Die kommunistiese aktivis Angela Davis word vrygespreek

Die kommunistiese aktivis Angela Davis word vrygespreek

Angela Yvonne Davis, 'n swart kommunistiese aktivis en voormalige professor in filosofie aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Los Angeles, word vrygespreek op aanklagte van sameswering, moord en ontvoering deur 'n jurie in San Jose, Kalifornië.

In Oktober 1970 is Davis in New York in hegtenis geneem in verband met 'n skietgeveg wat op 7 Augustus in 'n hofsaal in San Raphael, Kalifornië, plaasgevind het. Sy word daarvan beskuldig dat sy wapens aan Jonathan Jackson verskaf het, wat by die hofsaal ingebars het in 'n poging om gevangenes daar tereg te stel en gyselaars te neem wat hy hoop om te ruil vir sy broer George, 'n swart radikale wat in die San Quentin -gevangenis gevange was. In die daaropvolgende skietgeveg met die polisie is Jonathan Jackson saam met regter Harold Haley en twee gevangenes dood.

Davis, wat die saak van swart gevangenes bepleit het en vriende was met George Jackson, is in die misdaad aangekla, maar het weggekruip. Een van die mees gesoekte misdadigers van die Federale Buro vir Ondersoek, sy is eers twee maande later aangekeer. Haar verhoor het in Maart 1972 begin en het internasionale aandag getrek weens die swakheid van die saak van die vervolging en die duidelike politieke aard van die verrigtinge. In Junie 1972 is sy vrygespreek van alle aanklagte.

Nadat sy die strafregstelsel verlaat het, het sy teruggekeer na onderrig en skryf, en was in 1980 die visepresidentskandidaat van die Amerikaanse Kommunistiese Party. In 1991 word sy professor op die gebied van die geskiedenis van bewussyn aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië in Santa Cruz. Vier jaar later is sy aangestel as 'n voorsitter van die universiteit te midde van kontroversie wat spruit uit haar kommunistiese en swart militante agtergrond. Haar geskrifte sluit in Angela Davis: 'n outobiografie en Vroue, ras en klas. Alhoewel Davis nie meer 'n lid van die Kommunistiese Party is nie, is Davis steeds aktief in die politiek, veral teen gevangenisstraf en die doodstraf.

LEES MEER: Angela Davis: haar lewe en nalatenskap


Radikale voorwerpe: “ Liewe kameraad Angela ”

In die vroeë sewentigerjare het Hillary, 'n dertienjarige in die weste van Londen, 'n brief geskryf aan 'n geleerde en politieke aktivis wie se arrestasie en gevangenisstraf 'n wêreldwye oorsaak geword het: Angela Davis. 'Dit is die eerste keer dat ek 'n brief aan Amerika behalwe die Jackson 5 skryf, maar ek kry geen antwoord nie', skryf Hillary 'op enige manier wat ek 'n sterk voorstander van u is. Ek sal nie in detail ingaan nie, maar ek sal net sê Ek het geld vir u ingesamel, ek hoop dit sal help '. Hillary se brief was een van duisende boodskappe van solidariteit wat tydens die sewentien maande gevangenisstraf van 1970-2 na die 'Free Angela Davis'-veldtog gestuur is.

In Augustus 1970 vlug Davis van aanklagte van moord en ontvoering, waarvoor sy later vrygespreek is, toe wapens wat in 'n noodlottige skietgeveg in Marin County, Kalifornië, gebruik is, deur haar aangekoop is. Na maande se vlug as een van die FBI's en die tien gesoekste, is Davis in New York gearresteer en in Desember na Kalifornië gestuur om die verhoor af te wag. As 'n prominente lid van die Kommunistiese Party in die VSA, het Davis baie steun van mede -kommuniste gekry. Die meeste briewe wat aan Davis se veldtog gestuur is, kom uit die Sowjetunie. Tog het die veldtog na 'Free Angela Davis and All Political Prisoners' ook boodskappe van solidariteit van regoor die wêreld ontvang. Hierdie briewe is later oorgedra na die Stanford Universiteit, waar navorsers onlangs die geleentheid gehad het om dit te lees.

Met vergunning van die Departement Spesiale Versamelings, Stanford University Libraries

Toe ek Stanford Special Collections in Februarie 2019 besoek het, het die argivarisse onlangs 'n paar honderd briewe wat uit Brittanje gestuur is, gekatalogiseer en 'n klein aantal wat uit Ierland gekom het. Ek het gewonder: wie het hierdie briewe geskryf en wat het hulle gedwing om te skryf? Wat wou hierdie skrywers, behalwe solidariteitsuitdrukkings, met Angela Davis deel?

Die meeste briewe was van lede van die Kommunistiese Party en studente -aktiviste, maar baie het ook 'n alledaagse internasionalisme ontlok. Nina, 'n vrou uit Wes-Lothian, het aan Davis beskryf hoe haar drie dogters elkeen 'Free Angela Davis' T-hemde gedra het. Met verwysing na die owerhede wat Davis in die tronk hou, het hierdie selfbeskrywe 'Skotse huisvrou' selfversekerd geskryf: 'Ek en jy weet albei dat daar dae is, ek vrees nie so gou as wat ons wil nie, maar my God wat baie van hulle Ek moet antwoord! En hulle sal antwoord. ’

Wanneer die Irish Times 'n voorbladartikel op Davis in Desember 1972 gedruk, 'n Amerikaanse egpaar wat in Cork woon, sny die stuk uit en stuur dit na Palo Alto. Beelde van Davis wat uitdagend lyk, gewoonlik met 'n sigaret in haar hand, het ikonies geword in koerante oor die hele wêreld. Hierdie foto's was 'n kragtige vorm van voorstelling in 'n westerse medialandskap sonder ras- en geslagsdiversiteit. In 'n naskrif van haar brief wat uit Wes -Londen gestuur is, het Hillary bygevoeg: 'P.S. U jong begaafde en swart (soos ek), so u hoef nie bekommerd te wees nie.

Met vergunning van die Departement Spesiale Versamelings, Stanford University Libraries

Baie kaarte het Kersfees groete oorgedra aan Davis, wat die vakansieseisoen van 1971 in 'n Palo Alto -sel deurgebring het. 'N Tienjarige van Fife het haar eie kaart vir Davis gemaak met glitter, 'n uitgesnyde beeld van 'n sneeuman en die boodskap' Hoping you are free free Dear Comrade Angela '. Nog 'n minder vreugdevolle Kerskaartjie is uiteengesit met 'n skets van die Long Kesh -interneringskamp buite Lisburn.

Met vergunning van die Departement Spesiale Versamelings, Stanford University Libraries

Verskeie skrywers het Davis se saak en die oproep van haar veldtog om 'alle politieke gevangenes' te bevry gekoppel aan die 'Troubles' in Noord -Ierland. Die konflik het toegeneem tydens die gevangenisstraf van Davis. Op 30 Januarie 1972, terwyl Davis verhoorafwagtend was, het Britse soldate van die Parachute Regiment op 'n burgerregtemars in Derry losgebrand, dertien mense doodgemaak en dertien ander beseer, een noodlottig. Een van die kaarte wat aan Davis gestuur is, toon 'n swart kis met die nommer dertien en die datum van die bloedbad in Derry. In Februarie 1972 skryf 'n vrou wat ''n vriendin, Martina' afgeteken het, uit Belfast: 'selfs al gaan ons eie Ierse probleme nog steeds sterk, het ons nog hier die tyd om die SOLEDAD -BROERS + TE VEG VOOR HULLE LEWENS EN U VRYHEID . '

Met vergunning van die Departement Spesiale Versamelings, Stanford University Libraries

Deur die briewe is dit 'n sentiment wat Davis self herken het toe sy in Stanford in 2018 gepraat het: deur vir haar te skryf, 'n vrou wat in 'n ander land gevange was, het die skrywers 'gevoel dat hulle deel was van iets groter'. Van die 'Free Tom Mooney'-kruistog van die naoorlogse jare tot die veldtog om die Scottsboro Boys in die dertigerjare te red, het die internasionale kommunistiese beweging lank reeds die mobiliseringspotensiaal van globale solidariteitsveldtogte met gevangenes van die' klasoorlog 'erken. Hierdie veldtogte het 'n kans gebied om gevange kamerade te bevry en het die gewone voetsoldate van revolusionêre bewegings laat voel soos aktiewe deelnemers aan 'n dramatiese wêreldstryd. 'N Ander parallel met hierdie vorige veldtogte was hoe die Sowjet -steun vir Davis sommige aktiviste, waaronder kritiese stemme van links, aangespoor het om die saak van politieke gevangenes aan die orde te stel binne die USSR. Die Tsjeggiese dissident Jiří Pelikán publiseer in Augustus 1972 'n ope brief aan Davis oor presies hierdie onderwerp.

Op 4 Junie 1972 is Davis verhoor en onskuldig verklaar van alle aanklagte. Briewe het hierdie keer voortgegaan met boodskappe van solidariteit en gelukwense. Een brief uit Brittanje vier die nuus van Davis se vrylating met 'n selfbeeld en 'n bondige boodskap: 'liewe Angla Davis', skryf John: 'Ek is bly dat jy net uit die steek gekom het.'

Davis, wat nou erken word as 'n burgerregte-ikoon, bepleit 'n internasionalistiese en interseksionele feminisme wat uiters anti-rassisties, anti-carceraal en trans-inklusief is. Die beweging wat sy in die sewentigerjare help bou het, het erken dat haar saak nie net gaan oor die bevryding van een vrou uit 'n gevangenis in Kalifornië nie, maar om die onderlinge onderdrukkingstelsels wat haar daar geplaas het, uit te daag. Die omvangryke argief van die beweging bied navorsers die geleentheid om te ondersoek hoe en waarom duisende gewone mense briewe aan Davis geskryf het, wat 'n bewys is van hoe die veldtog 'Free Angela Davis and All Political Prisoners' radikale drome en stryd teen sosiale ongeregtigheid aangevuur het die wereld.

Die briewe aan Angela Davis uit Brittanje en Ierland word gehou in die National United Committee to Free Angela Davis Records (M0262), Dept of Special Collections and University Archives, Stanford Libraries, Stanford, Kalifornië.

Dr Maurice J Casey is die huidige DFA -historikus in koshuis by EPIC: The Irish Emigration Museum. Hy was 'n besoekende navorser by Fulbright aan die Stanford Universiteit van 2018-9. As u aan Davis geskryf het of deel was van die Free Angela Davis -veldtog in Brittanje of Ierland, sou hy belangstel om van u te hoor: hy is op Twitter @MauriceJCasey.


Herbesoek: die kommunistiese aktivis Angela Davis word vrygespreek

Angela Yvonne Davis, 'n swart militant, 'n voormalige professor in filosofie aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië en kommunis, word vrygespreek op aanklagte van sameswering, moord en ontvoering deur 'n jurie in San Jose, Kalifornië.

In Oktober 1970 is Davis in New York in hegtenis geneem in verband met 'n skietgeveg wat op 7 Augustus plaasgevind het in 'n hofsaal in San Raphael, Kalifornië. Sy word daarvan beskuldig dat sy wapens aan Jonathan Jackson verskaf het, wat by die hofsaal ingebars het in 'n poging om gevangenes daar tereg te stel en gyselaars te neem wat hy wou ruil vir sy broer George, 'n swart radikale wat in die San Quentin -gevangenis gevange was. In die daaropvolgende skietgeveg met die polisie is Jonathan Jackson saam met regter Harold Haley en twee gevangenes dood.

Davis, wat die saak van swart gevangenes bepleit het en vriende was met George Jackson, is in die misdaad aangekla, maar het weggekruip. Een van die mees gesoekte misdadigers van die Federale Buro vir Ondersoek, sy is eers twee maande later aangekeer. Haar verhoor het in Maart 1972 begin en het internasionale aandag getrek weens die swakheid van die saak van die vervolging en die ooglopende politieke aard van die verrigtinge. In Junie 1972 is sy vrygespreek van alle aanklagte.


Inhoud

Angela Davis is gebore op 26 Januarie 1944 [9] in Birmingham, Alabama. Haar gesin het in die "Dynamite Hill" -buurt gewoon, wat in die 1950's gekenmerk is deur die bombardemente op huise in 'n poging om die middelklas swart mense wat daarheen verhuis het, te intimideer en uit te dryf. Davis het af en toe tyd op die plaas van haar oom en by vriende in New York deurgebring. [10] Haar broers en susters sluit in twee broers, Ben en Reginald, en 'n suster, Fania. Ben het in die laat 1960's en vroeë 1970's 'n verdedigende rol gespeel vir die Cleveland Browns en Detroit Lions. [11]

Davis het die Carrie A. Tuggle School, 'n gesegregeerde swart laerskool, bygewoon en later Parker Annex, 'n middelskool-tak van Parker High School in Birmingham. Gedurende hierdie tyd was Davis se ma, Sallye Bell Davis, 'n nasionale beampte en hooforganiseerder van die Southern Negro Youth Congress, 'n organisasie wat beïnvloed is deur die Kommunistiese Party wat daarop gemik was om alliansies tussen Afro -Amerikaners in die Suide op te bou. Davis het grootgeword omring deur kommunistiese organiseerders en denkers, wat haar intellektuele ontwikkeling aansienlik beïnvloed het. [12]

Davis was as kind betrokke by haar kerklike jeuggroep en het gereeld Sondagskool bygewoon. Sy skryf baie van haar politieke betrokkenheid toe aan haar betrokkenheid by die Girl Scouts van die Verenigde State van Amerika. Sy het ook deelgeneem aan die Girl Scouts 1959 nasionale samevatting in Colorado. As Girl Scout het sy opgeruk en gepik om rasseskeiding in Birmingham te protesteer. [13]

Teen haar laerskooljaar was Davis aanvaar deur 'n American Friends Service Committee (Quaker) -program wat swart studente uit die suide in geïntegreerde skole in die noorde geplaas het. Sy het die Hoërskool Elisabeth Irwin in Greenwich Village gekies. Daar is sy gewerf deur 'n kommunistiese jeuggroep, Advance. [14]

Brandeis Universiteit Redigeer

Davis het 'n beurs toegeken aan die Brandeis Universiteit in Waltham, Massachusetts, waar sy een van drie swart studente in haar klas was. Sy ontmoet die filosoof Herbert Marcuse van die Frankfurt -skool tydens 'n saamtrek tydens die Kubaanse missielkrisis en word sy student. In 'n televisie -onderhoud van 2007 het Davis gesê: "Herbert Marcuse het my geleer dat dit moontlik is om 'n akademikus, 'n aktivis, 'n geleerde en 'n revolusionêr te wees." [15] Sy het deeltyds gewerk om genoeg geld te verdien om na Frankryk en Switserland te reis en het die agtste Wêreldfees vir jeug en studente in Helsinki bygewoon. Sy keer in 1963 huis toe na 'n onderhoud van die Federale Buro vir Ondersoek oor haar bywoning van die fees wat deur kommuniste geborg is. [16]

Gedurende haar tweede jaar op Brandeis het Davis besluit om Frans te studeer en het sy haar intensiewe studie van die filosoof en skrywer Jean-Paul Sartre voortgesit. Sy is deur die Hamilton College Junior Year in France -program aanvaar. Klasse was aanvanklik by Biarritz en later by die Sorbonne. In Parys het sy en ander studente by 'n Franse gesin gewoon. Sy was in Biarritz toe sy verneem van die bombardement van die kerk in Birmingham in 1963, gepleeg deur lede van die Ku Klux Klan, waarin vier swart meisies dood is. Sy het diep bedroef toe sy persoonlik met die slagoffers kennis gemaak het. [16]

Terwyl sy haar graad in Frans voltooi het, het Davis besef dat haar primêre belangstellingsveld filosofie was. Sy was veral geïnteresseerd in die idees van Marcuse. Toe sy terugkeer na Brandeis, sit sy in op sy koers. Sy het in haar outobiografie geskryf dat Marcuse toeganklik en behulpsaam was. Sy begin planne maak om die Universiteit van Frankfurt by te woon vir nagraadse werk in filosofie. In 1965 het sy gegradueer magna cum laude, 'n lid van Phi Beta Kappa. [16]

Universiteit van Frankfurt Edit

In Duitsland, met 'n maandelikse toelaag van $ 100, woon sy eers by 'n Duitse gesin en later by 'n groep studente op 'n solder in 'n ou fabriek. Nadat sy Oos -Berlyn besoek het tydens die jaarlikse viering van 1 Mei, het sy gevoel dat die Oos -Duitse regering die oorblywende gevolge van fascisme beter hanteer as die Wes -Duitsers. Baie van haar kamermaats was aktief in die radikale Sosialistiese Duitse Studente -unie (SDS), en Davis het aan 'n paar SDS -aksies deelgeneem. Gebeurtenisse in die Verenigde State, insluitend die stigting van die Black Panther Party en die transformasie van die Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) na 'n geheel-swart organisasie, het haar belangstelling getrek by haar terugkeer. [16]

Nagraadse werk Redigeer

Marcuse verhuis na 'n pos aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, San Diego, en Davis volg hom daar na haar twee jaar in Frankfurt. [16] Davis het na Londen gereis om 'n konferensie oor "The Dialectics of Liberation" by te woon. Die swart kontingent op die konferensie het die Trinidad-Amerikaanse Stokely Carmichael en die Britse Michael X ingesluit. Hoewel Carmichael se retoriek ontroer is, is Davis na verneem word teleurgesteld oor die swart nasionalistiese sentimente van haar kollegas en hul verwerping van kommunisme as 'n "wit man se ding". [17]

Sy het aangesluit by die Che-Lumumba Club, 'n geheel-swart tak van die Kommunistiese Party in die VSA, vernoem na internasionale kommunistiese simpatiseerders en leiers Che Guevara en Patrice Lumumba, onderskeidelik van Kuba en die Kongo. [18]

Davis behaal 'n meestersgraad aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, San Diego, in 1968. [19] Sy behaal 'n doktorsgraad in filosofie aan die Humboldt Universiteit in Oos -Berlyn. [20]

Vanaf 1969 was Davis 'n waarnemende assistent -professor in die filosofie -afdeling aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Los Angeles (UCLA). Alhoewel beide Princeton en Swarthmore probeer het om haar te werf, het sy gekies vir UCLA vanweë die stedelike ligging daarvan. [21] Destyds was sy bekend as 'n radikale feminis en aktivis, lid van die Kommunistiese Party in die VSA en 'n aangeslote lid van die Los Angeles -hoofstuk van die Black Panther Party. [22] [23]

In 1969 het die Universiteit van Kalifornië 'n beleid begin teen die aanstelling van kommuniste. [24] Tydens hul vergadering van 19 September 1969 het die Raad van Regente Davis uit haar pos van $ 10 000 per jaar ontslaan vanweë haar lidmaatskap van die Kommunistiese Party, [25] wat deur die goewerneur van Kalifornië, Ronald Reagan, aangespoor is. [26] Regter Jerry Pacht het beslis dat die Regente Davis nie slegs kon ontslaan nie weens haar verbintenis met die Kommunistiese Party, en sy het haar pos hervat. [25] [27] Die Regents het Davis op 20 Junie 1970 weer afgedank vir die 'ontstekings taal' wat sy in vier verskillende toesprake gebruik het. Die verslag lui: "Ons beskou die uitlatings veral as aanstootlik soos haar verklaring dat die regente die demonstrante van die People's Park vermoor, brutaal (en) vermoor het en haar herhaaldelike karakterisering van die polisie as 'varke'. [28] [29] [30] Die American Association of University Professors het die direksie vir hierdie aksie gesensureer. [27]

Davis was 'n ondersteuner van die Soledad Brothers, drie gevangenes wat skuldig bevind is aan die moord op 'n tronkbewaarder in die Soledad -gevangenis. [31]

Op 7 Augustus 1970 het die swaar gewapende 17-jarige Afro-Amerikaanse hoërskoolleerling Jonathan Jackson, wie se broer George Jackson was, een van die drie Soledad-broers, beheer oor 'n hofsaal in Marin County, Kalifornië, verkry. Hy het die swart beskuldigdes gewapen en regter Harold Haley, die aanklaer, en drie vroulike jurielede as gyselaars geneem. [32] [33] Toe Jackson die gyselaars en twee swart beskuldigdes uit die hofsaal vervoer, het een van die beskuldigdes, James McClain, op die polisie geskiet. Die polisie het teruggeskiet. Die regter en die drie swart mans is dood in die geveg, een van die jurielede en die aanklaer is beseer. Alhoewel die regter in die kop geskiet is deur 'n skietgeweer, het hy ook 'n borswond opgedoen van 'n koeël wat moontlik van buite die bakkie afgevuur is. Bewyse tydens die verhoor het getoon dat óf dodelik kon gewees het. [34] Davis het verskeie van die vuurwapens wat Jackson in die aanval gebruik het, gekoop, [35] insluitend die haelgeweer wat Haley geskiet het, wat sy twee dae voor die voorval by 'n pandjieswinkel in San Francisco gekoop het. [33] [36] Daar word ook bevind dat sy ooreenstem met een van die betrokke gevangenes. [37]

Aangesien Kalifornië beskou dat "alle persone wat betrokke is by die pleeg van 'n misdaad, of hulle direk die daad wat die misdryf vorm, of hulp by die pleeg daarvan begaan, hoofde is van enige misdaad wat so gepleeg is", word Davis aangekla van "verswarende ontvoering en moord in die eerste graad in die dood van regter Harold Haley ", en regter Peter Allen Smith, hooggeregshof in Marin County, het 'n lasbrief vir haar arrestasie uitgereik. Ure nadat die regter die lasbrief op 14 Augustus 1970 uitgereik het, begin 'n massiewe poging om Davis te vind en in hegtenis te neem. Op 18 Augustus, vier dae nadat die lasbrief uitgereik is, het die FBI -direkteur, J. Edgar Hoover, Davis op die FBI se Ten Most Wanted Fugitive List gelys, sy was die derde vrou en die 309ste persoon wat op die lys was. [32] [38]

Kort daarna het Davis 'n vlugteling geword en uit Kalifornië gevlug. Volgens haar outobiografie het sy gedurende hierdie tyd in vriende se huise weggekruip en snags verhuis. Op 13 Oktober 1970 het FBI -agente haar gevind by 'n Howard Johnson Motor Lodge in New York. [39] President Richard M. Nixon het die FBI gelukgewens met die "gevang van die gevaarlike terroris Angela Davis." [40]

Op 5 Januarie 1971 verskyn Davis in die hooggeregshof in Marin County en verklaar haar onskuld voor die hof en die nasie: "Ek verklaar nou in die openbaar voor die hof, voor die mense van hierdie land dat ek onskuldig is van alle aanklagte teen my deur die staat Kalifornië. " John Abt, algemene raadgewer van die Kommunistiese Party in die VSA, was een van die eerste advokate wat Davis verteenwoordig het vir haar beweerde betrokkenheid by die skietery. [41]

Terwyl Davis in die aanhoudingsentrum vir vroue aangehou is, is Davis aanvanklik in afsondering van ander gevangenes geskei. Met die hulp van haar regspan het sy 'n federale hofbevel verkry om uit die gesegregeerde gebied te kom. [42]

Regoor die land het duisende mense 'n beweging begin organiseer om haar vry te laat. In New York het swart skrywers 'n komitee gestig genaamd The Black People in Defense of Angela Davis. Teen Februarie 1971 het meer as 200 plaaslike komitees in die Verenigde State en 67 in die buiteland gewerk om Davis uit die gevangenis te bevry. John Lennon en Yoko Ono het bygedra tot hierdie veldtog met die liedjie "Angela". [43] In 1972, na 'n gevangenisstraf van 16 maande, het die staat toegelaat dat sy op borgtog uit die tronk vrygelaat word. [32] Op 23 Februarie 1972 betaal Rodger McAfee, 'n melkboer uit Fresno, Kalifornië, haar borgtog van $ 100 000 met die hulp van Steve Sparacino, 'n welgestelde eienaar. Die United Presbyterian Church het 'n paar van haar regsuitgawes betaal. [32] [44]

'N Verdedigingsvoorstel vir die verandering van lokaal is toegestaan, en die verhoor is na Santa Clara County verskuif. Op 4 Junie 1972, na 13 uur se beraadslagings, [34] het die blanke jurie 'n vonnis van onskuldig teruggekry. [45] Die feit dat sy die gewere wat in die misdaad gebruik is, besit, is onvoldoende geoordeel om haar rol in die plot vas te stel. Sy word verteenwoordig deur Leo Branton Jr., wat sielkundiges aangestel het om die verdediging te help bepaal wie in die jurypoel hul argumente kan bevoordeel, 'n tegniek wat sedertdien meer algemeen geword het. Hy het ook kundiges aangestel om die betroubaarheid van ooggetuieverslae te diskrediteer. [46]

Kuba Redigeer

Na haar vryspraak het Davis in 1972 op 'n internasionale spreekbeurt gegaan en die toer was onder meer Kuba, waar sy voorheen in 1969 deur Fidel Castro ontvang is as lid van 'n afvaardiging van die Kommunistiese Party. [47] Robert F. Williams, Huey Newton, Stokely Carmichael het ook Kuba besoek, en Assata Shakur het later daarheen verhuis nadat hy uit 'n Amerikaanse gevangenis ontsnap het. Haar ontvangs deur Afro-Kubane tydens 'n massa-saamtrek was so entoesiasties dat sy na bewering skaars kon praat. [48] ​​Davis beskou Kuba as 'n land sonder rassisme, wat haar laat glo het dat "slegs onder sosialisme die stryd teen rassisme suksesvol uitgevoer kon word". Toe sy terugkeer na die Verenigde State, beïnvloed haar sosialistiese neigings haar begrip van rassestryd toenemend. [49] In 1974 woon sy die Tweede Kongres van die Federasie van Kubaanse Vroue by. [47]

Sowjetunie Redigeer

In 1971 beraam die CIA dat vyf persent van die Sowjet -propagandapogings gerig is op die Angela Davis -veldtog. [50] In Augustus 1972 besoek Davis die USSR op uitnodiging van die Sentrale Komitee en ontvang 'n eredoktorsgraad van die Staatsuniversiteit van Moskou. [51]

Op 1 Mei 1979 word die Lenin -vredesprys van die Sowjetunie aan haar toegeken. [52] Sy besoek Moskou later die maand om die prys te aanvaar, waar sy 'die glorieryke naam' van Lenin en die 'groot Oktoberrevolusie' prys. [53]

Oos -Duitsland Edit

Die Oos -Duitse regering het 'n uitgebreide veldtog namens Davis gereël. [54] In September 1972 besoek Davis Oos -Duitsland, waar sy die leier van die staat, Erich Honecker, ontmoet, 'n eregraad ontvang van die Universiteit van Leipzig en die Star of People's Friendship van Walter Ulbricht. Op 11 September in Oos -Berlyn het sy 'n toespraak gelewer, "Not Only My Victory", wat die DDR en die USSR prys en die Amerikaanse rassisme aan die kaak stel, en besoek die Berlynse muur, waar sy blomme gelê het by die gedenkteken vir Reinhold Huhn ('n Oos -Duitse wag wat is vermoor deur 'n man wat in 1962 met sy gesin oor die grens probeer ontsnap het). Davis het gesê: "Ons treur oor die dood van die grenswagte wat hul lewens opgeoffer het vir die beskerming van hul sosialistiese vaderland" en "As ons na die VSA terugkeer, sal ons onderneem om ons mense die waarheid te vertel oor die ware funksie van hierdie grens." [55] [56] [57] [58] In 1973 keer sy terug na Oos -Berlyn en lei die Amerikaanse afvaardiging na die 10de Wêreldfees vir Jeug en Studente. [59]

Jonestown and Peoples Temple Edit

In die middel van die sewentigerjare het Jim Jones, wat die kultus Peoples Temple ontwikkel het, vriendskappe aangegaan met progressiewe leiers in die San Francisco-omgewing, waaronder Dennis Banks van die American Indian Movement en Davis. [60] Op 10 September 1977, 14 maande voor die massamoord-selfmoord van die tempel, het Davis via amateur-radiotelefoon 'patch' met lede van sy Peoples Temple in Jonestown in Guyana gepraat. [61] [62] In haar verklaring tydens die "Sesdae-beleg", het sy steun uitgespreek vir die People's Temple-anti-rassisme-pogings en aan lede gesê dat daar 'n sameswering teen hulle is. Sy het gesê: 'As u aangeval word, is dit vanweë u progressiewe standpunt, en ons voel dat dit ook direk 'n aanval op ons is.' [63]

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn en politieke gevangenes in sosialistiese lande Wysig

In 1975 het die Russiese dissident en Nobelpryswenner Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn in 'n toespraak voor 'n AFL-CIO-vergadering in New York geargumenteer dat Davis verslap was omdat hy nie gevangenes in verskillende sosialistiese lande regoor die wêreld kon ondersteun nie, gegewe haar sterk opposisie teen die Amerikaanse gevangenis stelsel. Hy het gesê 'n groep Tsjeggiese gevangenes het 'n beroep op Davis gedoen om ondersteuning, wat volgens Solzhenitsyn geweier het. [64] In 1972 het Jiří Pelikán 'n ope brief geskryf waarin sy gevra is om Tsjeggiese gevangenes te ondersteun, [65] wat Davis geweier het, in die oortuiging dat die Tsjeggiese gevangenes die Husák -regering ondermyn en dat Pelikán, in ballingskap in Italië, sy aanval eie land. [ aanhaling nodig ] Volgens Solzhenitsyn het Davis geantwoord dat "hulle verdien wat hulle kry. Laat hulle in die gevangenis bly". [66] Alan Dershowitz, wat Davis ook gevra het om 'n aantal gevangenes in die USSR te ondersteun, het gesê dat sy geweier het omdat sy hulle nie as politieke gevangenes beskou het nie. [67]

Davis was 'n dosent aan die Claremont Black Studies -sentrum by die Claremont -kolleges in 1975. Die bywoning van die kursus wat sy aangebied het, was beperk tot 26 studente uit die meer as 5 000 op die kampus, en sy was genoodsaak om in die geheim te onderrig omdat weldoeners van oudstudente dit nie gedoen het nie. Ek wil nie hê dat sy die algemene studentebevolking met kommunistiese denke moet indoktrineer nie. Kollege -trustees het reëlings getref om haar voorkoms op die kampus te verminder, en haar seminare tot Vrydagaande en Saterdae beperk, "as die kampusaktiwiteit laag is". Haar klasse het van die een klaskamer na die ander beweeg en die studente is in die geheim gesweer. 'N Groot deel van hierdie geheimhouding duur voort gedurende die kort tydperk van Davis se onderrig aan die kolleges. [68] In 2020 is aangekondig dat Davis die Ena H. Thompson Distinguished Lecturer vir die geskiedenisafdeling van Pomona College sou wees, en haar na 45 jaar terug sou verwelkom. [69]

Davis het in 1978 'n vrouestudiekursus aan die San Francisco Art Institute aangebied en was van 1980 tot 1984 professor in etniese studies aan die San Francisco State University. [70] Sy was professor in die History of Consciousness and the Feminist Studeer departemente aan die Universiteit van Kalifornië, Santa Cruz en Rutgers Universiteit van 1991 tot 2008. [71] Sedertdien is sy 'n vooraanstaande professor emerita. [72]

Davis was 'n vooraanstaande besoekende professor aan die Universiteit van Syracuse in die lente van 1992 en Oktober 2010, en was die 1995 besoekende hoogleraar in filosofie aan die Vassar College in 1995. [73] [74]

In 2014 keer Davis terug na UCLA as dosent regente. Sy het op 8 Mei 'n openbare lesing in Royce Hall gelewer, waar sy 45 jaar tevore haar eerste lesing gehou het. [26]

In 2016 is Davis tydens die 48ste jaarlikse aanvangseremonie bekroon met 'n eredoktor in Humane Letters in Healing and Social Justice van die California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco. [75]

Davis aanvaar die benoeming van die Kommunistiese Party in die VSA as vise -president, as Gus Hall se lopende maat, in 1980 en in 1984. Hulle het in 1980 minder as 0,02% van die stemme gekry. [76] Sy het die party in 1991 verlaat en die komitees van korrespondensie gestig. vir demokrasie en sosialisme. Haar groep breek uit die Kommunistiese Party VSA weens laasgenoemde se steun aan die Sowjet -staatsgreeppoging in 1991 na die val van die Sowjetunie en die afbreek van die Berlynse muur. [77] Davis het gesê dat sy en ander wat ''n petisie oor die noodsaaklikheid van demokratisering van die bestuurstrukture van die party versprei het' nie 'n kandidaat is vir 'n nasionale amp nie en dus 'in 'n sekere sin uitgenooi is om te vertrek'. [78] [79] In 2014 het sy gesê dat sy steeds 'n verhouding met die CPUSA het, maar het nie weer aangesluit nie. [80] In die 21ste eeu ondersteun Davis die Demokratiese Party tydens presidentsverkiesings, en onderskryf Barack Obama, [81] Hillary Clinton en Joe Biden. [82]

Davis is 'n belangrike figuur in die afskaffingsbeweging van die gevangenis. [83] Sy noem die gevangenisstelsel in die Verenigde State die 'gevangenis -industriële kompleks' [84] en was een van die stigters van Critical Resistance, 'n nasionale voetsoolvlakorganisasie wat toegewyd was aan die bou van 'n beweging om die gevangenisstelsel af te skaf. [85] In onlangse werke het sy aangevoer dat die Amerikaanse gevangenisstelsel lyk soos 'n nuwe vorm van slawerny, wat dui op die onevenredige deel van die Afro-Amerikaanse bevolking wat in die gevangenis was. [86] Davis pleit vir die fokus van sosiale pogings op onderwys en die bou van 'betrokke gemeenskappe' om verskillende sosiale probleme op te los wat nou deur staatsstraf hanteer word. [22]

Reeds in 1969 begin Davis met openbare toespraak. [ aanhaling nodig ] Sy het haar teenkanting uitgespreek teen die Viëtnam -oorlog, rassisme, seksisme en die gevangenis -industriële kompleks, en haar steun aan gay -regte en ander bewegings van sosiale geregtigheid. In 1969 blameer sy imperialisme vir die probleme wat onderdrukte bevolkings ondervind:

Ons staan ​​voor 'n gemeenskaplike vyand en die vyand is Yankee Imperialism, wat ons hier en in die buiteland doodmaak. Nou dink ek dat elkeen wat die stryd sou probeer skei, enigiemand wat sou sê dat ons al hierdie ander afgeleide kwessies uit die prentjie moet laat om 'n anti-oorlogsbeweging te konsolideer, in die hande van die vyand. [87]

Sy het deur haar loopbaan voortgegaan met lesings, insluitend aan talle universiteite. [88] [89] [90] [91] [92] [93] [94]

In 2001 het sy in die openbaar gepraat teen die oorlog teen terreur na die aanvalle op 9/11, sy het steeds die gevangenis -industriële kompleks gekritiseer en die gebroke immigrasiestelsel bespreek. [95] Sy het gesê dat mense om sosiale geregtigheidskwessies op te los, hul kritiese vaardighede moet slyp, ontwikkel en implementeer. Later, in die nasleep van die orkaan Katrina in 2005, verklaar sy dat die 'aaklige situasie in New Orleans' te wyte was aan die land se strukturele rassisme, kapitalisme en imperialisme. [96]

Davis het die 1995 Million Man March van 1995 gekant en aangevoer dat die uitsluiting van vroue van hierdie geleentheid manlike chauvinisme bevorder. Sy het gesê dat Louis Farrakhan en ander organiseerders blykbaar verkies het dat vroue ondergeskikte rolle in die samelewing speel. Sy vorm saam met Kimberlé Crenshaw en ander die African American Agenda 2000, 'n alliansie van swart feministe. [97]

Davis het steeds die doodstraf gekant. In 2003 doseer sy aan die Agnes Scott College, 'n liberale kunsvrouekollege in Atlanta, Georgia, oor hervorming van gevangenisse, minderheidskwessies en die kwale van die strafregstelsel. [98]

On October 31, 2011, Davis spoke at the Philadelphia and Washington Square Occupy Wall Street assemblies. Due to restrictions on electronic amplification, her words were human microphoned. [99] [100] In 2012, Davis was awarded the 2011 Blue Planet Award, an award given for contributions to humanity and the planet. [101]

At the 27th Empowering Women of Color Conference in 2012, Davis said she was a vegan. [102] She has called for the release of Rasmea Odeh, associate director at the Arab American Action Network, who was convicted of immigration fraud in relation to her hiding of a previous murder conviction. [103] [104] [105] [106] [107] [108]

Davis was an honorary co-chair of the January 21, 2017, Women's March on Washington, which occurred the day after President Donald Trump's inauguration. The organizers' decision to make her a featured speaker was criticized from the right by Humberto Fontova [110] and the Nasionale hersiening. [111] Libertarian journalist Cathy Young wrote that Davis's "long record of support for political violence in the United States and the worst of human rights abusers abroad" undermined the march. [112]

On October 16, 2018, Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, presented Davis with an honorary degree during the inaugural Viola Desmond Legacy Lecture, as part of the institution's bicentennial celebration year. [113]

On January 7, 2019, the Birmingham Civil Rights Institute (BCRI) rescinded Davis's Fred Shuttlesworth Human Rights Award, saying she "does not meet all of the criteria". Birmingham Mayor Randall Woodfin and others cited criticism of Davis's vocal support for Palestinian rights and the movement to boycott Israel. [114] [115] Davis said her loss of the award was "not primarily an attack against me but rather against the very spirit of the indivisibility of justice." [116] On January 25, the BCRI reversed its decision and issued a public apology, stating that there should have been more public consultation. [117] [118]

In November 2019, along with other public figures, Davis signed a letter supporting Labour Party leader Jeremy Corbyn describing him as "a beacon of hope in the struggle against emergent far-right nationalism, xenophobia and racism in much of the democratic world", and endorsed him in the 2019 UK general election. [119]

On January 20, 2020, Davis gave the Memorial Keynote Address at the University of Michigan's MLK Symposium. [120]

Davis was elected as a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2021. [121]

From 1980 to 1983 Davis was married to Hilton Braithwaite. [1] [2] In 1997, she came out as a lesbian in an interview with Out tydskrif. [122] As of 2020, Davis was living with her life partner Gina Dent, [123] a fellow humanities scholar and intersectional feminist researcher at UC Santa Cruz, [124] who together with Davis advocates for black liberation, Palestinian solidarity, and the abolition of police and prisons. [ aanhaling nodig ]

  • The first song released in support of Davis was "Angela" (1971), by Italian singer-songwriter and musician Virgilio Savona with his group Quartetto Cetra. He received some anonymous threats. [125]
  • In 1972, German singer-songwriter and political activist Franz Josef Degenhardt published the song "Angela Davis", opener to his 6th studio album Mutter Mathilde.
  • The Rolling Stones song "Sweet Black Angel", recorded in 1970 and released on their album Exile on Main Street (1972), is dedicated to Davis. It is one of the band's few overtly political releases. [126] Its lines include: "She's a sweet black angel, not a gun-toting teacher, not a Red-lovin' schoolmarm / Ain't someone gonna free her, free de sweet black slave, free de sweet black slave". [127][128] 's song "George Jackson" (1971) is a tribute to George Jackson, one of the Soledad Brothers and the older brother of Jonathan Jackson, who was killed during an escape attempt from San Quentin. [129] and Yoko Ono released their song "Angela" on the album Some Time in New York City (1972) in support of Davis, and a small photo of her appears on the album's cover at the bottom left. [130]
  • The jazz musician Todd Cochran, also known as Bayete, recorded his song "Free Angela (Thoughts. and all I've got to say)" in 1972. [131]
  • Tribe Records co-founder Phil Ranelin released a song dedicated to Davis, "Angela's Dilemma", on Message From the Tribe (1972), a spiritual jazz collectible. [132]

References in other venues Edit

On January 28, 1972, Garrett Brock Trapnell hijacked TWA Flight 2. One of his demands was Davis's release. [133]

In Renato Guttuso's painting The Funerals of Togliatti (1972), [134] Davis is depicted, among other figures of communism, in the left framework, near the author's self-portrait, Elio Vittorini, and Jean-Paul Sartre. [135]

In 1971, black playwright Elvie Moore wrote the play Angela is Happening, depicting Davis on trial with figures such as Frederick Douglass, Malcolm X, and H. Rap Brown as eyewitnesses proclaiming her innocence. [136] The play was performed at the Inner City Cultural Center and at UCLA, with Pat Ballard as Davis.

The documentary Angela Davis: Portrait of a Revolutionary (1972) was directed by UCLA Film School student Yolande du Luart. [136] [137] It follows Davis from 1969 to 1970, documenting her dismissal from UCLA. The film wrapped shooting before the Marin County incident. [137]

In die fliek Network (1976), Marlene Warfield's character Laureen Hobbs appears to be modeled on Davis. [138]

Also in 2018, a cotton T-shirt with Davis's face on it was featured in Prada's 2018 collection. [139]

A mural featuring Davis was painted by Italian street artist Jorit Agoch in the Scampia neighborhood of Naples in 2019.

Biopic Edit

In 2019, Julie Dash, who is credited as the first black female director to have a theatrical release of a film (Daughters of the Dust) in the US, announced that she would be directing a film based on Davis's life. [140]


June 4, 1972: Angela Davis is Acquitted of All Court Charges

On this day, June 4, 1972, a civil rights activist, author, and scholar, Angela Davis was acquitted of all the charges she had at the court.

In October 1970, Angela was arrested in New York City in connection to the shootouts which took place on August 7, 1970, in San Raphael, California, courtroom. She was accused of supplying weapons to Jonathan Jackson, a black man. Mr. Jackson had who attacked a courtroom in a bid to free all inmates on trial. He then took hostages whom he expected to release in exchange for his brother George, who was a black criminal imprisoned at San Quentin Prison. In their quest to secure the hostages and bring Jonathan to their custody, the police involved in a shootout, which left Jonathan Jackson dead, alongside the Superior Court Judge Haley Harold plus two inmates.

Angela, who had championed the cause of black prisoners and was a friend of Jackson, was indicted for the crime but hurriedly went into hiding. She then became one of the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s most wanted criminals and was apprehended two months later. Her trials began in March 1972, drawing international attention due to the political nature of the proceedings and weakness of the prosecution’s case. Many critics criticized the entire process, arguing in favor of Davis. As such, on 4 th June 1972, Angela was acquitted of all charges after the court found her innocent.

Angela Davis is an African-American civil rights activist, scholar, and author who advocates for the oppressed people of color in the U.S. She is an author of several books on the topics of politics, culture, race, and gender disparity.

Angela Davis was born on January 26, 1944, in Birmingham, Alabama. She became a master scholar, who studied at the Sorbonne and later joined the U.S. Communist Party. She is famous for writing books such as the “Women, Race & Class,” besides working as a professor and civil rights activist who advocates for prison reforms, gender equality, as well as alliances with all people of color.

Angela emerged as a prominent and famous counterculture human rights activist and a radical leader during the 1960s, when she headed the Communist Party of the U.S.A. She also had a very close relationship with the “Black Panther Party” as seen during her involvements in the Civil Rights Movements. She is retired professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, who served in the “History of Consciousness Department.” As well, she is a former director of the Feminist Studies Department at the same university.

Angela Davis’s interests and focus, as revealed by her research works, were on the topics relating to the philosophies and history of punishment and prisons, the African-American culture and studies, social consciousness, feminism, Marxism, critical theories, as well as the popular music. As such, she, alongside other fellow activists, founded the Critical Resistance Group, an organization that works towards the abolition of the industrial- prison complex. Angela’s membership at the Communist Party USA, prompted the California Governor- Reagan Ronald, in 1969, to champion for her deterrence from teaching at any of the university within the State of California.

After spending her dedicated time lecturing and traveling, Angela Davis is today a professor at the University of California, Santa Cruz, where she lectures on the courses relating to the history of consciousness.


The History Behind Angela Davis’ Arrest

Davis was born on January 26, 1944 in a predominantly black neighborhood in Birmingham, Alabama. The area was known as “Dynamite Hill” because of the frequent bombings by the Klu Klux Klan. Between the ‘40s and ‘60s, over forty unsolved bombings targeting black homes were recorded in the neighborhood. Davis’s father Frank worked at a service station, and her mother, Sallye, was a primary school teacher and active member of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, even though just being a member in Alabama was dangerous at the time. As a teenager, Davis moved to New York City with her mother and continued her education at Elizabeth Irwin High School, which served as one of Davis’ first exposures to the left since a handful of teachers there were blacklisted for their involvement in the communist party. After graduating high school, Davis pursued a degree in philosophy at Brandeis University, graduating magna cum laude and as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa honor society in 1965. Davis later received her M.A. from the University of California at San Diego in 1968.

Before graduating from Brandeis, Davis got involved with the Civil Rights Movement because of the connection she felt to the killing of four young black girls in a bombing in her hometown. After two years of being involved with the movement, Davis began to gravitate farther left. In 1967, Davis was an active member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Black Panther Party, and the American Communist Party. During these two years, Davis began to get involved with the movement to improve prison conditions because of the research she was conducting about how racism functioned in the prison industrial complex. Shortly thereafter, she became involved in the campaign for the release of the Soledad Brothers, three African-American inmates who had been indicted for killing a prison guard.

On August 7, 1970, Jonathan Jackson, the brother of one of the indicted inmates, attempted to free the Soledad Brothers by taking hostages at the Marin County Courthouse, who included Superior Court Judge Harold Haley, a deputy district attorney and three jurors. During the stand off, Jackson armed and released some of the black defendants at the courthouse. While attempting to flee, Jackson and the prisoners were chased by the cops who began shooting at the moving vehicle. The armed conflict resulted in the death of Jackson, Judge Haley, and two other prisoners. Later, it was discovered that Davis had purchased the weapons involved in the incident and a federal warrant charging her with kidnapping, murder and criminal conspiracy was put out for her arrest on August 14. Because the weapons belonged to Davis, they charged her with all the resultant crimes of which the weapons were a part.

Upon hearing this, Davis fled. Four days later on August 18, she became the third woman listed on the FBI’s Top 10 Most Wanted Fugitives. She was eventually caught in October of that same year at which point President Richard Nixon congratulated law enforcement on the capture of a “dangerous terrorist.” Davis maintained that she was innocent. When people heard of her capture, the “Free Angela Davis” campaign was organized by her supporters. The campaign was so huge that John Lennon and Yoko Ono, two prominent figures in the music industry, wrote a song called “Angela” to contribute. The demonstrations during Davis’ high profile trial led to her release on bail, after a total of sixteen months of confinement. On June 4, 1972 Davis was found not guilty: her owning the guns was not considered sufficient to confirm her involvement.

At the time of the events, Davis was teaching as an assistant philosophy professor at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA), a position which she lost because of her pronounced involvement in the Communist Party. After the incident, Davis continued to face trouble with the California State university system. The state’s governor, Ronald Reagan, started a campaign to prevent her from teaching, but was unsuccessful.

Today, Davis is hailed for standing for what she believed in as well as for writing academic papers on sexism, classism, racism, and prison abolition. She continued to be involved in the American Communist Party and in the 1980s ran twice as their candidate for Vice President. Her affiliation lasted until 1991, when she fell out with them in response to their actions during the break up of the Soviet Union. In 1994, she was appointed as the University of California Presidential Chair in African American and Feminist Studies. She has spoken in all fifty states as a guest lecturer, as well as abroad in the Caribbean, Africa, and the former Soviet Union. To date she has written or co-authored eight books, including A ngela Davis: An Autobiography ( 1974), Women, Race, and Class (1983), and Abolition Democracy (2005), and contributed to many more . Davis currently teaches at the University of California at Santa Cruz as the Professor Emeritus of History and Consciousness as well as Feminist Studies. She continues to be an activist and is relentless in her efforts to abolish the death penalty and the prison industrial complex. She encourages her students to pursue activism in what they believe, stating “I think the importance of doing activist work is precisely because it allows you to give back and to consider yourself not as a single individual who may have achieved whatever but to be a part of an ongoing historical movement.”


THIS DAY IN HISTORY – 4TH JUNE

This Day in History is DUE’s daily dose of trivia for all the history buffs out there. So sit back and take a ride of all the fascinating things that happened today!

People are trapped in history and history is trapped in people, and hence, every day has been a significant one in the foibles of history. Now, let’s take a tour of “This Day in History – 4th June”.

1896: Henry Ford test-drives his ‘Quadricycle’

Quadricycle was the first automobile Henry Ford had ever designed or driven. It was basically a light metal frame fitted with four bicycle wheels and powered by a two-cylinder, four-horsepower gasoline engine. After months of hard work, Ford was able to drive the 500-pound Quadricycle down Detroit’s Grand River Avenue. Aside from one breakdown, the drive was a success. Ford was on his way to becoming one of the most formidable success stories in American business history.

Henry Ford and his Quadricycle

1919: Congress passes the 19th Amendment, giving women the right to vote

The 19th Amendment to the US Constitution granted women the right to vote. Congress had passed it and sent it to the states for ratification. It stated that “the rights of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.” The Amendment took effect eight days later.

findingdulcinea.com

1940: British complete the Miracle of Dunkirk

British evacuated almost 338,226 allied troops from France via a flotilla of over 800 vessels including Royal Navy destroyers, merchant marine boats, fishing boats, pleasure craft and lifeboats to complete the Miracle of Dunkirk today. The German army had advanced through northern France during the early days of World War II. They had cut off British troops from their French allies, forcing an enormous evacuation of soldiers across the North Sea from the town of Dunkirk to England. British named this evacuation as Operation Dynamo which commenced on May 26.

Miracle of Dunkirk

1972: Black communist activist Angela Davis acquitted

In October 1970, New York City Police had arrested Davis in connection with a shootout that occurred on August 7. She was accused of supplying weapons to a notorious Jonathan Jackson due to her friendship with him, and her activism for Black prisoners. She went into hiding and her trial began in March 1972. In June 1972, the court acquitted her of all charges. Though no longer a member of the Communist Party, Davis continues to be active in politics, most notably speaking out against incarceration and the death penalty.

Angela Davis

1975: Actress and Humanitarian Angelina Jolie is born

Maleficient actress and UNHCR Special Envoy, Angelina Jolie turns 46 today. Named as Hollywood’s highest-paid actress and one of the world’s most beautiful women, Jolie is famous for films like Mr. & Mrs. Smith, Salt, Changeling and Girl, Interrupted. Her accolades include an Academy Award and three Golden Globe Awards. Her humanitarian work includes efforts towards education, conservation and women’s rights. She has also undertaken over a dozen field missions globally to refugee camps and war zone countries like Pakistan and Sudan.

Angelina Jolie

1989: Tiananmen Square Massacre

Chinese troops stormed through Tiananmen Square in the center of Beijing, killing and arresting thousands of pro-democracy protesters. The brutal Chinese government assault on the protesters shocked the West. A little more than three weeks later, the US Congress voted to impose economic sanctions against the People’s Republic of China in response to the brutal violation of human rights.

Slagting op die Tiananmen -plein

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The Real Angela Davis

The National Museum of African-American History and Culture in our nation’s capital fills a void, providing us with an in depth look at the unique African-American experience in America since the days of slavery.

It is disheartening, therefore, to hear that this coming September the museum is featuring an old documentary on Angela Davis titled, Free Angela Davis and All Political Prisoners. After the screening there will be a discussion moderated by Rhea Combs who will interview and question Ms. Davis. In announcing the event, the museum’s press release notes that “we all recognize that Prof. Davis is a figure for the ages, as fascinating to us now as she was at the height of her incarceration and trial” (which took place in 1972). The release added that Davis’s life “is a quintessential American story of activism,” and that “because of her activism in support of social justice, she was criminalized and named on the FBI’s 10 most wanted list.”

This description is demonstrably false. And it elides the most important parts of Davis’s biography.

Angela Davis was not arrested and tried because she worked for “social justice.” She was tried for purchasing guns for a courtroom raid carried out by her lover George Jackson’s brother, Jonathan, whose use of these guns in a shootout (while attempting to flee) killed one of the four people he had taken hostage, a man named Judge Harold Haley. The purchase of these guns was easily traced to Davis who, rather than surrendering, fled to avoid being captured. She was eventually found at a motel on 8th Avenue in New York City, where she was taken into custody, having been charged by superior court judge Peter Smith with “aggravated kidnapping and first-degree murder.”

Rather than working for civil rights in the manner of Martin Luther King Jr., James Farmer, or A. Philip Randolph, Davis was a leader of the American Communist Party, and a member of the violent and armed Marxist group, the Black Panther Party. After her arrest, the international Communist movement declared her a martyr and Moscow orchestrated an international group of gullible Europeans who proclaimed her innocence and demanded her freedom. In Communist East Germany, school children were told to write postcards to her expressing their support and solidarity.

At her trial, the jury surprisingly found her innocent even though 20 witnesses had testified against her. Careful investigation later revealed how compromised the jury was. One of the jurors, Mary Timothy, would go on to have an affair with Communist Party member (and head of the official Committee to Free Angela) Bettina Aptheker. Immediately after Davis was acquitted, another jury member faced the reporters and TV networks and gave them the clenched-fist salute regularly used by revolutionaries. That juror, Ralph Delange, explained “I did it because I wanted to show I felt an identity with the oppressed people in the crowd . . . and to express my sympathy with their struggle.”

Interestingly, Davis’s commitment to prisoner’s rights stopped at America’s shores.

A hardline Communist, Davis supported the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 and relished being a guest of Fidel Castro in Cuba—where she went immediately following her acquittal. But her greatest love was for the Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries it ruled over. In 1979, Davis received the Lenin Peace Prize (once known as the Stalin Peace Prize). Russian writer Vitaly Korotich, who met her in Moscow, noted later that Davis was “a useful tool for the Brezhnev government, used to bolster Communist ideals and speak out against the West during the Cold War.”

She also did her part to defend the arrest and imprisonment of Eastern European dissidents. Czech dissident Jeri Pelikan wrote an open letter asking her to defend his comrades “so they can defend themselves against their accusers as you have been able to do in your country.” The plea fell on deaf ears. Answering on her behalf, black Communist leader Charlene Mitchell explained that Davis believed that people were only jailed in the so-called People’s Democracies “if they were undermining the government.” When Alan Dershowitz asked her to support political prisoners in the Eastern bloc, she responded that “they are all Zionist fascists and opponents of socialism.”

In 1980 and 1984 Davis ran for vice president on the Communist ticket, led by the party’s chairman, Gus Hall. Today, her main causes are fighting “the prison-industrial complex,” demanding freedom for all black prisoners whom she defines as “political prisoners,” and leading the BDS movement to delegitimize Israel.

Indeed, attacking Israel seems to be one of her current major concerns. Visiting the West Bank, she said that “the wall, the concrete, the razor wire everywhere conveyed the impression that we were in prison.” She says the jailing of African-Americans in the United States is the equivalent of the Palestinian terrorists jailed by Israel, whom she supports and defines as freedom fighters—including those convicted in Israeli courts, such as Rasmea Odeh and Marwan Barghouti. It should not come as a surprise to learn that Rep. Ilhan Omar has said that Davis is her inspiration.

Why would one of America’s most important museums applaud the life of a militant revolutionary who hates her own country and has never repudiated her support of totalitarian regimes?

And, if the National Museum of African-American History and Culture truly does believe that Davis is a worthy subject of discussion, why would they present an air-brushed caricature instead of grappling with who she really is and what she really did?


UCLA's 'Optimist' tribute to avowed communist Angela Davis blasted

A UCLA campaign to honor role model alumni for their idealism is drawing fire after picking avowed communist Angela Davis as one of its inspirational figures.

The school-sponsored "We, the Optimists" campaign includes a banner showing a young Davis, with the words "We Question" under the image. While Davis' effort to rehabilitate her reputation has been successful in academia, some students object to her inclusion on Bruin Walk.

“Her selection as a UCLA optimist is not inspiring, it is unbalanced and perhaps politically motivated,” Jacob Kohlhepp, a student at UCLA and member of the Bruin Republicans, wrote in a recent opinion piece for the widely-read higher education blog The College Fix. “What’s more, the "Optimists" campaign has many powerful stories in its narrative: helping the homeless, innovating in medicine, exploring the next frontier – all of which make me feel proud to be a Bruin. Professor Davis’s actions are not in this category of inspiration.”

The “Optimists” campaign was started by the school in 2012 to honor those the school dubbed risk-takers and game-changers. The ads, banners and videos of the campaign focus on alumni like Jackie Robinson, James Franco and Francis Ford Coppola for their contributions to society. Davis, who is now 70 and was an acting assistant professor in the school's philosophy department in 1969, is included in the campaign as well.

Davis has long been a controversial figure in American history. She was a prominent activist and radical in the 1960s and a leader of Communist Party USA. In 1970, she was implicated in a plot to free her imprisoned lover, black revolutionary George Jackson, whose brother took over a Marin County courtroom and held a judge, an assistant district attorney and two jurors hostage. In an ensuing gun battle, the judge was murdered by a shotgun owned by Davis.


Angela Davis acquitted of charges in ‘Soledad Brothers’ case 40 years ago June 4

ABOVE PHOTO: Jailed revolutionary Angela Davis during an exclusive interview at the Palo Alto jail on Dec. 27, 1971, where she was being held. During the interview, she said if she were free, her first goal would be to abolish America’s prison system.

One of the most-infamous instances in the life of former Black militant and current scholar Angela Davis was the “Soledad Brothers” trial in 1970.

On August 7 of that year, 17-year-old Black militant Jonathan Jackson, brother of author George, burst into a California courtroom and abducted Judge Harold Haley, a prosecutor, and three female jurors, while freeing two inmates on trial for murder.

Even though the younger Jackson had hoped to exchange the hostages for his brother, unfortunately, Jonathan, two inmates, and Judge Haley were all killed in the ensuing fracas.

Angela Davis was pinned as responsible for purchasing the guns used in the hostage situation.

After going into hiding, Davis was arrested in New York in October of that year facing conspiracy and murder charges. Davis’ indictment got her placed on the FBI’s Most Wanted list, and her ties with the Black Panthers and her activism and communist stances were also called into question.

She would finally face a trial in March of 1972, drawing attention from around the globe due to the explosive nature of the charges. The prosecution put together what legal experts referred to as a weak case, and it became obvious to observers that Angela Davis was being used as an example to strike fear into militants.

In June 1972, she was acquitted and free of all charges.

Davis’ time in jail inspired her to champion against what she refers to as the “prison industrial complex” &ndash a cause she still valiantly takes on to this day. Her case inspired songs from popular entertainers of the time with John Lennon and Yoko Ono recording the song “Angela” to show their solidarity in 1972 The Rolling Stones also recorded a track, “Sweet Black Angel,” in honor of Davis that same year.


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