Immigrante op Ellis Island

Immigrante op Ellis Island


Immigrasie na Iowa

Iowa was die bestemming vir immigrante sedert dit in die 1830's begin het om setlaars te verwelkom. Die oorsprong van die nuwe aankomelinge het die afgelope 175 jaar aansienlik verander en kan grofweg in drie golwe verdeel word. In elke geval kom hulle in reaksie op 'n kombinasie van 'stoot/trek' faktore. Belangrike faktore soos oorloë of vervolging by die huis of armoede en gebrek aan ekonomiese vooruitsigte het hulle gedwing om 'n nuwe vaderland te soek. Trekfaktore sluit in die voordele wat hulle by die hervestiging in Iowa beleef het. Die ryk landbougrond en ekonomiese geleenthede was die belangrikste faktor in die vroeë Iowa.

Iowa se vroeë setlaars

Na die Black Hawk -oorlog toe die inheemse Amerikaners onder druk was om die titel van 'n aansienlike deel van Oos -Iowa af te staan, het pioniers op pad gegaan na die 'land oorkant die rivier'. Die meeste vroeë intrekkers is aangetrokke deur die hektaar goedkoop staatsgrond. Kleinboere uit die Ohio River Valley het 'n groot deel van die vroeë bevolking voorsien. Die deelstate Ohio, Indiana, Illinois en Missouri was langs die pad stoppunte vir baie gesinne wat in New England of die deelstate van die suide soos Virginia, Maryland of Kentucky begin het.

Europese Boom

Europa het ook sy bydrae tot die Iowa -toneel begin. Politieke revolusies en onderdrukkende reaksies het Sentraal -Europa aan die einde van die 1840's geteister. Duitsland het die grootste kontingent voorsien van 'n vloedgolf na mislukte revolusies in 1848. Baie Duitsers vestig hulle in die Mississippirivierdorpe soos Dubuque en Davenport, waar hulle sterk etniese gemeenskappe gevorm het. Duitsers was egter 'n aansienlike teenwoordigheid in baie Iowa -gemeenskappe en plattelandse buurte. Die aartappelhongersnood van die 1840's het baie Ierse gesinne genoop om 'n nuwe tuiste in Amerika te soek, wat Ierland bevorder as die tweede grootste bron van vroeë Europese immigrante. Groot -Brittanje, Kanada, Holland en die Skandinawiese lande het ook inwoners tot vroeë Iowa bygedra. Spoorweë en die staat self het buitelandse immigrasie bevorder. Hulle het brosjures in Noord- en Wes -Europa ontwikkel en versprei in moedertale wat die klimaat, ekonomiese vooruitsigte en praktiese inligting oor hoe om Iowa te bereik beskryf.

Aan die einde van die 1800's en tot die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het immigrante uit Italië, Rusland en Oos -Europa in die sensus verskyn. Omdat die meeste grond nou in privaat besit was en nie meer teen goedkoop pryse by die regering beskikbaar was nie, was dit die vroeë Iowa -nywerhede wat hierdie nuwe aankomelinge aangetrek het. Steenkoolmynbou was belangrik om Italianers en Kroate te teken. Dikwels sou 'n enkele mannetjie daar aankom en werk kry in 'n steenkoolmyn. As hy genoeg gespaar het, sou hy 'n broer, seun of neef borg, wat dan ook sou bydra tot die migrasiekoste van ander familielede. Die Eerste Wêreldoorlog het wantroue vir hierdie latere immigrante gewek en pogings is aangewend om hulle te "Amerikaniseer" en die aantal toekomstige aankomelinge te beperk. Mexikaanse immigrasie het ook toegeneem met die vraag na plaasarbeid tydens die oorlog.

Vlugtelinge

Vanaf die sewentigerjare het 'n derde golf immigrante die staat binnegekom en hierdie immigrasie duur vandag voort. Hierdie individue was dikwels die slagoffers van burgeroorloë of natuurrampe. Die Viëtnam -oorlog het duisende ontheemdes veroorsaak wat in vlugtelingkampe in Suidoos -Asië opgesluit was. In 1975 het president Gerald Ford die land aangemoedig om te help om vlugtelinge hier te hervestig, en die goewerneur van Iowa, Robert Ray, het gereageer deur 'n staatsagentskap op te rig om met private organisasies saam te werk. As gevolg hiervan het baie Viëtnamese in die staat aangekom, Engels geleer en produktiewe burgers geword. Oorloë in hul tuislande het Bosniërs, Ethiopiërs en ander uit Afrika en Asië ook 'gedwing' om nuwe huise in Iowa te soek. Hispanics uit Mexiko, Suid -Amerika en die Karibiese Eilande is hierheen getrek deur werk in die vleisverpakkingsaanlegte van Iowa en het 'n belangrike deel van die bevolking geword in verskeie Iowa -gemeenskappe, waaronder Perry, Storm Lake, Marshalltown en Denison.

Iowa spog met verskeie nasionaal erkende museums wat hulde bring aan immigrantegroepe uit Iowa: Vesterheim vir Noorweërs in Decorah Die Tsjeggiese en Slowaakse museum en biblioteek in Cedar Rapids, die Duitse erfenissentrum in Davenport en die Deense Museum van Amerika in Elk Horn.


Die geskiedenis van Angel Island, waaroor die Amerikaanse handhawing van reëls ontwerp is om Asiatiese immigrante weg te hou

Russell Jeung, 'n professor in Asiatiese Amerikaanse studies aan die San Francisco State University, het die afgelope jaar die toename in diskriminasie en teistering wat Asiatiese Amerikaners in die gesig gestaar het tydens die COVID-19-pandemie dopgehou.

Sy werk aan die databasis Stop AAPI Hate het die omvang van die onlangse voorvalle beter bekend gemaak by die algemene publiek, maar hulle is ook deel van 'n geskiedenis wat baie verder terugstrek as die vorige jaar en vir Jeung, dat die geskiedenis persoonlik is.

Baie van die dinge wat in die geskiedenis van die Asiatiese Amerikaanse gebeur het, en die uitsluitingsbeleid wat Asiatiese Amerikaners gemik het, moes my gesin verduur, sê Jeung, wie se familie al ses generasies in die Verenigde State woon. Jeung se oupa is in die VSA gebore, maar het sy ouma in Hong Kong ontmoet toe hy sy vrou by hom in sy vaderland wou bring, en hy het drie wit getuies nodig gehad om getuienis by die American Railway Express Co in Monterey, Kalifornië, in te dien. , om te bevestig dat hy inderdaad in die state gebore is. My gesin staar uitsluiting in die gesig, staar segregasie in die gesig, staar in kwarantyn, word aangehou, gedeporteer, geskei, en hulle gesin word deur die regering geskei. ”

Die gesin van Jeung het ook 'n ander skakel na die geskiedenis: toe sy ouma in die twintigerjare die VSA binnekom, was dit via Angel Island in San Francisco Bay. Paar plekke illustreer die diepte en besonderhede van die Asiatiese Amerikaanse verlede beter, en sy verhale en mdashby word inspirerende en kommerwekkende sleutel vir die begrip van die huidige uitdagings waarmee Asiatiese Amerikaners, die land se vinnigste groeiende rasse en etniese groep in die eerste twee dekades te staan ​​gekom het van die 21ste eeu, per April 2021 data van die Pew Research Center.

Alhoewel dit minder gereeld in geskiedenisklasse as sy eweknie in New York bespreek word, word Angel Island in San Francisco Bay dikwels beskryf as die Ellis Island of the West en dit was daar waar duisende toekomstige immigrante van Asië en Mexiko afkoms is afgewys, en waar die lewe in die VSA begin het vir die paar wat wel ingekom het.

'N Geskiedenis van immigrasie wat nie net Ellis -eiland nie, maar ook Angel -eiland insluit, kan 'n beter begrip gee van die ingewikkelde onderwerp en van die lang Amerikaanse tradisie om sekere en hoofsaaklik wit en mdashimmigrante -groepe te verwelkom en ander onwelkom te laat voel.

Die immigrasiestasie wat in 1910 op Angel Island geskep is, en wat gevangenisse vir stoomskepe in die hawe van San Francisco vervang het, het die sentrale handhawingsgebied geword vir reëls wat ontwerp is om mense van Asiatiese afkoms uit die Verenigde State te hou. Hierdie poging dateer uit die wette wat in 1862 en 1875 aangeneem is en daarna dekades lank voortduur. Die Chinese uitsluitingswet van 1882 het ook gelei tot pogings om Japannese, Koreaanse, Filippynse en Suid -Asiatiese arbeiders uit te hou, en die Asiatiese Barred Zone van 1917 se immigrasiewet het ten doel gehad om toegang tot ongeveer 500 miljoen Asiërs uit Indië, Birma, Siam (nou Thailand), Arabië, Afghanistan en die meeste Polinesiese eilande.

Volgens die historikus Erika Lee, mede-outeur van Angel Island: Immigrant Gateway to America en professor in geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van Minnesota, is ongeveer 20% van die immigrante wat op Ellis -eiland aankom, aangehou. Gemiddeld duur die eksamens daar ongeveer 'n dag of twee, en dan kon die aansoekers gewoonlik die land binnekom. Oor die algemeen is byna almal wat deur Ellis -eiland gekom het (ongeveer 98% volgens sommige tellings) toegelaat. Daarteenoor was 60% van die immigrante wat by Angel Island aangekom het en waarvan die meeste Chinese aangehou is, en dit het weke of maande geneem om die langste aanhouding vry te laat, wat 756 dae gevind is. Sommige van die vrae wat die amptenare van Angel Island aan gevangenes gestel het, was bedoel om hulle te verstom, soos hoeveel voet daar was tussen die huis waar hulle vandaan kom en die huis langsaan. Diegene wat toegelaat word om na die VSA toe te gaan, was dus gewoonlik diegene wat hulpbronne en opleiding gehad het om appèlle te hanteer.

Gedigte in Chinese kalligrafie op die mure van die kaserne bied vandag 'n blik op hoe dit was om op Angel Island aangehou te word. Een lees: “ Hoe moes ek weet dat die westelike barbare hul harte en redes verloor het? / Met honderd soorte onderdrukkende wette, behandel hulle ons Chinese, en#8221 terwyl 'n ander een lees, “ Gevange in die houtgebou dag na dag … My vryheid weerhou Na ek so 'n eensaamheid en hartseer beleef het, / Waarom nie net terug huis toe gaan en leer nie om die velde te ploeg? ”

Onder die hartverskeurende verhale van aangehoudenes is die verhaal van Soto Shee. Gretig om herenig te word met haar man, Lim Lee, wie se pa 'n Amerikaanse burger was, het Shee net voor die immigrasiewet van 1924 van Hongkong na San Francisco gereis, waarna die inwerkingtreding van die wet daartoe gelei het dat sy op Angel Island gestuur is. Haar sewe maande oue seun Soon Din is dood terwyl hulle in aanhouding was, en die lyk is na San Francisco geneem om begrawe te word. 'N Prokureur het 'n beroep gedoen vir die vrylating van Shee, maar amptenare het die versoek geweier en aangevoer dat hulle geen buitengewone swaarkry gesien het nie. Haar versoek om vrylating is eers goedgekeur toe Shee haarself in die vroue -badkamer in die middel van die nag, en haar lyk is ontdek en herleef. (Na haar vrylating het Shee tien kinders in Kalifornië grootgemaak, insluitend 'n dogter waarmee sy swanger was op Angel Island en mdashand 96 jaar oud was.)

Angel Island het die lyding nie bedek nie. Vaishno Das Bagai, van die huidige Pakistan, kom in 1915 deur Angel Island, word 'n burger in 1921 en koop 'n huis in Berkeley, Kalifornië, maar toe hy en sy vrou Kala probeer intrek, vind hulle kwaai wit bure wat wag probeer om hulle te keer. Buitelandse landwette in Kalifornië het hom gedwing om sy huis en die winkel wat hy oopgemaak het, te likwideer. En nadat 'n uitspraak van die Amerikaanse hooggeregshof in 1923 gesê het dat Suid -Asiërs nie in aanmerking kom vir burgerskap nie, is hy en sy vrou ook van hul burgerskap ontneem. Das Bagai het homself in 1928 doodgemaak en 'n selfmoordbrief aan sy vrou Kala en die San Francisco nagelaat Eksaminator. Ek het na Amerika gekom, gedink, gedroom en gehoop om hierdie land my tuiste te maak, en hy het geskryf. Maar nou kom hulle en sê vir my ek is nie meer 'n Amerikaanse burger nie, en wat is ek nou? Is dit die moeite werd om in 'n vergulde hok te woon? Hindernisse op hierdie manier, blokkades op die manier en die brûe wat agter brand. ”

In sy 30-jarige bestaan, van 1910 tot 1940, het Angel Island ongeveer 'n halfmiljoen immigrante uit 80 lande, mense wat na die VSA kom en vertrek, verwerk voordat dit gesluit het toe 'n brand ontstaan ​​het. In die volgende 30 jaar het beperkings op Asiatiese immigrasie en naturalisasie stadig verswak. In die veertigerjare en vroeë vyftigerjare het federale wette Suid-Asiatiese immigrante weer toegelaat om Amerikaanse burgers te word, en die Immigrasiewet van 1965 het ontslae geraak van 'n stelsel uit die twintigerjare van diskriminerende nasionale oorsprongskwotas en dit vervang met een gebaseer op 'n stel voorkeure wat bevoordeel familielede en werkers met sekere vaardighede, wat baie steeds as onregverdig beskou.

Alhoewel Angel Island nie meer 'n funksionerende hawe is nie, is die afgelope vyf dekades verskeie pogings aangewend om seker te maak dat die verhale van wat met gevangenes gebeur het, nie vergeet word nie. In 1970 sou die gebou gesloop word, maar die veldwagter van die Mississippi Freedom Rider, Alexander Weiss, het gedigte ontdek wat in Chinese kalligrafie in die aanhoudingsbarakke geskryf is. In 1976 het die goewerneur van Kalifornië, Jerry Brown, 'n wetsontwerp onderteken om die kaserne volledig te herstel en die gedigte te bewaar. Die webwerf is in 1983 vir besoekers geopen en het sedertdien bygedra tot die uitstallings daarvan. Dit het in 1997 'n nasionale historiese landmerk geword, en 'n nuwe museum in 'n hervormde hospitaal op die eiland sal na verwagting voor einde 2021 geopen word.

En in Februarie 2021, na pogings deur Barnali Ghosh en 'n groep aktiviste wat die verhaal ontdek het nadat hulle 'n mondelinge onderhoudsgeskiedenis in die Suid -Asiatiese Amerikaanse digitale argief raakgeloop het, het Kala Bagai Way in Berkeley die eerste straat geword waarna hy vernoem is 'n Asiaties-Amerikaanse vrou.

Bagani se kleindogter Rani Bagai beskou die straatteken as geregtigheid, wat die plek van die Suid-Asiërs in die samelewing versterk en hoop dat ander geïnspireer sal word deur die veerkragtigheid van haar ouma, wat volgehou het na haar selfmoord en haar gestuur het. drie seuns universiteit toe. Soos sy dit in TIME gestel het, is dit 'n simboliese manier om Suid -Asiërs, mense van Asiatiese erfenis, in die samestelling van ons samelewing te verwelkom. ”


Die onvertelde verhaal van Ellis Island ’s Immigrant Hospital

In 1921 het die 19-jarige Australiese verkoopsman Ormond Joseph McDermott op Ellis Island aangekom om die motor-onderneming in die South Bend, Ind., Studebaker-fabriek te leer. Maar hy vergeet sy paspoort op die Wandilla—Wat saam met sy tydelike werkerstatus die vermoede van immigrasiebeamptes gewek het. Tydens sy aanhouding in die stampvol slaapsaal het hy met skarlakenkoors afgekom en in die besmettingsiektehospitaal op die eiland gaan lê. Ses dae later was hy dood.

'Ek het 'n seun, Ormond, se ouderdom. Ek het aanhou kyk na sy rekords, ”sê Lorie Conway, 'n filmvervaardiger wat die doktersverslag raakgeloop het terwyl hy die immigrantehospitaal op Ellis -eiland ondersoek het.

A New York Times Magazine 'n artikel oor "die ander Ellis -eiland" het Conway se aandag getrek in 1998. Op die 22 hospitaalgeboue op die South Side van die eiland was tienduisende pasiënte van 1902 tot 1930. By die moderne fasiliteit het 'n personeel van 300 'n verskeidenheid siektes soos trachoma, difterie en favus onderskep voordat hulle die Amerikaanse kus kon bereik.

Maar terwyl die Great Hall van Ellis Island opgeknap is tot 'n asemrowende museum, lê die hele Suidkant verlate.

"As 'n kleindogter van immigrante wat deur Ellis Island gekom het, was ek verbaas om uit te vind dat daar 'n onbekende geskiedenis is van hierdie plek waarvan ons gedink het ons weet alles," sê Conway. Sy het die National Park Service, eienaar van Ellis Island, gebel.

Conway het oop toegang tot die geboue gekry. 'Dit was 'n wrak,' sê sy en beskryf verkrummel asbes, afskilferende verf en infiltreer gifblaar. 'By hulle het stories verlore gegaan.' Oor die volgende 10 jaar het sy geskep Ellis Island vergeet, 'n dokumentêr, boek (Collins) en Webwerf.

Sy wou nie net die belangrikheid van die hospitaal verduidelik nie, maar die verhale vertel van die pasiënte, dokters en verpleegsters wat 'n deel van hul lewens daar deurgebring het.

Maar sy moes dit doen sonder 'n paar belangrike rekords. '' N Bibliotekaris by 'n federale instelling in Louisiana het gedink dat sy die pasiëntrekords gesien het, en ek het 'n versoek om die Freedom of Information Act ingevul en iemand het na die kelder gegaan en nagegaan. Die koerante was die van soldate uit die Tweede Wêreldoorlog wat in die hospitaal behandel is, nie van immigrante nie.

Conway hoop dat die vermiste rekords sal verskyn. 'Ek is meegedeel dat dit bestaan ​​voordat die herstel van die Groot Saal begin het ... dat daar bokse en bokse en bokse papier in die hospitaalgebou was. Op 'n stadium tydens die herstel is [hulle] verwyder. "

Trouens, geen sentrale bewaarplek hou die hospitaal se rekords nie. Conway het navorsing gedoen by die New York Public Library, Public Health Service en Amerikaanse burgerskap- en immigrasiedienste en ander agentskappe. Sy het twee voormalige pasiënte opgespoor en saam met hulle deur die hospitaal se gange geloop.

Onverwagte loonvuil kom uit die ondersoek van siektes. 'As u weet dat u oupa trachoma of difterie gehad het, of wat het u, is daar vir baie van hierdie siektes lêers by die Nasionale Argief met gevallestudies uit die hospitaal, ”sê Conway.

Sy lees oor die pynlike behandeling van die trachoma van die ooginfeksie: die binneste ooglid met 'n staalborsel en silwer nitraat skrop. Sy het 'n doktersfoto's van "swakgesinde" immigrante gevind. In mondelinge geskiedenis beskryf vroue -pasiënte die verleentheid om uit te trek vir ondersoeke wat kinders in die hospitaal opgeneem het, en herinner aan die trauma van skeiding van hul ouers. "Al hierdie elemente moes in die verhaal ingewerk word," sê Conway. 'Die hospitaal was 'n eerste verdediging teen siektes en 'n plek wat ontwerp is om mense te genees.

Die genesende kant van die missie van die hospitaal het hom geopenbaar in foto's van pasiënte wat buite glimlag, na boeke in die Rooi Kruis-biblioteek op die perseel gekyk en geskenkende kersgeskenke vasgehou het.

Die lêer van Ormond Joseph McDermott is die enigste volledige stel Ellis Island -hospitaalpasiëntrekords wat Conway gevind het, onder sy immigrasiepapiere, omdat sy pa 'n ondersoek na sy dood versoek het. Met die hulp van genealoë, het Conway die moderne familie van McDermott gevind.

Die dood van "Little OJ" het blywende pyn veroorsaak: sy ouers het ineengestort en familielede het gehelp om sy nege broers en susters groot te maak. 'Om sy verhaal uiteindelik te laat vertel, begin, middel en einde,' sê Conway, 'was vir die gesin baie verblydend.'

Kom meer te wete oor die poging om die hospitaalgeboue van Ellis Island te herstel op Save Ellis Island.

'N Weergawe van hierdie artikel verskyn in die November 2008 -uitgawe van Family Tree Tydskrif.


Die onderstaande hulpbronne kan gebruik word om die verhale van immigrante te ondersoek, historiese ervarings hou verband met Ellis Island.

Die onderstaande hulpbronne kan gebruik word om die verhale van immigrante te ondersoek, historiese ervarings hou verband met Ellis Island. Die immigrasiestasie van Ellis Island is in 1892 geopen, een jaar nadat die federale regering die verantwoordelikheid gekry het om immigrasie te reguleer, alhoewel die immigrasiewet van 1891. Byna 12 miljoen immigrante het tussen 1892 en 1954 deur Ellis -eiland gegaan op pad na die Verenigde State. Terwyl die immigrasiestasie tot 1954 bedrywig was, het die aantal immigrante wat op Ellis -eiland ontvang is, dramaties afgeneem ná die Wet op Immigrasie en Naturalisasie van 1924.

Op die besige dag op Ellis -eiland het meer as 11 000 immigrante deur die verwerking gekom, meer as dubbel die gemiddelde van 5 000 immigrante per dag. Hierdie video hieronder, van die Library of Congress, is van immigrante wat in 1906 op Ellis Island aankom.

  • Hierdie bronne hieronder spreek tot alle aspekte van die herbeeld van migrasie en die leerboog van#8217.
  • Elke hulpbron hieronder kan gekoppel word aan 'n gepaste denkroetine om 'n opleidingsaktiwiteit of les te skep.

Ontleding van houdings teen immigrante in politieke tekenprente

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Ellis Island: Island of Hope, Island of Tears

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Klaskamerhulpbron: die immigrasiewet van 1924

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Theodore Roosevelt en Amerikaners met 'n koppelteken

Armeense volksmoordvlugtelinge kom na Ellis -eiland

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Onbewaakte poorte: poësie teen immigrasie

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Primêre bronne: Let op u toespraak tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog

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Primêre bron: The Babel Proclamation

Inspeksies op Ellis Island: die legkaarttoets

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ONDERRIG DIE NUWE KOLOSSUS: POËSIE, STUDENTESTEMME EN AMERIKAANSE IDENTITEIT

Primêre bron: Taal en die beloofde land

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Die Emma Lazarus -projek

Hulpbronne oor die Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, 1911

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Video: Italiaanse Amerikaners en#8211 Assimilasie

https://reimaginingmigration.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/8273235092_c710198fdf_k.jpg 1641 2048 Adam Strom https://reimaginingmigration.org/wp-content/uploads 2020/09/RM-Logo-High-REZ -300x194-copy.png Adam Strom 2019-07-31 14:06:37 2020-04-10 17:01:58 Video: Italiaanse Amerikaners en#8211 Assimilasie

100 persent Amerikaner: The Indiana Klan en immigrasie in die 1920's

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Die nuwe kolos: die gedig van 1883 wat vir die vryheidsbeeld geskryf is

Kom na die Goue Land: Joodse Immigrasiebeelde

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Birds of Passage: Die Italiaanse Amerikaners

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Rudolph Valentino: Die Italiaanse Amerikaners

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Between Two Worlds: The Italian American Immigrant Youth

Up From the Ashes: Die Italiaanse Amerikaners

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Uittreksel uit die toneelstuk “The Melting Pot ”

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Klaskamerhulpbron: Charlie Chaplin, die immigrant

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Immigrasie en identiteit: Joodse immigrante briewe uit die Bintel -brief

Pogroms en Russiese Joodse immigrante

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Italiaanse Amerikaners: Sacco en Vanzetti

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Die uitvee van die Duitse kultuur: 'n NPR -podcast

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Die moedertaal: tweetalige onderwys toe en nou

Anti-Duitse sentiment in die Verenigde State

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Joodse immigrasie en die Bintel -brief

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Nuwe immigrante en Ellis Island

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Klaskamerhulpbronne: Annie Moore en die lewe van die eerste immigrant op Ellis Island

1909: aangehou op Ellis -eiland

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GESKIEDENIS

Van 1892 tot 1954 het meer as twaalf miljoen immigrante die Verenigde State binnegekom via die portaal van Ellis Island, 'n klein eiland in die hawe van New York. Ellis Island is in die boonste baai, net langs die kus van New Jersey, geleë in die skaduwee van die Statue of Liberty. Deur die jare is hierdie poort na die nuwe wêreld vergroot van die oorspronklike 3,3 hektaar tot 27,5 hektaar, meestal deur stortingsterreine wat verkry is uit skeepsballas en moontlik oortollige aarde deur die konstruksie van die metrostelsel in New York.

Italiaanse moeder en haar kinders arriveer ongeveer 1910 op Ellis Island

Voordat Ellis Island in 1890 deur president Benjamin Harrison as die plek van die eerste federale immigrasiestasie aangewys is, het Ellis Island 'n uiteenlopende geskiedenis gehad. Die plaaslike Indiese stamme het dit “Kioshk ” of Gull Island genoem. Vanweë die ryk en volop oesterbeddings en die oorvloedige en winsgewende skaduwee, was dit gedurende die Nederlandse en Engelse koloniale tydperk al baie geslagte lank bekend as Oester -eiland. Teen die tyd dat Samuel Ellis in die 1770's die private eienaar van die eiland geword het, het die eiland Kioshk, Oyster, Dyre, Bucking en Anderson ’s Island genoem. Op hierdie manier het Ellis -eiland ontwikkel van 'n sandeiland wat skaars bo die vloedmerk gestyg het, tot 'n hangplek vir seerowers, 'n hawe -fort, ammunisie en ordonnansiedepot met die naam Fort Gibson, en uiteindelik tot 'n immigrasiestasie.

Van 1794 tot 1890 (tydperk voor die immigrasiestasie), speel Ellis Island 'n veelseggende, maar steeds belangrike militêre rol in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State. Toe die Britte New York gedurende die tyd van die Revolusionêre Oorlog beset het, kon sy groot en kragtige vloot onbelemmerd direk na die hawe van New York vaar. Daarom is dit deur die Amerikaanse regering van kritieke belang dat 'n reeks kusvestings in die hawe van New York net voor die oorlog van 1812 opgerig word. Na baie wettige onderhandelinge oor die eienaarskap van die eiland, het die federale regering Ellis Island van New York gekoop Staat in 1808. Ellis Island is goedgekeur as 'n plek vir versterkings en daarop is 'n skutskerm gebou vir drie lae sirkelgewere, wat die eiland deel maak van die nuwe hawe -verdedigingstelsel wat Castle Clinton by die Battery insluit, Castle Williams op Governor &# 8217s -eiland, Fort Wood op Bedloe ’s -eiland en twee forte vir grondwerke by die ingang van die hawe van New York by die Verrazano Narrows. Die fort op Ellis Island is Fort Gibson genoem ter ere van 'n dapper offisier wat tydens die oorlog van 1812 vermoor is.

Die registerkamer in die hoofgebou van Ellis Island omstreeks 1905. Immigrante word gegroepeer en gemerk en wag vir ondervraging.

Voor 1890 het die individuele state (eerder as die federale regering) immigrasie na die Verenigde State gereguleer. Castle Garden in the Battery (oorspronklik bekend as Castle Clinton) was van 1855 tot 1890 die immigrasiestasie in die staat New York en ongeveer agt miljoen immigrante, meestal uit Noord- en Wes -Europa, het by sy deure deurgeloop. These early immigrants came from nations such as England, Ireland, Germany and the Scandinavian countries and constituted the first large wave of immigrants that settled and populated the United States. Throughout the 1800’s and intensifying in the latter half of the 19th century, ensuing political instability, restrictive religious laws and deteriorating economic conditions in Europe began to fuel the largest mass human migration in the history of the world. It soon became apparent that Castle Garden was ill-equipped and unprepared to handle the growing numbers of immigrants arriving yearly. Unfortunately compounding the problems of the small facility were the corruption and incompetence found to be commonplace at Castle Garden.

The Federal government intervened and constructed a new Federally-operated immigration station on Ellis Island. While the new immigration station on Ellis Island was under construction, the Barge Office at the Battery was used for the processing of immigrants. The new structure on Ellis Island, built of “Georgia pine” opened on January 1, 1892 Annie Moore, a 15 year-old Irish girl, accompanied by her two brothers entered history and a new country as she was the very first immigrant to be processed at Ellis Island on January 2. Over the next 62 years, more than 12 million were to follow through this port of entry.

Immigrants having just arrived in New York. What many Americans derogatorily called people “just off the boat” or the large liners from Europe. Here the immigrants are waiting for the Ellis Island Ferry. The boats would take the immigrants from the steamship piers to Ellis Island. They were owned by the steamship companies.

While there were many reasons to emigrate to America, no reason could be found for what would occur only five years after the Ellis Island Immigration Station opened. During the evening of June 14, 1897, a fire on Ellis Island, burned the immigration station completely to the ground. Although no lives were lost, many years of Federal and State immigration records dating back to 1855 burned along with the pine buildings that failed to protect them. The United States Treasury quickly ordered the immigration facility be replaced under one very important condition. All future structures built on Ellis Island had to be fireproof. On December 17, 1900, the new Main Building was opened and 2,251 immigrants were received that day.

While most immigrants entered the United States through New York Harbor (the most popular destination of steamship companies), others sailed into many ports such as Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, San Francisco and Savannah, Miami, and New Orleans. The great steamship companies like White Star, Red Star, Cunard and Hamburg-America played a significant role in the history of Ellis Island and immigration in general. First and second class passengers who arrived in New York Harbor were not required to undergo the inspection process at Ellis Island. Instead, these passengers underwent a cursory inspection aboard ship the theory being that if a person could afford to purchase a first or second class ticket, they were less likely to become a public charge in America due to medical or legal reasons. The Federal government felt that these more affluent passengers would not end up in institutions, hospitals or become a burden to the state. However, first and second class passengers were sent to Ellis Island for further inspection if they were sick or had legal problems.

Immigrants aboard the GRAF WALDERSEE await mid-day meal – 1899.


The Hamburg-America Line’s GRAF WALDERSEE. The ship would have first, second and third or “steerage” class. The ship was typical of many smaller liners used for immigrant traffic. Steerage was very uncomfortable and a money maker for the steamship lines. Passengers were crowded and conditions very uncomfortable. Up top – first and second class passengers had very plus accommodations and excellent meals.

This scenario was far different for “steerage” or third class passengers. These immigrants traveled in crowded and often unsanitary conditions near the bottom of steamships with few amenities, often spending up to two weeks seasick in their bunks during rough Atlantic Ocean crossings. Upon arrival in New York City, ships would dock at the Hudson or East River piers. First and second class passengers would disembark, pass through Customs at the piers and were free to enter the United States. The steerage and third class passengers were transported from the pier by ferry or barge to Ellis Island where everyone would undergo a medical and legal inspection.


Undocumented migrants have come to the U.S. for centuries. Why do we treat them differently today?

The surge in people arriving at the United States southern border comes as the Biden administration hopes to overhaul an immigration system often described as broken.

According to a 2015 Pew Research Center report, the number of foreign-born people in America has quadrupled since the 1960s. At least 11 million immigrants are not here legally &mdash and under the Biden plan, most of them would qualify for a path to citizenship.

That plan is stirring a fresh debate about what this country represents, and who it is for.

Some Americans &mdash like Alexis Nodal, Foaad Delafadlalla and James Davison &mdash remember every detail about how their families arrived.

"I came in a raft, I escaped from Cuba in a raft 29 years ago," Nodal told "CBS This Morning" co-host Tony Dokoupil.

"I moved to U.S. as a refugee," Delafadlalla said.

Trending Nuus

As for Davidson, he "flew from Australia to Los Angeles, and no problems."

For others, the stories have been told and retold through generations.

A man named John Bono told Dokoupil his "great-grandfather was a stonecutter from Italy."

Another person, Carmen Vazqueztell, said her family was originally from Spain.

"My Oma and Opa are from Germany and they came over through Ellis Island," said American Jenna Sickinger.

And for other families, the legal details may be a little fuzzy.

"Do you remember what the rules were, what the process was like back then?" Dokoupil asked three people.

"Only from what I've read. They didn't talk about it much," one said.

Another simply answered, "I'm not sure."

"I don't know about that," a third person replied.

⁣Between the 1890s & WWI, some 12M immigrants arrived at Ellis [email protected] spoke w/ Director of the American Family Immigration History Center (@EllisIsland) Jackie Schalk to find out what it was like for new arrivals who came there in search of their American Dream. pic.twitter.com/PqhK0vNqTy

&mdash CBS This Morning (@CBSThisMorning) March 26, 2021

For the tens of millions of Americans who can trace their ancestors back to early settlers or later arrivals through Ellis Island, there is a good reason they cannot remember the national rules back then &mdash there were none. The major exception was the Chinese Exclusion Act, which barred Chinese laborers from coming beginning in 1882.

Later, Japanese immigrants, Asian Indians and others from Asia would also become targets of exclusion &mdash that guaranteed people of Asian descent "&hellipwould be but a small, marginalized population&hellip" for nearly a century, according to "Impossible Subjects", a book written by Columbia University history and Asian American studies professor Mae Ngai.

Despite that, according to Ngai, almost everyone who made it to America got to stay in America if they arrived before the first national immigration act was passed in 1924.

"You just showed up," Ngai said. "You didn't need a passport, you didn't need a visa. There was no such thing as a green card."

If there are no restrictions, Ngai explained, then everyone would be legal.

Of the people who passed through Ellis Island, 98% were allowed in.

And as the "CBS This Morning" co-host discovered on a recent trip to the island, one of those arrivals was his own great-grandfather.

"Raffaelle starts the story of your family's immigration," a researcher explained.

Raffaelle Felice had come from Italy in a situation not unlike the border stories heard today &mdash arriving young and alone, he was "an unaccompanied minor."

"He became a citizen, fought in World War I. His children fought in World War II. It ends up being what a lot of people would call a classic American story," Dokoupil said. "But it makes me think what are the important differences if any, between him in the early 20th century and that same 15-year-old on the border today?"

Ngai answered, "Color of his skin."

In her book, Ngai writes about the little-known and uncomfortable origins of the U.S.'s national immigration policy. It began with quotas that favored immigrants from predominantly European nations.

"A kind of pure American, right, and it's absolutely white," she explained.

In fact, when those more-favored European immigrants entered the country illegally &mdash exceeding or avoiding the quotas entirely &mdash they were very often forgiven.

Between 1925 and 1965, at least 200,000 undocumented Europeans were given a path to citizenship, according to Ngai's research.

"The mindset was one of if you're here, if you are making a contribution to society, we're not just gonna throw you out," she said.

Most people still seem to agree, with polls showing three-quarters of Americans support a path to citizenship. But for decades, both Democrats and Republicans have failed to find one.

Some common fears that come up &mdash "We don't have enough resources," "We're overcrowded already," and concerns over these immigrants "taking people's jobs."

But on the way to Ellis Island, CBS News spoke with Alex Barraza, a "Dreamer" whose parents brought him from Mexico as an infant.

"It was dangerous because they had to cross the Rio Bravo in order to cross to El Paso, Texas," Barraza said.

He said he had not realized that many families arriving through Ellis Island were, at one point, as undocumented as his parents.

"Do you think it's fair that the people who came through this building, could come with no paperwork at all, and not live in fear, be welcomed in? And your parents are in a different situation?" Dokoupil asked him.

"I don't think it's fair," Barraza answered.

Now, he can only hope that eventually families like his, who came with the same dreams, will also be welcomed as Americans.

"They wanted us to &mdash to see us happy. Just to live a life of freedom. And it's just, it's hard," he said. "They came here to live a better life. I don't see the difference between us and them."

Professor Ngai writes in her book that the Chinese are the only group to be excluded from immigration in the U.S. explicitly by name.

Ngai, who is Chinese American, told Tony Dokoupil recently that she may have been the victim of a hate crime. She said she was rammed on the streets of New York, but that she felt lucky &mdash although she wonders now how to defend herself.


What history tells us about assimilation of immigrants

Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island in the early 1900s.

Immigration has emerged as a decisive — and sharply divisive — issue in the United States. Skepticism about whether new arrivals can assimilate into American society was a key concern in the 2016 presidential election and remains an ongoing theme in the public debate on immigration policy. This controversy is not new. The U.S. has experienced repeated waves of hostility toward immigrants and today’s concerns echo alarms sounded often in the past. Both today and in earlier times, many in this country have viewed immigrants as a threat to the integrity of the nation’s culture, fearing that foreigners among us somehow make America less American. Consider the following statement: Immigration “is bringing to the country people whom it is very difficult to assimilate and who do not promise well for the standard of civilization in the United States.” The speaker was not Donald Trump on the campaign trail but Massachusetts Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge in 1891.

The immigration debate raises a fundamental issue: Are immigrants able to successfully integrate into American society by adopting the economic, social, and cultural norms of native-born Americans? Or are they likely to remain an alien presence inside our borders long after they settle here? This argument typically generates more heat than light. Many people have opinions on the subject, but relatively little empirical evidence is available on how fully and quickly immigrants assimilate into U.S. culture.

Leah Boustan of UCLA, Katherine Eriksson of UC Davis, and I have tried to fill part of this gap by looking at immigration during the Age of Mass Migration from 1850 to 1913, when U.S. borders were open and 30 million Europeans picked up stakes to move here. By the early 20th century, some 15 percent of the U.S. population was foreign born, comparable to the share today. If we want to know how today’s newcomers will fare, we can find important clues by examining what happened to those who arrived on our shores during the greatest surge of immigration in U.S. history.

In our previous work on immigration, my co-authors and I looked at occupation data of immigrants who arrived during the Age of Mass Migration.[1] The classic narrative is that penniless immigrants worked low-paying jobs to pull themselves up by their bootstraps, eventually reaching equality of skills and income with natives. We found that story to be largely a myth. On average, long-term immigrants and natives held jobs at similar skill levels and climbed the occupational ladder at about the same pace. We did find considerable variation though. Immigrants from richer countries, such as England or Germany, often worked in higher-skilled occupations than natives, while those from poorer countries, such as Italy or Russia, often were in less-skilled occupations. But, regardless of the starting point, the initial gaps between immigrants and natives persisted throughout their lives. These findings provide useful data on the experiences of immigrants in the U.S. labor market. But it’s important to stress that even immigrants who lag economically may successfully assimilate into American society.

Measuring cultural assimilation is a challenge because data on cultural practices—things like food, dress, and accent—are not systematically collected. But the names that parents choose for their children are collected, offering a revealing window into the cultural assimilation process.[2] Using 2 million census records from 1920 and 1940, we constructed a foreignness index indicating the probability that a given name would be held by a foreigner or a native.

For example, people with names like Hyman or Vito were almost certain to be children of immigrants, while youngsters with names like Clay or Lowell were likely to have native parents. In this respect, children’s names are signals of cultural identity. Giving a child an American-sounding name is a financially cost-free way of identifying with U.S. culture. Thus, we can trace the assimilation process by examining changes in the names immigrants gave their offspring as they spent more time in the U.S.

Our key finding is that for immigrants who arrived in the 1900s and 1910s, the more time they spent in the U.S., the less likely they were to give their children foreign-sounding names. Figure 1 shows that after 20 years in this country, half of the gap in name choice between immigrants and natives had disappeared. The shift in name choice happened at a roughly equal pace for sons and daughters and among poor and rich families.

However, the pace varied significantly depending on country of origin. Immigrants from Norway, Sweden, and Denmark were among the quickest to adopt American-sounding names, followed by Italians and other Southern Europeans. Russians, including many Russian Jews, and Finns had the slowest rates of name-based assimilation. This convergence of names chosen by immigrant and native populations is suggestive evidence of cultural assimilation. But the fact that immigrants didn’t fully adopt native naming patterns suggests that many valued retaining a distinct cultural identity.

Having an American-sounding name was a badge of assimilation that conferred genuine economic and social benefits. We looked at census records of more than a million children of immigrants from 1920, when they lived with their childhood families, through 1940, when they were adults.

Children with less-foreign-sounding names completed more years of schooling, earned more, and were less likely to be unemployed than their counterparts whose names sounded more foreign. In addition, they were less likely to marry someone born abroad or with a foreign-sounding name. These patterns held even among brothers within the same family. The data suggest that, while a foreign-sounding name reinforced a sense of ethnic identity, it may have exposed individuals to discrimination at school or on the job.

Other measures reinforce the picture of early 20th century immigrants gradually taking on American cultural markers. By 1930, more than two-thirds of immigrants had applied for citizenship and almost all reported they could speak some English. A third of first-generation immigrants who arrived unmarried and more than half of second-generation immigrants wed spouses from outside their cultural group.

These findings suggest that over time immigrants’ sense of separateness weakened and their identification with U.S. culture grew stronger. The gradual adoption of American-sounding names appears to have been part of a process of assimilation in which newcomers learned U.S. culture, made a commitment to build roots in this country, and came to identify as Americans.

Some may have arrived with a strong desire to assimilate, but little knowledge of how to do so. They may not even have known which names were common in the U.S. Others may not have cared about assimilating at first, but eventually felt the urge to blend in. In both cases, as time went by, they may have started to navigate the dominant culture with greater ease. Their children may have attended schools with children from other cultures and have spoken with American accents.

What does this tell us about the assimilation process? We can imagine that after many years in the U.S., immigrants, like natives, become baseball fans, eat hamburgers, and watch fireworks on the Fourth of July. To be sure, their connections with their countries of origin are not obliterated. Instead, they may come to see themselves as hyphenated Americans, but Americans nonetheless.

What’s more, policies that attempt to force cultural assimilation on immigrants may backlash. Fouka (2015) finds that German immigrants in states that introduced anti-German language policies during World War I responded by choosing visibly German names, perhaps as a show of community support.[3]

Concerns about the economic effects of immigration go hand in hand with fears that immigrants will remain a culturally foreign presence in our midst. How immigration affects the income and living standards of natives and how newcomers contribute to the U.S. economy are hot-button issues. My research partners and I are in the process of investigating these questions. Based on the existing literature and our own research, we hypothesize that the economic impact of immigration today may be different from the effects during the Age of Mass Migration.[4] In the early 20th century, foreign-born and native workers competed for the same low-skilled jobs and immigrants may have driven down wages of those born here. Today, the competition between immigrants and natives may be less important because immigrants tend to cluster in a limited set of occupations at the top and bottom of income distribution.

The historical evidence presented here should be considered with care. Today’s immigrants differ markedly in ethnicity, education, and occupation from those who came during the Age of Mass Migration. Over the past half century, the U.S. has experienced a second wave of mass migration with characteristics that set it apart from what took place in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The contemporary migration wave is highly regulated, favoring those with money, education, and skills and drawing migrants primarily from Asia and Latin America. Selection of immigrants today is often positive, meaning those who come here are more highly skilled than their compatriots who stay in their countries of origin. In the past, immigrants were sometimes negatively selected, meaning they were less skilled than those who stayed behind. Finally, legal immigration now is accompanied by a large undocumented inflow, which complicates efforts to study immigration effects.

Much work remains to be done to understand the cultural and economic dimensions of immigration and the differences between the past and the present. My research colleagues and I recently got access to California birth certificate records, which will allow us to compare immigrants from current and historical periods to see whether assimilation patterns are similar.

Overall though, lessons from the Age of Mass Migration suggest that fears immigrants can’t fit into American society are misplaced. It would be a mistake to determine our nation’s immigration policy based on the belief that immigrants will remain foreigners, preserving their old ways of life and keeping themselves at arm’s length from the dominant culture. The evidence is clear that assimilation is real and measurable, that over time immigrant populations come to resemble natives, and that new generations form distinct identities as Americans.

[1] Ran Abramitzky, Leah Platt Boustan, and Katherine Eriksson. (2014). “A Nation of Immigrants: Assimilation and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration.” Journal of Political Economy. 122(3): 467-506.

[2] Ran Abramitzky, Leah Platt Boustan, and Katherine Eriksson. (2016). “Cultural Assimilation During the Age of Mass Migration.” Working paper, and references therein.

[3]Vasiliki Fouka. (2015). “Backlash: The Unintended Effects of Language Prohibition in U.S. Schools after World War I.” Manuscript.

[4]Ran Abramitzky, and Leah Platt Boustan. (2016a). “Immigration in American Economic History.” NBER Working Paper No. 21882, and references therein.


Ellis Island

Bain News Service, Publisher. Ellis Island. , ca. 1915. [Between and Ca. 1920] Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2014711712/.

Roberts, Sam, and Ozier Muhammad. “Story of the First Through Ellis Island Is Rewritten.” Die New York Times , The New York Times Company, 14 Sept. 2006, https://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/14/nyregion/14annie.html.

Ellis Island officially opened on the first of the year in 1892 and one of the most iconic symbols commemorating its opening are the statues of Annie Moore located at Cobh Heritage Centre and Ellis Island. 1 These two locations are particularly significant because they mark her departure port as well as the port in which she arrived at. Annie Moore is significant because her ship was the first to pass through Ellis Island and she was representative of the more than twelve million immigrants who would pass through this immigration inspection station. 2 Not only is she an icon of American history because she was the first to step off of the ship onto Ellis Island, but she is also important to the history of Ireland. She, like many others, had come to the United States from her home country of Ireland to seek a better life in America. The hope she and many others demonstrated upon their arrival to the United States is commemorated through her statues.

Upon arriving to Ellis Island, located between New York and New Jersey, there was a glimmer of hope for immigrants who sought to get a taste of the American dream. Groups from all over passed through Ellis Island such as the Jews, Italians, Poles, Hungarians, Czechs, and many more. Some of the reasons people fled their native countries were "war, drought, famine, and religious persecution." 3 Regardless of their multitude of reasons for coming to the United States, all of these different groups believed the United States offered them increased opportunities. After their long voyage, they were met with various legal and medical inspections and while many were allowed into the United States, there was a significant amount of individuals who were kept within the confines of Ellis Island for varying lengths of time, some individuals being held for weeks. During Ellis Island's 60 years of operation, there was varying legislation passed in an attempt to limit the access of certain groups. Ellis Island serves as an important landmark and reminder of the many immigrants who came to the United States in search of opportunity.


Kyk die video: Immigrants at Ellis Island. History