Exorcists genoem as Mass Hysteria neem Maleisiese skoolmeisies oor

Exorcists genoem as Mass Hysteria neem Maleisiese skoolmeisies oor

'N Skool in Maleisië is gesluit nadat 'n donker spektrale figuur berig is wat die gedagtes van kinders oorneem in 'n geval van' massa -histerie ', 'n sielkundige verskynsel wat deur die geskiedenis opgeteken is.

Skoolowerhede het die perseel, SKM Pengkalan Chepa 2, in die stad Kota Bharu in die hoogs godsdienstige deelstaat Kelantan in die noorde van Maleisië gesluit en beweer dat geeste veroorsaak het dat ongeveer 100 kinders 'n rits skynbaar bonatuurlike gebeurtenisse beleef het. Die ander wêreldse gebeurtenisse het so intens geword dat die BBC berig skoolpersoneel wat “Islamitiese tradisionele kundiges, geleerdes en selfs toordokters in gebedsessies en uitdrywings” inroep.

Die onderstaande video toon 'n soortgelyke gebeurtenis waarin massahisterie meisies by 'n skool in Indië aangryp. Sommige kykers kan die opnames ontstellend vind:

Dinge het verlede week in Maleisië begin skeefloop toe 'n meisie berig dat sy uit haar stoel val en 'na die ander wêreld kyk', waar sy beweer dat sy tonele van bloed, bloedstorting en geweld en 'n gesig van pure boosheid sien. 'N Langvormartikel gepubliseer op BBC Asië haal die meisie aan en sê “dit het my agtervolg, ek kon nie ontsnap nie. Ek maak my mond oop en probeer skree, maar daar kom geen geluid nie. Ek het flou geval. ”

Na hierdie gebeurtenis het 'n 'swart figuur' in die skool begin skuil en alles het van die lys af gegaan toe onderwysers begin beweer dat hulle dieselfde ontstellende bonatuurlike figuur ervaar. Volgens 'n verslag oor Astra Awani , het so 'n onderwyser gesê dat sy 'n swaar teenwoordigheid aan haar voel, terwyl 'n ander onderwyser beweer dat die swart figuur 'probeer om in haar liggaam te kom'.

'N Onderwyser het nie 'n bietjie probeer om met hierdie situasie te rasionaliseer nie, en het aan die BBC gesê:' Hierdie kinders kan ongehoorsaam wees en soms hul rommel op die skoolterrein gooi. Miskien het hulle 'n 'djinns' (spook) getref en die geeste beledig. " Dit is alles bevestig deur die skoolhoof, Siti Hawa Mat, wat gesê het "al die slagoffers beweer dat hulle 'n 'swart figuur' gesien het tydens die voorvalle."

  • Vreemde gevalle van massahisterie deur die geskiedenis
  • Hysterie van Salem Witch Trial en die moedige standpunt van Giles Corey
  • Die geheimsinnige geval van Middeleeuse dansmanie

Spoke haat godsdiens en skoolwerk!

Dr Robert Bartholomew is 'n Britse sosioloog wat hierdie gebeure in Maleisië fyn dopgehou het, en hy het aan die BBC gesê dat dit ''n uitbreking van 'n massahisterie' was. Volgens die Amerikaanse biblioteek vir geneeskunde , Word 'Mass Hysteria' gedefinieer as "die vinnige verspreiding van omskakelingsstoornis, 'n toestand wat die voorkoms van liggaamlike klagtes insluit waarvoor daar geen organiese basis is nie. In sulke episodes word sielkundige nood omskep in fisiese simptome. ”

Volgens dr Bartholomew word 'kollektiewe dwalings' normaalweg gegenereer binne klein groepies mense in 'n omheinde omgewing, soos kerke, skole, fabrieke en weeshuise. Hierdie idee word ondersteun in a Straits Times verslag wat verskeie bekende gevalle van massahisterie in die moderne geskiedenis van Maleisië bevat.

"Maleiers is vatbaar vanweë hul geloof in 'n verskeidenheid geeste," het mnr. Bartholomew gesê, en hy het bygevoeg dat "uitbrake meestal in koshuise vir alle vroue voorkom, aangesien dit die strengste is." Om hierdie waarneming te illustreer, verwys hy na 'n voorval wat in 1987 begin het toe 'n 'uitbraak' waarby 36 Moslemmeisies in 'n Maleise koshuis in Alor Star, Kedah, betrokke was, vyf jaar geduur het. Volgens Bartholomew het die meisies “geskree, gehardloop en geestelike verwarring gehad, gehuil, bisarre bewegings, beswymings en geesbesit”.

Die mees onthullende is miskien dat in hierdie geval die meisies, tussen die ouderdomme van 13 en 17 jaar oud, “gekla het oor te veel godsdiens en studie en te min ontspanning”. Dit blyk dus dat geestelike entiteite die oneindige lewens- en sterftes, tyd en ruimte besoek en dit manifesteer in die mond van tienermeisies wat kla oor 'te veel godsdiens en studie' en terselfdertyd versoek hulle 'meer ontspanning'.

Juis daarom het die plaaslike onderwysowerhede verlede week 'beraders' ingeroep om die werk te voltooi wat spookjagpredikers en heilige manne begin het, en miskien in 'n sekere mate veroorsaak het?

Massahisterie deur die geskiedenis

In 1692 het hekshisterie deur die nedersetting Salem, Massachusetts, gegaan en binne 'n tydperk van twee dekades is 20 mense tereggestel en nog honderde gearresteer omdat hulle heksery beoefen het. Die hekproewe van Salem het sowel gefassineerde as verwarde geleerdes probeer 'rede' vind waarom 'n rustige Puriteinse stad in 'n volslae paranoia kan neerdaal, met tientalle jong meisies wat aanvalle van onbeheerbare geskreeu en kronkels toon en mense effektief na hul dood stuur.

In sy boek Vermaaklike Satan: Heksery en die kultuur van vroeë New England , skrywer John Putnam teoretiseer dat die hekseverhore “in wese 'n tieneropstand was teen die gesag van hul bejaarde ouers, aangesien die meeste beskuldigdes tieners en die meeste beskuldigdes was.” Net soos ons in Maleisië sien!

Baie geleerdes het aangevoer dat die meisies in Salem wat "betower" geraak het, werklik intense spanning ondervind het onder streng godsdienstige en sosiale regimes aan die gevaarlike grens, wat volgens 'n artikel in The Odyssey Online hierdie meisies daartoe gelei het om hierdie spanning om te sit in fisiese simptome waarin geen natuurlike verklaring gevind kan word. ” Die massahisterie wat die meisies ondervind het, het op sy beurt ''n kollektiewe dwaling onder die dorpsbewoners veroorsaak dat Satan en hekse in hul midde was en sodoende met die heksejag begin'.

Nog 'n beroemde geval van massa -histerie het tussen die 13 op die vasteland van Europa gegryp ste en 17 ste eeue. Bekende persone, wat bekend staan ​​as die danspest of dansmanie, sou ure, dae en blykbaar selfs maande lank histeries deur die strate dans, totdat hulle weens uitputting in duie gestort het of as gevolg van 'n hartaanval of beroerte gesterf het. Die aantal deelnemers by enige uitbraak kan in duisende beloop.

Litografie uit 1892 wat histerie toon tydens die hekproewe van Salem

Woon die duiwel in 'ons' spieëls?

Noem dit in elke geval van demoniese besit of massa -histerie; die donker en dreigende figure wat die gedagtes van die kind versteur, onderdruk en boelie, is 'ons' veronderstelde volwassenes, en meestal is dit diegene van ons met uiterste godsdienstige en sosio-politieke oortuigings en lewenstyle.

In die voorval in Maleisië was die oorsaaklike vonk 'nie' die eerste meisie wat 'tonele van bloed, bloedstorting en geweld en 'n gesig van pure kwaad' berig het nie, maar die eerste onderwyser wat daardie meisie geglo het en besluit het om die verslag te versterk, miskien vir iets so eenvoudig soos haar eie deel aandag. As jy terugdink aan 'n kind wees, as jy ooit jou ouers of iemand met gesag ontsteld of kwaad gesien het, was dit heeltemal skrikwekkend. Om te sien hoe hul onderwysers paniekerig raak en selfs eksorciste inroep, moes die vrees van God, of andersins, in die hart van selfs die skeptiesste van die arme siele gebring het.


Gedokumenteerde episodes van massa histerie in Afrikaanse skole

Suid-Afrika

Suid -Afrika is een van die lande in Afrika met 'n aantal episodes van massa -histerie onder studente. In 1999 het massahisterie plaasgevind by 'n hoërskool in Umtata, Oos -Kaap van Suid -Afrika, met die uitbraak wat verskeie kenmerke van massahisterie met pseudo -aanvalle vertoon het 9. Vir baie mense in die stad, insluitend dokters, priesters, ouers en studente, was dit 'n onbekende verskynsel. Dit het baie angs veroorsaak, vererger deur uitgebreide mediadekking.

'N Paar dae voor die uitbreek van die epidemie is opgemerk dat tydens die oggendgebede 'n paar vrouestudente neergeval het �wus ’. Hulle is na die personeelkamer geneem en 'n paar minute later weer by hul bewussyn. Die leerlinge het soos gewoonlik klasse bygewoon. Op die oggend van 21 Mei 1999 tydens die oggendgebede het vrouestudente vinnig agtereenvolgens begin skreeu en val. Altesaam 50 studente uit 'n bevolking van 765 was betrokke. Daar was 'n volledige pandemonium by die skool. Ambulanse en privaat motors is gebruik om diegene wat geraak is, na die plaaslike hospitaal en klinieke te vervoer.

'N Onderhoud is met die skoolhoof uitgevoer en die skool is ondersoek na moontlike snellerfaktore. 'N Vraelys is aan die 21 onderwysers wat tydens die uitbraak teenwoordig was, gegee. Die vraelys is ontwerp om die simptome wat deur die onderwysers waargeneem is of deur die studente gerapporteer is, te ondersoek. Die onderwysers is ook gevra om 'n mening te gee oor die oorsaak van die siekte. Die volgende snellermeganismes is geïdentifiseer: (i) die indeksgeval was 'n jong student met problematiese gesinsverhoudinge (ii) die Junie -eksamen nader (iii) daar was 'n kerk naby die skool waar die studente en lede van die gemeenskap het geglo dat satanisme toegepas word (iv) dat die studente onder stresvolle omstandighede in die koshuis gewoon het.

By die terugkeer van die studente het die skoolhoof beklemtoon dat: (i) daar geen bose geeste of demone by die skool was nie (ii) terwyl die uitbraak die gevolg was van angs by die naderende Junie -eksamen, sou laasgenoemde nie uitgestel word nie (iii) stresvolle lewensomstandighede by die tehuis sou ondersoek en reggestel word en (iv) by die geringste aanduiding van 'n terugval, sou die indeksstudent vir die res van die jaar huis toe gestuur word. Daar was geen verdere uitbrake na hierdie aankondiging nie. 9 In Februarie 2000 het ongeveer 1430 leerders, veral meisies, by skole in Mangaung en Heidedal, in die Vrystaatse provinsie van Suid -Afrika, 'n massiewe jeuk van onbekende oorsprong gehad. 7 By die eerste skool wat in die Mangaung -omgewing geraak is, het die jeuk begin sodra die leerders die skoolterrein binnekom, maar baie min het gejeuk of gekrap by die huis. Die leerders wat geraak is, is na die skoolhoof se kantoor geneem en diegene wat kom kyk het wat gebeur het, het 'n jeuk begin ervaar.

Die epidemie het studente geraak, maar 'n paar onderwysers, veral vroue, het ook 'n bietjie jeuk gerapporteer. Geen organiese oorsaak vir die jeuk is gevind nie, en uiteindelik is 'n diagnose van angs massa histerie gegee vir hierdie uitbraak. Die skole is gesluit en berook, toe die leerders teruggaan, stel die hoofmeesters perke en die jeuk stop.

Na die uitbraak is 'n studie gedoen om die ervaring en aard van die jeuk te dokumenteer en om vas te stel of daar 'n sielkundige verklaring daarvoor is. 2 In hierdie studie is slegs dertien skole in die Mangaung- en Heidedal -omgewing ingesluit. Die resultate het getoon dat die uitbraak 'n fisiese, sielkundige en sosiale impak op diegene gehad het wat geraak is. Sosiaal word die jeuk as aansteeklik beskou, wat lei tot verwerping deur die gesin en die samelewing. Taxibestuurders wou nie vir hulle stilhou nie, sommige ouers het geweier dat hulle met die ander broers en susters of vriende speel. Sommige van die leerders wat nie geraak is nie, het gedink dat hoewel daar sommige was wat werklik geraak is, daar wel ander was wat besig was om te skud.

Sielkundig is die meeste studente wat geen jeuk ondervind het nie, geraak deur angs om geraak te word, en dit het angs veroorsaak. Die verwerping wat diegene wat jeuk ervaar, het hulle kwaad gemaak. Hulle het gevoel dat hulle nie verantwoordelik was vir hul toestand nie. Gerugte was volop oor wat die oorsaak van die jeuk was. Satanisme is die skuld vir die jeuk. Ander het gesê dat daar twee seuns was wat wit poeier in die meisies se toilette besprinkel het.

Daar was gerugte dat twee leerders gesterf het, maar dit is nooit geverifieer nie. Dit blyk dat die bron van sommige van die gerugte lede van die publiek was wat die plaaslike radiostasie se geselsprogramme gebel het om die jeuk te bespreek.

Nog 'n episode is in 2002 by 'n laerskool in Kwa-Dukuza, KwaZulu-Natal, Suid-Afrika aangemeld, en 27 kinders wat gesond geword het toe hulle hul huise verlaat het, het by die skool ineengestort en bewing en rillings deur hul hele liggaam getoon. 13 Baie van die kinders het ook maagkrampe en naarheid gehad. Byna al die kinders het 'n gevoel van benoudheid in hul bors sowel as hiperventilasie ervaar, wat daarna deur flou geword het. Hierdie histerie versprei deur siglyn (dit wil sê dat ander kinders wat dit sien ook in duie gestort het).

Heksery, vergiftiging en insekbyte is voorgestel as oorsake van hierdie vreemde gedrag deur die kinders wat voorheen goed was. Kenners wat hierdie moontlikhede ondersoek het, het egter geen identifiseerbare oorsaak uitgesluit nie. Byna al die kinders was die volgende dag weer gesond. Die beoordeling na die voorvalle was 'n uitbraak van massahisterie. Die ouers en die leekmedia het egter geweier om hierdie diagnose te aanvaar, wat die spanning en angs wat die kinders in die gesig gestaar het, by die terugkeer na die skool bygedra het.

In 2009 het 'n golf van massahisterie 'n hoërskool in Pretoria in Suid -Afrika oorwin toe tientalle kinders ineengestort het, skreeu in onverklaarbare stuiptrekkings en aanvalle. 10 Die histerie het begin toe 'n graad 9 -meisie by haar lessenaar in die Daspoort Secondary School in Claremont ineengestort het. Binne oomblikke van die onverklaarbare aanval is ongeveer 25 leerlinge in verskillende klasse en grade geraak en het hysteries begin flou word en flou geword toe hulle aan die vreemde voorval beswyk het. Die aanvalle kom twee weke nadat 'n leerling aan die skool selfmoord gepleeg het. Daar is gesê dat die histerie die vorige week ook skole in Sunnyside en Laudium geraak het.

Die gemeenskap skryf die voorval toe aan 'n bose gees in die skool en sê dat satanisme -items onlangs by die skool ontdek is en dat dit vermoedelik een van die oorsake is. By een van die leerlinge kon niks medies verkeerd gevind word nie en al die verdowingsondersoeke was negatief. Die situasie het na normaal teruggekeer nadat die skool 'n rukkie gesluit is en die studente verseker is dat die bron van die uitbraak 10 behandel is.

Tanzanië

In Tanzanië strek die voorkoms van massahisterie tot 196 21. In 1962 beleef verskeie skole in Tanzanië 'n massahisterie wat 'n lagepidemie genoem word. 1 Daar word vermoedelik begin in of naby die dorpie Kashasha aan die westelike kus van die Victoriameer in die moderne Tanzanië naby die grens van Kenia. Daar word geglo dat daar aan die begin van die voorval 'n grap op 'n kosskool vertel is, en dat hierdie grap 'n klein groepie studente laat begin lag het. Die gelag het homself bestendig, ver bo die oorspronklike oorsaak. Die skool waaruit die epidemie ontstaan ​​het, het die kinders en ouers dit na die omliggende omgewing oorgedra. Ander skole, Kashasha self en 'n ander dorp met duisende mense, is almal tot 'n mate geraak. Ses tot agtien maande nadat dit begin het, het die verskynsel gesterf. Die volgende simptome is op ewe groot skaal gerapporteer as die berigte van die gelag self: pyn, floute, asemhalingsprobleme, uitslag en aanvalle van huil.

In 2008 was Tanzanië nog 'n episode van massahisterie 6. 'N Skoolkamer in die middel van Tanzanië het in chaos verval nadat vroulike leerlinge begin flou word. 20 meisies val oor hul eksamenvraestelle of val op die vloer en verloor vinnig hul bewussyn. Ander snik, skree en hardloop om die skool. Volgens die plaaslike onderwysbeampte was sulke geleenthede baie algemeen by die skool.

Malawi

MacLachlan, Banda en McAuliffe beskryf 'n geval van Epidemic Psychological Disturbance (EPD) waarby 110 leerlinge aan 'n Katolieke Meisieskool in Malawi 11 betrokke was. Die EPD ‘ -sindroom ’ het uiterlike gedrag ingesluit (skree, aanhoudend lag, hard huil, neerval en rol, gewelddadig dreigende klasmaats, praat praatjies) en ‘inwaartse ’ gedrag (weier om te eet, onttrek, hallusineer) hipersensitiwiteit vir geraas en hoofpyn aan die onderkant van die skedel). Hierdie probleme het verdwyn toe die meeste leerlinge wat geraak is, huis toe gestuur is. Die skrywers oorweeg 'n aantal moontlike oorsake vir hierdie geval van EPD, insluitend fisiese, sielkundige, tradisionele, institusionele en politieke faktore. Daar word voorgestel dat die geval van EPD geïnterpreteer kan word as 'n verweer en protes teen sekere aspekte van die vinnige sosiale en politieke veranderinge wat Malawi die afgelope paar jaar gesien het.

Zimbabwe

In 1994 het 62 skoolkinders almal gerapporteer hoe 'n uitheemse vaartuig land en buitenaardse wesens sien opduik 14. Feitlik elkeen van die 62 kinders herhaal presies dieselfde verhaal met dieselfde besonderhede en nie een van hulle het teen sy/haar verhaal gekant nie. Baie het die voorval van 1994 as massahisterie wat die kinders geraak het, afgemaak. Maar toe daar gevind word dat die kinders nie veel voorafkennis van UFOS of gewilde UFO -persepsies het nie, het baie ander mense geglo dat dit wat die kinders gesien het, werklik kon gewees het. Die kinders is gevra om te teken wat hulle die vorige dag teëgekom het.

In 2009 het 'n vermeende geval van massa-histerie die Laerskool Nemanwa in die gemeenskaplike gronde van Charumbira in Masvingo, Zimbabwe, getref waar leerlinge na bewering wild geskree het en gekla het oor visioene van vreemde slangagtige wesens en leeus 12. Ouers het 'n beroep gedoen op die tydelike sluiting van die Gereformeerde Kerk in Zimbabwe, en sommige van hulle het hul kinders teruggetrek. Onderwysers het gesê dat gemiddeld ses leerlinge elke dag geraak word. Sommige van die leerlinge sou ineenstort, skreeu of vertel van visioene van slange, leeus, hiënas en krokodille, terwyl ander sou optree asof hulle in 'n beswyming was. Die ontwikkeling het die owerhede genoop om predikante te stuur om gebedsessies by die skool te hou.

Die dominee het die golf van histerie in Nemanwa bevestig en die skuld gegee aan die kwade geeste en demone. Daarna het hy almal verseker dat die situasie na normaal teruggekeer het.

Zambië

Dhadphale en Shaikh het ondersoek ingestel na wat by die plaaslike pers gerapporteer is as “mysterious madness ” by Mwinilunga, 'n Zambiese skool 15. Die toestand was eintlik 'n uitbraak van epidemiese histerie wat veroorsaak is deur 'n groep meisies wat opvoedkundige en emosionele probleme gehad het voor die epidemie. 'N Verandering in die administratiewe beleid om die geslagte streng te skei, het blykbaar 'n emosioneel gelaaide agtergrond vir die vinnige verspreiding van die siekte.

Uganda

Uganda het ook verskeie massahisterie -episodes beleef. In die afgelope tien jaar is 'n reeks gevalle van massahisterie aangemeld. In die tagtigerjare is meisies op koshuise in die Ndeje Secondary School aangeval deur massale abnormale danspasse waarvan die oorsaak nooit vasgestel is nie. 7 Hierdie skool lê op die pad wat die soldate van die afgedankte diktator, Idi Amin Dada, geneem het toe hulle gevlug het. Die vernietiging van lewens en eiendom, vrees en totale chaos is deur die hele platteland veroorsaak terwyl hierdie soldate gevlug het.

Tussen 1988 en#x020132002 is baie koshuismeisies in Mityana Secondary School aangeval deur demone en geeste en het amok geloop. Hierdie episodes het gevolg op die bevrydingsoorlog deur die National Liberation Army.

Meer onlangs, op 4 Februarie 2008, het meer as 100 leerlinge buite beheer geraak in die Laerskool Sir Tito Winyi, geleë in die Hoima -distrik, Wes -Uganda 7. Volgens die skoolhoof was die leerlinge totaal mal, jaag almal, insluitend onderwysers en mede -leerlinge, klippe gooi, deure en vensters slaan. Die owerhede het die voorval as 'n#x0201cdemonic attacks ” bestempel en 'n kerkleier genooi om spesiale gebede vir die leerlinge te hou. Die hoofonderwyser het erken dat dit die tweede aanval van sy aard op die skool was. In die vorige jaar is 210 leerlinge op dieselfde manier aangeval. Na die episode is vier verdagtes in die hof aangekla van die betowering van die skool weens 'n grondgeskil.


7 Hooplas vir kopjag

Soortgelyk aan die grillerige Japannese stedelike legende van die gebruik van menslike offerandes as boumateriaal, was die oortuiging in sommige afgeleë Maleisiese en Indonesiese gebiede dat hul regerings bounty -jagters goedgekeur het om koppe te soek om as hoekstene vir nuwe geboue of brûe gebruik te word. Paniek sou sy hoogtepunt bereik wanneer 'n nuwe struktuur in die omgewing gebou word. Soetan Sjahrir, eerste premier van Indonesië en rsquos, het vertel hoe sulke gerugte sy dorp in Banda in 1937 verlam het. Verhale van vreemde geluide en waarnemings het net tot die paranoia bygedra dat 'n paar storievertellers selfs hul vermeende ontmoetings en ontsnappings van die oorvloedjagters gedeel het.

Nog 'n skrik het in 1979 plaasgevind op 'n ander eiland, hierdie keer in Borneo. Dorpenaars het paranoïes geraak ná gerugte dat die regering mense ontvoer om 'n brug in die omgewing te versterk. 'N Uittreding is ingestel, die plaaslike skool het gesluit en patrollies is gevorm. Vir kenners wat hierdie gevalle ontleed het, is kop-jag-skrik in wese 'n gerug en 'n gerug wat gereeld van tyd tot tyd verskyn en die ongemaklike ideologiese verhouding tussen stamme en hul regering weerspieël.


Demoonaanval?

Oorspronklik gepubliseer by DBKP – Death By 1000 Papercuts


Foto-prent: Leroy Jr. Sr. High School, Leroy, New York]

Is die groep Tourette se Like Syndrome van 12 meisiekinders aan die Leroy Jr. Sr. High School in Leroy, New York, Mass Hysteria, ook bekend as Conversion Disorder, wat as Mass Psychogenic Illness voorkom?

Of is die geheimsinnige, verbysterende en bisarre wanorde in 'n 'diagnose' gedwing wat 'stil die nuuskierige massas?”

Waarom het 12 tieners van dieselfde stad in die hoofstad New York almal tegelyk vreemde simptome ondervind? Dokters sê dit is 'n uitbraak van massahisterie.

'N Dag na die onderhoud met die meisies het dr. Laszlo Mechtler, 'n neuroloog by die DENT Neurologic Institute in Amherst, NY, wat verskeie van die meisies behandel het, besluit om na vore te kom om 'n verduideliking te gee om die nuuskierige massas te onderdruk.

Mechtler se diagnose? Die meisies het moontlik 'n omskakelingsversteuring - ook bekend as massa histerie.

Omskakelingsversteuring is 'n toestand waarin 'n persoon blindheid, verlamming of ander neurologiese simptome kan ervaar wat nie deur 'n ander siekte verklaar kan word nie. Die siekte kom dikwels voor as gevolg van 'n 'sielkundige konflik'. Volgens die National Institutes of Health word gedink dat simptome van 'n omskakelingsversteuring 'n konflik oplos wat 'n persoon binne voel. Byvoorbeeld, 'n vrou wat glo dat dit nie aanvaarbaar is om kwaai gevoelens te hê nie, kan gevoelloosheid ervaar as sy regtig kwaad word.

Mechtler het aan USA Today gesê dat wanneer 'n omskakelingsversteuring in 'n groot groep voorkom, dit 'massale psigogene siekte' is, omdat dit groepe mense in dieselfde omgewing, soos in 'n klaskamer of kantoor, affekteer. Dit beteken dat kyk na die meisies op televisie nie ander soortgelyke simptome sal veroorsaak nie, het hy gesê.

Video van Today Show -onderhoud, 'n onderhoud waar die ouers van twee van die meisies beweer het dat die owerhede 'gelieg' het oor 'n diagnose en geen dokumentasie bewys het dat die vreemde, bisarre afwyking nie uit 'n omgewingsoorsaak spruit nie. Die video onthul hoe verswak die siekte is vir een student, 'n siekte wat by 'n diagnose van massahisterie skynbaar nie pas nie.

Jammer, die video is nie in die Wayback -masjien gehou nie.

'Ons het 'n paar antwoorde. Ons sal soveel as moontlik deel sonder om die diagnose te deel. Ons kan dit nie doen nie, dit is nie reg nie, maar dit is 'n federale kwessie, maar dit is nie reg nie. "
Dr Greg Young, departement van gesondheid in New York

Die diagnose: massahisterie, omskakelingsversteuring en massapigogene siekte.

Ons het gevra hoe lank duur gevalle van Mass Hysteria?

Uit die top tien bisarre gevalle van massahisterie, die 'Tanganyika-lagepidemie' wat na bewering '6-18 maande' geduur het in 1962. Ander simptome: "Floute, pyn, asemhalingsprobleme, uitslag en aanvalle van huil".

Die 1994 "Toxic Lady" -saak in Riverside, Kalifornië: Hospitaalwerkers wat die "Toxic Lady" Gloria Ramirez behandel het, het siek geword en flou geword vanweë die "reuk van die dood", die amptelike uitspraak van die Coroner's Office. 'N Meer deeglike ondersoek het aan die lig gebring dat Ramirez, wat aan gevorderde kanker van die serviks ly, moontlik 'n tuisgemaakte mengsel van DMSO gedoseer het.

Die Livermore -wetenskaplikes het die volgende hipotese uitgebrei: (1) Ramirez neem haarself met DMSO. As gevolg van urinêre verstopping, bou die goed op in haar bloedstroom. (2) Suurstof wat deur die paramedici toegedien word, sit die DMSO in haar bloed om in 'n hoë konsentrasie DMSO2. (3) As die DMSO2-belaaide bloed in die spuit getrek word en tot kamertemperatuur afkoel, vorm kristalle (dit is deur eksperiment bevestig). (4) DMSO2 word deur 'n onbekende meganisme (die defibrillasieskok?) Na DMSO4 omgeskakel en belemmer die mediese personeel. (5) Die vlugtige DMSO4 verdamp spoorloos.

Die dansplaag van 1915 in Straatsburg, Frankryk, waar mense nagte en dae lank gedans het, sommige sterf aan hartaanval, uitputting of beroerte.

Wat hierdie gebeurtenisse wel verklaar, net hoe skaars 'Mass Hysteria' -gebeurtenisse plaasvind. Gebeurtenisse wat as 'Mass Hysteria' verduidelik is.

deur LBG1
19 Januarie 2012

beelde:
1-Victor Habbick, FreeDigitalPhotos.net
2-Stuart Miles, FreeDigitalPhotos.net/ETPR

“ En Jesus antwoord en sê vir hulle: Pas op dat niemand julle mislei nie. ” —Matthéüs 24: 4

DIE DBKP -PROJEK: Uit die argiewe van die dood deur 1000 Papercuts.com

Elaine Marlow Frazier het onder die pseudoniem LBG1 geskryf en tientalle artikels gepubliseer oor die “ geheimsinnige, ongewone en onverklaarbare ” by DBKP/Death By 1000 Papercuts van 2007-2012. Hierdie artikels is gedurende daardie tydperk deur letterlik miljoene lesers gelees.

Dit is ons hoop dat hierdie artikels uit die DBKP -argiewe (nie elders op die internet beskikbaar nie) sommige kan help met die verkryging van inligting wat sal verhoed dat hulle ten prooi val op die komende bedrog wat selfs nou geformuleer en bevorder word.

Oorspronklik gepubliseer op 19 Januarie 2012 by DBKP/Deathby1000Papiere deur Elaine Marlow Frazier

VERWANTE ARTIKELS

© Elaine Marlow Frazier, DBKP en End Times Prophecy Report 2007-2014. © Jeremiah J. Jameson en End Times Prophecy Report, 2012-14. © Mondo Frazier, DBKP en End Times Prophecy Report, 2007-14. Ongemagtigde gebruik en/of duplisering van hierdie materiaal sonder uitdruklike en skriftelike toestemming van die outeur en/of eienaar van hierdie blog is streng verbode. Uittreksels en skakels mag gebruik word, op voorwaarde dat Jeremiah J. Jameson en End Times Prophecy Report volledige en duidelike krediet gee, met gepaste en spesifieke leiding oor die oorspronklike inhoud.

Disclaimer: die insluiting van skakels na ander blogs/webwerwe is nie noodwendig 'n onderskrywing van alle inhoud wat op die blogs/webwerwe geplaas word nie.


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Kommentaar

St Manuel II Palailogos sê

Dit is 'n behoorlike reaksie na die lees van wat in die Qur ’an.

Ditto. Ek begin altyd skree as ek Koranverse hoor. Die Koran is 'n haatspraak.

Meisie begin skreeu en word deur baie ander vergesel, dit klink vir my na 'n gemiddelde popkonsert

Sy gee aandag aan die woorde van geweld en skree tereg. Jammer dat hulle haar nie sal toelaat om die onheilspellende doodskliek waarin sy is, te verlaat nie.

Reg so! Stel jou voor as jy 'n kind was en lees dat Allah gesê het ” Maak die Jode dood waar jy hulle ook al vind … agter 'n rots of 'n boom! ” Ek sou ook skree en flou word! Dit is te skokkend vir 'n jong verstand om te verwerk.

Hulle is “BEHANDEL ” deur of waarmee? Ek dink meer strelende woorde uit die Koran.

Ek is lus om te skree as ek die bose Koran lees.

Ek voel ook dieselfde en ook naarheid as ek die Koran lees. Na 'n langer lees, wil ek my kop teen die muur slaan.

Ek het verskeie kere massahisterie beleef tydens die lees van die Koran, maar ek het ontdek dat as ek bier en pot drink voordat ek lees, die negatiewe simptome minder is.

'As u 'n jong vrou was wat 'n leeftyd van onderdrukking ondervind weens hierdie gedeeltes en ander, sou u dan nie begin skree nie?'

Ja, veral as ek geglo het dat God dit gesê het en ek God met reg sou haat, sou ek dit nie onderwerp nie.

Klink soos die Puriteinse meisies histerie voor die Massachusets Heksejagte!

Noem hierdie plekke van breindodende indoktrinasie skole is 'n belediging vir enige instelling wat onderwys bevorder.

Begin 'n kompetisie vir die mees kreatiewe satire -e -pos wat na sy e -posadres gestuur is.
Ek sal begin: Ek het wakker geword in 'n grot en hierdie man, Jibril, het vir my begin lag oor die herskryf van 'n dom boek wat volgens hom drastiese redigering en hersiening nodig het. Wat de hel moet ek doen? ”

Veroorsaak deur “ onsigbare wesens ”. Damn die “ onsigbare wesens ”. 'N Bietjie inspirerende voorlesing uit die Koran sal die kinders genees (tesame met 'n bietjie nuutjie). Wat 'n wonderlike diagnoseer !! Watter groot mediese vooruitgang kan ons volgende van hulle verwag? Hoe insiggewend. Nog 'n goeie voorbeeld van wat Islam die wêreld bied.
'N Regte geskiedenisles oor hoe grotmanne (en grotvroue) 20 000 jaar gelede mediese en geestelike probleme behandel het.
Binnekort in 'n teater naby u: “Exorcism in Mecca – a True Story ”.

“ Ongesiene wesens ” — die Id, die Libido en seksuele onderdrukking. Die Middeleeue het baie sulke nonsens gehad, van dansgierigheid (soos die Tarantella) tot lynchings. Die “devils ” van Loudon was net die nuutste.

En nou het ons 'n Trump -afwykingsindroom. Gek ideologieë bring die gek in almal na vore.

VIdeo: Massahisterie by die Kelantan -skool

Islam is so disfunksioneel.

Grafbeeld skuldig aan understatement!

Skuldig soos aangekla, Ian. Islam is die moeder van alle disfunksies.

So aaklig. Hierdie arme meisies!

Die feit dat soveel Westerse samelewings blind is vir die stampende kudde olifante in die kamer, is verstommend.

Waarom is so 'n reaksie so verrassend, aangesien die koran “heilig ” niks anders as kwaad leer nie en haat, geweld en sondige immoraliteit verkondig?

Dit is 'n misogynistiese, antisemitiese, antichristelike en teologies onjuiste bedrog: dit is 'n prestasie vir 'n heilige boek wat VOORSTEL van God afkomstig is, terwyl dit in werklikheid die werk is van “allah die bedrieër en sy self -belyde vals profeet

“Dinge wat hy nie gesê het nie ”, dinge vervaardig TEGEN GOD? Dit sou die gebod van God wees wat die leer van Allah die bedrieër in sy onheilspellende koran oortree.

Sommige Moslems leer blykbaar hierdie valse skrif uit hul kop: 'n meer intelligente ding om vir 'n Moslem te doen, is om te kyk of ...

1 Hulle kon 'n lys van die gebooie vind

3Kyk of hulle selfs een van hulle kan GEHOORSAAM of hulle kan weerstaan ​​om die sondige sunnah van hul massamoord, gebod van God wat psigopatiese “ profeet ” muhammed oortree het, te gehoorsaam.

4 Kyk of hulle slim genoeg is om op te let dat dit wat die koran leer, heeltemal in stryd is met God se morele wette soos dit in sy gebooie geopenbaar word.

Kan hulle agterkom wie die identiteit van “allah die bedrieër ” werklik is?

Dit behoort duidelik nou duidelik te wees
Die Islamitiese koraniese allah is NIE die ware Bybelse Joods-Christelike God nie

Spekulasie: die vroue wat skreeu en huil, ly vreeslik oor iets in hul lewens (beledigende mans, vaders, ooms, broers?), Maar kan dit nie onder woorde bring sonder om gestraf te word, so vir die enigste verligting wat hulle kan kry, roep hulle onbevoeg uit oor wat hulle dink is God.

Speculation: same as above, except they are not crying out to Allah, they are upset by the recitation of Allah (the Qur’an), because they find the suffering they are experiencing is linked with Allah (the abusive males are using the relevant Qur’an verses in order to justify brutality).

Unless they understand archaic Arabic, they wouldn’t understand what they’re reading. It’s just rote chanting. Adolescent hysteria in a very repressive culture is probably quite common.

ITS THE TRUE CREATOR SENDING DOWN THE JINN UPON THEM .

Ja. That is what I see in this hysteria. The presence of Satan. In fact, I see this whole Islam religion under the influence of Satan, the father of lies.

After Jesus’ victory over death, Satan had to come up with something that would lead some people to believe that Jesus was just a prophet and not divine. So he gave a “revelation” to Mo, while telling him that he was Gabriel. You have to be insane to believe that God would make a murderous pedophile His last prophet. And as for those who say the Koran was there at the beginning and that man corrupted it into what is the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament, well, tell me how they could have turned the Koran into them.

Muhammad at first thought he was possessed by the demon (jinn) and wanted to commit suicide when his so-called revelations forced him to the ground. His first wife convinced him otherwise by exposing herself to the “apparition” when Muhammad said he could see it…and the apparition fled. She convinced Muhammad that IF it was the jinn, it wouldn’t have fled due to her indecent exposure of herself so therefore it must be the Angel Jibrel (Gabriel). And the rest is history. It’s obvious that Islam is the product of the Demon and it is successfully taking over the world. Evil triumphs over Good because it cloaked itself as a “religion.”

So. If you flash Gabrial he’ll stay for a chat? Interessant.

Demonic possession. Islam was created by the devil posing as St Gabriel the Archangel.

While it is undoubtedly true that Islam itself is dangerous to mental health, that misery spills out of all facets of that civilization, that other explanations could sound reasonable…I believe this episode truly is spiritual in nature (in a very scary way). I believe in the spiritual world, as I am a Christian. What do you expect when you dabble in false religion, not to mention one as diabolical as Islam? They are reciting verses that they don’t even know the meaning of. And the phenomena is contagious. And if they were just expressing outrage against Islam, the other unaffected Muslims would’ve been aggressively countering them. Instead, those other Muslims themselves look afraid, and confused at what is happening. Screaming accompanied by tears…seems like these people were being tormented with demonic attack. I have heard testimonies of such attacks from people who got mixed up in the occult. They are overcome by a malicious entity that they have no control against, how frightening to be beset by such an insanity! We certainly see how much Muslims, as directed by Islam, victimize non Muslims. However, we also see how much Muslims themselves are in bondage. Islam victimizes all of humanity.

It was not so long ago that Catholic mass was in Latin, verses which no one except the priest understood. I see no difference in that and Koranic verses in Arabic which is equally not understood by Islam’s adherents. There is, of course a vast difference in the meaning of each.

This young girl has a bloody face….how did this occur the video is very strange.

can you imagine the horror of getting your parts cut out without anesthetic, then knowing you are 6 yrs old and promised to a nasty 60 yr old man i’d scream too and run like hell

there is nothing to be happy about any piece of islam anywhere, any time

i wonder how many ‘child’ brides live through their first sexual encounter

I have read that this “First encounter” often results in death by blood loss.

Grimly true, Penelope and Carolyne.

Here’s one poor little child:

“Afghanistan: 8-year-old bride of mullah bleeds to death on her wedding night”

Mass hysteria is a strange thing but it happens all over the world including a recent case of workers at an e-cigarette factory in the US, CBS reported. It happens more with girls and more in Asia. There’s an interesting article on cases back to the time of witch trials. Often it’s some kind of stressors, other times one person reacting to something and then others following and the symptoms being real.

Something religiously related is in the documentary “Jesus Camp” where these young kids were being induced with, in this case Christianity-a fundamentalist type-with them all crying and acting out in a disturbing way. There are Christians who still believe in exorcisms and one parent in my state was arrested for child abuse for what they did to exorcise the demons from their young boy.

There’s another case where kids got weird going to a cemetery after they had encountered Iron Man in the Book of Daniel a group of them went to the cemetery more than once to slay this Iron Man.

In that article there’s another case where a teacher in Palo Alto, CA in 1967 did an experiment with his high school students when teaching about Hitler. I don’t see it as mass hysteria but more like a Lord of the Flies type of group occurrence where these kids became like a dictator’s followers, formed their own police, bullied students who didn’t want to join this Third Wave movement and snitched on students who didn’t follow the rules, and got into a ‘we are superior mode.’ The point was, the teacher said, was that we are no better than Nazis (the followers). That was scary, parents were angry, the teacher was fired 2 yrs later for his unorthodox teaching.

Not much different than religion and what seems like hysteria on the Left like all these liberals who said they cried when Trump was elected. It’s very concerning that Islam is being taught in our schools often to 7th graders and up, and for longer than other religions. We need all religious teaching out of schools except like I got in 4th grade: one film on the world’s religions in a simple overview in one class and never again. (This in the 70s)

It doesn’t help this guy said it’s caused by unseen things like demons and jinn. What worries me about the teaching of Islam in schools that much is that it might seem like a fad as happened in England one of those terrorists had been previously talking to very young kids at the park and a parent said their boy cane home saying, I want to be a Muslim.” Look what Hamas does to their under 12 and as young as 3 yr olds put on TV calling Jews apes and pigs and that they want to blow them up and shoot them. A bunch of those are on You Tube and should be Tweeted often. When I’ve shown them to pro-Palestinian people they get cognitive dissonance and one guy didn’t even say “That’s really horrible!” but gave me some wishy-washy reply and made an excuse for it just as Hamas justifies doing it to their kids. This is a very important issue…these kids are being psychologically abused and indoctrinated with hate towards others before they can really understand it all and have the will to resist such indoctrination.


Citizens Horrified As Mass Hysteria Outbreak Spreads Throughout Several Malaysian Schools

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Mass hysteria broke out in a Kelantan school last week that took the nation by surprise.

It frightened Malaysians as it has reportedly affect more than 100 people. The ‘epidemic’ first started affecting about 10 students and a teacher from SMK Pengkalan Chepa 2 but spread throughout the school in the week, affecting more than 50 female students and several more teachers.

Classes had to be discontinued to prevent any more victims from being possessed while bomohs came in in an attempt to clear ‘spirits’.

Believing that super natural beings may be the cause of the mass hysteria outbreak, several ustaz were called in to conduct a two-hour recital of Quranic verses and prayers that were held together with the students. A Chinese bomoh from Perak and his team were also called in to assist in the situation.

Students have claimed to see “strange, supernatural beings”. Victims that were apparently possessed all said that they saw a pontianak before passing out. One student was so afraid that she tried avoiding using the restroom as much as she could because she claimed to have been possessed in the toilet before.

Reporters who were around the school area were stopped from entering the school compound. They were horrified when they heard screams emanating from inside the school.

A local traditional medicine expert, Wiru Sankala, told The Star that the recent hot weather and repressed emotions, as well as the widely-shared reports of what has been happening, could be the reason for more hysteria outbreaks in other schools.

Many studies have tried to identify the exact cause of mass hysteria but has not come up with an explanation yet.

Throughout the years, researchers worldwide came up with a few possible theories but none of them seem to be the cause.

Toxic leaks were suspected before, and so are mass drug use. However, no traces of either leaks nor drug use was found.

Chartered psychologist Alan Redman favours the term “psychogenic illness” to describe these episodes. “What we’re talking about in these school cases, which are not that uncommon, is an illness that feels very real and which is transferred through psychological means rather than physical ones.”

So instead of it being something external, mass hysteria is said to ultimately come from the mind.

“The reaction is a bit like when you hear the word ‘itch’, and you start to feel it yourself.” Redman says.

He added by saying that it’s more likely to happen in schools because teenagers’ minds are more easily influenced, especially in females.

“Obviously, at school this process is heightened because young people, particularly adolescents, are looking for an identity more than most and are much closer to the people in their groups. If you look at research into psychogenic illnesses, it is much more likely to affect this age group, girls more than boys.”


Schoolgirls' Mystery Illness: Mass Hysteria or Environmental Toxin?

A bizarre illness has affected about a dozen students at a western New York high school and is making national news. During the first few months of the school year, the students — all girls except one, and mostly friends — began experiencing involuntary jerks and tics. Sometimes their limbs, neck or face would suddenly spasm other times they would twitch, grunt or shout. It was strange and troubling behavior, made all the more scary because it had no clear cause.

The students at Le Roy High School, in Le Roy, a small town near Buffalo, were examined by school nurses and private doctors, officials from the Health Department, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Columbia University. None could find any biological basis for the symptoms. The school was thoroughly checked for mold, lead, carbon monoxide and other environmental contaminants those tests also came back negative. All the experts came to the same conclusion — one that has not been well received by the afflicted students and their parents.

It has been widely described as a baffling mystery and unexplained puzzle, but for most doctors it's neither unexplained, nor mysterious. In fact, the students in the Le Roy case have all the classic symptoms of a well-known (but widely misunderstood) problem called conversion disorder, in which psychological symptoms are converted into physical conditions. Collectively it is known as mass sociogenic illness, or, more commonly, mass hysteria.

The Le Roy case recently got a big publicity boost from noted environmental activist Erin Brockovich, who believes that the strange behavior may be caused by an industrial cyanide spill in 1970 not far from where the school was built. Connecting cyanide to the current outbreak may be a difficult task there's little evidence that the chemical can cause the neurological symptoms seen in the students, and in any event it's not clear why the chemical would lay inert for more than 40 years before affecting almost exclusively female teen students in one school. [5 Everyday Things that Are Radioactive]

Sociologist Robert Bartholomew, author of more than two dozen articles on contagious conversion disorder and lead author of the book "The Martians Have Landed: A History of Media-Driven Panics and Hoaxes" (2011, McFarland), rejected Brockovich's suggestion, telling LiveScience.com that conversion disorder is almost certainly the correct diagnosis: "Given the elimination of environmental and organic causes, the social patterning of cases is strongly suggestive of mass hysteria. You have symptoms that are almost exclusively confined to young girls, while their parents and male siblings are unaffected. There is no disease or toxic agent that only affects young girls. If it is exposure to toxic wastes near the school, why haven't teachers and maintenance staff who have been at the school for decades been stricken?"

Many people misunderstand the nature of mass hysteria and assume that victims are making up their symptoms. The complaints are real and verifiable the victims are not imagining their problems. It is not a joke, nor a hoax. Nor is a diagnosis of mass hysteria merely a default explanation when investigators can't find a cause. In fact, there are several fairly specific diagnostic criteria.

Mass hysteria often begins when individuals under stress convert that stress into physical ills. Co-workers, family and friends may also begin exhibiting the symptoms through contagion. Outbreaks are most common in closed social units (such as schools) and where afflicted individuals are under pressure and routine stress. Mass hysterias tend to afflict girls and women more often than boys and men, probably because the illness spreads through social ties and females tend to have stronger social bonds than males.

Bartholomew is also critical of the response by the New York State Health Department. "Their actions in this case are a textbook example of how not to handle an outbreak of mass psychogenic illness," Bartholomew said. "In initially refusing to render a diagnosis, the department generated so much anxiety that they created a public health issue as residents feared the existence of a mystery illness. With Brockovich involved, and with western New York known for toxic dumpsites, this case is not going away any time soon. And with each new media report questioning the diagnosis, it will create more doubt and suspicion and stoke the fear."

This story was provided by Life's Little Mysteries, a sister site to LiveScience. Follow Life's Little Mysteries on Twitter @llmysteries, then join us on Facebook.

Benjamin Radford is deputy editor of Skeptical Inquirer science magazine and co-wrote an article about mass hysteria published in the Southern Medical Journal. He is author of "Scientific


Dancing plagues and mass hysteria

The year was 1374. In dozens of medieval towns scattered along the valley of the River Rhine hundreds of people were seized by an agonising compulsion to dance. Scarcely pausing to rest or eat, they danced for hours or even days in succession. They were victims of one of the strangest afflictions in Western history. Within weeks the mania had engulfed large areas of north-eastern France and the Netherlands, and only after several months did the epidemic subside. In the following century there were only a few isolated outbreaks of compulsive dancing. Then it reappeared, explosively, in the city of Strasbourg in 1518. Chronicles indicate that it then consumed about 400 men, women and children, causing dozens of deaths (Waller, 2008).

The year was 1374. In dozens of medieval towns scattered along the valley of the River Rhine hundreds of people were seized by an agonising compulsion to dance. Scarcely pausing to rest or eat, they danced for hours or even days in succession. They were victims of one of the strangest afflictions in Western history. Within weeks the mania had engulfed large areas of north-eastern France and the Netherlands, and only after several months did the epidemic subside. In the following century there were only a few isolated outbreaks of compulsive dancing. Then it reappeared, explosively, in the city of Strasbourg in 1518. Chronicles indicate that it then consumed about 400 men, women and children, causing dozens of deaths (Waller, 2008).

Not long before the Strasbourg dancing epidemic, an equally strange compulsion had gripped a nunnery in the Spanish Netherlands. In 1491 several nuns were ‘possessed’ by devilish familiars which impelled them to race around like dogs, jump out of trees in imitation of birds or miaow and claw their way up tree trunks in the manner of cats. Such possession epidemics were by no means confined to nunneries, but nuns were disproportionately affected (Newman, 1998). Over the next 200 years, in nunneries everywhere from Rome to Paris, hundreds were plunged into states of frantic delirium during which they foamed, screamed and convulsed, sexually propositioned exorcists and priests, and confessed to having carnal relations with devils or Christ.

These events may sound wildly improbable, but there is clear documentary evidence that they did in fact happen. The dancing plagues were independently described by scores of physicians, chroniclers, monks and priests, and for the 1518 outbreak we can even read the panicky municipal orders written by the Strasbourg authorities at the time of the epidemic (Midelfort, 1999 Waller, 2008). Similarly, trial documents and the archives of the inquisition provide copious, in-depth accounts of nuns doing and saying the strangest of things (Sluhovsky, 2002).

Writers then and now have offered various interpretations of these strange and sometimes deadly crises. It has been suggested that the dancing maniacs of 1374 and 1518 were members of a heretical dancing cult. Contemporary observers, however, made clear their view that the dancing was a sickness. Nor did the Church, at a time when heresies were quickly suppressed, believe the dancers to be anything but victims of a terrible affliction, natural or divine. In recent decades a vogue for simple biological explanations has inspired the view that epidemic madnesses of the past were caused by the ingestion of ergot, a mould containing psychotropic chemicals (Backman, 1952 Matossian, 1989).

But scholarship in the fields of psychology, history and anthropology provides compelling evidence that the dancing plagues and the possession epidemics of Europe’s nunneries were in fact classic instances of a very different phenomenon: mass psychogenic illness.

Altered states
An important clue to the cause of these bizarre outbreaks lies in the fact that they appear to have involved dissociative trance, a condition involving (among other things) a dramatic loss of self-control. It is hard to imagine people dancing for several days, with bruised and bloodied feet, except in an altered state of consciousness. But we also have eyewitness evidence that they were not fully conscious. Onlookers spoke of the dancing maniacs of 1374 as wild, frenzied and seeing visions. One noted that while ‘they danced their minds were no longer clear’ and another spoke of how, having wearied themselves through dancing and jumping, they went ‘raging like beasts over the land’ (Backman, 1952). The hundreds of possessed nuns described in chronicles, legal records, theological texts or the archives of the Catholic Inquisition were equally subject to dissociative trance (Newman, 1998 Rosen, 1968). Some may have simulated the behaviour of the demoniac as a means of eliciting positive attention (Walker, 1981), but the detailed descriptions of astute and cautious inquisitors leave little doubt that most were genuinely entranced.

How might we explain these epidemics of dissociation? Ergot could have induced hallucinations and convulsions in nuns who ate bread made from contaminated flour, but it is highly unlikely that ergotism would cause remorseless bouts of dancing (Berger, 1931). Nor is there any evidence that what the victims of mass possession ate or drank made any difference. Rather, as explained below, there are very strong indications that fearful and depressed communities were unusually prone to epidemic possession. And given that there is a well-established link between psychological stress and dissociation, this correlation is immediately suggestive of mass psychogenic illness.

Fear and loathing
The years preceding the dancing epidemics were exceptional in their harshness. The 1374 outbreak maps on to the areas most severely affected, earlier in the same year, by one of the worst floods of the century. Chronicles tell of the waters of the Rhine rising 34 feet, of flood waters pouring over town walls, of homes and market places submerged, and of decomposing horses bobbing along watery streets (Backman, 1952). In the decade before the dancing plague of 1518, famine, sickness and terrible cold caused widespread despair in Strasbourg and its environs (Rapp, 1974). Bread prices reached their highest levels for a generation, thousands of starving farmers and vine growers arrived at the city gates, and old killers like leprosy and the plague were joined by a terrifying new affliction named syphilis.

These were intensely traumatic times. Nuns were protected from many of the indignities of daily life, but nunneries could also become toxic psychological environments. Even in well-managed communities, some nuns were inevitably unhappy. Sisters were often consigned to lives of quiet contemplation in accordance with the wishes of their parents rather than any conspicuous piety on their own part. Once inside the cloisters it was very hard for them to get out. But those who keenly embraced the spiritual life were often the most desperate. Tormented by a feeling of falling short of the exacting standards of holiness imposed by their orders, plenty reflected with terrible fear on the fiery destiny awaiting those impure in mind or deed.

A notable example is that of Jeanne des Anges, Mother Superior of the Loudun nunnery in southern France, who became infatuated with a local priest, Father Grandier, in the year 1627. ‘When I did not see him’, she later confessed, ‘I burned with desire for him.’ In consequence, Jeanne felt overwhelming worthlessness and guilt. After weeks of painful penance and introspection, she fell into a dissociative state during which she repeatedly accused Grandier of plotting with Satan to make her lust after him. Within days, several more nuns had followed suit, all deliriously pointing the finger at the hapless priest. After an investigation by the Inquisition, Grandier was burnt alive (de Certeau, 2000). As in the case of the Loudun nunnery, a deep, guilty longing for human intimacy could trigger collective breakdowns. This is in part why, during their possession attacks, dissociating nuns often behaved with alarming lewdness: lifting their habits, simulating copulation, and giving their demons names such as Dog’s Dick, Fornication, even Ash-Coloured Pussy. Guilt and desire could drive a nun to distraction (Sluhovsky, 2002).

The fortitude of many a nun was most severely tested during the evangelical reform movement that swept their communities from the early 1400s. Striving to restore the harsh spiritual codes of earlier centuries, reformers instructed the nuns to consume only the blandest fare, to spurn all vanity, to adopt exacting regimes of abstinence and self-abasement, and to meditate routinely on the evils of Satan and the flames of Hell. Often the younger daughters of nobles or rich burghers, many nuns did not adjust well to tasteless meals, pillow-less beds and evenings bereft of music and conversation. Hence the arrival of reformist Mother Superiors precipitated a significant number of mass possessions. Take, for example, the Ursuline nuns of Auxonne in eastern France who experienced a possession crisis in 1658 after the appointment of the evangelical Barbe Buvée to their nunnery. For several years, distressed and dissociating nuns accused her of being a witch, of killing babies and of being a lesbian. Barbe Buvée was exonerated but judiciously assigned to an alternative nunnery. The possession crisis petered out (Sluhovsky, 2002).

Mass possession also affected secular communities, and here too the role of stress is abundantly clear. The girls whose ‘grievous fits’ and ‘hideous clamors and screeching’ set off the Salem witch panic in New England in 1692 were the members of a community rent by factional strife (Demos, 1983). They were also terrified of attacks by the Native American tribes which had already slaughtered the parents and relatives of several of those at the heart of the witchcraft accusations (Norton, 2003).

Fear and anguish were the common denominators of dancing plagues and possession crises. But this is only part of the story.

Rude devils and cursing saints
Studies of possession cults in hundreds of modern cultures, from Haiti to the Arctic, reveal that people are more likely to experience dissociative trance if they already believe in the possibility of spirit possession (Rouget, 1985). Minds can be prepared, by learning or passive exposure, to shift into altered states. The anthropologist Erika Bourguignon (1991) speaks of an ‘environment of belief’, the set of accepted ideas about the spirit world that members of communities absorb, thus preparing them later to achieve the possession state. It is not necessary, however, to be formally trained. The dancers of 1374 and 1518 occupied an environment of belief that accepted the threat of divine curse, possession or bewitchment. They didn’t intend to enter trance-like states, but their metaphysical beliefs made it possible for them to do so.

Similarly, it is only by taking cultural context seriously that we can explain the striking epidemiological facts that possession crises so often struck religious houses and that men were far less often the victims of mass diabolical possession. The daily lives of nuns were saturated in a mystical supernaturalism, their imaginations vivid with devils, demons, Satanic familiars and wrathful saints. They believed implicitly in the possibility of possession and so made themselves susceptible to it. Evangelical Mother Superiors often made them more vulnerable by encouraging trance and ecstasy mind-altering forms of worship prepared them for later entering involuntary possession states. Moreover, early modern women were imbued with the idea that as the tainted heirs of Eve they were more liable to succumb to Satan, a misogynistic trope that often heightened their suggestibility.

So when one especially distressed nun began to faint, foam, convulse and speak in strange tongues, there was always a chance that the more suggestible of her sisters would begin to experience the same kind of dissociation, convinced that Satan was stalking their cloisters in search of impure souls.

Modern anthropology and psychology also reveal how beliefs and expectations can shape the individual’s experience of dissociation. In societies where people are encouraged to enter trance states so as to make contact with a spirit world, they typically behave in ways prescribed by their cultures (Katz, 1982 Sharp, 1993). We have every reason to think that the victims of dancing plagues and possession epidemics were also acting in accordance with the rich theology of their worlds.

That the dancing plagues were reliant on cultural belief-systems is apparent from the fact that they were concentrated in just those communities where we know there to have been a pre-existing belief in the possibility of dancing curses being sent down from Heaven or Hell. In 1374 the dancers believed that Satan had unleashed an irresistible dance, hence they not only danced interminably, but also begged for divine intercession, hurried to holy sites, and submitted gladly to exorcism (Backman, 1952). The people of Strasbourg in 1518 were convinced that a saint called Vitus had unleashed a dancing curse (Martin, 1914 Waller, 2008). And so, having entered the possession state, it seems that they acted according to the conventions of the St Vitus myth: dancing for days on end. The dance turned epidemic, as it had in 1374, because each new victim lent further credibility to the belief in supernatural agency. Indeed, the Strasbourg epidemic exemplifies the awesome power of suggestion: the city authorities ensured that the outbreak got out of control by having the dancers gathered together and left to dance in some of the most public spaces in the city (Waller, 2008).

Theological conventions also conditioned the behaviour of demoniac nuns. This is apparent from the fact that nearly all possession epidemics occurred within a single 300-year period, from around 1400 to the early 1700s. The reason is that only during this period did religious writers insist that such events were possible (Newman 1998). Theologians, inquisitors and exorcists established the rules of mass demonic possession to which dissociating nuns then unconsciously conformed: writhing, foaming, convulsing, dancing, laughing, speaking in tongues and making obscene gestures and propositions. These were shocking but entirely stereotypical performances based on deep-seated beliefs about Satan’s depravity drawn from religious writings and from accounts of previous possessions. For centuries, then, distress and pious fear worked in concert to produce epidemics of dancing and possession.

Body and mind
In 1749 a German nunnery in Würzburg experienced an epidemic of screaming, squirming and trance which led to the beheading of a suspected witch. By this period, however, the dancing plagues had disappeared and possession crises were rarities. The incidence of possession declined with the rise of modern rationalism (Bartholomew, 2001). Thereafter, mass outbreaks of dissociation tended to be confined to harshly managed settings such as factories and schools, and to be triggered by groundless fears of poisoning or exposure to toxic chemicals (see box opposite). For a variety of reasons, even these outbreaks are now uncommon in the Western world.
But the dancing plagues and the experiences of demoniac nuns still have something to tell us about human responses to stress. For these events place in bold relief the extraordinary power of context to shape how anguish and fear are expressed. What the historian Edward Shorter calls the ‘symptom pool’ for psychosomatic illness has varied significantly over time and between cultures (Shorter, 1992), and the changing incidences of conversion disorder, somatoform disorder and dissociative trance are all attributable, at least in part, to shifting norms and expectations (Nandi et al., 1992). Madnesses of the past of course tell us much about the worlds that sustained them. But wild epidemics of dancing and possession can also serve as powerful reminders of the instability of many psychiatric conditions.

- John Waller is in the Department of History at Michigan State University, and is the author of A Time to Dance, a Time to Die [email protected]

BOX: Modern hysterias

Even if dancing plagues are things of the past, mass psychogenic illness (MPI) remains a part of the human condition. MPI has been defined as the ‘collective occurrence of physical symptoms and related beliefs among two or more persons in the absence of an identifiable pathogen’ (Colligan & Murphy, 1982). Simon Wessely (1987) has usefully separated outbreaks of MPI into two different kinds: ‘mass anxiety hysteria’ and ‘mass motor hysteria’.

Mass anxiety hysteria usually involves the sudden expression of intense anxiety in response to a false threat. In Western settings, plausible fears of poisoning or exposure to toxic chemicals have been known to trigger classic stress-reactions such as fainting, nausea, weakness and hyperventilation. In a school in Blackburn in 1965, for instance, as many as 141 pupils were affected by psychogenic dizziness, nausea, spasms and shortness of breath after several girls had publicly fainted (Bartholomew & Wessely, 2002). Unless the initial fear is given credibility by the media or authorities, cases of mass anxiety hysteria seldom last more than a few days.

Mass motor hysteria, in contrast, typically requires a prolonged build-up of psychological tension which then manifests itself in dissociative states, conversion symptoms and other psychomotor abnormalities. These can persist for weeks or months. Such outbreaks are often shaped by the kinds of supernaturalist beliefs that were responsible for the dancing mania and the possession crises of European nunneries. In modern-day Malaysia and Singapore, for example, factory workers are often drawn from rural communities steeped in beliefs about the spirit world. Those who find it hard to adjust to the regimentation of factory life sometimes enter a dissociative state in which they behave in a manner shaped by their culture’s understanding of spirit possession. MPI may arise where fellow-workers share the same beliefs and are also experiencing severe psychological strain. These outbreaks are often brought to an end with a religious ritual involving the slaughter of a goat (Phoon, 1982).
In both Western and non-Western settings, mass motor hysteria usually occurs in schools. In 1962, for example, several girls at a mission school near Lake Tanganyika developed a compulsion to laugh and cry by turns. The affliction soon spread to neighbouring populations (Rankin & Philip, 1963). Similar outbreaks of laughing have been recorded in both Zambia and Uganda. In fact, schools in central Africa are especially prone to outbreaks of mass motor hysteria. Late in 2008 several girls in a Tanzanian school responded to the pressure of taking important exams by dissociating: some fainted, while other sobbed, yelled or ran around the school.

In other cases, conversion symptoms predominate. Thus in 2006 around 600 students in an emotionally austere all-girls school in Mexico City developed paralysis and nausea lasting days or weeks. Analogous forms of MPI have been described in European and North American schools. In a school in North Carolina in 2002 a dozen pupils experienced seizures or other paroxysmal episodes over the course of four months (Roach and Langley, 2004). In many such cases, the victims receive extensive medical treatment before a failure to identify a pathogenic cause leads to a diagnosis of MPI.

More properly described as ‘mass hysteria’ are cases in which groups of people act upon beliefs which gain exaggerated credence in times of social and economic distress. For example, parts of south-east Asia are periodically struck by epidemics of a fear among men and women that their genitals are shrinking into their bodies. ‘Koro’ is fuelled by a belief in the existence of an evil spirit that causes genital retraction. Death is said to ensue once the penis, nipples or vulva have fully disappeared into the body: hence men have been known to drive pegs through their penises in the attempt to prevent complete retraction (Bartholomew, 2001). A similar phenomenon has been recorded in parts of western Africa where men claim their penises to have been shrunk or stolen through evil magic. Individuals accused of stealing or shrinking genitals are sometimes beaten to death or lynched: at least 14 suspected penis-thieves were killed in Nigeria in 2001 (Dzokoto & Adams, 2005).

Mass anxiety hysteria and mass motor hysteria can be hard to distinguish from the effects of actual exposure to environmental hazards. Experts have therefore identified several features that are indicative of a psychogenic origin for a sudden outbreak of illness symptoms in a group of people. These include the lack of a plausible organic basis, their occurrence in a relatively closed group, and the prior existence of high levels of stress. It is always necessary, however, to test fully for potential toxic or pathogenic exposures. This point is underscored by a case in 1990 when several children at a London primary school fell sick with typical symptoms of MPI: nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain and over-breathing. It looked like a classic case of hysteria. However, it turned out that they were actually suffering from poisoning from pesticides used on cucumbers (Bartholomew, 2001).


Kyk die video: Tanzanian Laughter Epidemic - Clip from Laughology