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Guy Fawkes, (gebore 1570, York, Engeland-oorlede 31 Januarie 1606, Londen), Britse soldaat en bekendste deelnemer aan die Gunpowder Plot. Die doel daarvan was om die paleis in Westminster tydens die staatsopening van die parlement op te blaas, terwyl James I en sy hoofministers daarbinne vergader het, in weerwraak vir toenemende onderdrukking van Rooms -Katolieke in Engeland.
Wie was Guy Fawkes?
Guy Fawkes was 'n Engelse samesweerder in die 17de-eeuse buskruitplot, 'n onsuksesvolle plan om die Westminster-paleis op te blaas met koning James I en die parlement binne. Hy het hierdie komplot aangeneem as weerwraak vir James se toenemende vervolging van Rooms -Katolieke.
Hoe word Guy Fawkes onthou?
Voor die 20ste eeu het baie Britse onderdane Guy Fawkes as 'n skurklike verraaier beskou. Guy Fawkes -dagvieringe in die Verenigde Koninkryk behels soms die verbranding van sy beeld. In die 1980's het sommige egter vir Fawkes begin beskou as 'n simbool van weerstand teen onderdrukking deur die staat.
Hoe is Guy Fawkes dood?
Die nag van 4–5 November 1605 het die Londense owerhede die kruitplot ontbloot, wat Guy Fawkes en vier kokospirators betrek het. Fawkes is op die rek gemartel voordat hy in Januarie 1606 weens hoogverraad verhoor is. Hy is skuldig bevind en tereggestel deur ophang, teken en kwartier, maar sy nek is gebreek nadat hy van die galgtrap gespring of geval het en sodoende die ontduiking van die volle straf.
Hoe word Guy Fawkes -dag gevier?
In Januarie 1606 het die Britse parlement opdrag gegee om Guy Fawkes Day op 5 November te onderhou om die mislukking van die kruitplot te herdenk. Die vakansie word gevier in die Verenigde Koninkryk en in sommige lande van die Statebond en behels aktiwiteite soos parades, vuurwerke, vreugdevure en kos. Kinders dra gereeld strooi -afbeeldings van Fawkes, wat later in vreugdevure gegooi word. (Die vakansie word ook Bonfire Night genoem.) Kinders kan ook verbygangers 'n sent vir die ou vra "en rympies oor die intrige opgee.
Hoe is Guy Fawkes in populêre media verteenwoordig?
In die 1980's het die Britse skrywer Alan Moore en illustreerder David Lloyd gepubliseer V vir Vendetta, 'n grafiese roman na 'n anargistiese opstandeling met die naam V wat 'n Guy Fawkes -masker dra terwyl hy werk om 'n fiktiewe fascistiese regering van die Verenigde Koninkryk omver te werp. Die grafiese roman ontvang later 'n filmbehandeling met dieselfde naam (2005), wat deur James McTeigue geregisseer is en deur die Wachowskis geskryf is. Die Guy Fawkes-masker word sedertdien deur baie protesoptogte teen die regering gedra en word verbind met die aanlyn hacktivistiese organisasie Anonymous.
Fawkes was lid van 'n prominente Yorkshire -gesin en het hom tot die Rooms -Katolisisme bekeer. Sy avontuurlustige gees, sowel as sy godsdienstige ywer, het daartoe gelei dat hy Protestantse Engeland (1593) verlaat het en in die Spaanse weermag in Nederland aangesluit het. Daar het hy 'n reputasie gewen vir groot moed en koel vasberadenheid. Intussen was die aansteller van die komplot, Robert Catesby, en sy klein groepie Katolieke dit eens dat hulle die hulp nodig het van 'n militêre man wat nie so maklik herkenbaar sou wees as hulle nie. Hulle het in April 1604 'n man na Nederland gestuur om Fawkes te werf, wat sonder kennis van die presiese besonderhede van die plot teruggekeer het na Engeland en by hulle aangesluit het.
Die plotters het 'n kelder gehuur wat onder die paleis strek, en Fawkes het 36 vate buskruit daar geplant en dit met kole en stokke gemokamuleer. Maar die plot is ontdek en Fawkes is in hegtenis geneem (die nag van 4–5 November 1605). Eers nadat hy op die rek gemartel is, het hy die name van sy makkers bekend gemaak. Fawkes, wat voor 'n spesiale kommissie (27 Januarie 1606) beproef en skuldig bevind is, moet oorkant die parlementsgebou tereggestel word, maar hy val of spring van die galgtrap en sterf as gevolg van sy nekbreuk. Nietemin is hy in kwartaal.
Die Britse viering van Guy Fawkes -dag (5 November) sluit vuurwerke in, gemaskerde kinders wat 'n sent vir die ou smeek 'en die verbranding van klein sketse van die samesweerder.
Fraser, Antonia, The Gunpowder Plot: Terror and Faith in 1605, (Londen: Weidenfeld en Nicolson, 1996)
Wickham, Glynne, Shakespeare se dramatiese erfenis: versamelde studies in Middeleeuse, Tudor- en Shakespeare -drama, (Londen: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1969)
Wickham, Glynne, 'From Tragedy to Tragi-comedy:' King Lear 'as proloog' in Shakespeare -opname 26, onder redaksie van Kenneth Muir, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1973)
The Gunpowder Plot was een van die bekendste pogings om 'n koning in die Britse geskiedenis dood te maak. 'N Groep mans, waaronder een met die naam Guy Fawkes, was van plan om die huise van die parlement op te blaas. Hulle is egter betrap voordat hulle die erf kon uitvoer. Elke jaar op die herdenking van die plot vier mense in die Verenigde Koninkryk die feit dat die plot misluk het. Die vieringe sluit in vreugdevure en vuurwerke.
Rede vir die plot
Die mans wat die kruitplot beplan het, was Rooms -Katolieke wat nie tevrede was met die manier waarop hulle behandel word nie. Jakobus I, die eerste van die Stuart -konings van Engeland, het op die troon gekom in 1603. Destyds was daar baie konflikte tussen Protestante en Rooms -Katolieke. James volg Elizabeth I op, 'n protestant, wat nie toegelaat het dat Katolieke hulle godsdiens beoefen soos hulle wou nie. Rooms -Katolieke in Engeland het verwag dat James hulle goed sou behandel omdat sy ma 'n Katoliek was. In plaas daarvan beveel hy alle Katolieke priesters om Engeland te verlaat. Die mans was woedend dat hul hoop op godsdienstige verdraagsaamheid in die wiele gery is.
Die mans het besluit om nie net die koning nie, maar ook die koningin, hul seun prins Charles en elke lid van die regering te vermoor tydens die staatsopening van die parlement op 5 November 1605. Die leier van die groep was 'n man genaamd Robert Catesby. Kelders onder die Houses of Parliament is verhuur as stoorplekke vir mense soos steenkoolhandelaars, en die bende het een van hierdie kelders gehuur. Hulle het geleidelik 36 vate buskruit ingetrek en dit daar weggesteek. Dit was genoeg kruit om honderde mense op te blaas.
Mislukking van die plot
Die aand voor die opening van die parlement het soldate Guy Fawkes in die kelder gevang. Hulle het hom gearresteer en na die Tower of London geneem. Na drie dae van marteling het Fawkes sy gevangenes die name van sy mede -plotters vertel. Hulle is almal gearresteer weens verraad - met die sameswering teen die koning en die land - en is in die toring opgesluit.
Op 30–31 Januarie 1606 is die hele bende tereggestel terwyl honderde mense toekyk. Daarna is hul koppe afgesny en op pale dwarsdeur Londen vertoon om ander te waarsku wat met hulle sou gebeur as hulle 'n plan teen die koning sou maak. Ter viering van sy voortbestaan het James beveel dat die mense van Engeland die aand van 5 November, wat nou bekend staan as Guy Fawkes Day, 'n groot vreugdevuur moet hê.
Op 5 November 1605 is 'n geheime komplot om die Britse parlement op die openingsdag op te blaas en sowel koning James I as soveel as moontlik parlementslede te ontdek en te stop. 'N Anonieme brief wat 'n adviseur van die koning afgemaak het, het dit moontlik gemaak om die beplande massamoord te voorkom, en die oortreders is gevang, verhoor en toe tereggestel weens verraad.
Hierdie historiese gebeurtenis staan bekend as die 'buskruitplot' vanweë die 36 vate buskruit wat in die kelder van die parlementsgebou gevind is, en die buskruit is bedoel om in 'n massiewe en dodelike ontploffing gebruik te word.
In 1603, nadat die Britse koningin Elizabeth I sterf, neem haar neef James IV van Skotland die troon op en die titel van koning James I. Hoewel James 'n protestant is, is hy ook die seun van die vroom Katolieke Maria van Skotte, so Katolieke is hoopvol dat hierdie koning meer simpatiek teenoor hulle sal wees as sy voorganger.
Maar vroeg in 1604 toon die koning aan dat sy lojaliteit uitsluitlik aan die Engelse Kerk behoort deur alle Katolieke priesters te beveel om die land te verlaat. Om nog verder te gaan, gaan hy voort met die gebruik van boetes op Katolieke wat weier om die kerk van Engeland se dienste by te woon.
Intussen ontmoet die katolieke Robert Catesby, wie se vader tydens die regering van Elizabeth weens hul godsdiens vervolg is, sy neef Thomas Wintour en John Wright om hul poging om James I. te vermoor te begin beplan. om Spanje se steun in hul pogings te vra, maar word van die hand gewys omdat Spanje vrede met Engeland wil hê en weier om die plotters te help.
Terwyl hy in Vlaandere is, ontmoet Wintour sy mede -Engelsman Guy Fawkes, wat 'n plofstofkenner en 'n huursoldaat is. Fawkes is ook 'n Katolieke bekeerling en veg met die Katolieke weermag in Spanje teen die regering. Intussen woed in Engeland meer woede teenoor James op toe hy en die parlement beslis dat katolieke nie meer die reg het om testamente op te stel of huur te ontvang nie.
Fawkes en Wintour keer terug na Engeland om Catesby, Thomas Percy en John Wright te ontmoet. Dit is hierdie vyf mans wat die kern vorm van die opstandige groep en wat 'n godsdienstige eed van geheimhouding aflê. Met die hulp van die invloedryke en ywerige Fawkes, sluit nog agt samesweerders by die poging aan. Die samesweerders beraam 'n plan om die House of Lords op die openingsdag op te blaas en 'n gewilde oproep te begin wat uiteindelik die troon van 'n Katolieke monarg sal herstel.
Rondom Junie 1604, onbewus daarvan dat Thomas Percy teen die troon beplan, verseker sy beskermheer, die graaf van Northumberland, Percy 'n posisie as 'n koninklike lyfwag. Percy trek in 'n huis naby die parlement in, vergesel van Guy Fawkes, wat hom voordoen as sy dienaar en die naam John Johnson heet. As gevolg van die nuwe posisie van Percy, kan hy en Fawkes maklik in die parlement rondbeweeg en sonder enige vermoede.
Terselfdertyd begin Robert Catesby en die nuweling Robert Keyes (neef van Wintour en Wright) buskruit in die huis van Catesby, oorkant die parlement, oorkom en bêre. Die plotters versprei vir die somer nadat dit aangekondig is dat die opening van die parlement tot Februarie uitgestel is. As hulle in Oktober bymekaarkom, begin hulle 'n tonnel grawe onder Percy se huis na die House of Lords.
Maar weereens word die opening van die House of Lords uitgestel, hierdie keer as gevolg van die vrees vir die plaag wat dit vir Oktober 1605 herskeduleer word. In Maart 1605 kan die tonnels hul arbeidsintensiewe tonnelpogings stop omdat Thomas Percy dit regkry om die kelder direk onder die House of Lords te huur. Guy Fawkes, wat steeds as Percy se bediende was, woon die kelder en die 36 vate buskruit by wat daarheen verskuif is van hul stoorplek by Catesby se huis. Die vate buskruit is weggesteek onder hope steenkool en houtstokkies wat wettig bedoel is om gedurende die winter as brandstof te gebruik.
Die samesweerders het meer geld nodig om die gewapende opstand wat hulle beplan na die ontploffing in die parlement, te ondersteun. Catesby se neef Francis Tresham help om hulle te finansier, net soos die welgestelde Ambrose Rookwood. Die opstand in die Midlands word veronderstel om gelei te word deur sir Everard Digby, 'n Katolieke bekeerling. Vader Henry Garnett, die hoof van die Jesuïete -sending in Engeland, verneem van die komplot in die belydenisskrif en probeer Catesby sonder sukses oorreed om die plan prys te gee. Intussen word die opening van die parlement weer teruggedruk, hierdie keer tot November.
Die lang tyd tussen die begin van die plot en die werklike opening van die parlement gee sommige van die plotters tyd om nadink oor wat hulle betrokke is, veral omdat daar katolieke op die openingsdag in die parlement sal wees - en dit beteken dat Katolieke ongevalle. Tien dae voor die geskeduleerde openingsdatum van 5 November word aan Francis se swaer, Lord Monteagle, 'n ongetekende brief gestuur wat hom waarsku om nie die opening by te woon nie, alhoewel dit nie in besonderhede ingaan nie, is dit duidelik dat dit gevaarlik sal wees , miskien dodelik.
Lord Monteagle, 'n Katoliek wat lojaal is aan die kroon, neem die brief aan die hoofminister van die koning, Robert Cecil. Een van die bediendes van Monteagle lig die plotters in oor wat gebeur het, en Catesby - wat onmiddellik sy neef Francis Tresham vermoed, dat hy die brief neergeskryf het en hom konfronteer. Tresham ontken dat hy daaraan deel gehad het, maar gebruik die geleentheid om Catesby te probeer oorreed om die idee heeltemal te laat vaar. Catesby weier en laat Guy Fawkes in die kelder kyk of daar beslag gelê is op die kruit. Dit het nie.
Intussen het Robert Cecil die brief aan King James gewys, wat onmiddellik die uitdrukking "verskriklike slag" instem. Hy maak die verbinding met kruit en beveel 'n soektog. Die eerste soektog na die kelder was onsuksesvol, aangesien die bediende (Guy Fawkes wat hom as John Johnson voordoen) hulle verseker dat die kelder verhuur word aan sy meester Thomas Percy, 'n koninklike lyfwag.
Die soekers is tevrede met die verduideliking, maar die koning is nie. Hy beveel nog 'n soektog aan, en hierdie keer, net na middernag op 5 November, keer die soekers terug na die kelder. Hierdie keer vind hulle Fawkes aangetrek vir reis en in besit van vuurhoutjies en lontjies. Verdere soektog kry die 36 vate buskruit op.
Fawkes word in hegtenis geneem en dan na die koning gebring. Hy word ondervra, maar weier om te praat totdat hy gemartel is. Uiteindelik erken hy sy werklike identiteit en erken dat hy die protestantse regering van Engeland wil vernietig en dit deur 'n Katolieke monargie vervang.
Catesby word doodgeskiet en Fawkes en die ander oorlewende samesweerders word in die openbaar gevonnis om in die openbaar opgehang, getrek en in kwarte opgeskort te word. Op 31 Januarie 1606, die dag van die beoogde teregstelling, spring Fawkes van die leer na die galg, breek sy nek en sterf.
Guy Fawkes Dag
Guy Fawkes Night (ook genoem Guy Fawkes Day of Bonfire Night) is dieselfde jaar, 1606, deur die parlement gestig ter nagedagtenis aan die verydelde kruitplot. Dit word nou elke jaar op 5 November gevier wanneer mense dwarsoor Engeland vuurwerke aansteek, vreugdevure aansteek en beelde van Guy Fawkes brand.
Lys van belangrike feite
1. Die Gunpowder Plot is die naam van 'n verwoeste poging in Engeland in 1605 deur Katolieke rebelle om die nie-Katolieke koning en baie parlementslede dood te maak deur die House of Lords op te blaas.
2. Die plot sou op die openingsdag van die House of Lords plaasvind, wat die teenwoordigheid van die koning en die meeste indien nie alle parlementslede verseker nie.
3. Die vyandigheid en bittere geskiedenis tussen die Katolieke en die Protestante van die Kerk van Engeland dateer uit die regering van Henry 8, wat die wettigheid van egskeiding ingestel het deur van die Katolieke kerk te skei.
4. Die leier van die rebelle was Robert Catesby, 'n Katoliek wie se pa weens sy oortuigings in die tronk was. Nadat die plot en plofstof ontdek is, is Catesby doodgeskiet en 'n foto van die Maagd Maria gehou.
5. Die bekendste van die rebelle was Guy Fawkes, 'n Katolieke bekeerling, huursoldaat en plofstofkenner, wat verantwoordelik was vir - en gevang is met die buskruit. Nadat hy gemartel is, het Fawkes die plot en die name van sy mede-samesweerders prysgegee.
6. Fawkes vermy om gehang, getrek en in kwartiere te word deur van die stellasies wat na die galg lei, te spring, sy nek te breek en te sterf.
7. 36 vate buskruit is in die kelder reg onder die parlement gehou, terwyl die opening steeds uitgestel is.
8. 'n Anonieme brief is aan Lord Monteagle gestuur waarin hy waarsku oor die dreigende aanval.
9. Dit het twee soektogte in die kelder geneem om die kruit te ontdek.
10. Guy Fawkes -dag word elke jaar op 5 November in Engeland gevier in Engeland met vreugdevure, vuurwerke en hangende beelde van Fawkes.
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Waarom het die kruitplot van 1605 misluk? 9 groot vrae oor die sameswering om die parlement op te blaas
John Cooper en Hannah Greig, historiese adviseurs oor die BBC -drama van 2017 Buskruit, beantwoord die grootste vrae oor die Katolieke sameswering om koning en parlement in 1605 uit te wis.
Hierdie kompetisie is nou gesluit
Gepubliseer: 4 November 2020 om 06:05
Was Guy Fawkes die brein agter die kruitplot?
Guy Fawkes was moontlik die man wat daarvan beskuldig is dat hy die lont aan die buskruit in die Paleis van Westminster aangesteek het, maar hy was nie die leier van die plot nie - en was ver van 'n eensame wolf. Daar was altesaam 13 plotters - baie van Engelse elite -families - en die meesterbrein van die sameswering was Robert Catesby en sy neef Thomas Wintour.
Catesby was reeds onder verdenking, as 'n Katoliek en 'n voorstander van die graaf van Essex se mislukte rebellie teen Elizabeth I in 1601. Fawkes, aan die ander kant, was onbekend aan die owerhede, en dit is een van die belangrikste redes waarom hy so 'n kritieke rol in die plot. As dienaar kon hy toegang tot die paleis van Westminster verkry en met die hulp van sy mede-samesweerders karretjies in die 36 vate buskruit wat hy van plan was om onder koning James VI en I se voete te ontplof.
Die groot ironie van Guy Fawkes se lewe is dat dit begin het in 'n konvensionele en gerespekteerde Protestantse gesin - hy was die seun van 'n amptenaar van die Kerk van Engeland - maar eindig met 'n berugte poging om die politieke establishment in die naam van die Katolieke geloof uit te neem.
Fawkes is in 1570 in York gebore, in 'n huis net 'n entjie van York Minster af. Hy het moontlik 'n handelaar geword soos sy oupa, maar toe sy pa in 1579 sterf, het Fawkes by die ma se nuwe man, 'n toegewyde Katoliek, gaan woon. Toe hy volwassenheid bereik het, verkoop hy sy klein erfenis en veg op die vasteland vir die magte van die Katolieke Spanje.
'N Skoolvriend wat 'n Jesuïet -priester geword het, beskryf Fawkes as godsdienstig vroom, lojaal aan sy vriende en' hoogs bekwaam in oorlogsake ' - presies wat die kruitplotters gesoek het.
Waarom het die samesweerders die parlement as hul teiken gekies?
Nadat die samesweerders ooreengekom het dat hulle die koning en sy regering wil uitwis, was die parlementshuise die voor die hand liggende teiken. Catesby se regverdiging vir die uitwissing van die parlement was ontsettend eenvoudig: "Op daardie plek het hulle ons al die onheil aangedoen, en dit is moontlik dat God die plek vir hulle straf ontwerp het."
Die 'onheil' waarna Catesby verwys het, dateer terug na die parlemente van koningin Elizabeth I, wat 'n reeks streng statute aangeneem het wat daarop gemik was om Katolieke te dwing om aan die Kerk van Engeland te voldoen. Katolieke recusants (uit die Latynse recusare, om te weier) is beboet, geïntimideer en gevangenisstraf opgelê. Priesters en Jesuïete wat na Engeland gestuur is in 'n poging om die Katolieke geloof te handhaaf, het marteling en teregstelling tot gevolg.
Engelse Katolieke het James I se toetrede tot die troon in 1603 verwelkom in die hoop dat dit 'n tydperk van groter verdraagsaamheid sou inlui. Tog sou dit 'n valse dagbreek wees. Twee jaar later het dit al hoe duideliker geword dat die nuwe koning bereid was om Katolieke min toegewings te gee. Dit was die agtergrond vir die planters se besluit om die staatsopening van die parlement te rig, toe die here, Commons en die koning self bymekaar sou kom. Die feit dat Katolieke adellikes in die ontploffing vasgevang kon word, is deur Catesby as kollaterale skade aanvaar: vir hom was dit 'ateïste, dwase en lafaards'.
Hoe het die plotters die paleis van Westminster binnegedring?
In 1605 was die Paleis van Westminster 'n verwoestende kompleks van omgeboude koninklike woonstelle en ontbinde kerklike geboue, baie anders as vandag se hoë sekuriteitsgeboue. Westminster Hall was propvol mense wat die howe van King's Bench en Common Pleas bywoon. Tavernes met die naam 'Hemel' en 'Vagevuur' het hul handel 'n klipgooi van die Commons en die here afgelê. In die tyd van Henry VIII het 'n bordeel openlik binne die gebiede van die paleis bedryf.
Die plotters het geweet dat hulle 'n goeie kans het om onopgemerk deur hierdie nabygeveg te gaan. Hulle aanvanklike plan was om 'n eiendom langs die House of Lords te bewoon en van die een kelder na die ander te tonnel, maar die mynbou was te tydrowend. Toe huur hulle 'n steenkoolkelder onder die kamer van die Here. Dit het hulle in staat gestel om die kruit in te bring sonder om uitgedaag te word.
'N Veiligheidsopsporing het nie die betekenis van die stapel brandhout en vate wat in die kelder opgehoop het, raakgesien nie. Maar toe ontvang die Katolieke eweknie, baron Monteagle, 'n brief van 'n anonieme bron waarin hy hom waarsku om op 5 November uit die Paleis van Westminster te bly, omdat 'hulle 'n vreeslike slag hierdie parlement sal kry'. Die brief het James I bereik, wat 'n tweede soektog beveel het. Toe eers word die plot onthul, wat verhoed dat byna 'n ton buskruit deur die parlement skeur.
Luister: Hannah Greig en John Cooper verken die verhaal van die poging om die koning en die parlement in 1605 op te blaas in hierdie episode van die HistoryExtra -podcast:
Het buitelandse moondhede hulp verleen aan die kruitplot?
Die houding van die Spanjaarde was 'n belangrike rede vir die mislukking van die sameswering. Engelse Katolieke het sedert die bewind van Elizabeth I. na Spanje gesoek vir steun. In 1569 het 'n opstand van die noordelike grawe gehoop om Elizabeth met Spaanse vlootsteun te ontslaan - alhoewel die skepe nooit aangekom het nie. Later het Engelse Katolieke vlootvlieëniers met die Spaanse Armada gevaar.
Maar 'n generasie hierna het die politieke landskap verander. En toe Guy Fawkes in 1603 na Spanje gaan om militêre hulp van Philip III te soek, het hy gevind dat die Spanjaarde minder geneig was om hul steun te bied. Vir hulle het die toetreding van James I 'n geleentheid gebied om die duur oorlog met Engeland te beëindig - en in Augustus 1604 het Spaanse en Engelse afvaardigings byeengekom in Somerset House in Londen om 'n vredesverdrag te onderteken. Twee Spaanse adellikes, Don Juan de Tassis en die konstabel van Kastilië (wat albei in die BBC -drama Gunpowder verskyn), kan gesien word in die portret van die Somerset House -konferensie wat in die National Maritime Museum hang (sien hieronder). Die verlating van Engelse Katolieke in Spanje het die plotters gelaat om dit alleen te doen.
As die plot suksesvol was, sou dit Engeland in die hande van 'n Katolieke regime gelewer het?
Om dit te kan doen, sou die plotters 'n nuwe regering moes stig, die Tower of London neutraliseer en die hawens van Engeland beveilig. Hulle planne om dit alles te bereik was op sy beste wasig.
Brittanje was 'n monargie, so koninklike bewind moes onder 'n nuwe Katolieke regime voortgesit het. Die koning se seun, Henry, prins van Wallis, was 'n sterk protestant en sou in elk geval waarskynlik in die ontploffing gesterf het. Een van die plotters, Thomas Percy, wou prins Charles (die toekomstige Charles I) ontvoer. Maar Catesby was bevoorreg om die negejarige prinses Elizabeth vas te trek, 'n beskermer aan te stel en die marionetmonarg met 'n Katolieke man te trou.
Die prinses se huishouding was in die Coombe Abbey in Warwickshire, 'n vinnige rit van die Catesby -gesinshuis in Ashby St Ledgers af. Catesby het die plaaslike Katolieke heersers genooi om op 5 November saam met hom te jag in die hoop dat hulle dit as bedekking kan gebruik. Maar toe die kruitplot misluk, het sy ondersteuningsnetwerk weggesmelt. Catesby en Wintour het vlugtelinge geword tussen die een katolieke huis en die ander. Hulle het hul laaste standpunt in Holbeach House gemaak en met swaarde gevorder teen die mans van die balju gewapen met gewere. Catesby en Percy sterf aan dieselfde koeël, terwyl Wintour gevange geneem word om verhoor te word.
Hoe is Guy Fawkes gestraf vir sy misdade?
Die verbranding van beelde van Guy Fawkes tydens 'n vreugdevuur aand kan daarop dui dat Fawkes op die brandstapel verbrand is. Vir mans sou die vonnis vir hoogverraad egter 'opgehang, getrek en in kwarte' geneem word, en dit is die grusame lot wat op Fawkes wag.
Voor sy teregstelling is wrede marteling gebruik om die bekentenis van Fawkes uit te haal, insluitend manakels - wat styf om polse vasgemaak was en die beskuldigde vir baie ure aan hul hande gehang het - en heel waarskynlik die berugte rek wat die liggaam gespan het, skeur tendons, skeur gewrigte en breek bene.
Dit sou 'n ellendige Fawkes gewees het wat van voor af aan 'n hekkie vasgemaak was en saam met drie mede-plotters na Old Palace Yard buite die Palace of Westminster getrek het. As die laaste wat tereggestel is, sou hy gesien het hoe die ander gehang, verwyder is terwyl hulle nog gelewe het en dan gesterf het tydens die fisiese verminking wat gevolg het. Eers is die geslagsdele afgesny en verbrand. Die lyk is daarna onthoof en onthoof, en uiteindelik in kwartiere, met liggaamsdele regoor die land vertoon.
Fawkes is die pyn van die laaste stadium gespaar omdat sy nek gebreek het toe hy opgehang het, wat onmiddellik die galg doodgemaak het.
Hoe lewendig was die owerhede teen die bedreiging van Katolieke sameswerings?
Die kruitplot was die jongste in 'n reeks sameswerings wat daarop gemik was om die Katolieke heerskappy in Engeland te herstel. Radikale Katolieke het jare lank gehoop om 'n opstand van herhalende gesinne te koördineer met militêre steun van simpatieke buitelandse moondhede. Tog het min Engelse Katolieke ooit gewapende optrede teen die Protestantse regime ondersteun.
Die staat het kragtige wapens ontwikkel teen opstand. Elizabeth I se hoofsekretaris, sir Francis Walsingham, het 'n uitgebreide netwerk van informateurs en agente gewerf, wat die Katolieke ondergrondse binnedring en die kontinentale seminare binnedring waar sendelingpriesters opgelei is. Dit het hom in staat gestel om vorige pogings tot die monarg se lewe te stuit, soos die Babington -plot van 1586, wat daarop gemik was om Elizabeth te vermoor en haar te vervang met haar Katolieke neef, Mary, Queen of Scots. Na sy dood word Walsingham se geheime diens onderhou deur sy opvolger, Robert Cecil, wat beide Elizabeth en James I.
Gegewe die gesofistikeerdheid van die netwerk wat Walsingham aan Cecil nagelaat het, is dit miskien verbasend dat die kruitplot so naby was aan die bereiking van sy doel. Fawkes is immers eers op die 11de uur ontdek, na bewering terwyl hy oor die poeier sweef, gereed om 'n lont aan te steek.
Hoe het Katolieke hulle geloof beoefen sonder om ongewenste aandag te trek?
Die noodsaaklikheid dat katolisisme in die geheim nagestreef moet word, stel huise in die hart van hierdie gemeenskap. Katolieke vermom die simbole en toebehore wat verband hou met hul aanbidding, soms in die oog, onder alledaagse meubels. 'N Eettafel kan as 'n altaar dien, 'n priester se kledingstukke kan in die huishoudelike linne opgevou en begrawe word, en 'n kelk wat vir massa gereserveer is, kan op rakke geplaas word en nie van gewone drinkbekers onderskei word nie. 'N Aantal huise het beroemd' priestergate ', geheime ruimtes agter kaggels, trappe en mure waarin nie net die heilige gereedskap nie, maar ook die priesters self weggesteek kon word.
Dus was die huis - en in uitbreiding die vroue wat die huise gehou het - van kritieke belang om die geloof lewendig te hou. Dit kan gesien word in die lewe van Anne Vaux (gespeel deur Liv Tyler in Buskruit), 'n Katolieke sagvrou wat gearresteer is omdat hy vermoedelik verbind was met die kruitplot. Net soos ander vroue van haar rang en godsdiens, het Vaux 'n hoë rol gespeel in die instandhouding van Katolieke ondergrondse netwerke, die organisering van vergaderings, as poortwagter en, in die wesenlike geval, om priesters in gehuurde veilige huise en in haar eie huis te ondersteun.
Waarom noem ons 5 November ‘vuurvuuraand’?
Toe die kruitplot ontdek word, is Londenaars aangemoedig om vreugdevure aan die brand te steek. Kort voor lank het 5 November die kalender ingeskryf as 'n herinnering aan die bevryding van Engeland. Deur die ouer tradisies van vuurmaak en fees te meng, het dit 'n dag van nasionale vreugde geword.
Engelse setlaars in Amerika het hul anti-katolisisme oor die Atlantiese Oseaan gedra. Bekend as Pous's Day in koloniale Boston, het op 5 November mededingende bendes geveg oor beelde van die pous en hulle in die vuur gegooi. U kan vandag iets soortgelyks aanskou in Lewes in Sussex, waar vuurvuurgenootskappe deur die stad paradeer en gemoedelike mishandeling na 'n vrywilliger wat as 'n kardinaal geklee is, gooi.
Maar die vreugdevure verander. So onlangs as in die tagtigerjare het 'n groot aantal gesinne in die bure se agtertuine bymekaargekom om sop en blikkies -toffie te eet en te sien hoe pa vuurwerk afskiet, terwyl strate oor die land weerklink na die geluid van kinders wat 'n sent vir die ou vra. Vandag verdwyn hierdie tradisies vinnig.
Die Amerikaanse invoer van Halloween het die nagvuur grootliks toegeneem, vuurwerkverkope word swaarder gereguleer, en dorpe wat vuurmaak-geleenthede wil aanbied, moet groot hoeveelhede versekering insamel, wat hul toekoms op lang termyn bedreig.
Sal die volgende generasie die ou rympie, 'Onthou, onthou, die vyfde November, kan onthou, kruit, verraad en plot?' En wat sal die oorspronklike verhaal van die kruitplot oor 100 jaar vir die Britte beteken as ons nie meer nie ouens maak en vreugdevure bou?
John Cooper en Hannah Greig is senior lektore in die vroeë moderne geskiedenis aan die Universiteit van York.
9 plekke wat verband hou met Guy Fawkes en die kruitplot
Lord Monteagle het die aand van 26 Oktober 1605 'n verrassende brief ontvang. 'N Anonieme korrespondent het die Engelse edelman afgeraai om die komende parlementsitting by te woon, wat 'n paar dae later sou begin. Die brief waarsku: 'Hulle sal hierdie parlement 'n vreeslike slag kry, maar hulle sal nie sien wie hulle seermaak nie.'
Dit was 'n koel boodskap. Monteagle jaag van sy huis in Hoxton na Whitehall, waar hy die brief deurgee aan Robert Cecil, die minister van buitelandse sake en die tweede magtigste man in die land. Cecil se ondersoeke het gelei tot 'n kelder onder die paleis van Westminster en die ontdekking van die mees gewaagde terreuraanval wat ooit op Britse bodem probeer is.
Dit was 'n erf wat sy oorsprong in die bewind van Elizabeth I gehad het. Henry VIII en Edward VI het die grondslag gelê vir die Engelse Hervorming, maar Elizabeth het 'n verdere stap geneem om te verseker dat die land stewig protestant was. Namate die 16de eeu tot 'n einde gekom het, het die oorblywende katolieke in die land te kampe gehad met toenemende vlakke van vervolging. Heftige regulasies sluit die doodstraf in vir diegene wat as priesters beskut word. Dit was 'n moeilike tyd om 'n Katoliek in Engeland te wees.
Hoop berus op die sterfte van Elizabeth en die waarskynlike keuse vir die opvolger van die Maagd Koningin, James VI van Skotland. Hoewel hy self 'n protestant was, was James die seun van die Katolieke martelaar Mary Queen of Scots, en sy eie vrou was ook 'n Katoliek. Verder het hy voor sy opvolging op die Engelse troon gesinspeel dat sy regering 'n groter verdraagsaamheid vir die land se katolieke minderheid sou meebring.
When he came to replace Elizabeth in 1603 James did indeed limit the restrictions on Catholicism in England. However within a year he had reversed this policy after opposition from English Protestants. Furious at being let down, a small group of young Catholics began plotting a violent act of revenge. The head of this band was Robert Catesby, a rebellious member of the minor gentry.
In May 1604 they gathered in London and started to hatch out their plan. The idea they settled upon was to ignite a huge cache of gunpowder underneath Westminster on the opening session of parliament. The resulting explosion would then wipe out almost the entire English establishment: the royal family, the MPs, the lords and the leading bishops. Guy Fawkes, a Catholic volunteer who had been fighting in the Low Countries, was the man selected to prepare the gunpowder and light the fuse.
The plotters rented a cellar below the Palace of Westminster and filled it with gunpowder, ready for the state opening of parliament on 5 November 1605. All seemed to be going to plan but then, with just over a week to go, Lord Monteagle received a tip-off. Armed with this information, Robert Cecil liaised with King James who apparently suggested that the cellars under Westminster be searched. On the night of 4–5 November Fawkes was apprehended there red-handed alongside 36 barrels of gunpowder.
Despite Fawkes’s arrest, Catesby opted to incite an armed insurrection in the Midlands but found few willing to support his cause. The rebel leader was gunned down alongside a few of his remaining supporters on 8 November. Those who weren’t killed were despatched to the Tower of London where they, alongside Fawkes, were brutally executed in January 1606.
The Gunpowder Plot had failed utterly, to the delight of the Protestant English. On 5 November bonfires were lit in celebration, a practice that continues to this day. For the Catholic minority the attempt at mass murder had disastrous consequences. “The long-term contribution of the gunpowder plot was to provide another reason for Protestants to dislike and be scared of Catholics,” explains James Sharpe, author of Remember, Remember the Fifth of November (Profile, 2005). “Protestant propaganda had for a long time been saying ‘the Catholics are out to get us’ and the Gunpowder Plot just demonstrated that.”
King James responded to the attempt on his life relatively calmly, without the bloody reprisals that might have been expected. Nevertheless the Gunpowder Plot did lead to a worsening of Catholic/Protestant relations, which were not normalised until the 19th century. The celebrations of 5 November became not just a commemoration of lives preserved but also an opportunity to vent anti-Catholic feelings. As much as anything else, it was England’s deliverance from Catholics that the revellers chose to remember.
9 places associated with the gunpowder plot
Baddesley Clinton, Warwickshire
Where priests were concealed
England’s Catholics were under a great deal of pressure towards the end of Elizabeth I’s reign. A raft of measures, including crippling fines for non-attendance at Protestant services, made life very difficult indeed. Some accepted defeat and joined the Anglican fold but others resolved to continue observing what they believed to be the true faith.
Catholic priests who had trained on the continent were smuggled into England where they could facilitate worship. They were sheltered in Catholic safehouses, which were often equipped with priest’s holes that could be used as hiding places when inspectors arrived. The punishment for the priests and those who harboured them could be death so it was vital that secrecy was maintained.
Built in the 15th century, Baddesley Clinton became an important place of refuge for Catholics. Though it belonged to the Ferrers family, it was rented by the Vaux sisters who were committed to shielding priests. Members of the Jesuit order (a controversial Catholic missionary group) are believed to have met at Baddesley Clinton in 1592 and escaped detection by hiding in a tunnel when government officers turned up. The English Jesuit leader Henry Garnett was among their number.
Baddesley Clinton remained with the Ferrers until the late 20th century when it was taken over by the National Trust. Three priest’s holes survive from its days as a Catholic refuge.
Banqueting House, London
Where a promising new king lived
Disillusioned by Elizabeth I, England’s Catholics expected better things under her successor, James VI of Scotland. Born in 1566 James had acceded to the Scottish throne when barely a year old and managed to hang on to his crown, despite several intrigues against him.
As Henry VII’s great-great grandson James was the leading contender to replace Elizabeth I when the queen died childless in 1603.
James VI did indeed become James I of England and on the surface this was a promising development for Catholics. James was the son of a Catholic martyr (Mary Queen of Scots), while his wife (Anne of Denmark) was a Catholic as well. During his time in Scotland James had been relatively accepting of Catholics and made noises to the effect that this lenience would follow him south. “Great hope [there] is of toleration,” wrote Henry Garnett when James took the throne.
After arriving in London, James was installed in the Palace of Whitehall, then the principal residence of English monarchs. Later in his reign James had Inigo Jones design him a new palace but this burnt down in 1698 leaving only the magnificent Banqueting House. Today in the care of Historic Royal Palaces, the building testifies to Jones’s architectural genius and also contains a marvellous ceiling by the artist Peter Paul Rubens.
Alnwick Castle, Northumberland
Where a plotter was employed
James I’s reign had begun well for Catholics. One of his earliest acts had been to halt the collection of fines from those who refused to attend the established church. That though was as far as the new king was prepared to go. James had no intention of granting Catholics religious freedom and when prompted by Protestant critics, he relented and restored the financial penalties. Once again Catholic liberation seemed a very distant dream. To compound matters James began negotiating a peace deal with Catholic Spain, putting pay to the possibility of a military overthrow of Protestant rule.
Their hopes dashed, some of England’s most committed Catholics turned their thoughts to violence. In May 1604, the Warwickshire gentleman Robert Catesby met with four friends in London where they began to develop a murderous scheme to be rid of James and his ministers.
One of Catesby’s co-conspirators was Thomas Percy, a relative of the Ninth Earl of Northumberland, who was then in the earl’s employ as constable of Alnwick Castle. Percy had good reason to be angry with King James. It was he who had met with James prior to Elizabeth’s death and received assurances of better treatment for Catholics. Already a wild character, who had once been jailed for killing a man, Percy was keen to mete out the ultimate punishment to the heretical king.
The Gunpowder Plot took Thomas away from Northumberland but the Percy family remained at the castle and still does so today. This year they celebrate 700 years at Alnwick, which is currently the second largest inhabited castle in England. It was built in stages since the 14th century and is undoubtedly one of the finest fortresses in the land.
Guy Fawkes Inn, York
Where a failed regicide may have been born
This charming old inn is the reputed birthplace of a man who is still burned on bonfires 400 years after his death. Guy Fawkes arrived in the world in 1570 and was baptised at St Michael le Belfrey church in York. He was born into Protestantism but his mother’s second marriage was to a Catholic and it is likely that this event prompted her son’s conversion as well.
The young Fawkes became a soldier. Like many other Catholics seeking military experience he went to fight in the Low Countries for Spain against Dutch Protestants. There he gained valuable experience in munitions and it is partly because of these skills that he was recruited by the plotters. Having been out of the country for several years Fawkes was also relatively unknown in London, meaning he could move freely in the city without arousing too much suspicion.
Thomas Percy rented a small property close to the Houses of Parliament in May 1604. Here Fawkes was installed under the assumed name of John Johnson to oversee the project. The plotters’ initial idea was to dig a mine from their property’s cellar underneath the Palace of Westminster. This, however, proved to be laborious work and so the conspirators were delighted when they discovered that a vault right underneath the Lords Chamber was available to rent. Percy managed to lease the vault. It was here that the gunpowder would be stored in advance of the opening of parliament.
The Palace of Westminster, London
Where a massacre was averted
The initial group of conspirators numbered five but by October 1605 it had grown to 13. Additional members provided funds and connections. There was however a risk that the wider the plot grew, the more likely it was to be found out.
The last of the band to be recruited was Francis Tresham, a wealthy Catholic gentleman whose riches were sought after by Catesby. Tresham though was far from convinced by the plan and tried to persuade the plotters to abandon their enterprise. Many also believe that he sent the anonymous letter to his brother-in-law, Lord Monteagle, on 26 October warning him that something was afoot.
Monteagle took the note to Robert Cecil, the secretary of state. Cecil oversaw a powerful intelligence network and it is possible that he knew of the plot already. In fact theories persist that he himself had penned the letter in order to test Monteagle’s loyalty.
In any case the information passing into Cecil’s hands was a worrying development indeed for the conspirators. One of the plotters, Thomas Winter, got wind of the Monteagle letter and told Catesby the news but the ringleader refused to be dissuaded and decided to continue with the plan, despite the increased risks.
Cecil took the message to King James but nothing was done with the information initially, perhaps so that the conspirators could be allowed to incriminate themselves further. Then on 4 November the Earl of Suffolk, who was responsible for the arrangements for the new parliamentary session, made an inspection of the vaults where they found Fawkes together with a great deal of firewood that was covering the gunpowder. Lord Monteagle was also in the search party and was surprised to find that the vault was rented by Thomas Percy, who he knew to be a Catholic. King James ordered a second search at midnight. This time Fawkes was arrested and the firewood was removed to uncover the gunpowder barrels.
The Houses of Parliament were saved. In 1834 a great fire destroyed most of the buildings, except for Westminster Hall. Charles Barry redesigned the Palace of Westminster in the following decades and it is now open to visitors either through arrangement or by paid admission during the summer months.
Warwick Castle, Warwickshire
Where Catesby gathered horses during his desperate flight
News of Fawkes’s arrest spread quickly, causing the flight of Catesby and the other plotters away from London. Had their scheme gone as planned, the conspirators hoped to ignite a Catholic uprising in the Midlands, with King James’s nine-year-old daughter Elizabeth as a potential new queen. Even though Fawkes was in custody, Catesby resolved to go ahead with his planned insurrection.
On the night of 5 November Catesby stopped off at Warwick Castle to steal horses and then spent the next couple of days with a dwindling group of followers, seeking support. Yet the Catholic hierarchy showed little interest in the revolt. With their dreams in tatters, Catesby’s men arrived at Holbeche House in Staffordshire on 7 November where they resolved to make their final stand.
This last hurrah began badly when some excess gunpowder exploded while it was being dried out near a fire, injuring several of the group. Then on the morning of 8 November, 200 men led by the Sheriff of Worcestershire arrived at Holbeche and surrounded the house. Catesby and a few others charged outside to meet them and were shot down. It is said that the same bullet that killed Thomas Percy also went through the body of Catesby. As the leader of the plot was dying he reportedly staggered to the house’s chapel and clutched an image of the Virgin Mary.
When Catesby visited Warwick Castle, the medieval fortress was in a state of some disrepair. Over the subsequent centuries it underwent several phases of restoration including much recent work. In the last few years the castle has repositioned itself as a major heritage attraction boasting a ghoulish dungeon and a princess tower.
Hagley Hall, Worcestershire
Where a plotter was tracked down
Not all of the gunpowder conspirators met their end with Catesby. One leading plotter, Thomas Winter, was injured in the melee and taken to London as a captive for questioning.
His brother Robert ran from Holbeche on the night of 7 November and then spent two months in hiding around Worcestershire before he was apprehended at Hagley. He too was hauled off to London where he awaited his fate.
Hagley has been in the hands of the Lyttelton family since the mid-16th century. The current building was largely constructed in the Georgian era under the auspices of George Lyttelton, a one-time chancellor of the exchequer. It is a splendid Palladian mansion, elegantly furnished and complemented by landscaped gardens.
Coughton Court, Warwickshire
Where Henry Garnett heard of the failure
Coughton Court is a stately Tudor house currently owned by the National Trust but still inhabited by the Throckmorton family who have resided here since 1409. The Throckmortons are said to be the oldest Catholic family in England and unusually they have managed to keep hold of many of their religious treasures, some of which are now on display.
In 1605 the court was being rented by Sir Everard Digby, one of the gunpowder plotters. On 6 November he was on the move with Catesby when word got to the house of Fawkes’s arrest. Among those assembled there were Digby’s wife and Henry Garnett, England’s leading Jesuit. Garnett had known of the plot and had advised against it but all the same he found himself implicated and a wanted man.
Garnett left Coughton in late November, ending up in Hindlip Hall near Worcester. There he was captured on 27 January 1606, as part of a round-up of Jesuits, and taken to the Tower of London.
The Tower of London, London
Where Fawkes spent his final days
It was William the Conqueror who started work on London’s famous tower in the late 11th century. Over its history it has held numerous celebrity prisoners such as Walter Ralegh, Thomas More and the Kray twins. One of the most notorious inmates was Guy Fawkes who arrived here shortly after he had been caught with the barrels of gunpowder.
Initially Fawkes refused to betray his fellow conspirators but after a few days he relented and provided his interrogators with the information they wanted. James I had personally authorised the use of “the gentler tortures” and an examination of Fawkes’s signature on his first and second confessions suggests he had been badly shaken by the experience.
Other plotters who were subsequently rounded-up also found themselves in the Tower. Here they languished awaiting trial. Francis Tresham, who some believe sent the Monteagle letter, sickened and died in December before he could take the stand. Eight others, including Fawkes, went on trial on 27 January 1606, charged with high treason.
Held in Westminster Hall, the trial was a sensational event for which spectators had to pay good money to attend. All of the defendants except for Everard Digby pleaded innocent but there was very little chance any would be let off. Guilty verdicts were announced for the eight men and the executions were carried out on 30 and 31 January at St Paul’s Churchyard and Old Palace Yard, Westminster. As befitted traitors, Fawkes and his colleagues were hung, drawn and quartered.
Henry Garnett was captured too late for the main trial. He was nonetheless subjected to the same procedure and received a similar fate on 3 May 1606. The remains of plotters were attached to spikes on London Bridge as a stark warning to future conspirators.
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Words by Rob Attar. Historical advisor: Professor James Sharpe, University of York.
King James I Between Two Faiths
On taking the throne in 1603, James I had to navigate between the Puritan and Catholic faiths of his kingdom. Puritans sought to “purify” the Church of England of any remaining Catholic elements after Elizabeth I’s religious settlement of 1559. Despite having been baptized by a radical Protestant, James was too pragmatic to abandon the center ground established by Elizabeth.
After Elizabeth I’s death in 1603, hopes were high that her successor, James I (who had ruled Scotland as James VI), would begin a new era of peace. The son of the Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots, James was Protestant, but English Catholics were hopeful he would be more sympathetic to them. Even Spanish agents expressed doubts about stirring up a Catholic uprising in England now that James had taken the throne. International relations took a more placid turn as well. At the signing of the Treaty of London of 1604, England agreed to end aid to the Protestant Dutch, and Spain agreed to give no military assistance to English Catholics.
Guy Fawkes was born in 1570 in Stonegate, York. He was the second of four children born to Edward Fawkes, a proctor and an advocate of the consistory court at York, [b] and his wife, Edith. [c] Guy's parents were regular communicants of the Church of England, as were his paternal grandparents his grandmother, born Ellen Harrington, was the daughter of a prominent merchant, who served as Lord Mayor of York in 1536.  Guy's mother's family were recusant Catholics, and his cousin, Richard Cowling, became a Jesuit priest.  Guy was an uncommon name in England, but may have been popular in York on account of a local notable, Sir Guy Fairfax of Steeton. 
The date of Fawkes's birth is unknown, but he was baptised in the church of St Michael le Belfrey, York on 16 April. As the customary gap between birth and baptism was three days, he was probably born about 13 April.  In 1568, Edith had given birth to a daughter named Anne, but the child died aged about seven weeks, in November that year. She bore two more children after Guy: Anne (b. 1572), and Elizabeth (b. 1575). Both were married, in 1599 and 1594 respectively.  
In 1579, when Guy was eight years old, his father died. His mother remarried several years later, to the Catholic Dionis Baynbrigge (or Denis Bainbridge) of Scotton, Harrogate. Fawkes may have become a Catholic through the Baynbrigge family's recusant tendencies, and also the Catholic branches of the Pulleyn and Percy families of Scotton,  but also from his time at St. Peter's School in York. A governor of the school had spent about 20 years in prison for recusancy, and its headmaster, John Pulleyn, came from a family of noted Yorkshire recusants, the Pulleyns of Blubberhouses. In her 1915 work The Pulleynes of Yorkshire, author Catharine Pullein suggested that Fawkes's Catholic education came from his Harrington relatives, who were known for harbouring priests, one of whom later accompanied Fawkes to Flanders in 1592–1593.  Fawkes's fellow students included John Wright and his brother Christopher (both later involved with Fawkes in the Gunpowder Plot) and Oswald Tesimond, Edward Oldcorne and Robert Middleton, who became priests (the latter executed in 1601). 
After leaving school Fawkes entered the service of Anthony Browne, 1st Viscount Montagu. The Viscount took a dislike to Fawkes and after a short time dismissed him he was subsequently employed by Anthony-Maria Browne, 2nd Viscount Montagu, who succeeded his grandfather at the age of 18.  At least one source claims that Fawkes married and had a son, but no known contemporary accounts confirm this.  [d]
In October 1591 Fawkes sold the estate in Clifton in York that he had inherited from his father. [e] He travelled to the continent to fight in the Eighty Years War for Catholic Spain against the new Dutch Republic and, from 1595 until the Peace of Vervins in 1598, France. Although England was not by then engaged in land operations against Spain, the two countries were still at war, and the Spanish Armada of 1588 was only five years in the past. He joined Sir William Stanley, an English Catholic and veteran commander in his mid-fifties who had raised an army in Ireland to fight in Leicester's expedition to the Netherlands. Stanley had been held in high regard by Elizabeth I, but following his surrender of Deventer to the Spanish in 1587 he, and most of his troops, had switched sides to serve Spain. Fawkes became an alférez or junior officer, fought well at the siege of Calais in 1596, and by 1603 had been recommended for a captaincy.  That year, he travelled to Spain to seek support for a Catholic rebellion in England. He used the occasion to adopt the Italian version of his name, Guido, and in his memorandum described James I (who became king of England that year) as "a heretic", who intended "to have all of the Papist sect driven out of England." He denounced Scotland, and the King's favourites among the Scottish nobles, writing "it will not be possible to reconcile these two nations, as they are, for very long".  Although he was received politely, the court of Philip III was unwilling to offer him any support. 
In 1604 Fawkes became involved with a small group of English Catholics, led by Robert Catesby, who planned to assassinate the Protestant King James and replace him with his daughter, third in the line of succession, Princess Elizabeth.   Fawkes was described by the Jesuit priest and former school friend Oswald Tesimond as "pleasant of approach and cheerful of manner, opposed to quarrels and strife . loyal to his friends". Tesimond also claimed Fawkes was "a man highly skilled in matters of war", and that it was this mixture of piety and professionalism that endeared him to his fellow conspirators.  The author Antonia Fraser describes Fawkes as "a tall, powerfully built man, with thick reddish-brown hair, a flowing moustache in the tradition of the time, and a bushy reddish-brown beard", and that he was "a man of action . capable of intelligent argument as well as physical endurance, somewhat to the surprise of his enemies." 
The first meeting of the five central conspirators took place on Sunday 20 May 1604, at an inn called the Duck and Drake, in the fashionable Strand district of London. [f] Catesby had already proposed at an earlier meeting with Thomas Wintour and John Wright to kill the King and his government by blowing up "the Parliament House with gunpowder". Wintour, who at first objected to the plan, was convinced by Catesby to travel to the continent to seek help. Wintour met with the Constable of Castile, the exiled Welsh spy Hugh Owen,  and Sir William Stanley, who said that Catesby would receive no support from Spain. Owen did, however, introduce Wintour to Fawkes, who had by then been away from England for many years, and thus was largely unknown in the country. Wintour and Fawkes were contemporaries each was militant, and had first-hand experience of the unwillingness of the Spaniards to help. Wintour told Fawkes of their plan to "doe some whatt in Ingland if the pece with Spaine healped us nott",  and thus in April 1604 the two men returned to England.  Wintour's news did not surprise Catesby despite positive noises from the Spanish authorities, he feared that "the deeds would nott answere". [g]
One of the conspirators, Thomas Percy, was promoted in June 1604, gaining access to a house in London that belonged to John Whynniard, Keeper of the King's Wardrobe. Fawkes was installed as a caretaker and began using the pseudonym John Johnson, servant to Percy.  The contemporaneous account of the prosecution (taken from Thomas Wintour's confession)  claimed that the conspirators attempted to dig a tunnel from beneath Whynniard's house to Parliament, although this story may have been a government fabrication no evidence for the existence of a tunnel was presented by the prosecution, and no trace of one has ever been found Fawkes himself did not admit the existence of such a scheme until his fifth interrogation, but even then he could not locate the tunnel.  If the story is true, however, by December 1604 the conspirators were busy tunnelling from their rented house to the House of Lords. They ceased their efforts when, during tunnelling, they heard a noise from above. Fawkes was sent out to investigate, and returned with the news that the tenant's widow was clearing out a nearby undercroft, directly beneath the House of Lords.  
The plotters purchased the lease to the room, which also belonged to John Whynniard. Unused and filthy, it was considered an ideal hiding place for the gunpowder the plotters planned to store.  According to Fawkes, 20 barrels of gunpowder were brought in at first, followed by 16 more on 20 July.  On 28 July however, the ever-present threat of the plague delayed the opening of Parliament until Tuesday, 5 November. 
In an attempt to gain foreign support, in May 1605 Fawkes travelled overseas and informed Hugh Owen of the plotters' plan.  At some point during this trip his name made its way into the files of Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, who employed a network of spies across Europe. One of these spies, Captain William Turner, may have been responsible. Although the information he provided to Salisbury usually amounted to no more than a vague pattern of invasion reports, and included nothing which regarded the Gunpowder Plot, on 21 April he told how Fawkes was to be brought by Tesimond to England. Fawkes was a well-known Flemish mercenary, and would be introduced to "Mr Catesby" and "honourable friends of the nobility and others who would have arms and horses in readiness".  Turner's report did not, however, mention Fawkes's pseudonym in England, John Johnson, and did not reach Cecil until late in November, well after the plot had been discovered.  
It is uncertain when Fawkes returned to England, but he was back in London by late August 1605, when he and Wintour discovered that the gunpowder stored in the undercroft had decayed. More gunpowder was brought into the room, along with firewood to conceal it.  Fawkes's final role in the plot was settled during a series of meetings in October. He was to light the fuse and then escape across the Thames. Simultaneously, a revolt in the Midlands would help to ensure the capture of Princess Elizabeth. Acts of regicide were frowned upon, and Fawkes would therefore head to the continent, where he would explain to the Catholic powers his holy duty to kill the King and his retinue. 
A few of the conspirators were concerned about fellow Catholics who would be present at Parliament during the opening.  On the evening of 26 October, Lord Monteagle received an anonymous letter warning him to stay away, and to "retyre youre self into yowre contee whence yow maye expect the event in safti for . they shall receyve a terrible blowe this parleament".  Despite quickly becoming aware of the letter – informed by one of Monteagle's servants – the conspirators resolved to continue with their plans, as it appeared that it "was clearly thought to be a hoax".  Fawkes checked the undercroft on 30 October, and reported that nothing had been disturbed.  Monteagle's suspicions had been aroused, however, and the letter was shown to King James. The King ordered Sir Thomas Knyvet to conduct a search of the cellars underneath Parliament, which he did in the early hours of 5 November. Fawkes had taken up his station late on the previous night, armed with a slow match and a watch given to him by Percy "becaus he should knowe howe the time went away".  He was found leaving the cellar, shortly after midnight, and arrested. Inside, the barrels of gunpowder were discovered hidden under piles of firewood and coal. 
Fawkes gave his name as John Johnson and was first interrogated by members of the King's Privy chamber, where he remained defiant.  When asked by one of the lords what he was doing in possession of so much gunpowder, Fawkes answered that his intention was "to blow you Scotch beggars back to your native mountains."  He identified himself as a 36-year-old Catholic from Netherdale in Yorkshire, and gave his father's name as Thomas and his mother's as Edith Jackson. Wounds on his body noted by his questioners he explained as the effects of pleurisy. Fawkes admitted his intention to blow up the House of Lords, and expressed regret at his failure to do so. His steadfast manner earned him the admiration of King James, who described Fawkes as possessing "a Roman resolution". 
James's admiration did not, however, prevent him from ordering on 6 November that "John Johnson" be tortured, to reveal the names of his co-conspirators.  He directed that the torture be light at first, referring to the use of manacles, but more severe if necessary, authorising the use of the rack: "the gentler Tortures are to be first used unto him et sic per gradus ad ima tenditur [and so by degrees proceeding to the worst]".   Fawkes was transferred to the Tower of London. The King composed a list of questions to be put to "Johnson", such as "as to what he is, For I can never yet hear of any man that knows him", "When and where he learned to speak French?", and "If he was a Papist, who brought him up in it?"  The room in which Fawkes was interrogated subsequently became known as the Guy Fawkes Room. 
Sir William Waad, Lieutenant of the Tower, supervised the torture and obtained Fawkes's confession.  He searched his prisoner, and found a letter addressed to Guy Fawkes. To Waad's surprise, "Johnson" remained silent, revealing nothing about the plot or its authors.  On the night of 6 November he spoke with Waad, who reported to Salisbury "He [Johnson] told us that since he undertook this action he did every day pray to God he might perform that which might be for the advancement of the Catholic Faith and saving his own soul". According to Waad, Fawkes managed to rest through the night, despite his being warned that he would be interrogated until "I had gotton the inwards secret of his thoughts and all his complices".  His composure was broken at some point during the following day. 
The observer Sir Edward Hoby remarked "Since Johnson's being in the Tower, he beginneth to speak English". Fawkes revealed his true identity on 7 November, and told his interrogators that there were five people involved in the plot to kill the King. He began to reveal their names on 8 November, and told how they intended to place Princess Elizabeth on the throne. His third confession, on 9 November, implicated Francis Tresham. Following the Ridolfi plot of 1571, prisoners were made to dictate their confessions, before copying and signing them, if they still could.  Although it is uncertain if he was tortured on the rack, Fawkes's scrawled signature suggests the suffering he endured at the hands of his interrogators. 
The trial of eight of the plotters began on Monday 27 January 1606. Fawkes shared the barge from the Tower to Westminster Hall with seven of his co-conspirators. [h] They were kept in the Star Chamber before being taken to Westminster Hall, where they were displayed on a purpose-built scaffold. The King and his close family, watching in secret, were among the spectators as the Lords Commissioners read out the list of charges. Fawkes was identified as Guido Fawkes, "otherwise called Guido Johnson". He pleaded not guilty, despite his apparent acceptance of guilt from the moment he was captured. 
The jury found all the defendants guilty, and the Lord Chief Justice Sir John Popham pronounced them guilty of high treason.  The Attorney General Sir Edward Coke told the court that each of the condemned would be drawn backwards to his death, by a horse, his head near the ground. They were to be "put to death halfway between heaven and earth as unworthy of both". Their genitals would be cut off and burnt before their eyes, and their bowels and hearts removed. They would then be decapitated, and the dismembered parts of their bodies displayed so that they might become "prey for the fowls of the air".  Fawkes's and Tresham's testimony regarding the Spanish treason was read aloud, as well as confessions related specifically to the Gunpowder Plot. The last piece of evidence offered was a conversation between Fawkes and Wintour, who had been kept in adjacent cells. The two men apparently thought they had been speaking in private, but their conversation was intercepted by a government spy. When the prisoners were allowed to speak, Fawkes explained his not guilty plea as ignorance of certain aspects of the indictment. 
On 31 January 1606, Fawkes and three others – Thomas Wintour, Ambrose Rookwood, and Robert Keyes – were dragged (m.a.w., "drawn") from the Tower on wattled hurdles to the Old Palace Yard at Westminster, opposite the building they had attempted to destroy.  His fellow plotters were then hanged and quartered. Fawkes was the last to stand on the scaffold. He asked for forgiveness of the King and state, while keeping up his "crosses and idle ceremonies" (Catholic practices). Weakened by torture and aided by the hangman, Fawkes began to climb the ladder to the noose, but either through jumping to his death or climbing too high so the rope was incorrectly set, he managed to avoid the agony of the latter part of his execution by breaking his neck.    His lifeless body was nevertheless quartered  and, as was the custom,  his body parts were then distributed to "the four corners of the kingdom", to be displayed as a warning to other would-be traitors. 
On 5 November 1605, Londoners were encouraged to celebrate the King's escape from assassination by lighting bonfires, provided that "this testemonye of joy be carefull done without any danger or disorder".  An Act of Parliament designated each 5 November as a day of thanksgiving for "the joyful day of deliverance", and remained in force until 1859.  Fawkes was one of 13 conspirators, but he is the individual most associated with the plot. 
In Britain, 5 November has variously been called Guy Fawkes Night, Guy Fawkes Day, Plot Night,  and Bonfire Night (which can be traced directly back to the original celebration of 5 November 1605).  Bonfires were accompanied by fireworks from the 1650s onwards, and it became the custom after 1673 to burn an effigy (usually of the pope) when heir presumptive James, Duke of York, converted to Catholicism.  Effigies of other notable figures have found their way onto the bonfires, such as Paul Kruger and Margaret Thatcher,  although most modern effigies are of Fawkes.  The "guy" is normally created by children from old clothes, newspapers, and a mask.  During the 19th century, "guy" came to mean an oddly dressed person, while in many places it has lost any pejorative connotation and instead refers to any male person and the plural form can refer to people of any gender (as in "you guys").  
James Sharpe, professor of history at the University of York, has described how Guy Fawkes came to be toasted as "the last man to enter Parliament with honest intentions".  William Harrison Ainsworth's 1841 historical romance Guy Fawkes or, The Gunpowder Treason portrays Fawkes in a generally sympathetic light,  and his novel transformed Fawkes in the public perception into an "acceptable fictional character". Fawkes subsequently appeared as "essentially an action hero" in children's books and penny dreadfuls such as The Boyhood Days of Guy Fawkes or, The Conspirators of Old London, published around 1905.  According to historian Lewis Call, Fawkes is now "a major icon in modern political culture" whose face has become "a potentially powerful instrument for the articulation of postmodern anarchism" [i] in the late 20th century. 
On This Day in History -August 14, 1775
On this day in history, August 14, 1775, the Bermuda Gunpowder Plot secures Bermuda's store of gunpowder for the American patriots when sympathetic Bermudians cooperate with the Continental Congress to deliver the gunpowder to them.
The Continental Congress voted early on in the war to ban all trade with British colonies that remained loyal to Great Britain. This put Bermuda in a unique bind. Bermuda's economy was entirely based on shipping. It had maritime interests in all the major ports of America and the other British colonies. Tiny Bermuda had no agricultural production of its own and was entirely dependent on imports for food.
Colonel Henry Tucker was one of Bermuda's most influential merchants. In 1775, he was a former President of the Governor's Council and his son was the current president, as well as Royal Governor George Breure's son-in-law. Tucker traveled to Philadelphia to meet with the Continental Congress, where he met with Ben Franklin and Robert Morris.
Tucker offered to trade salt (one of Bermuda's chief industries and much needed by the Americans) in exchange for food. Instead, Franklin and Morris wanted Bermuda's gunpowder, approximately 100 barrels of which sat in the magazine at St. George's, Bermuda's capital. The Continental Congress agreed to exempt Bermuda from the trade embargo on July 15th, in exchange for the gunpowder, and the Bermuda Gunpowder Plot was hatched.
On the evening of August 14th, the Lady Catherine en die Charleston and Savannah Packet arrived from America off the Bermuda coast near Tobacco Bay. Locals who were sympathetic to the American cause met some American sailors and took them to St. George's magazine, where they quickly overcame the single sentry. From the building's roof, one of the sailors was let down through the air vent to unlock the door from the inside, where he had to be careful not to make any spark that would set the gunpowder on fire.
The citizens then rolled around 100 barrels of gunpowder to the shore where it was put on whaling boats and transported to the American ships. St. George Tucker, one of Colonel Tucker's sons, was 22 at the time and later told how he helped roll the gunpowder to the shore. He would later become an influential judge and author in Virginia.
The following morning, when the theft of the gunpowder was discovered by Governor Breure, he sent a customs ship after the fleeing ships, which were seen on the horizon. The ship was severely outgunned though and returned empty handed. Half of the gunpowder was delivered to Charlestown, while the other half went to Philadelphia.
Only a few weeks later, George Washington would dispatch ships to confiscate the same gunpowder, not realizing it had already been captured. Bermudians, who were naturally predisposed to side with the American patriots, eventually sided with Great Britain in the war when Congress reinstated its trade embargo and the island was left without food. The Bermudian shipping industry turned to privateering for supplies and wreaked havoc on American shipping throughout the rest of the war.