Topkapi -paleismodel

Topkapi -paleismodel


Bladsye opsies

Die Ottomaanse Ryk

Die Groot Moskee in Damaskus, Sirië ©

Die Ottomaanse Ryk was een van die grootste en langste ryke in die geskiedenis.

Dit was 'n ryk geïnspireer en onderhou deur Islam en Islamitiese instellings.

Dit het die Bisantynse Ryk vervang as die grootmoondheid in die oostelike Middellandse See.

Die Ottomaanse Ryk bereik sy hoogtepunt onder Suleiman the Magnificent (regeer 1520-66), toe dit uitbrei na die Balkan en Hongarye, en bereik die poorte van Wene.

Die Ryk het begin agteruitgaan nadat dit in die Slag van Lepanto (1571) verslaan is en byna sy hele vloot verloor het. Dit het gedurende die volgende eeue verder afgeneem en is effektief afgehandel deur die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en die Balkanoorloë.

Een nalatenskap van die Islamitiese Ottomaanse Ryk is die robuuste sekularisme van die moderne Turkye.

  • Turkye
  • Egipte
  • Griekeland
  • Bulgarye
  • Roemenië
  • Masedonië
  • Hongarye
  • Palestina
  • Jordaan
  • Libanon
  • Sirië
  • Dele van Arabië
  • Groot dele van die kusstrook van Noord -Afrika

Topkapi -paleismodel - Geskiedenis

'N Vertoning van wat algemeen beskou word as die ‘ Uthmaniese manuskrip van die Koran in die Topkapi -museum, Istanbul, Turkye. (a) 'n Verre aansig wat folio's 4b en 5a toon, (b) 'n nadere aansig van die linker folio (dws folio 5a), (c) folio 42b wat vokale toon met rooi kolletjies, (d) folio 333a wat geen vokale toon nie en (e ) folio 253b met die einde van surah al-Qas ̣as ̣ en begin van surah al-ʿAnkab ūt.

Laat 1ste eeu / vroeë 2de eeu hijra.

H.S. 194. Die nommer is later verander as H.S. 22 en later getoon as H.S. 44/32.

Grootte: 41 cm x 46 cm. Die teks is 32 cm x 40 cm, geskryf op velijn. Die dikte van die kodeks is 11 cm.

Totale aantal blare: 408. Slegs twee blaaie ontbreek. Die bestaande blaaie bevat meer as 99% van die teks van die Koran.

Geskiedenis Van Die Manuskrip

Mehmed Ali Pasha, goewerneur van Egipte, het dit gestuur mus ̣h ̣af aan die Ottomaanse sultan Mahmud II as 'n geskenk in 1226 AH / 1811 CE. 'N Nota aan die begin van die mus ̣h ̣af sê dat dit na die Topkapipaleis gebring is en in die departement van heilige oorblyfsels geberg is, wat tydens die bewind van Sultan Selim I. gebou is. 'n Faksimilee -uitgawe van hierdie manuskrip verskyn in 2007. [1]

Behoort hierdie Koran tot die derde kalief ʿUthm ān? Die antwoord is nee. Daar is 'n goeie aantal ander Korane [soos dié in St. Petersburg, Samarqand, Istanbul en twee in Kaïro, nl., by die al-Hussein-moskee en Dar al-Kutub al-Misriyya] wat soms in verskillende dele van die Islamitiese wêreld opgedaag het, byna almal wat beweer dat hulle sekerlik die spore van die bloed van die derde kalief ʿUthm ān toon bladsye, en dus die ware ʿUthm āniese Koran, die ek is 257m, wat hy gelees het tydens sy dood. Boonop toon die manuskrip duidelik die draaiboek, beligting en merk van klinkers uit die Umayyad -tye (dit wil sê laat 1ste eeu / vroeë 2de eeu van hijra). [2] Verder is hierdie manuskrip ook kortliks bespreek deur S ̣al āh ̣ al-D īn al-Munajjid wat dit nie as uit die tyd van die kalief ʿUthm ān beskou het nie. [3]

Kufic.

Dit word moontlik uitgebrei met 'n latere hand. 'N Algemene ondersoek van die kodeks dui aan dat die skrif in dikte en grootte verskil. Byvoorbeeld, dele tussen blaaie 1b-6b en 11a-11b vertoon 'n ander hand in vergelyking met die skrif in die res van die kodeks. Dit moet verder ondersoek word. Dit kan wees dat sommige van die blaaie om een ​​of ander rede verlore geraak en beskadig is en later herskryf en later by die kodeks gevoeg is. Indien wel, moet hierdie byvoegings binne 'n kort tydjie aangebring word.

Die letters bevat klinkermerke in die vorm van rooi kolletjies volgens die metode van Ab ū al-Aswad al-Du ʾalī (d. 69 AH / 688 CE). Enkele kolletjies is bo, langs of onder die letters geplaas. Twee kolletjies is geplaas om die soning bekend as tanwīn. Diakritiese tekens word deur strepe voorgestel.

Die surahs word geskei deur wye horisontale bande in die vorm van reghoeke. Soms is die hoeke van hierdie reghoeke versier. Die volgorde van die surahs is net soos wat in hedendaagse eksemplare van die Koran gesien kan word.

Die kodeks bevat rosette in die vorm van groot sirkels na elke 5 en 10 verse, reghoekige tekens na elke 100 verse en tekens van dieselfde vorm na elke 200 verse in surahs soos al-Baqarah, āl-ʿImrān en al-Shu ʿarā. Hierdie rosette word verlig in 'n ander kleur as die ander tekens.

Die inhoud van die manuskrip, soos hieronder getabelleer, is versamel uit die faksuitgawe.

Folio's Koran S ūrah Beeldpublikasie Kommentaar
1b al-Fātih ̣ah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Gefragmenteerd
1b - 30b al-Baqarah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Geringe fragmentering van verse 84 - 102, 108 - 109, 113 - 114, 282, 284 - 286
30b - 47a āl-ʿImrān Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Geringe fragmentering van verse 3 - 7
47b - 66a al-Nisā Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Geringe fragmentering van verse 25 - 27, 31 - 37
66a - 78b al-Mā'idah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Ontbrekende folio wat 'n deel van verse 3-8 bevat
78b - 93a al-An ʿām Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
93a - 109a al-A ʿrāf Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
109a - 115b al-Anfāl Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
115b - 128a Tawbah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
128a - 137a Y ūnus Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
137a - 146b H ūd Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
146b - 155b Y ūsuf Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
155b - 159b al-R ʿad Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
159b - 163b Ibrāhīm Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
163b - 167a al-H ̣ijr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
167a - 176b al-Nahl Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Geringe fragmentering van verse 33 - 35, 39 - 40
176b - 183b al-Isrā ʾ Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Ontbrekende folio wat 'n deel van verse 17 - 33 bevat
183b - 191b al-Kahf Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
191b - 196a Maryam Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
196a - 203a T ̣āhā Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Geringe fragmentering van verse 53 - 54, 63
203a - 209b al-Anbiyā Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
209b - 216a al-H ̣ajj Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
216a - 221b al-Mu ʾmin ūn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
221b - 228b al-N ūr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
228b - 233b al-Furqān Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
233b - 240a al-Shu ʿarā Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
240a - 246a al-Naml Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
246a - 253b al-Qas ̣as ̣ Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
253b - 259a al-ʿAnkab ūt Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
259a - 263a al-R ūm Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
263a - 266a Luqmān Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
266a - 268a al-Sajdah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
268a - 275a al-Ah ̣zāb Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
275a - 279b Sab ʾ Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
279b - 283b Fāt ̣ir Altikula & ccedil, 2007 Geringe fragmentering van verse 40 - 42
283b - 287b Yāsīn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
287b - 292b al-S ̣āffāt Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
292b - 296b S ̣ād Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
296b - 302b al-Zumar Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
302b - 310a Ghāfir Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
310a - 314b Fussilat Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
314b - 319b al-Sh ūra Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
319b - 324b al-Zukhruf Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
324b - 326b al-Dukhān Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
326b - 329a al-Jāthiya Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
329a - 332b al-Ah ̣qāf Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
332b - 336a Muh ̣ammad Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
336a - 339a al-Fatah ̣ Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
339a - 341b al-H ̣ujurāt Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
341b - 343b Kaf Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
343b - 345b al-Dhāriyāt Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
345b - 347b al-T ̣ ūr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
347b - 349b al-Najm Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
349b - 351b al-Qamar Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
351b - 354a al-Rah ̣mān Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
354a - 356a al-Wāqi ʿah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
356b - 359b al-H ̣adid Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
359b - 362b al-Mujādilah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
362b - 365a al-H ̣ashr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
365a - 367a al-Mumtah ̣inah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
367a - 368b al-S ̣aff Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
368b - 369b al-Jumu ʿah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
369b - 370b al-Munāfiq ūn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
370b - 372a al-Taghāb ūn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
372a - 373b al-Talāq Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
373b - 375a al-Tahrīm Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
375a - 377a al-Mulk Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
377a - 379a al-Qalam Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
379a - 380b al-H ̣aqqah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
380b - 382a al-Ma ʿārij Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
382a - 383b N ūh ̣ Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
384a - 385a al-Jinn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
385b - 386b al-Muzzammil Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
386b - 388a al-Muddathir Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
388a - 389a al-Qiyāmah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
389a - 390b al-Insān Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
390b - 391b al-Mursalāt Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
391b - 393a al-Nabā ʾ Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
393a - 394a al-Nāzi ʿāt Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
394a - 395a al-ʿAbasa Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
395a - 395b al-Takwīr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
395b - 396a al-Intifār Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
396a - 397a al-Mutaffifīn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
397b - 398a al-Inshiqāq Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
398a - 398b al-Bur ūj Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
399a al-Tāriq Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
399a - 399b al-ʿAlā Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
399b - 400a al-Ghāshīyah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
400b - 401a al-Fajr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
401a - 401b al-Balad Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
401b - 402a al-Shams Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
402a - 402b al-Layl Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
402b - 403a al-D ̣uh ̣a Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
403a al-Sharh ̣ Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
403a - 403b al-T ̣īn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
403b - 404a al-ʿAlq Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
404a al-Qadr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
404a - 404b al-Bayyinah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
404b - 405a al-Zalzalah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
405a al-ʿAdiyāt Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
405b al-Qāri ʿah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
405b al-Takāthur Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
406a al-ʿAsr Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
406a al-Humazah Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
406a - 406b al-Fīl Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
406b al-Quraysh Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
406b al-Mā ʿun Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
407a al-Kawthar Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
407a al-Kafir ūn Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
407a al-Nas ̣r Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
407b al-Masad Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
407b al-Ikhlās Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
408a al-Falaq Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -
408a al-Nās Altikula & ccedil, 2007 -

Die Topkapi -paleismuseum, Istanbul, Turkye.

[1] T. Altikula & ccedil, Al-Mus ̣h ̣af Al-Sharif: Toegeskryf aan ʿUthmān Bin ʿAffān (The Copy At The Topkapi Palace Museum), 2007, Organization of the Islamic Conference Research Center for Islamic History, Kuns en kultuur: Istanbul (Turkye).

[3] S. al-Munajjid, Dir ās āt fī T ārīkh al-Khatt al-ʿArabī Mundhu Bidayatihi il ā Nihayat al-ʿAsr al-Umawi (Franse titel: Etudes De Paleographie Arabe), 1972, Dar al-Kitab al-Jadid: Beiroet (Libanon), p. 55.

Die foto's hierbo word weergegee uit die genoemde bronne onder die bepalings van die kopieregwet. Dit maak voorsiening vir die reproduksie van gedeeltes van kopieregmateriaal vir nie-kommersiële, opvoedkundige doeleindes.

Met die uitsondering van die beelde wat in die openbare domein oorgegaan het, is die gebruik van hierdie beelde vir kommersiële doeleindes uitdruklik verbied sonder die toestemming van die outeursreghouer.


Tien cool feite: Topkapi -paleis

Die museum is elke dag oop, behalwe Dinsdag, tussen 0900 en 1700. Dit is ook gesluit op sommige godsdienstige feeste.

Die sagteband van Pasha word op 7 Mei deur Hodder & Stoughton uitgegee. ISBN: 978-1444785418.

Stuur 'n e -pos aan [email protected] met 'Pasha sagteband' in die onderwerplyn vir 'n kans om een ​​van die vyf sagtebande van Pasha te wen. Sluit asseblief u volledige posadres in. Sperdatum: 30 April.

Kopieregkennisgewings
Topkapipaleis: © José Luiz Bernardes Ribeiro /, via Wikimedia Commons
Gehoor met Selim III: Deur Konstantin_Kapidagli_001.jpg: Konstantin Kapıdağlı afgeleide werk: [email protected] (Konstantin_Kapidagli_001.jpg) [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
Alle pogings word aangewend om die outeursreg te eerbiedig, maar as ons per ongeluk 'n prent gepubliseer het met 'n ontbrekende of verkeerde toeskrywing, onderneem ons om die beeld te verwyder of 'n korrekte kredietkennisgewing by te voeg


Die lewe-of-dood-wedloop van die Ottomaanse Ryk

Die beulte van die Ottomaanse Ryk is nooit opgemerk vir hul genade nie, vra maar die tiener Sultan Osman II, wat in Mei 1622 'n ontsettende dood gely het deur 'n samedrukking van die testikels ” – soos die hedendaagse kronieke dit in die hande van 'n moordenaar gestel het bekend as Pehlivan the Oil Wrestler. Daar was rede vir hierdie genadeloosheid, maar vir 'n groot deel van sy geskiedenis (in werklikheid die suksesvolste stuk) het die Ottomaanse dinastie floreer oor die moderne Turkye, die Balkan en die grootste deel van Noord -Afrika en die Midde -Ooste, deels bedank verbysterende geweld het dit die hoogste en magtigste lede van die samelewing bereik.

Vanuit hierdie perspektief kan daar geargumenteer word dat die agteruitgang van die Ottomane vroeg in die 17de eeu begin het, presies op die punt toe hulle die beleid om 'n aansienlike deel van die koninklike familie ritueel te vermoor, laat vaar het as 'n sultan sterf, en die Westerse idee om bloot die werk eerder aan die eersgebore seun te gee. Voor die tyd is die Ottomaanse opvolging beheer deur die “ wet van broedermoord ” wat in die middel van die 15de eeu deur Mehmed II opgestel is. Onder die bepalings van hierdie merkwaardige wetgewing, was die lid van die regerende dinastie wat daarin geslaag het om die troon op die dood van die ou sultan te gryp, nie net toegelaat nie, maar verplig om al sy broers te vermoor (saam met ongemaklike ooms en neefs) om die risiko van daaropvolgende rebellie en burgeroorlog te verminder. Alhoewel dit nie altyd toegepas is nie, het die wet van Mehmed gelei tot die dood van ten minste 80 lede van die Huis van Osman oor 'n tydperk van 150 jaar. Hierdie slagoffers was alle 19 broers en susters van Sultan Mehmed III, waarvan sommige nog babas by die bors was, maar almal is onmiddellik na die toetrede van hul broer in 1595 met sy sakdoeke verwurg.

Osman II: dood deur verpletterde testikels. Beeld: Wikicommons.

Met al sy tekortkominge het die wet van broedermoord verseker dat die mees genadelose van die beskikbare vorste oor die algemeen na die troon opklim. Dit was meer as wat gesê kan word oor die vervanging daarvan, die beleid om ongewenste broers en susters in die huis op te sluit kafes (“cage ”), 'n reeks kamers diep in die Topkapi -paleis in Istanbul. Vanaf ongeveer 1600 is geslagte Ottomaanse koninklikes daar in die tronk gehou totdat dit nodig was, soms 'n paar dekades later, intussen getroos deur onvrugbare byvroue en slegs 'n streng beperkte reeks ontspannings toegelaat het, waarvan Macram hoofsaaklik 233 was. Dit, wat die latere geskiedenis van die ryk breedvoerig bewys het, was nie 'n ideale voorbereiding vir die druk van die heerskappy van een van die grootste state wat die wêreld ooit geken het nie.

Vir baie jare het die Topkapi self stom getuienis gelewer oor die groot mate van Ottomaanse meedoënloosheid. Om die paleis binne te gaan, moes besoekers eers deur die keiserlike poort gaan, aan weerskante daarvan was twee nisse waar die koppe van misdadigers wat onlangs tereggestel is, altyd te sien was. Binne die hek het die Eerste Hof gestaan, waardeur alle besoekers aan die binnekant van die paleis moes gaan. Hierdie hof was oop vir al die onderdane van die sultan, en dit het 'n onbeskryflike massa menslikheid gehad. Elke Turk het die reg om aansoek te doen vir die regstelling van sy griewe, en 'n paar honderd ontstoke burgers het gewoonlik die kiosks omsingel waarop geteisterde skrifgeleerdes hul klagtes verwyder het. Elders in dieselfde hof het talle wapens en tydskrifte, die geboue van die keiserlike munt en stalle vir 3 000 perde gestaan. Die fokuspunt was egter 'n paar “voorbeeld klippe ” wat direk buite die sentrale poort geplaas is, wat na die tweede hof gelei het. Hierdie “ klippe ” was eintlik marmerpilare waarop die afgesnyde koppe van bekendes geplaas is wat die sultan op die een of ander manier aanstoot gegee het, gevul met katoen as dit vroeër viziers of strooi was as dit minderjarige mans was. Herinneringe aan die sporadiese massa -teregstellings wat deur die sultan gelas is, is soms by die Central Gate opgehoop as addisionele waarskuwings: afgesnyde neuse, ore en tonge.

Selim die Grimmige. Beeld: Wikicommons.

Doodstraf was so algemeen in die Ottomaanse Ryk dat daar 'n fontein van teregstelling in die eerste hof was, waar die hoofloper en sy assistent hul hande gaan was het nadat hulle hul slagoffers onthoof het en dat ernstige wurg voorbehou is vir lede van die koninklike familie en hul die meeste senior amptenare. Hierdie fontein was die mees gevreesde simbool van die arbitrêre mag van lewe en dood van die sultans oor hul onderdane, en is daarvolgens gehaat en gevrees, ” het die historikus Barnette Miller geskryf. Dit is veral gereeld gebruik tydens die bewind van Sultan Selim I —Selim the Grim (1512-20) — wat in 'n bewind van agt kort jare deur sewe groot viziers gegaan het (die Ottomaanse titel vir 'n hoofminister) en beveel het 30 000 teregstellings. So gevaarlik was die posisie van vizier in daardie donker dae dat kantoorhouers gesê het dat hulle nie hul huise soggens moes verlaat sonder om hul testamente eeue daarna in hul gewaad te steek nie, wys Miller op, een van die mees algemene vloeke wat in die Die Ottomaanse Ryk sou vir Sultan Selim baie duideliker wees! ”

Gegewe die toenemende eise van die beul se werk, lyk dit opmerklik dat die Turke geen spesialishoof in diens gehad het om die eindelose rondte los te pak nie, maar dit was nie die geval nie. Die taak van die laksman is in plaas daarvan deur die sultan beklee bostanc ı basha, of hoof tuinier, die Ottomaanse korps tuiniers, 'n soort lyfwag van 5 000 man wat, afgesien van die verbouing van die paradystuine van die sultan, as douane-inspekteurs en polisiebeamptes verdubbel het. Dit was die koninklike tuiniers wat veroordeelde vroue in geweegde sakke vasgewerk het en in die Bosporus laat val het. Daar word gesê dat 'n ander sultan, Ibrahim die gek (1640-48), al 280 die vroue in sy harem ooit so laat uitvoer het hy kan die plesier hê om hul opvolgers en die loopvlak van 'n naderende groep te kies bostanc ısmet hul tradisionele uniform van rooi skedelpette, moeselienbroeke en hemde laag om gespierde kiste en arms bloot te stel, het die dood deur wurg of onthoofding vir duisende Ottomaanse onderdane deur die jare bekendgemaak.

'N Bostanc ı, of lid van die Ottomaanse korps van tuinier-beul. Die kunstenaar, 'n Europeër wat uit reisigers se rekeninge gewerk het, het verkeerdelik gewys dat hy 'n fez dra eerder as die tradisionele skedeldop.

Wanneer baie senior amptenare ter dood veroordeel word, sal hulle deur die bostanc ı basha persoonlik, maar — ten minste aan die einde van die sultansreël was die uitvoering nie 'n onvermydelike gevolg van 'n doodsvonnis nie. In plaas daarvan het die veroordeelde man en die bostanc ı basha het deelgeneem aan wat sekerlik een van die eienaardigste gebruike was wat die geskiedenis ken: 'n wedloop tussen die tuinier en sy verwagte slagoffer, waarvan die resultaat letterlik 'n kwessie van lewe of dood was vir die bewende grootvisier of hoof eunug vereis om dit te onderneem.

Dit is nog onbekend hoe hierdie gebruik ontstaan ​​het. Vanaf die einde van die agtiende eeu het berigte oor die bisarre ras egter uit die seraglio ontstaan, en dit lyk redelik konsekwent in hul besonderhede. Doodsvonnisse wat binne die mure van die Topkapi gevonnis is, is oor die algemeen by die hooftuinier by die Central Gate afgelê en Godfrey Goodwin beskryf die volgende deel van die ritueel so:

Dit was die bostanciba şi ‘s plig om enige noemenswaardige op te roep. … Toe die vezir of 'n ander ongelukkige misdadiger opdaag, het hy goed geweet hoekom hy ontbied is, maar hy moes aan sy lip byt deur die hoflikheid van gasvryheid voordat hy uiteindelik 'n koppie sjerp. As dit wit was, sug hy verlig, maar as dit rooi was, was hy wanhopig, want rooi was die kleur van die dood.

Vir die meeste van die bostanc ıs ’ slagoffers, is die vonnis uitgevoer onmiddellik na die bediening van die noodlottige sjerp deur 'n groep van vyf gespierde jongmense janissaries, lede van die sultan se elite infanterie. Vir 'n groot vizier was daar egter steeds 'n kans: sodra die doodsvonnis gevonnis is, sou die veroordeelde man toegelaat word om so vinnig as moontlik te hardloop, ongeveer 300 meter van die paleis, deur die tuine, en tot by die Vismarkhek aan die suidekant van die paleiskompleks, met uitsig op die Bosporus, wat die aangewese plek van teregstelling was. (Op die onderstaande kaart, wat u in hoër resolusie kan sien deur daarop te dubbelklik, is die Central Gate nommer 109 en die Fish Market Gate nommer 115.)

'N Plan van die uitgestrekte Topkapipaleis -kompleks in Istanbul, van Miller's Beyond the Sublime Porte. Klik om in hoër resolusie te sien.

As die afgesette vizier die Vismarkhek voor die tuinier bereik, word sy vonnis omskep in blote verbanning. Maar as die veroordeelde man die bostanci basha terwyl hy by die hek op hom wag, is hy summier tereggestel en sy liggaam in die see geslinger.

Ottomaanse verslae toon aan dat die vreemde gewoonte van die noodlottige wedloop tot in die beginjare van die negentiende eeu geduur het. Die laaste man wat sy nek gered het deur die lewe-of-dood-naelloop te wen, was die Grand Vizier Hac ı Salih Pasha, in November 1822. Hac ı — waarvan die voorganger net nege dae in die amp gestaan ​​het voor sy eie teregstelling — het net sy doodsvonnis oorleef, maar was so wyd gewaardeer omdat hy sy wedloop gewen het dat hy aangestel is as goewerneur -generaal van die provinsie Damaskus.

Maar daarna het die gewoonte saam met die ryk self verswak. Die Ottomane het die 19de eeu skaars agtergekom, en toe die Turkse staat herleef, in die 1920's onder Kemal Atat ürk, het hy dit gedoen deur byna alles terug te keer waarvoor die ou ryk gestaan ​​het.

Anthony Alderson. Die struktuur van die Ottomaanse dinastie. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1956 Joseph, Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall. Des Osmanischen Reichs: Staatsverfassung und Staatsverwaltung. Wenen, 2 volumes: Zwenter Theil, 1815 I. Gershoni et al, Geskiedenis van die moderne Midde -Ooste: Nuwe aanwysings. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Uitgewers, 2002 Geoffrey Goodwin. Topkapi -paleis: 'n geïllustreerde gids vir sy lewe en persoonlikhede. Londen: Saqi Books, 1999 Albert Lybyer. Die regering van die Ottomaanse Ryk in die tyd van Suleiman the Magnificent. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, Barnette Miller, 1913. Beyond the Sublime Porte: die Grand Seraglio van Stambul. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1928 Ignatius Mouradgea D ’Ohsson. Tableau G én éral de l ’Ryk Ottomaanse. Paris, 3 volumes, 1787-1820 Baki Tezcan. Die Tweede Ottomaanse Ryk: Politieke en Sosiale Transformasie in die Vroeë Moderne Wêreld. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.


Die boontjies mors: Die Islamitiese geskiedenis van koffie

Voordat daar vir baie van ons Starbucks en die eienaardige koffiewinkels was wat as gesellige werkshoeke gedink het, was daar 'n oplewing in die middel van die 17de eeu in Engeland. Gedurende die 1600's knik die algemene gesprek oor koffie na sy status as die Islamitiese ander. Othello, die Shakespeare -Moor, is in 'n skurk in die Engelse ballade van 1672, 'A Broadside against Coffee: or The Marriage of the Turk', in 'n skurk verander en vergelyk met koffie. Koffie is ook op verskillende maniere bestempel as die slinkse "Mahometan gruel" en "Turkish Renegade" [Gitanjali Shahani, 2020]. Sewe-en-dertig koffiehuise in Londen alleen het die naam “Turk se kop” aangeneem [Brian Cowan, 2005]. Namate die drink van koffie meer en meer gewild geword het, het die afbeeldings van koffiedienste wat deur heide en turban-Turke beman word, ook toegeneem-'n verskynsel wat in die Europese kuns van die tydperk gedokumenteer is.

Die illustrasie toon twee Engelse verbruikers en 'n Turkse Turk wat 'n koppie koffie hou en tabak rook, nog 'n eksotiese invoer. Hy kan gesien word met uitsig op die Black Moor wat koffie bedien. 'N Breë kant teen koffie. Londen, 1672. Folger J147.

Terwyl rassistiese aanrandings op koffie nie meer voortduur nie, is die Islamitiese verlede van hierdie donkerbruin drank heeltemal afgewit. Dit was 'n uitvee wat so onberispelik was dat koffie drink in Indië reeds in die 19de eeu geïdentifiseer is met koloniale onderdane van die koloniseerders wat óf die praktyk as 'n teken van Westerse moderniteit aangeneem of verwerp het.

Histories is koffie as 'n warm drankie in die Jemen van die 15de eeu deur die Sufi -heiliges aan die wêreld bekendgestel. Hulle het gedrink qahwa, die Arabiese term vir koffie, om wakker te bly gedurende die naglange meditasie en voordrag zikr rituele (Ralph Hattox, 1985). Soefi-heiliges en handelaars versprei die gebruik van koffiedrink na die geografies uiteenlopende-maar intellektueel en taalkundig gekoppelde-Islamitiese Turkse Ottomaanse, Iraanse Safavid- en Suid-Asië-Mughal-ryke wat van die 16de tot die 18de eeu geheers het.

Die 15de -eeuse koffiehandelnetwerk was gebaseer in die Rooi See -streek met die Jemenitiese hawe Mocha as fokuspunt. Mocha het sy voorraad ontvang uit die Ethiopiese hooglande in die noordooste van Afrika, die natuurlike habitat van wat nou bekend staan Arabica koffie. Teen die 17de eeu het die Engelse Oos -Indiese Kompanjie en die Nederlandse Oos -Indiese Kompanjie hierdie handel binnegedring, wat tot dusver deur die Arabiere, Cairenes en Turkse handelaars bedryf is. Die proses om die Islamitiese wortels van koffie te sny, is aan die gang gesit. Teen die 18de eeu het die Engelse, die Nederlanders en die Franse daarin geslaag om koffiesade na hul kolonies in Indonesië, Suid -Indië, Sri Lanka en die Karibiese Eilande te vervoer en uit te plant. Gevolglik het Java, Malabar, Ceylon en Jamaikaanse koffiebone die wêreldmark oorgeneem. Alhoewel hierdie koffie, net soos die caffè mokka, hul name uit hul handelshawe kry, was hul verbintenis met Europese meesters onmiskenbaar.

Jare voordat die Engelse die reuk van die Jemenitiese handel opgevang het, het sir Antony Sherley, wat 'n nie -amptelike reis deur Safavid en Ottomaanse gebiede onderneem het, een van die vroegste Engelsmanne geword wat koffie teëgekom het. Sy verslag van 1599 het opgemerk dat Turke in Ottomaanse Aleppo die gewoonte was om 'n sekere "drank, wat hulle wel Coffe noem [verengelsing van qawha], wat gemaak is van saad, baie soos mosterdsaad, wat die brein soos ons Metheglin sal laat bedwelm”. Sewentien jaar later, in 1616, het die Engelse dominee Edward Terry, wat oor sy tyd in Mughal Suid -Asië geskryf het, soortgelyke nuuskierigheid oor en onbekendheid met koffie getoon. Hy het aangeteken:

'Baie van die mense daar (in Indië) ... gebruik 'n drank ... hulle noem koffie gemaak deur 'n swart saad wat in water gekook word, wat dit amper in dieselfde kleur verander, maar die smaak van die water baie min verander: ten spyte daarvan is dit baie goed om die spysvertering te bevorder, die geeste te versnel en die bloed te reinig. ”

Hierdie verslae kon egter skaars die oppervlak van die Ottomaanse, Safavid- en Mughal -koffiekultuur krap in al sy kompleksiteit.

As deel van die hoflike ritueel is koffie aan staatsamptenare aangebied net voor hulle vir militêre opdragte gestuur is - wat die waarskuwing simboliseer wat nodig is vir keiserlike diens. Die Safavid-hof het 'n aparte koffiekombuis en qahwahchī-bāshī (koffiemeester) vir die regerende elite. Koffie was ook die keuse van 'n wye deel van die bevolking, van digters en geleerdes tot intellektuele neigings tot besoekers wat op soek was na verfrissings, tot openbare baddens en uitgeputte reisigers.

Koffie was 'n skoonheid vir hierdie verbruikers. Die koffiekoppie word dikwels vergelyk met 'n tulp, met die hartstog van 'n geliefde. Die swart-gekleurde koffiedrank is gelykstaande aan betowerende oë met 'n kohlrand. Wonderlike juweeltone van pou en die subtiel veranderende skakerings word ook aan die drank toegeskryf [Walter Hakala, 2014]. Hierdie beskrywing het 'n direkte korrelasie met die moderne koffievoorbereidingsmetode waar koffiemale wat nie in water gekook is nie, weggefiltreer is, maar dat dit aan die onderkant van die beker kon neersak, wat 'n iriserende oliefilm aan die bokant van die beker tot gevolg het. Benewens die gedroogde, geroosterde en gemaalde koffiebone, het die resepte ook die blare en vlesige bessies van die koffiebos gebruik, wat in warm water gedoop en gebrou is. Mediese verhandelinge bied resepte vir die bereiding van lekker gemmerkoffie, kaneelkoffie en kardemomkoffie. Rosewater en suikergoed is ook bygevoeg tot die lekkerte wat koffie was. In die 18de eeu in Mughal Delhi, Arabiese ki sarai, 'n herberg wat deur Arabiese handelaars bestuur word, was bekend vir die bereiding van taai, soet koffie.

Herstel poort van die Arabiese ki Sarai, Delhi, Indië. (foto deur die skrywer)

Dit verg egter 'n mate van onderhandeling vir koffie om 'n ruimte vir homself in hierdie ryke te skep. Die 16de -eeuse ortodokse geestelikes, wat versigtig was vir die potensiële narkotiese en bedwelmende eienskappe van hierdie nuwe goed, het koffie gelykgestel aan hasj (cannabis) en alkohol. In reaksie daarop het advokate van koffie, insluitend dokters, liberale gesindes en ander lede van die hoflike kringe, beklemtoon dat koffie, anders as wyn, nie deur die Koran genoem of verbied word nie. Hulle beweer ook die verskil in die fisiologiese effekte van koffie in die bevordering van wakkerheid in teenstelling met die slaperigheid wat deur dwelms en alkohol veroorsaak word. Hierdie rede het weerklank gevind by wyer dele van die ryk. Byvoorbeeld, tydens die Ottomaanse keiserlike besnydenisfees wat in 1582 gehou is, het die gilde koffieverkopers 'n optrede vir die keiser, Sultan Murad III, saamgestel wat koffie as 'n seën vir die gemeenskap van geleerdes uitbeeld. Die sultan was tevrede met sy optrede en beloof uitstel van die morele aanslag op koffie.

Optog van koffieverkopers met 'n model koffiekar tydens die keiserlike besnydenisfees, Van-i Hümayun, 1582, Istanbul, Topkapi -paleismuseum.

Alhoewel koffie self omhels is, het die bykomende sosiale instelling van die koffiehuis die owerhede ontstel. Koffiehuise het 'n kenmerkende kultuur van intellektuele diskoers en uitruil veroorsaak as verskillende dele van die bevolking - kunstenaars, vakmanne, digters, kunstenaars, handelaars en burokrate wat voorheen geïsoleer was deur woonpatrone - gemeng en geniet gesprekke, bordspeletjies, musiek, storievertelling en poësie -voordragte in hierdie nuwe sosiale ruimtes. Die volgende 17de -eeuse Ottomaanse skildery omvat die florerende sosiale lewe van hierdie koffiewinkels.

Ottomaanse koffiehuis, 1620, Istanbul, Chester Beatty -biblioteek. Let op die elite -manne wat onder 'n geparkeerde platform sit met die koffieserver aan die regterkant.


Topkapi -paleismodel - Geskiedenis

Toe Sultan Mehmet die Veroweraar Istanbul in 1453 inneem, beveel hy eers die bou van 'n nuwe paleis vir hierdie nuwe Ottomaanse hoofstad, op 'n terrein in die distrik Beyazit waar die Universiteit van Istanbul vandag staan. Maar kort voor lank het hy van plan verander en 'n aantal geboue op die landtong in die suidooste laat bou. Dit sou die paleis word, later bekend as Topkapi.

Afgesien van kort tussenposes, was die Topkapipaleis die tuiste van al die Ottomaanse sultans tot die bewind van Abdulmecid I (1839-1860), 'n tydperk van byna vier eeue. Deur die jare het die paleiskompleks konstante evolusie ondergaan. Sommige geboue het verdwyn, vernietig deur brand, aardbewings of gesloop om plek te maak vir nuwe geboue. The palace was therefore not a single massive building in the western tradition, constructed at one go, but an organic structure which was never static, and reflected the styles and tastes of many periods in many independent units with individual functions.

The last new building to be added to Topkapi was commissioned by Sultan Abdulmecid who abandoned Topkapi for a new palace on the Bosphorus. Neglected thereafter, Topkapi Palace fell into disrepair. After the establishment of the Republic in 1923 it was extensively renovated and transformed into a museum, and ever since has been one of Istanbul's most popular sights. Since Topkapi is so large, only some sections are open to the public.

Before entering the outer portal of the palace, let us pause to look at the fountain of Sultan Ahmet III just outside. This lovely baroque building dates from the 18 th century and is the most striking example of such "meydan" fountains. On each of the four sides of the fountains is a tap, and at each of the four corners a "sebil" for the distribution of drinking water to passersby. The road leading off to the right here takes you to Ishak Pasa Mosqe which has lost much of its character in repairs carried out over the years.

This portal flanked by towers known as the Bab-i H mayun was built in the time of the conqueror. As at the Orta Kapi or Central Gate, the severed heads of traitors were occasionally displayed here. The portal was guarded by a special regiment of guards. Around the first courtyard within this gate were numerous service buildings, including a hospital, bakery, mint, armoury and accommodation for palace servants. This courtyard was open to the public.

To the right as you enter the portal are the remains of the Byzantine Samson Hospital, which was razed during the Nika Rebellion. This hospital was famous in its day, providing treatment for rich and poor alike.

Next to these is Haghia Eirene, one of the oldest churches in Constantinople and the church of the patriarchate prior to Haghia Sophia. It was enlarged in the early 4 th century, and at that period played a major -and sometimes bloody- role in the controversies between Arian and Orthodox Christians. The church, too, was burned down in the Nika Rebellion and rebuilt by Justinian.

Haghia Eirene is the only Byzantine church in Istanbul with its atrium intact. The plan is a good example of the transition from a basilica to a Greek cross. Thick walls support the main dome and the small dome to the east, while columns divide the nave from the aisles. The plain cross in the apse must date from the iconoclastic period and the remains of the mosaics in the narthex probably date from the time of Justinian.

Since Haghia Eirene was enclosed by the palace walls soon after the conquest, it was never used as a mosque. Instead the janissaries of the palace used it as an armoury. The accumulation of antique weapons which resulted led to the building being used as the first Turkish military museum in the 19 th century. When the military museum moved to new premises in Harbiye, Haghia Eirene was restored and for some years now has been used as a concert hall, a function for which its excellent acoustics and evocative atmosphere are ideally suited.

A narrow lane leading down the hill from the church takes you to G lhane Park which was once part of the palace gardens. Halfway down the hills is the Tiled Pavilion and the Archaeological Museum, possessing one of the most outstanding collections in the world. Next door is the Museum of Near Eastern History where fascinating pre-Islamic Arab works and finds from Assyria, Babylon and Egypt are exhibited.

The Tiled Pavilion is the earliest building of Topkapi Palace, built by Mehmet II (the Conqueror). The striking tiles which adorn the entire building still display strong traces of Seljuk Turkish art in both the designs and the predominance of blue and turquoise. It is for this reason that the building has been transformed into a ceramics museum, where the finest examples of Turkish ceramics from the 12 th century to the present day are on display. At the entrance to G lhane Park is the Alay K sk (meaning Ceremonial Pavilion) dating from the reign of Mahmud II (1808-1839) who watched various parades and processions from this vantage point.

If we enter G lhane Park and walk straight ahead, we came to the Gothic Column, which was one of the principal Byzantine monuments, and thought to have been erected in commemoration of a victory against the Goths at the end of the third century. Nearby are the ruins of an unidentified Byzantine building.

There are known to be several Byzantine cisterns in the palace courtyards and next to the Archaeological Museum, and excavations here might also reveal the remains of the old acropolis. Before entering Topkapi Palace proper, there is one more building of note. This is Sepetciler K sk (meaning pavilion of the Basket Weavers) (who wove baskets for produce from the imperial gardens) which is the last survivor of a number of palace pavilions in this area. This building at the water's edge now houses the International Press Centre.

An extra charge is made for visiting the Harem at Topkapi Palace, and groups of limited numbers are only allowed in at specific intervals, so it is best to get your ticket for the Harem as soon as you arrive. These restrictions are necessary to prevent any damage being done to the contents of this section. The Harem is a vast labyrinth of rooms and corridors, and only part is open to the public. The visitor's entrance is via the Divan Odasi in the second courtyard. The Divan Odasi or Chamber of State, served as a transition between the Harem and the public apartments of the palace. The Council of State convened four days a week under the Grand Vizier, over whose seat was a window with an iron grill. Whenever he wished the sultan could observe the meetings without being seen. The Inner Treasury Chamber adjoining the Divan houses a collection of weapons.

Now we enter the Harem itself, where we can see rooms occupied by the black eunuchs, concubines, the sultan's mother and the sultan himself. The most fascinating aspect of the Harem was the cloak of secrecy over life here. Virtually none of its inhabitants had the freedom to go out at will, and equally almost no one from the outside world was ever admitted. Sexuality is the principal theme on which the architecture is based, the sultan and his concubines and consort. Between these two poles of a single man and many women, were the sexless eunuchs who were guardians of the concubines, but themselves virtual prisoners. Of course the young princes lived in part of the Harem, and after puberty they too were provided with concubines. But their public existence was confined to the shadowy one of "potential sultans". Despite the change in the laws of succession introduced by Ahmed I, according to which the eldest member of the dynasty rather than the eldest son of the reigning sultan succeeded to the throne, the princes lived in constant fear of assassination.

Harem, Imperial Sofa, 18. Century

The central gate known as Orta Kapi or Babusselam is the main entrance to the museum. Executions used to be carried out on the inner side of this gate and the heads exhibited on blocks of stones to the right of the door.

Along the opposite side of this courtyard are the kitchen buildings, which provided food for literally thousands of people every day. The lines of small domes and chimneys surmounting them make the kitchens a familiar part of the palace's silhouette. The central gate known as Orta Kapi or Babusselam is the main entrance to the museum. Executions used to be carried out on the inner side of this gate and the heads exhibited on blocks of stones to the right of the door.

Today as well as some of the original kitchen equipment, the palace's enormous collection of porcelain and glass is housed here. The Chinese porcelains are what is said to be the largest collection in the world. Following the courtyard wall to the left brings you to the stables which housed only the sultan's own horses. Various exhibitions are held here.

The gate into the third courtyard known as Babussade or Gate of Felicity brings us into the private inner areas of the palace. Only the sultan was permitted to pass through the gate on horseback, and even on foot only a favoured handful of statesmen and trusted intimates could enter here. Only once in Ottoman history, during the rebellion which dethroned Osman II, did rebels dare to enter this gate. And on one occasion Alemdar Mustafa Pasa broke this door down in order to save the life of Mahmut II.

Ceremonies such as those held on a new sultan's accession were held in front of this gate, and it was here when the janissaries were simmering into rebellion that councils were held to discuss their demands. It was also in front of this gate that the sultan presented the army commander with the holy standard when he set out on campain.

Within the gates is the Audience Chamber, where the Grand Vezier and members of the Divan came to present their resolutions to the sultan for ratification. It was also here that foreign ambassadors were received. Right behind the Audience Chamber is the elegant library built by Ahmed III in the early 18 th century.

The buildings in the southeast corner of this courtyard housed the Imperial Enderun, an institution where young boys taken as tribute from Christian families in the empire were trained for administrative posts in various state departments. Some of these rooms now house offices and others the costumes section. Beyond these is the famed Treasury where jewelled thrones, baskets of emeralds, inlaid daggers and other valuable objects are exhibited.

One of the buildings opposite the third gate houses an exhibition of the finest miniatures in the museum's collection of over ten thousand. The Has Oda, where the most able of the young Enderun novices were educated, now contains a superb collection of calligraphy.

Passing through to the fourth courtyard beside the wing containing the miniatures brings us to a series of exquisite pavilions built by various sultans. The Bagdat and Revan Pavilions built for Murat IV are outstanding both in terms of their architecture and interior decoration. The Sofa Pavilion in the center was built in the tulip gardens laid out during the reign of Ahmet III. The pavilion of Sultan Abdulmecit on the right is now used as a restaurant.

Between the Bagdat and Revan pavilions is a marble terrace with a pool in the centre and an arbour with a gilded baldachin roof commanding a view over the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus. The Apartment of the Holy Mantle opposite is the section where the holy relics brought back from Mecca by Selim I on his return from the Egyptian campaign are kept. Beside the western terrace is the Circumsision Chamber built by Sultan Ibrahim.

Topkapi Palace nowhere aspires to imposing height. Everywhere the axes are horizontal, and the style consciously humble, avoiding ostentatious monumental facades. While mosques, as the house of God, were deliberately built on a large scale wherever possible, the sultans did not seek similar grandeur for their own homes. That is why, if it were not for the intricate decoration of surfaces and monumental gates, Topkapi Palace could disappoint the visitor in search of the same definition of splendour as exhibited by European palaces.


History of Topkapi Palace

Topkapi Palace was built by Sultan Mehmed II after he conquered Constantinople in 1453. The first palace constructed by him at the site of the Istanbul University, soon proved inadequate to meet the demands of Sultan's administration. Thus, he ordered another palace to be constructed at the site of the Byzantine acropolis, with the Golden Horn, the Seraglio and the Sea of Marmara encircling it.

The palace was walled off from the city to provide the necessary security and privacy. The Topkapi Palace was not only the residence of the Sultans, it was also the administrative center from where all the judicial and executive functions were carried out. Later it also became a seat of art and culture.

Over the centuries, the palace underwent many changes with additions being made to the original structure. Parts of the palace building were often destroyed due to fire or earthquakes and constant restoration work took place. Each Sultan that repaired a portion of the Topkapi Palace did it according to his own style or the architectural style prevalent at the time. It has thus evolved to its present form over the centuries and some of the older construction can only be seen in the earlier paintings or miniatures. The last building was added by Sultan Abdulmecid who later abandoned it to live in the newly constructed palace on the Bosphorus.

Today the Topkapi Palace is still a remarkable sight with its minarets, turrets and domes. It covers an enormous area of 173 acres which houses garden courtyards, kitchens, armory, workshops, baths, offices, halls and residential areas. Once it was a small city where thousands of people lived. In 1923, it was renovated once again to convert it to a museum that has today become one of Istanbul's most popular sights.


Fourth courtyard

The third courtyard extends to the fourth courtyard, which consists primarily of terraced gardens and pavilions. It is home to the lushly decorated Circumcision Chamber, the Baghdad Pavilion, and the Yerevan Pavilion. One of the most distinct structures of the fourth courtyard is the quaint gilt-bronze Iftar Pergola, where sultans would break their fast if Ramadan fell in the summer. Many of the Ottoman sultans had an interest in flowers and gardening, and the fourth courtyard gardens are filled with tulips, just as they would have been during the Ottoman’s reign.


Topkapi Palace Model - History

Ottoman history from 1566 -1792 has been described as ”The Decline of Faith and State.” To Ottomans, " decline ” meant dislocation of the traditional order hence, ” reforms " to check or reverse " decline " meant restoring the old order which had produced the Golden Age of Suleyman the Magnificent.” At times decline was checked but only temporarily. Decline was not only slow, gradual, interrupted, lasting rnore than three centuries, but also it was relative only to its own Golden Age and to the remarkable progress of its Christian European neighbors.

It is easier to describe decline than to explain it. Some developments which the Ottoman Empire did not take part in gave Europe its relative superiority.

[ 1 ] Its 16th-10th c. commercial expansion overseas enriched Western Europe to the detriment of the Ottomans.

[ 2 ] The West improved agricultural methods while technology and industry advanced rapidly, all tied to the new scientific experimentation and rationalist attitudes stemming from the Renaissance and Reformation and culminating in the Enlightenment only weak echoes of these events reached the East before 1800.

[ 3 ] Strong, centralized, national monarchies or bureaucratic empires appeared not only in Western Europe but also along the Ottoman frontiers in Central and Eastern Europe just when centrifugal forces were weakening the previously centralized Ottoman bureaucratic empire.

[ 4 ] A prosperous,enterprising bourgeoisie on the Western model failed to appear in the Ottoman Empire to back up the ruler the wealthy bourgeoisie which did exist was small and composed largely of either non-Muslim merchants and bankers, who were not acceptable as the sultan’s allies, or bureaucrats, who were a part of the "establishment ” anxious to protect their own interests and often resisting change.

The Ottomans were more conscious of the dislocations in their own traditional system :

[ 1 ] Leadership : 17 sultans after Suleyman ( from1566 to 1789) were, with few exceptions, men of little ability, training, or experience, and some were incompetent, even mentally defective their average rule of 13 years was less than half that of the first 10 sultans. This was no accident! Mehmed III died in 1605 leaving two minor sons as the only direct male survivors. The elder, Ahmet I, spared the life of his brother, Mustafa, but kept him secluded in a special apartment in the harem of Topkapi Palace. The Sitva Torok treaty with Austria (1606) should have been a wake-up call for the Ottomans. It was a negotiated compromise rather than a grant of peace dictated by the sultan in it, the Hapsburg monarch finally was recognized as the sultan’s peer, as " Emperor” (Padishah rather than simply King of Vienna.” Mustafa I’s accession in 1617 marked the end of ”succession by military contest and the practice of royal ” fratricide,” replaced by confinement of princes in the palace and succession by the eldest male of the imperial family. Not only were most inexperienced and incompetent, many were minors under the influence of the Queen Mother (Valide Sultan) and harem favorites, giving rise to palace cliques and intrigue. For several decades in the first half of the17.th century, women of the palace exercised such influence that the period is called " The Sultanate of the Women "

[ 2 ] Bribery, purchase of office, favoritism, nepotism : Promotion by merit, long the hallmark of Ottoman administration, became less common. Corruption spread to the provinces where an official would buy his office, then squeeze more taxes from the populace to reimburse himself. There were frequent shifts in judicial as well as civil officials, with justice also sometimes for sale. In the mid-to-late 17th c., the great Koprulu family of viziers attempted to root out corruption and improve administrative and military efficiency. They were temporarily successful in arresting " decline " through traditional reforms, and in 1663 Ottoman forces besieged Vienna for the second time. But in the 17th c., the Ottomans were confronted by an extended arc of opponents, Venice, Austria, Poland, Russia, and Iran, often obliged to confront several at once. In 1699, after defeat by a coalition of all Central and East European powers, the Ottomans accepted mediation, negotiated peace, and, by the Treaty of Karlowitz, for the first time gave up territories in the Balkans. The shrinking of Ottoman frontiers had begun.

[ 3 ] Military : The devshirme was abandoned ( just when is uncertain ) sons of janissaries were admitted to the corps, then other Muslims and imperial slavery became a legal fiction.” Provincial janissaries sometimes acted as semi-autonomous local rulers, while in Istanbul they become a disruptive force, often in collaboration with artisans / craftsmen and students. The provincial cavalry army was made obsolete by musket-armed European troops, requiring the Ottomans to increase their standing infantry and equip them with firearms. This required money. The military fief system was all but abandoned and replaced by tax-farming. The heavy tax burden was responsible in part for revolts in Anatolia, abandonment of farm lands, and depopulation of villages thus the empire experienced a decline in tax revenues despite higher taxes.

[ 4 ] Economics : The Ottoman Empire suffered from severe inflation, as did all of Europe, as New World silver flooded in. This, together with debased coinage, fueled corruption. By the 17th c., Europeans and consolidated their control of new sea trade routes, by-passing the Middle East and diminishing the transit trade through Ottoman lands. Asian spices were shipped directly to Europe, and wars with Iran interrupted the silk trade. European manufactured goods flowed in, undercutting local handicraft products and enriching Levantine merchants. The Ottoman Empire’s unfavorable trade balance resulted in an outflow of gold, while European states demanded more favorable trade treaties ( ”Capitulations" ) and were guilty of blatantly abusing them.

[ 5 ] Intellectual decline--Selim and Suleyman’s 16th c. victory over Safavid Shi’ism so consolidated Sunni orthodoxy that Muslims in the Empire were not forced to engage in intellectually challenging and stimulating conflict as Catholics and Protestants were in Europe. Muslim scholars became intellectually conservative and resistant to new ideas convinced of the superiority of Muslim / Ottoman civilization, they were seemingly oblivious to the advances being made in the infidel West. Meanwhile, the Ottoman religious establishment gradually became infiltrated by the Sufi orders, producing a new sort of symbiosis which gave greater strength to conservative religious” elements.

In the18th c. more wars and losses resulted in another attempt at reforms. The Tulip Period ( 1718-30 ) marks the first conscious borrowing of European culture and art. During the mid-century interlude of peace on the European frontiers, Ottoman political authority was further diffused. Provincial notables and governors barely heeded orders from Istanbul. Levantines and Phanariot Greeks enjoyed enormous prosperity and influence. The Muslim religious elite reached the apex of their power. In the last quarter of the century, Catherine the Great resumed Russian expansion southward her ” Greek Scheme " aimed to put her grandson, Constantine, on the throne of a neo-Byzantine Empire with its capital at Constantinople. Her first war ended in the Treaty of Kuchuk Kaynarca (1774) by which the Ottomans gave up the Crimea, the first time they had lost territory inhabited primarily by Muslims. In 1789, during the second war with Catherine, Selim lll became sultan and initiated a reform program called the New Order, (Nizam-i Cedid) with emphasis on military and fiscal reform. But Selim’s failure to prevent Napoleon’s invasion of the rich Ottoman province of Egypt in 1798 revealed to Europeans as never before that the balance of power had now shifted decidedly in their favor.

The Imperial reforms begun by Selim III were taken up again in the early decades of the 19th.c. by Sultan Mahmud II. They aimed at curbing provincial autonomy and achieving political centralization and modernization through Western-style military, administrative, and fiscal reforms. But European intervention in the Greek struggle for independence signaled the beginning of the modern " Eastern Question ” (Simply put : Who would divide the spoils when the Ottoman Empire collapsed ? ). To counter this, the Tanzimat period (1839-76) saw reforms center around a new concept of justice (adalet): equality before the law for all Ottoman subjects, Muslim and non- Muslim alike. This concept was fundamental to the prevalent ideology of the Tanzimat, Ottomanism ( patriotism but not yet nationalism). In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism. The Tanzimat reforms culminated in the constitution and parliament of 1876, but the 1877-78 war with Russia and the Treaty of Berlin, by which most of the Ottoman lands in Europe were lost and the European powers laid claim to spheres of influence in the Middle East, allowed Sultan Abdulhamid II to bring an end to " liberalism” and proceed with reforms under an autocratic- regime. By the 1880s Germany under Kaiser Wilhelrn had replaced France and Great Britain as friend and military advisor of the Ottoman Empire, and new ideologies were challenging Ottomanism. Abdulhamid embraced Pan-Islamism his opponents, known collectively as Young Turks, were drawn to a secular Ottoman pseudo-nationalism and some to Pan-Turkism.

The Hamidian despotism was ended by the Young Turk Revolution(1908-09) and replaced by constitutional, parliamentary government under the Young Turk Committee of Union and Progress. Their policies reflected a growing sense of Turkish nationalism. But in the five years preceding World War I, two Balkan wars and a war with Italy, which had invaded Libya, brought the military element of the Young Turk movement to the fore and resulted in the domination of the Istanbul political scene by the Young Turk Triumverate ( Enver, Talat, and Jemal Pashas) . Under their leadership, the Ottomans entered World War I on the side of Germany. The victors dictated the peace to end all peace at Paris in 1919. With even the heartlands of the Empire partitioned and Istanbul occupied by the victorious allies, the Turks of Anatolia under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) rejected the terms of the dictated Treaty of Sevres. Again they took up arms, fought successfully for their independence, and --- bringing to an end the 600 + year-old Ottoman Empire –- negotiated the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923 which granted international recognition to the boundaries of the new Republic of Turkey


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