​deursnee. Hierdie bottel tap tot 'n smal nek wat opvlam vir gietdoeleindes en is oraloor bedek met 'n ligte groenblou gekraakte glans. 14de/15de eeu.

( 25. ) Die waterdrupper is gemaak vir die geleerde wat sorgvuldig beheerde druppels water benodig om die ink van sy inkstokkie op sy inkblad te meng wanneer hy kwasletters in Chinese skrif (Oos -Asiatiese kalligrafie) skryf of verf. Geen sulke voorwerpe was bekend uit Silla art ⎚ ] nie.( 26. ) Vaas: 7 ¼ ”hoog en 4 ½” in ​​deursnee. Die motief van swart ink aan elke kant is in 'n baie provinsiale styl van 'n blompatroon gedoen. 16de/17de eeu. ( 27. ) Swart Koyro -wynfles, 13de eeu, is 6 ½ "hoog en 5 in" in deursnee. Black Koryo is 'n seldsame en eksotiese neef van die celadon, want die swart word geproduseer deur 'n celadonglasuur oor 'n bruin strokie te gooi, en nie net 'n ryk swart kleur nie, maar ook pragtige modulasies in die drup. Dit is waarskynlik dat daar nie meer as 100 bekende stukke is nie, waarskynlik minder. Ref .: Korean Ceramics, Gregory Henderson .. ( 28. ) Hierdie bakomslag is versier met twee pioene en die gepaardgaande blare. 'N Simbool met 'n lang lewe is in die middel geskilder. Hierdie omslag, as dit omgedraai is, is waarskynlik as 'n voedselhouer of -bak gebruik. Dit was 'n funksionele item met 'n dubbele doel.

( 29.30.) Albei hierdie stukke is te sien in Sotheby's, Koreaanse kunswerke, New York -katalogus, 5 Junie 1992, ⎛ ] en is soos volg beskryf: Twee blou en wit bolvormige potte, Choson -dinastie, 19de eeu, elk in bolvormige vorm, een geverf met pioenstingels wat om die kante strek, onder 'n kraag van demi-florette en dubbellyngrense wat die kort uitgestrekte lip omring, skeur, restaurasies die tweede met vier eweredig gespreide sirkelvormige sirkels jy medaljes op die skouers, onder 'n kraag van demi-blommetjies en rande met 'n dubbele lyn wat die kort nek omring, skyfies, splete. Hoogtes 5 5/8 en 5 1/8 in. ( 31. ) Wynbottel, 14de eeu. Hierdie vroeë Yi -bottel is 10 ½ "hoog en 5 ½" in deursnee op die breedste deel. Dit is geglasuur in 'n groen/grys celadon. Die ontwerp, 'n onbeskryflike voorstelling van 'n drieblaar-tak, is in 'n ysterglasuur geverf. Die vorm is ongewoon en dui die neiging weg van die gevestigde tradisie. Dit is 'n goed gebalanseerde vaartuig, opvallend vir sy funksionaliteit en eenvoud in ontwerp. Verwysing: Korean Arts, Vol Two, 1961.. ( 32. ) Saam met die kwashouer en inkblad was die waterdropper die belangrikste toebehore van die geleerde. Een gat is gebruik om die waterdruppels op die inkblad ⎜ ] te beheer.

( 33. ) Rysbak: 3 3/8 "hoog en 7" in deursnee. Die binnekant is 'n liggroen celadon en die buitekant is 'n meer bruinerige gekraakte glans. Die buitekant het konsentriese ringe om die rand. 15de/16de eeu .. ( 34. )Kom: Chosan -dinastie, 17de eeu. Hierdie bak is 3 ½ "hoog en 6" in deursnee. Dit is van 'n gryswit glans met 'n onderglasuurblou versiering van 'n blomstingel aan elke kant, hoogs gestileer en 'n konsentriese ring om die nek. ( 35. )Gereg: Chosan -dinastie, 13de/14de eeu. Dit is 3 ½ "hoog en 5 in" in deursnee. Dit is steengoed met 'n celadonglasuur en versier met 'n gestileerde krisantblom aan die kant en twee konsentriese ringe naby die bokant. ( 36. ) Vaas Vroeë Chosan -dinastie 13/14 eeu. Meet 8 3/4   duim hoog en 4 5/8   duim in deursnee. Vertikale vaas is van grys/groen celadon, die vroegste vorm van celadon wat in die vroeë Yi -periode 13de/14de eeu bekend was. Die mees kenmerkende kenmerk is 'n rooibruin glans wat deur yster vervaardig word, van 'n hoogs gestileerde voël op elke skouer. Die nek vlieg netjies op. Die basis is meer rof, wat verband hou met blootstelling van klei in hierdie vroeë ware. Die oppervlak word ontpit. Verwysing: Keramiek, 'n kunstenaarsversameling Henderson -versameling.

( 37. ) Punchong Dish - 14de/15de eeu. Hierdie klein gereg is 5 cm groot. in deursnee en is versier met 'n sirkel van die tougordynontwerp. Hierdie patroon was baie algemeen gedurende die vroeë Joseon -periode. Die term Punchong word in Korea gebruik om te beskryf wat die Japannese mishima noem. Dit is die Koreaanse weergawe van die Chinese fen ching, wat ligblou of groen aandui, en is geskik vir sover die glans van celadon -tipe is. Dit wil sê, dit bevat yster en het dus die neiging om 'n groen of blou toon aan te neem wanneer die vaartuig in 'n verminderende atmosfeer afgevuur word. Die meeste van die Punchong -ware het 'n ligte blouerige of groenerige tint as gevolg van hierdie oorsaak. Verwysing: Korean Arts, Vol Two, 1961 .. ( 38. ) Groot ryskom- 3 1/8 "hoog en 7" in deursnee. Dit is van 'n tweekleurige, ligte en grys celadon-glans, atipiese glans, maar nog meer provinsiale ware met verhoogde voet. Die hele binnekant het 'n ligte tonaliteit en die buitenste rand en grys is aan die onderkant van die buitekant. 16de/17de eeu. Verwysing: John G.Ford, A.S.A. ( 39. ) Vaas: Hierdie vaas van 12 ½ "hoog en 8 ¼" in deursnee is aantreklik in sy eenvoud. Dit is pragtig in verhouding, sonder versiering, behalwe die groen-wit glans wat op plekke gedrup het, wat die gevoel van 'n ontwerp gee. 15de/16de eeu. ( 40. ) Punchong Dish - 14de/15de eeu. Hierdie klein skottel meet 5 cm. in deursnee en is versier met 'n sirkel blommekoppe. Die term Punchong word in Korea gebruik om te beskryf wat die Japannese mishima noem. Dit is die Koreaanse weergawe van die Chinese fen ching, wat ligblou of groen aandui, en is geskik vir sover die glans van celadon -tipe is. Dit wil sê, dit bevat yster en het dus die neiging om 'n groen of blou toon aan te neem wanneer die vaartuig in 'n verminderende atmosfeer afgevuur word. Die meeste van die Punchong -ware het 'n ligte blouerige of groenerige tint vanweë hierdie oorsaak. Verwysing: Korean Arts, Vol Two, 1961.

( 41. ) Steengoedspindels- Joseon-dinastie- 17de eeu. Hierdie spil is gebruik om reguit lyne te skep in argitektoniese uitleg van eiendom, twee skywe en ruimte om die koord om te draai en vas te hou terwyl dit gespan word. Die steengoed is in 'n grysgroen tint as glans en die middellyn is duidelik. Dit was aantreklike, funksionele kulturele stukke. Verwysing: John R. Fox, versameling Koreaanse keramiek. ( 42. ) Vier ryskoekstempels, 19de eeu. Een van die mees algemene items in die keramiek van die Joseon -dinastie was die ryskoekstempel. Ten minste een hiervan is in byna elke huishouding in Korea gevind. Die patrone van hierdie seëls was basies geometries of blomme. Ref: Koreaanse volksskilderye, Emille Museum, Seoul, Korea .. ( 43. ) Fles: meet 6 ¾ ”hoog en 4 ¼” in deursnee. 'N Kobaltblou versiering van 'n blomtakkie onder die glasuur versprei oor die grootste deel van die bottel aan die onderkant. 'N Witterige glans bedek hierdie goed gebalanseerde stuk. Die opvallende nek is eenvoudig en lank, 17de eeu. ( 44. ) Kom: groot, 9 ¼ "hoog en 9" in deursnee, is gryswit gemaalde steengoed met onderglasuurblou versiering van 'n granaatmotief en 'n luierwolkpatroon om die nek, baie eenvoudig, maar klassiek werk uit die 18de eeu.

( 45. ) Steengoed -bord, 17de eeu. Hierdie seremoniële offerstaander is 3 ½ "hoog en 8 ¾" in deursnee. Dit het geen versiering nie en is van liggrysgroen glans. Dit is in godsdienstige seremonies gebruik om ryskoeke of ander kos aan te bied. Hierdie stuk is goed ontwerp vir sy doel. Re: Vyf eeue Koreaanse keramiek deur Goro Akaboshi en Heiichiro Nakamaru. ( 46. ) Lae bak, 17de eeu. Hierdie bak is 41/4 inch hoog en 4 ¾ in deursnee. Dit het tien fasette en het 'n grys/wit glans met 'n blaarblou versiering van 'n blaarpatroon. Verw .: Die John Fox -versameling, Koreaanse keramiek, Syracuse, Universiteit. ( 47. ) Vaas: meet 11 "hoog en 7" in deursnee. Pragtig in sy eenvoud, met 'n lang nek en vloeiende afgeronde lyf. Sy enigste versiering is die egalige grysgroen gekraakte glans met die drup van die glans op die normale manier, 18de eeu. ( 48. )Bakkies: Joseon -dinastie, 13de/14de eeu. Die groter een is 2 ¾ ”hoog en 5 ¼” in deursnee. Die kleinste van die twee is 2 ½ "hoog en 4 ¾" in deursnee. Albei is in celadon -glans. Hulle is in godsdienstige seremonies gebruik.


Koreaanse aardewerk en porselein

Koreaanse keramiekgeskiedenis begin met die oudste erdewerk wat omstreeks 8000 vC dateer. Influenced by Chinese ceramics, Korean pottery developed a distinct style of its own, with its own shapes, such as the moon jar or maebyeong version of the Chinese meiping vase, and later styles of painted decoration. Korean ceramic trends had an influence on Japanese pottery and porcelain. [1] Examples of classic Korean wares are the celadons of the Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) and the white porcelains of the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897).

Geskiedenis

Neolithic

The earliest known Korean pottery dates back to around 8.000 BC, [2] and evidence of Mesolithic Pit–Comb Ware culture (or Yunggimun pottery) is found throughout the peninsula, such as in Jeju Island. Jeulmun pottery, or "comb-pattern pottery", is found after 7000 BC, and is concentrated at sites in west-central regions of the Korean Peninsula, where a number of prehistoric settlements, such as Amsa-dong, existed. Jeulmun pottery bears basic design and form similarities to that of Mongolia, the Amur and Sungari river basins of Manchuria, the Jōmon culture in Japan, and the Baiyue in Southern China and Southeast Asia. [3] [4]

Later Silla

Pottery of the Later Silla period (668–935) was initially simple in color, shape, and design. Celadon subsequently became the main production.

Buddhism, the dominant religion of the time in Korea, increased the demand for celadon-glazed wares (cheongja), causing cheongja celadon to evolve very quickly, with more organic shapes and decorations, such as animal and bird motifs. When making cheongja wares, a small amount of iron powder was added to the refined clay, which was then coated with a glaze and an additional small amount of iron powder, and then finally fired. This allowed the glaze to be more durable, with a shinier and glossier finish than white wares.

Goryeo

The Goryeo dynasty (918–1392) achieved the unification of the Later Three Kingdoms under Wang Geon. The works of this period are generally considered to be the finest works of ceramics in Korean history. [5] [6] [7] Korean celadon reached its pinnacle with the invention of the sanggam inlay technique in the early 12th century. [8] [9] [10]

Key-fret, foliate designs, geometric or scrolling flowerhead bands, elliptical panels, stylized fish, insects, birds and the use of incised designs began at this time. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Celadon glazes could be rendered almost transparent to show black and white inlays. Jinsa "underglaze red", a technique using copper oxide pigment to create copper-red designs, was developed in Korea during the 12th century, and later inspired the "underglaze red" ceramics of the Yuan dynasty. [11] [12] [13] [14]

While the forms generally seen are broad-shouldered jars, larger low jars or shallow smaller jars, highly decorated celadon cosmetic boxes, and small slip-inlaid cups, the Buddhist potteries also produced melon-shaped vases, chrysanthemum cups often of spectacularly architectural design on stands with lotus motifs and lotus flower heads. In-curving rimmed alms bowls have also been discovered similar to Korean metalware . Wine cups often had a tall foot which rested on dish-shaped stands.

Baekja wares came from highly refined white clay, glazed with feldspar, and fired in regulated and clean large kilns. Despite the refining process, white glazes invariably vary as a result of the properties of the clay itself firing methods were not uniform, temperatures varied and glazes on pieces vary from pure white, in an almost snowy thickness, through milky white that shows the clay beneath deliberately in washed glaze, to light blue and light yellow patinas. After having succeeded the tradition of Goryeo baekja, soft white porcelain was produced in Joseon Dynasty, that carried on, but from the mid-Joseon on hard white porcelain became the mainstream porcelain. [15] [16]

Die baekja wares reached their zenith immediately before the Joseon Dynasty came to power. Fine pieces have recently been found in the area around Wolchil Peak near Mount Kumgang. The transitional wares of white became expressions of the Joseon Dynasty celebrations of victory in many pieces decorated with Korean calligraphy. Traditionally white wares were used by both the scholarly Confucian class, the nobility and royalty on more formal occasions.

Joseon

During the Joseon dynasty, (1392–1897) ceramic wares were considered to represent the highest quality of achievement from royal, city, and provincial kilns, the last of which were export-driven wares. Joseon enjoyed a long period of growth in royal and provincial kilns, and much work of the highest quality still preserved.

Wares evolved along Chinese lines in terms of colour, shape, and technique. Celadon, white porcelain, and storage pottery were similar, but with certain variations in glazes, incision designs, florality, and weight. The Ming influence in blue and white wares using cobalt-blue glazes existed, but without the pthalo blue range, and the three-dimensional glassine colour depth of Ming Dynasty Chinese works.

Simplified designs emerged early on. Buddhist designs still prevailed in celadon wares: lotus flowers, and willow trees. The form most often seen was that of pear-shaped bottles. Notable were thinner glazes, and colourless glazes for buncheong or stoneware. During the Joseon period, Koreans applied the sanggam tradition to create buncheong ceramics. [17] [18] In contrast to the refined elegance of Goryeo celadon, buncheong is designed to be natural, unassuming, and practical. [19] However, the buncheong tradition was gradually replaced by Joseon white porcelain, its aristocratic counterpart, and disappeared in Korea by the end of the 16th century. [18] Buncheong became known and prized in Japan as Mishima. [20] [21] [22]

Joseon white porcelain representing Joseon ceramics was produced throughout the entire period of the Joseon dynasty. The plain and austere white porcelain suitably reflects the taste of Neo-Confucian scholars. [23] Qing colouring, brighter and almost Scythian in enamel imitation, was rejected by Korean potters, in favour of simpler, less decorated wares in keeping with a new dynasty that built itself on Confucian doctrine.

Generally, the ceramics of this dynasty is divided into early, middle, and late periods, changing every two centuries, approximately thus 1300 to 1500 is the early period, 1500 to 1700 the middle, and 1700 to 1900–1910 the late period.

The wares began to assume more traditional Korean glazes and more specific designs to meet regional needs. This is to be expected, as the Scythian art influences were of the former dynasty. The rise of white porcelain occurred as a result of Confucian influence and ideals, resulting in purer, less pretentious forms lacking artifice and complexity.

In 1592 during the Japanese invasion of Korea, entire villages of Korean potters were forcibly relocated to Japan, damaging the pottery industry as craftsmen had to relearn techniques because the masters were gone. [24]

20th century

A revival of celadon pottery began in the early 20th century, including the work of Living National Treasure, Yu Geun-Hyeong, whose work was documented in the 1979 short film, Koryo Celadon.

Exports

Nearly all exports of Korean ceramics went to Japan, and most were from provincial coastal kilns, especially in the Busan area. Export occurred in two ways: either through trading or through invasion and theft of pottery and the abduction [25] to Japan of families of potters who made the wares. The voluntary immigration of potters was improbable since Joseon pottery was administrated by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (工曹) (ko:공조 (행정기관)). As a national resource, pottery technician trade with foreign countries was prohibited.

Kilns

Central to Korean success were the chambered climbing kilns, based on the Chinese dragon kiln, that were used throughout the Joseon dynasty and exported abroad, especially to Japan by Korean kiln-makers where they were renamed as noborigama in the Karatsu area from the 17th century on.


Korea - Korean potters

Korea - Korean potters

Chinese pottery and porcelain always exerted a strong influence in Korea, but Korean potters introduced subtle variations on Chinese models. Gray stoneware, found in tombs, was typical of the Silla dynasty (4th to 10th century ad).

Song-influenced celadons characterize pottery of the Koryŏ dynasty (918-1392). Tradicional Chosŏn pottery (1392-1910), the blue and white style ranks as some of the most beautiful in the world. Later work, although less refined, was admired for its straightforward dignity. Koreans, in turn, introduced Korean and Chinese pottery into Japan.

Contact us!

Pottery courses & ceramic gallery
Ctiradova 6, 140 00 Prague 4
Czech Republic
Cell: +420 606 655 019

Pottery video

Pottery throwing demonstration!
Watch the pottery making technique live!


Traditional Korean Pottery February 12, 2021 5:24 PM Subscribe

I've been making my own cabbage kimchi for the last couple of years. Not in beautiful onggi, I'm afraid, just simple glass jars. It's remarkably easy and doesn't require any particularly hard-to-find-in-the-US ingredients. Except maybe Korean ground pepper, readily available on Amazon, it has a particular texture. But honestly any ground dried red chile will do. I like extra fish sauce too but I've never quite brought myself to bringing in actual raw oysters or anchovy as some recipes I've seen suggest. Don't trust my ingredient sources or fermentation technique quite that much.

The real revelation for me making kimchi is as it ferments it goes through a stage after 2-3 days I've heard called "sweet kimchi", I don't know what the Korean word for it is. But in that moment it's already fermented some, so it has the good funky flavors you want. But all the sugar hasn't fermented yet and there's not very much lactic acid yet, so the final flavor is more mildly sweet than sour. Still quite fresh and crunchy, yet also noticeably fermented. It's a lovely and unexpected surprise reward for making your own on its way to getting stronger and more sour.

I mostly make my own kimchi but I've been buying more at the store since I discovered the Wildbrine brand at my local grocery store in California. It's really very good. Note they have no fish flavors of any sort in it if you prefer them (and I sure do), add a glug or two to the jar, shake it up, and give it a day to incorporate.

I've got the ingredients for doenjang jjigae in my fridge, probably for dinner tomorrow. So good. It's like if miso soup got much more robust and you made a delicious stew in it. There's a zillion varieties with different ingredients the key thing is the doenjang broth.

Are there any really good fancy / elevated Korean restaurants in the US? There must be, but I'm looking for something more than simple hot pot and barbeque. I've been thinking once travel is possible again I'd head down to LA and eat my way through the best Korean I can find there.
posted by Nelson at 6:41 PM on February 12 [1 favorite]

Just off the top of my head re: fancy Korean restaurants, Jungsik is Michelin-starred. I’ve had the dessert menu and I would love to eat there again. I can think of a few places here in Chicago but I don’t know LA well enough to suggest anything like that there.

I’ve been getting a ton of Napa cabbage in my farm boxes lately, so I’ve made a few batches of kimchi in the last few months. So I’m enjoying this post! I would like one of these pots I just use jars, too.
posted by jeweled accumulation at 8:08 PM on February 12 [1 favorite]

Oh, this has just reminded me of one of my favorite experiences during a holiday where we stopped in the Gyeongju Folk Craft Village. I would have loved to spend longer at the Silla pottery house, watching him work and explain the craft of finding the right clay to correctly replicate the Silla style and admire his kiln (built into the side of the hill!). I hadn't planned on buying too many souvenirs that trip since I was flying and didn't want to lug a lot of stuff home, but I spent 200,000 won (which was a lot for me at the time!) on a full tea set because it was so lovely. It's still one of my favorite souvenirs just in general, even if I mildly regretted at the time buying something so bulky and fragile at the start of a longer holiday.

As for kimchi, I am lazy and just get the Hmart in-house kimchi because it tastes good enough for me, except these days I am limiting my in-store shopping outings so I haven't had kimchi for awhile. I did just go to Costo this week (for the quarterly pantry refresh!) and saw our store was now selling a commercial brand of kimchi, so I've picked it up out of curiosity and the longing for kimchi fried rice. Last year I used up a little too fermented kimchi (aka it was in the back of the fridge and I forgot about it) to make jeon for Pancake Day, so now I'm tempted to do the same thing this Tuesday.
posted by paisley sheep at 11:12 PM on February 12

« Older The Difference is Still Clear and the Passion. | Add some goat to your meeting Newer »


Sien ook

  1. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Retrieved 18 July 2017 .
  2. ^Chong Pil Choe, Martin T. Bale, "Current Perspectives on Settlement, Subsistence, and Cultivation in Prehistoric Korea" , (2002), Arctic Anthropology, 39: 1-2, pp. 95-121.
  3. ^Stark 2005, p.𧆉.
  4. ^Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp.㺗–26. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLee_Hyun-hee2005 (help)
  5. ^"Koreana : a Quarterly on Korean Art & Culture" .
  6. ^"Korean-Arts About Korean Celadon" .
  7. ^ Francoeur, Susanne (1 January 2004). "Review of Goryeo Dynasty: Korea's Age of Enlightenment, 918-1392". The Journal of Asian Studies. 63 (4): 1154–1156. doi:10.1017/s0021911804002888 . JSTOR� .
  8. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015-09-07). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Retrieved 27 March 2017 .
  9. ^ Lee, Soyoung. "Goryeo Celadon" . The Metropolitan Museum of Art . Retrieved 27 March 2017 .
  10. ^ Injae, Lee Miller, Owen Jinhoon, Park Hyun-Hae, Yi (2014-12-15). Korean History in Maps . Cambridge University Press. p.㻌. ISBN  9781107098466 . Retrieved 27 March 2017 .
  11. ^ Lee, Lena Kim (1981). Korean Art . Philip Jaisohn Memorial Foundation. p.㺏 . Retrieved 27 April 2017 . Koryo potters also experimented with the use of copper for red designs under the glaze, since ground copper pigment fires red in the reducing kiln atmosphere. This technique was started in the twelfth century. Many scholars agree that Chinese Yuan wares with underglaze red design were inspired by the Koryo potters' use of copper red at the time when the Yuan and Koryo courts had very close political ties.
  12. ^"Collection online" . British Museum . Retrieved 27 April 2017 .
  13. ^ Sullivan, Michael (1984). The Arts of China . University of California Press. p.𧇄 . ISBN  9780520049185 . Retrieved 27 April 2017 .
  14. ^"진사 이야기" . The Yonsei Chunchu (in Korean). Yonsei University . Retrieved 27 April 2017 .
  15. ^ Yunesŭkʻo Hanʾguk Wiwŏnhoe. Unesco Korean survey. Dong-a Pub. Co., 1960. p.32
  16. ^Pictorial Korea. Korean Overseas Information Service, 2004. p.28
  17. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015-09-07). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  18. ^ ab Lee, Author: Soyoung. "Joseon Buncheong Ware: Between Celadon and Porcelain" . The Met’s Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  19. ^ Koehler, Robert (2015-09-07). Korean Ceramics: The Beauty of Natural Forms . Seoul Selection. ISBN  9781624120466 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  20. ^ Levenson, Jay A. (U.S.), National Gallery of Art (1991). Circa 1492: Art in the Age of Exploration . Yale University Press. p.𧊦. ISBN  978-0300051674 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  21. ^ Hopper, Robin (2004-10-29). Making Marks: Discovering the Ceramic Surface . Krause Publications Craft. p.𧅧. ISBN  978-0873495042 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  22. ^ Snodgrass, Mary Ellen (2004-12-29). Encyclopedia of Kitchen History . Routledge. p.𧏼. ISBN  9781135455729 . Retrieved 29 March 2017 .
  23. ^ Scott Hudson, National Museum of Korea, Sol Publishing, 2005
  24. ^"History of South Korea" . Lonely Planet Travel Information.
  25. ^Financial Times - Korea’s artistic treasures – and their links to China and Japan by David Pilling APRIL 11, 2014

History of Korea - Prehistory and Gojoseon - Jeulmun Pottery Period

The earliest known Korean pottery dates back to around 8000 BC, and evidence of Mesolithic Pit-Comb Ware culture or Yungimun Pottery is found throughout the peninsula. An example of a Yungimun-era site is in Jeju-do. Jeulmun or Comb-pattern Pottery is found after 7000 BC, and pottery with comb-patterns over the whole vessel is found concentrated at sites in west-central Korea, where a number of settlements such as Amsa-dong existed. Jeulmun pottery bears basic design and form similarities to that of Mongolia, and the Amur and Sungari river basins of Manchuria and the Jōmon culture in Japan.

Famous quotes containing the words pottery and/or period :

&ldquo There is on the earth no institution which Friendship has established it is not taught by any religion no scripture contains its maxims. It has no temple, nor even a solitary column. There goes a rumor that the earth is inhabited, but the shipwrecked mariner has not seen a footprint on the shore. The hunter has found only fragments of pottery and the monuments of inhabitants. &rdquo
&mdashHenry David Thoreau (1817�)

&ldquo Finally she grew quiet, and after that, coherent thought. With this, stalked through her a cold, bloody rage. Hours of this, a period of introspection, a space of retrospection, then a mixture of both. Out of this an awful calm. &rdquo
&mdashZora Neale Hurston (1891�)


Korean Pottery - History

Paleolithic Period (700,000 BC to 40,000 BC)

Evidence from a few scattered Paleolithic sites suggests that Neanderthal man may have lived on this peninsula for half a million years, and that a Paleo-Asiatic man inhabited it from about 40,000 B.C. While little is actually known about these latter Stone Age people, it's assumed from stone tools and weapons, bone artifacts, food remains, and fireplace sites that they were hunter-gatherers and fishermen. Some lived on riverside flat land, yet most seem to have inhabited inland caves. It's likely that people moved from the Korean Peninsula to the Japanese islands about 20,000 years ago, when the Korean Strait was much narrower.

The origins of this period are an open question but the antiquity of hominid occupation in Korea may date to as early as 500,000 BCE. Yi and Clark are somewhat skeptical of dating the earliest occupation to the Lower Palaeolithic.

At Seokjang-ri, an archaeological site near Gongju, Chungcheongnam-do Province, artifacts that appear to have an affinity with Lower Paleolithic stone tools were unearthed in the lower levels of the site. Bifacial chopper or chopping-tools were also excavated. Hand axes and cleavers produced by men in later eras were also uncovered.

The earliest radiocarbon dates for the Paleolithic indicate the antiquity of occupation on the Korean peninsula is between 40,000 and 30,000 BP. From an interesting habitation site at Locality 1 at Seokjang-ri, excavators claim that they excavated some human hairs of Mongoloid origin along with limonitic and manganese pigments near and around a hearth, as well as animal figurines such as a dog, tortoise and bear made of rock. Reports claim that these were carbon dated to some 20,000 years ago. The Palaeolithic ends when pottery production begins c 8000 BCE.

Known as Yungimun Pottery, the pottery has been found in much of the peninsula. Gosan-ri in Jeju-do, and Ubong-ri in Greater Ulsan, represent examples of Yungimun-era sites. Jeulmun, or Comb-pattern Pottery, can be found after 7000 B.C.E

In recent years, Paleolithic remains have been found in a number of excavations. The best known sites are in Unggi county North Hamgyong province, Chunghwa county and Kongju, South Chungchong prov . These date from about 30,000 to 20,000 years ago. It is not known if the Korean people of today are the ethnic descendants of these Paleolithic people . Paleolithic man in Korea lived in caves and built dwellings above ground. Stone tools such as hand axes using chipping and flaking have been found from this period .

Neolithic man, characterized by the making of polished tools and the use of pottery, appeared in Korea about 4,000 B.C. and were the same ethnic stock as the inhabitants of Siberia . Around 3,000 B.C. that pottery with geometric designs, called ' comb pattern pottery ' appears , such pottery of a similar design has been found in the Maritime Territory of Siberia and Mongolia . Around 1,800 B.C. a third pottery culture characterized by painted designs spread into Korea from Manchuria.

Located in Amsa-Dong, the Prehistoric Settlement Site (선사주거지) was unearthed in 1925 when a massive flood washed over the banks of the Han River. To date, this Neolithic has been the largest discovered in Korea. The Amsa-Dong Prehistoric Settlement Site depicts the average life of these primitive humans as well as many relics recovered from archeological excavations. The number and quality of these finds is so great, that the site and its artifacts were designated National Historic Relic #267 in 1979. Humans that called this area home not only lived here during the Neolithic period, but also the during the Bronze Age and Baekje.

Unlike Korea's Paleolithic people, the ethnic stock of the Neolithic people merged to form the modern inhabitants of Korea. Neolithic sites are often found near the banks of rivers and seashores . Stone sinkers attest to the use of fishnets. Farming tools also make their appearance . Grain and nuts were ground by millstones. Neolithic man lived mainly in pit dwellings . Neolithic man in Korea held animistic beliefs, that every object in the world had a spirit . Neolithic graves are found with the head toward the rising sun in many sites .The basic societal unit of the time was the clan .

Artifacts from the peninsula's more numerous Neolithic sites indicate that Neolithic man replaced the Paleo-Asiatic man during several waves of migration from central and northeast Asia about 4000 B.C. (some suggest 8000 B.C.). The ancestors of modem Koreans, these people were of the Tungusic branch of the Altaic language group, which included the nomadic tribes of southeast Siberia, the Manchus, and the Mongols. Neolithic man lived along rivers and coasts. A hunter-gatherer and fisherman, he used polished stone tools and weapons, and produced round-bottomed plain pottery.

A second wave of immigrants began around 3000 B.C. The plentiful archaeological sites from this period reveal a comb-pattern pottery similar to samples found in Manchuria and Mongolia.

Better tools and weapons were produced, and weaving was begun. With the inception of rudimentary cultivation and the domestication of animals, people moved inland and became more sedentary. Along with a greater reliance on cultivation came an increase in population, with another probable migration to Japan. During this time kinship relationships developed and blood clans exchanged goods and intermarried. Superior cultivation techniques, advances in tools and weapons, greater variety in the preparation ration of foods, storehouses, and objects of decoration and veneration indicate a growing sophistication.

A third wave of migrants arrived between roughly 1800 and 800 B.C. These people created new pottery shapes and designs, some painted. They developed a more advanced society that gave rise to specialized occupations, formalized social relationships, and some sort of order and rule of law. These clans grew in number and size, evolving into associated clan groups and tribes. Neolithic man was an animist who believed that animate and inanimate objects have souls. As this belief became more important, the responsibility for the activities and interpretation of this quasi-religion was taken over by shamans who developed prestige and power within the community, and may have become chiefs or respected elders.

About 700 B.C., bronze was introduced to the Korean Peninsula and peripheral regions of eastern Asia, most probably from central Manchuria and southern Siberia. Also, an influx of people at this time from eastern China brought advanced technology, metallurgy, more developed agricultural practices, including the cultivation of rice, animal husbandry, and the production of undecorated red pottery. While still depending in part on hunting, gathering, and fishing, people of the peninsula established permanent settlements in river basins and upland regions. They established a social hierarchy of commoner, privileged class, and leader. The society produced metal tools and effective weapons, and honored their leaders with dolmen tomb burials.

Tribal units developed into walled-town states where territory, not blood or relationship, was the dominant cohesive factor. Eventually, these began to form larger confederations, with one group among them becoming most influential. These states had a centralized government, and were the foundation from which the first historical states evolved.


Korean Pottery - History


Celadon Vase Inlaid with Crane-and-Cloud Pattern
Goryeo, 12th Century
42.1cm in height and 24.5cm in diameter at its widest point

The voluminous form of this wonderful 12th century Goryeo porcelain
piece came from the Meiping (or Maebyeong in Korean, literally meaning
a ‘maehwa vase’) style from the Sung Dynasty in China. By the time this
vase was made, however, Goryeo had already established its own style
characterized by a more expansive form and elegantly-curved lines. 'N
increasingly-important achievement of Goryeo porcelain ware in the
world’s ceramics history is the introduction of the inlaying technique to
the art of porcelain. In this vase, whose form, size and luxuriousness
make it one of the greatest masterpieces of its kind, the pattern of white
cranes and clouds is exquisitely inlaid into the surface of the jade-blue
body.


The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) introduced the era of white-ceramics production, but it also meant the emergence
of Confucian culture in Korea. The Joseon Dynasty, launched after it forcibly overthrew the Goryeo Dynasty, attempted
a great ideological shift in Korean society by promoting a ‘pro-Confucian and anti-Buddhist policy.’ The development
of white porcelain became an important part of the new dynasty’s efforts to lay a firm foundation for society to follow
the simple and austere white ceramics ware matched the Confucian ideals of a simple and austere lifestyle. Gradually
white ceramics ware grew to symbolize the Joseon Dynasty that ruled the kingdom according to Confucian
teachings.

The white ceramics of the early Joseon Dynasty display an ascetic yet regal beauty, as if to reflect
the artistic taste of Neo-Confucian scholars who sought after a strictly-disciplined mind and an immaterialist
philosophy. Consequently, these pure-white ceramics without any decoration became mainstream,
although some were adorned with delicate and fine literati ink painting in blue and/or oxidized iron.
In the mid-Joseon period, white ceramic artisans in Korea began to produce some of the finest
porcelain in terms of stark beauty, perfect balance and elegant form closely interwoven with profound
philosophical thoughts about nature. By the time the Joseon Dynasty had moved into its later period,
the porcelain had also evolved towards the ‘beauty of daily life,’ by focusing on practical usage with
more decorativeness. By this time, the use of porcelain had spread into the life of the common people and
the ceramics, themselves, had transformed into incredibly modest yet delightfully versatile household items.

Blue and White Porcelain Bottle with
Chrysanthemum and Bamboo Design
Joseon, 18th Century
27.5cm in height and 12.8cm in diameter at its widest point.

This blue and white porcelain bottle of the Joseon Dynasty displays
an elegant octagonal body, sleek neck and a charming lip gently curled
out. Its delightfully-simple form, slightly bluish-white color, and refined
chrysanthemum and bamboo design painted in restrained blue makes
this a wonderful example of blue-and-white ceramic ware of the mid-
Joseon period. With its charmingly-small size, unassuming color
combination, and serene form, this bottle is widely regarded as a
masterpiece of its kind.


One of the major production sites of ceramic ware made for the masses during the late Joseon Dynasty was the
city of Mungyeong located in the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula. Here more than 200 kiln sites have been
found and the tradition of porcelain-making is still strong. With easy accessibility to good-quality clay, clean water in
nearby valleys and ample firewood, Mungyeong possesses the ideal natural environment in which to create such
wonderful porcelain. The value of Mungyeong porcelain is highly regarded today because its potters adhere to
long-established methods, kilns and tools, strongly refusing to use any modern equipment or materials. It is in
Mungyeong where the Master Potter ( Sagijang ), Kim Jeong-ok, keeps the custom of Joseon white porcelain alive,
a family heritage that dates back seven generations.


Discovering Korea for Kids with Kids’ Books, Art and Food

This was my second pilgrimage to the Brimfield Antique Flea Market with Sharon Schindler Photography and Capability:Mom. Sharon is there to shoot and shop. She shot some amazing vintage photographs there last year and Capability:Mom has the Ball Jars photo on her kitchen wall. This year they both scored blue-y tinged vintage Ball Jars for a song, a purchase that was made sweeter when we found out that the rest of the vintage jars there were much more expensive!

Image by Sharon Schindler. Print available here.

As for me, I was looking for tallish knick-knacks for the living room and found a beautiful piece of pottery that reminded me of the pottery described in A Single Shard. I was guessing (and hoping) that my piece is Korean but I’m not really sure. It’s gorgeous Celadon celery green in color with a carved-out design that is glazed over.

A Single Shard is set during 12th century Korea, long considered the Golden Age of Korea. I thought I would continue down the path of my family history via Teach Me Tuesday and tell you about my husband’s ancestral history. My husband is Korean and related to the older brother who was passed over for his younger brother — unusual in Korean monarchies. This younger brother was Taejo Yi Seong-gye whose reign started the Yi Dynasty, also known as Joseon, Chosŏn, Choson, or Chosun which lasted approximately five centuries. “Joseon’s rule has left a substantial legacy on the modern face of Korea much of modern Korean etiquette, cultural norms, societal attitudes towards current issues, and even the modern Korean language and its dialects stem from the traditional thought pattern that originated from this period.” from Wikipedia

Family legend has it that these relatives all had light golden brown eyes, very different from the dark brown eyes of most Asians. My husband and his siblings have these same colored eyes. His turn golden brown, almost hazel, when he is out all day in the sun. I don’t know if this is a genetic mutation á la hemophilia of the European monarchy or a result of mixing of blood through Russians who came to isolationist Korea during this time. My husband thinks he might have Russian blood but we’ll never know!

If you want to learn more about Korean history, here’s a good link.

Children’s Literature

Dear Juno by Soyung Pak [picture book, ages 4-9]

Dear Junois another gem that, while it focuses on a Korean American experience, it transcends Asian American children’s literature and speaks to anyone who has family in another country that speaks another language that our kids do not understand. I have a post on it here.

A Single Shard by Linda Sue Park [chapter book for ages 8-12]

Newbery award-winning book about a famous potter during the Golden Age of Korea. I have a Top 10 List of Korean American Children’s Books here.

Seesaw Girl by Linda Sue Park [chapter book for ages 8-12]

A glimpse into the lives of the nobility during the Golden Age of Korea and the restrictions placed on women.

Korean Celadon Pottery

These are examples of contemporary Korean Celadon pottery and are for sale. To examine more closely, just click on image of photo.

Chests of Korea’s Chosun Dynasty

These chests are highly collectible largely due to the fact that many were burned for firewood during the Korean War. There simply are not many of these left so if you are thinking of getting one, beware of fakes. Here’s more information on the chests from KoreanMosiac.net:

The chests presented here are the bandaji, jang, ham, en nong. (For information on the pronunciation of Korean, see the box “Romanization,” below.) The bandaji was used for storing clothing, documents and valuables inside, and bedding on top during the day (which explains why it is called a “blanket chest” in English). It has one door, which usually runs the entire width of the chest and opens down from the very top. The jang has from one to three levels (rarely a fourth) in one frame, with two outward-opening doors in the center of each level. The ham was a box for items of special significance. The nong was basically a box, usually stacked with another exactly the same and set on a base but occasionally placed separately.

Kalbi or Bulgogi Marinade for Beef, Chicken or Fish

This is my mother-in-law’s recipe and she’s a really great cook. I don’t know anyone who doesn’t love Korean BBQ beef. My mother-in-law says that you can also use it for chicken or fish and that you can bbq the meat or braise it in the marinade. Versatile AND delicious!

For Kalbi. Kalbi is the short rib cut across the bone into strips. You can only find this cut at a Korean market but it’s worth hunting down. The secret is to 1) wash the meat carefully and then dry it because there are bone shards littered about on the meat and 2) sprinkle regular granulated sugar over each strip (the ways you’d salt a steak) on each side and leave to marinade for an hour or so. Add the meat with the juices to the rest of the marinade. Let it marinade for a few hours and then bbq on a grill. Yum!

For Bulgogi. Bulgogi is very thinly sliced beef and again, you have to buy it from a Korean Market. It’s great for a fast meal because you don’t have to marinade the meat for very long and it cooks up quickly. You can use Bulgogi for Bee Bim Bop or rolled up sushi style in Gim-Gahp or just eat with rice.

Kalbi Marinade

1/2 cup soy sauce (we use Kikoman’s and the brand of soy sauce does make a difference!)

2 tablespoons of finely minced garlic (use fresh and not from a jar please! Mash garlic with flat of a knife and then mince finely)

1/4 cup finely minced green onions (also called scallions). My mother-in-law julienne’s each green onion (after washing carefully to remove dirt) into about 4 long lengths, then minces this finely.

1-2 tablespoons sesame seed oil (the Asian variety. It should be nut brown and smell fragrant)

2 tablespoons sugar (white granulated is fine)

1) Wash beef strips, trim fat and dry.

2) Sprinkle sugar on beef — an additional 6 tablespoons and mix thoroughly.

3) Combine rest of marinade ingredients in a large bowl. Add the liquid from the beef in sugar.

4) Dip beef into marinade one at a time and lay in a pan.

5) Leave to marinade for an hour or more refrigerated.

6) Cook on a grill until done. Serve with rice.

To examine any of the items listed, please click on image of item. As an Amazon Associate, I earn from qualifying purchases.

BEST #OWNVOICES CHILDREN’S BOOKS: My Favorite Diversity Books for Kids Ages 1-12 is a book that I created to highlight books written by authors who share the same marginalized identity as the characters in their books.


Song Dynasty Ceramics

Chinese ceramics of the Song Dynasty (960–1279) constitute perhaps the foremost expression of ceramic art, not only in China but in the entire world. During the Song period, a unity of the essential components fundamental to the art: vessel shape, potting techniques, glaze, decoration, firing processes, and aesthetic theory were all combined in a high standard of excellence.

In general, the shapes of Song Dynasty are simple and sedate by comparison to what preceded them and what was to follow. Likewise, the glazes tend to be monochromatic and subtle, a fluid, integral part of the form of the vessel they cover, with a depth of color and texture that invites the spectator to both touch and contemplate.

Song aesthetic sophistication was matched by an incredible inventiveness, which led to a variety of classic wares, usually associated with a specific region of China. These included the court-patronized five famous kilns: Ru (汝), Guan (官), Ge (哥), Jun (鈞), Ding (定) wares as well as the Longquan (龍泉) celadons. There are also the more pedestrian kilns, such as Cizhou ware (磁州窯), Yaozhou ware (耀州窯), and Jianyang ware (建陽窯). Several of these regional ceramic wares were so valued during their day that they were used as tribute and yearly taxes to the imperial court. In terms of technical expertise, inventiveness, and aesthetic perfection of glaze and shape, the Song period stands unrivaled for the quality of its ceramic ware.


Kyk die video: Koreaanse Taalles: Begroetingen en koreaanse namen FormeleInformele Korean Language Show