USS Howard (DD-179), c. 1921-22

USS Howard (DD-179), c. 1921-22

USS Howard (DD-179), c. 1921-22

Hier sien ons die Wickes -klasvernietiger USS Howard (DD-179) gedurende 1921-22, toe sy diens gedoen het by Destroyer Division 22. Let op dat haar agtergeweer op haar agterste dekhuis gelig is.

U.S. Destroyers: An Illustrated Design History, Norman Friedmann. Die standaardgeskiedenis van die ontwikkeling van Amerikaanse vernietigers, van die vroegste torpedobootvernietigers tot die naoorlogse vloot, en dek die massiewe klasse vernietigers wat vir beide Wêreldoorloë gebou is. Gee die leser 'n goeie begrip van die debatte wat elke klas vernietigers omring het en tot hul individuele kenmerke gelei het.


Update vir Mei 2018 op HistoryofWar.org: Italiaanse veldtog, Spaanse slag van die Skiereilandoorlog, Defense Logistics, Sertorian War, Lockheed Aircraft, Duitse Artillerie, Wickes -klasvernietigers, USAAF -vegtergroepe

Update vir Mei 2018 op HistoryofWar.org: Italiaanse veldtog, Spaanse slag van die Skiereilandoorlog, Defense Logistics, Sertorian War, Lockheed Aircraft, Duitse Artillerie, Wickes -klasvernietigers, USAAF -vegtergroepe

Hierdie maand voltooi ons ons blik op die geallieerde inval van Sicilië, en gaan ons oor na die belangrikste Italiaanse veldtog, ons oorsig van die hele veldtog en artikels oor die aanvanklike landings van die agtste leër bygevoeg.

Vir die Napoleontiese oorloë kyk ons ​​na 'n reeks hoofsaaklik Spaanse gevegte gedurende die eerste paar maande van 1813, toe die guerrillabande van die noordooste die Franse posisie ernstig bedreig het.

Ons voltooi ons reeks oor verdedigingslogistiek in militêre geskiedenis, voeg die laaste drie dele van die reeks by, en neem ons deur die tydperke van die Wêreldoorloë en die Koue Oorlog en na die huidige situasie.

Ons voltooi ook ons ​​lang reeks oor die Franse godsdiensoorloë en bereik die einde van die negende oorlog en die edik van Nantes.

Ons reeks oor die Sertoriaanse Oorlog kyk na die belangrikste tydperk van 76-75 vC, waar Sertorius met Metellus Pius en Pompeius gekonfronteer is en nie die soort verpletterende oorwinning kon behaal wat hy nodig gehad het om te oorleef nie.

In militêre tegnologie kyk ons ​​na 'n reeks klein Lockheed -vervoervliegtuie, 'n paar groot kaliber Duitse artillerie en nog meer Wickes -klasvernietigers.

In die lug voeg ons nog ses USAAF -vegtergroepe van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog by, wat byna die hele Amerikaanse betrokkenheid by die Tweede Wêreldoorlog dek, van die Aleoetiërs tot Noord -Afrika en Nieu -Guinee tot aanvalle op Formosa.

Operasie Narcissus (10 Julie 1943) was 'n SAS -aanval wat uitgevoer is ter ondersteuning van die landings van die agtste weermag op Sicilië.

Operation Chestnut (12-19 Julie 1943) was 'n onsuksesvolle poging van die SAS om die as-kommunikasie in die noorde van Sicilië te ontwrig om die geallieerde inval in Sicilië te ondersteun.

Operation Husky No.2 (11-12 Julie 1943) was 'n byna rampspoedige poging om versterkings na die Amerikaanse valskermsoldate te laat val op Sicilië in Operation Husky No.1.

Operasie Fustian (13-14 Julie 1943) was 'n aanval in die lug op die Primosole-brug, 'n belangrike punt op die kuspad na Catania, wat nie heeltemal volgens plan was nie, en het 'n stryd van drie dae veroorsaak om 'n brughoof oor die rivier.

Die Italiaanse veldtog (3 September 1943-2 Mei 1945) was een van die hardste en mees omstrede aanvalle wat die Westerse Geallieerdes tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog uitgevoer het, en het gesien hoe die Duitsers 'n vaardige vertragingsaksie voer wat van September 1943 tot die einde van die oorlog in die lente van 1945.

Operasie Baytown (3 September 1943) was die eerste fase in die Geallieerde inval in Italië, en Montgomery se agtste weermag het van Sicilië na die nabygeleë Calabrië oorgesteek.

Operation Hooker (8 September 1943) was 'n aanslag wat deur die agtste weermag uitgevoer is om hul vordering in Calabrië te bespoedig.

In die geveg van Tiebas (9 Februarie 1813) het die Spaanse guerrilleleier Mina 'n Franse mag verslaan wat probeer het om die beleg van Tafalla op te hef (tot 12 Februarie 1813), en vinnig is die stad se val gevolg.

In die geveg teen Poza de la Sal (10-11 Februarie 1813) het die Spaanse guerrillas van Longa die hoofkwartier van die Palombini-afdeling in 'n hinderlaag gelê, wat uitgehou het totdat versterkings opgedaag het en die Spanjaarde gedwing het om terug te trek.

Die verowering van Fuenterrabia (11 Maart 1813) was 'n gewaagde uitbuiting wat deur 'n mag van Spaanse guerrillas uitgevoer is en het gesien hoe hulle die kasteel by Fuenterrabia, binne sig van Frankryk, vang en vernietig.

Die geveg teen Lerin (30 Maart 1813) was 'n groot oorwinning vir die Spaanse troepe van Mina en het Mina byna 'n maand lank beheer oor groot dele van Navarra gegee.

In die beleg van Castro-Urdiales (22 Maart-12 Mei 1813) het die Franse 'n hawe teruggeneem wat in die somer van 1812 aan 'n gesamentlike Anglo-Spaanse mag oorgeneem het, maar eers nadat hulle 'n reeks terugslae ondervind het wat grootliks veroorsaak is deur die onderskatting van die moeilikheid van die taak.

In die geveg van San Pelayo (24 Maart 1813) het die Spaanse onder Mendizabal probeer om die Franse magte te verslaan wat hulle voorberei om Castro-Urdiales te beleër, maar het geëindig as 'n duur trekking.

Defensie -logistiek in militêre geskiedenis (2 van 4) - 'n Analise: om die ontwikkeling van logistiek in die regte historiese konteks te plaas

Defensie -logistiek in militêre geskiedenis (3 van 4) - 'n Analise: die ontwikkeling van logistiek in die regte historiese konteks plaas: Deel 3 fokus op die Tweede Wêreldoorlog en die Koue Oorlog.

Defense Logistics in Military History (4 van 4) - 'n Analise: die ontwikkeling van logistiek in die regte historiese konteks plaas: Deel 4 fokus op die latere Koue Oorlog en na die Koue Oorlog.

Deur die beleg van Lacobriga (78 v.C.) het Sertorius Metellus uitoorlê en sy poging om die hoofstad van een van Sertorius se Spaanse bondgenote te verower, verydel.

Die beleg van Lauro of Lauron (76 v.C.) het gesien hoe Sertorius Pompeius uitoorlê en hom dwing om hulpeloos te kyk terwyl die stad hom te beurt val en vernietig word (Sertorian War).

Die slag van Italica Hispalis (76 v.C.) was die eerste van twee aangetekende oorwinnings wat Metellus Pius oor Sertorius se bekwame luitenant Hirtuleius behaal het, en kom terwyl Sertorius self veldtogte in Oos -Spanje voer.

Die slag van Segovia (75 v.C.) was een van die belangrikste gevegte van die Sertoriaanse Oorlog, en Metellus Pius het Sertorius se bekwaamste luitenant Hirtuleius verslaan en doodgemaak.

In die slag van Valentia (75 vC) het Pompeius twee van Sertorius se ondergeskiktes verslaan en die stad Valentia verower, wat hom 'n suksesvolle begin van die veldtog van 75 vC gegee het wat hy nie in staat was om 'n suksesvolle afsluiting van die oorlog te maak nie.

Die Slag van die Sucro (75 vC) was 'n onomwonde botsing tussen Pompeius en Sertorius, maar Sertorius moes die volgende dag terugtrek nadat Romeinse versterkings aangebreek het.

Die Lockheed C-111 Super Electra was die benaming wat gegee is aan vier Lockheed Model 14-WF62's wat deur die USAAF beïndruk is nadat hulle Australië bereik het nadat hulle uit Nederlands-Indië ontsnap het.

Die Lockheed XR4O was 'n enkele voorbeeld van die Lockheed Super Electra wat deur die Amerikaanse vloot gebruik is.

Die Lockheed C-85 was die benaming wat gegee is aan 'n enkele Model 9 Orion wat in 1942-44 in die USAAF beïndruk is.

Die Lockheed C-101 'Vega' was die aanduiding van 'n enkele voorbeeld van die Lockheed Vega wat in 1942 deur die USAAF beïndruk is

Die 17 cm Kanone 18 was een van twee parallelle Krupp -ontwerpe wat dieselfde dubbele terugslagstelsel gebruik het, en het binnekort die 21 cm -mortiervariant vervang as die hoofproduksieweergawe.

Die 21 cm Mörser 18 was een van twee parallelle Krupp -ontwerpe wat 'n dubbele terugslagstelsel gebruik het en is in 1942 uitgefaseer ten gunste van die langer 17cm Kanone 18.

Die 15 cm Kanone (Eisenbahn) was die kleinste spoorwapen van die Duitse weermag tydens die herbewapeningstydperk in die dertigerjare, maar slegs 'n handjievol is vervaardig omdat dit nie 'n sterk genoeg wapen was om die moeite werd te wees nie.

Die 17 cm Kanone (Eisenbahn) was 'n effens groter weergawe van die 15cm K (E), maar was nie kragtig genoeg om die moeite werd te wees om dit te vervaardig nie, en slegs 'n handjievol is ooit gebou.

Wickes klas vernietigers

USS Renshaw (DD-176) was 'n vernietiger van die Wickes-klas wat aan die begin van die 1920's 'n baie aktiewe loopbaan gehad het.

USS O 'Bannon (DD-177) was 'n vernietiger van die Wickes-klas wat aan die begin van die 1920's 'n baie kort diensloopbaan gehad het.

USS Hogan (DD-178/ DMS-6) was 'n Wickes-klasvernietiger wat deelgeneem het aan Operation Torch en die invalle van die Marshalls, Mariannas, Luzon en Iwo Jima.

USS Howard (DD-179/ DMS-7) was 'n Wickes-klasvernietiger wat tydens Operasie Torch as mynveër gedien het, op konvooi-escortpligte in 1943 en in die veldtogte in die Stille Oseaan in 1944-45.

Die 48th Fighter Group het as 'n vervangende opleidingseenheid gedien voordat hy in die lente van 1944 by die negende lugmag in Brittanje aangesluit het en deelgeneem het aan die veldtog om Europa te bevry.

Die 49ste vegtergroep het deelgeneem aan die verdediging van Australië, die lang veldtog op Nieu -Guinee, die terugkeer na die Filippyne en aanvalle op Formosa en die kus van China.

Die 50th Fighter Group het verskillende opleidingsopdragte in die VSA gedien voordat hy na Brittanje verhuis het om deel te neem aan die bevryding van Europa in 1944-45.

Die 52nd Fighter Group was een van die eerste eenhede wat by die Agtste Lugmag in Brittanje aangesluit het, voordat hy na Noord -Afrika verhuis het vir Operasie Torch. Daarna het hy die res van die oorlog in die Mediterreense teater gewerk.

Die 53ste vegtergroep dien in die Panamakanaalsone en as opleidingseenheid, voordat dit in 1944 ontbind word.

Die 54th Fighter Group is hoofsaaklik gebruik as 'n opleidingseenheid in die VSA, maar het ook in 1942 kortliks aan die veldtog op die Aleoetiese eilande deelgeneem.

Negende godsdiensoorlog

In die beleg van La Fère (November 1595-16 Mei 1596) het Henry IV die laaste Spaanse buitepos suid van die Somme gevang, maar terwyl hy besig was met die beleg, kon die Spanjaarde Calais verower.

By die val van Amiens (11 Maart 1597) het die stad die Spanjaarde te beurt geval nadat hulle 'n truuk gebruik het om deur die stadspoorte te kom.

Die beleg van Amiens (25 April-25 September 1597) was die laaste groot veldtog van die negende godsdiensoorlog, en Henry IV het die stad herower nadat dit vroeër die jaar op 'n Spaanse ruse geval het.

Die edik van Nantes (13 April 1598) was die laaste godsdienstige skikking wat Henry IV se oorwinning in die negende godsdiensoorlog behaal het, en die Hugenote 'n reeks politieke, sosiale en godsdienstige regte gegee het en 'n periode van vergelykende godsdiensvrede tot stand gebring het wat amper 'n eeu.

Begin met sy tussenoorlogse verslag van sy ervarings uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, en gaan dan oor na die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, met materiaal oor die veldtog van 1940 en die verdediging van Frankryk, maar met die grootste gedeelte wat sy beroemde veldtogte in die woestyn van Noord dek Afrika. Bevat privaat briewe, amptelike verslae en gepubliseerde werke, wat ons 'n verskeidenheid openbare en private sienings van Rommel gee

'N baie' nader 'studie van die gevegservarings van die 504ste PIR, wat die opmars na die Winterlyn dek, die gevegte by die Barbara- en Bernhardt -lyne en die deelname van die regimente by Anzio. Baie goed oor die daaglikse ervarings van die gevegstroepe, miskien nie so goed om dit in die breër konteks te plaas nie

'N Oorsig van die Britse kommando's, met die fokus op wat hulle anders as die gewone leër gemaak het, die soort vaardighede wat hulle moes hê, die opleiding wat hulle verseker het en die wye verskeidenheid toerusting wat hulle in die geveg gehad het. Bevat ook 'n goeie 'Op veldtog' -afdeling wat 'n oorsig gee van die soort ervarings wat die kommando's in die geveg ondergaan het, maar fokus veral op hul opleiding en vaardighede

Kyk na die rol van die Rhodesia SAS in die lang stryd om die blanke minderheidsregering te handhaaf. 'N Goeie voorbeeld van hoe 'n militêre organisasie binne sy eie terme byna heeltemal suksesvol kan wees, terwyl dit terselfdertyd die oorlog kan verloor, aangesien groot dele van Rhodesië' no -go' -gebiede vir die blanke bevolking geword het. 'N Interessante studie van wat die Rhodesiese SAS gedoen het, miskien minder suksesvol oor wat hulle wou bereik

'N Pragtige studie van die keiserwag van Napoleon, die beroemdste deel van sy militêre masjien, wat ons in hul daaglikse lewe as die gunsteling -elite van Napoleon geneem het, en na die evolusie van 'n klein lyfwag vir die konsuls in 'n massiewe leër in 'n leër. elite en die reservaat van Napoleons se leër, en speel 'n toenemend belangrike gevegsrol namate die oorloë teen Napoleon draai. Volg die oorloë vanuit die oogpunt van die wag, sodat ons 'n redelik onkritiese siening van Napoleon kry, wat weerspieël hoe hulle hom gesien het.

'N Fassinerende blik op die Luftwaffe se stryd teen die geallieerde bomwerpers, gebaseer op 'n reeks onderhoude wat met sleutelfigure in die Luftwaffe uitgevoer is net na die einde van die oorlog. As gevolg hiervan gee dit ons 'n idee van wat hulle gedink het oor die geveg in die onmiddellike nasleep daarvan, en voordat hul verhale in die naoorlogse jare begin verander het. 'N Baie waardevolle primêre bron vir almal wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog se bomaanvalle belangstel

Kyk na die toestand van die Franse leër aan die begin van 1917, die hoop wat Nivelle by hom geneem het, die mislukking van sy offensief en die moraalkrisis wat die mislukking veroorsaak het. Bevat interessante materiaal oor hoe Nivelle en sy span die bewyse dat daar probleme met hul plan was, kon ignoreer, en hoe Petain dit reggekry het om die skade aan die Franse weermag ongedaan te maak

Kyk na die kort en byna rampspoedige Russiese inval in die Ottomaanse Ryk, wat eindig met Petrus die Grote en sy leër wat vasgevang was op die Pruth en gedwing het om oor te gee op Ottomaanse terme. Dek die verskillende leërs wat aan beide kante betrokke was, die bevelvoerders, die doelwitte van die twee hoofkommandante en die verloop van die kort, en vir Petrus, byna rampspoedige oorlog. Ten spyte van 'n paar oorwinnings weg van die hooffront, kon die oorlog geëindig het met Petrus se krag wat aansienlik verminder het en was hy gelukkig om nogal vrygewige terme te bied

Die outobiografie van een van die leidende figure in die stryd teen die steeds gevorderde myne en torpedo's van Duitsland, 'n belangrike deel van die slag van die Atlantiese Oseaan, wat die Britte in staat stel om 'n reeks Duitse 'geheime wapens' te oorkom wat andersins die lewensbelangrike see sou kon sny paaie na Brittanje. Dit kom voor as een van die gevaarlikste navorsingsposte van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, en baie van die skrywers se kollegas is dood toe hulle probeer het om hierdie wapens te ontwapen en af ​​te breek

Kyk na die Boere -inval in Natal, die beleg van Ladysmith en die pogings om die beleg te verhoog, met die klem op die rol van troepe wat in Natal opgewek is en op die lot van die burgerlike bevolking van die gebied. Miskien 'n bietjie te vyandig teenoor die Boere en krities teenoor Britse offisiere, maar uitstekend oor die kernsaak - die bydrae van die mense van Natal tot hul eie verdediging in die lig van vyandige inval

Baie goed in die moeilikheid van die gevegte wat deur Bohmler se valskermsoldate uitgevoer is, wat verantwoordelik was vir 'n groot deel van die vasberade verdediging van die Cassino-klooster en -stad, sodat ons 'n goeie idee kry van die daaglikse ervaring van die valskermsoldate. Nie so sterk in die geheelbeeld of die politieke agtergrond nie, wat soms oorheers word deur 'n begeerte om die reputasie van die Duitse weermag in 'n Koue Oorlog -konteks te herstel

'N Biografie van een van die merkwaardigste mans wat tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog by die SAS en SBS gedien het, 'n ballingskap wat 'n Deense ballingskap en die twee kroeë en die Victoria Cross gewen het, na sy militêre loopbaan en sy karakter, en gee 'n beeld van 'n meer ingewikkelde man as wat verwag is, wat die Duitsers baie skade aangerig het, veral in die Egeïese See


USS Howard (DD-179), c. 1921-22 - Geskiedenis

Nasionale Argief van Kanada C-000908
"St. Lawrence River in Winter," deur Millicent Mary Chaplin, Februarie 1842

Alhoewel passasierslyste, of lyste van passasiers, gemaak is vir die meeste skepe wat by Kanadese hawens aankom, was daar eers in 1865 'n formele argivering van hierdie lyste vir die hawe van Quebec. Min lyste wat voor 1865 geskep is, oorleef. Vanaf 1865 arriveer die oorgrote meerderheid immigrante na Kanada via die hawe van Quebec, en gedurende die wintermaande via die hawens van New York, NY, Boston, MA, Portland, ME en later na Halifax, NS en Saint John, NB . Alhoewel stoomskepe reeds in 1840 passasiers na Kanada begin vervoer het, was daar nog baie seilskepe in 1865. Seilvaartuie sou emigrante weswaarts en hout ooswaarts vervoer, en kon goedkoop goedkoop tariewe aanbied. Teen die 1870's is die meeste passasiers deur stoomskepe vervoer. Westelike vaartuie vaar uit talle hawens in Brittanje en Europa, en vanaf die 1860's het baie Europese en Skandinawiese emigrante eers met die voederskip na Engeland of 'n ander Europese emigrasiehawe gereis. Daar word na hierdie emigrante verwys as transmigrante, en hulle het transatlantiese stoomskepe aangepak by groot emigrasiehavens soos Liverpool, Glasgow, Hamburg, Rotterdam of Havre, na Noord -Amerika.

In 1865, omdat daar uitstekende spoorverbindings en/of binnegange op die Lake and River Steamers vanaf Quebec (later van die Kanadese ooskus-hawens) was, het duisende immigrante wat na die Amerikaanse middelweste en elders in Noord-Amerika bestem was, ook via Kanada aangekom .

Die passasierslyste vir die seilskepe kan 'n bietjie of baie inligting bevat. Die minste om te verwag is slegs die naam van die "hoof van die huishouding", met vinkies wat die getalle en geslag aandui, en die ouderdomsgroepering van die ander lede van die party. Die meeste wat u kan verwag, is die volledige name en ouderdomme van alle familielede en/of groeplede, hul plek van herkoms en in sommige gevalle hul bestemming. U kan ook notas vind oor die geboorte of dood (en datum) van 'n individu. Die meeste lyste bevat wel die name van almal wat opgeneem is. U sal nie vind dat hierdie lyste eenvormig is in die inhoud nie.

Passasierslyste vir stoomskepe is meestal deur Britse agtervolgers opgestel, en hul kennis van buitelandse benamingspraktyke is moontlik beperk. Om hierdie rede, bv. in die geval van Noorweë, vind u moontlik slegs alle familielede met die patroniemnaam van die "huishoudelike hoof". Tot ongeveer middel-1890's word alle passasiers wat nie van 'Britse geboorte' was nie, aangewys as 'buiteland'. Vir die passasiers wat van plan is om in Kanada te bly, vind u meer inligting as vir diegene wat direk na die Verenigde State reis. Die rekords vir Amerikaanse passasiers mag slegs naam, ouderdom en soms beroep en/of bestemming insluit.

IMMIGRASIEREKORDE GESKEP 1865-1919

Die hawe van Quebec was die eerste Kanadese hawe wat passasierslyste geargiveer het. Met enkele uitsonderings vir skepe wat beide Halifax, dan Quebec, besoek het, is daar slegs Quebec -aankomste beskikbaar tot die begin van die argivering in Halifax, 1881. Jaarliks ​​het Quebec 'n skeepsseisoen van ongeveer 24 weke gehad, aangesien die St. Lawrence -rivier gesluit was gestuur gedurende die wintermaande. Die beskikbare rekords is redelik volledig, met 'n paar gedokumenteerde weglatings van passasierslyste wat nie oorleef het nie. Nie een van hierdie rekords is tot 1949 gemikrofilm nie, en is deur kontrakteurs verfilm, en nie volgens die argiefstandaarde van vandag nie. Die gevolg is dat sommige rekords wat reeds in 'n verbleikte toestand was, dus moeilik leesbaar is, maar ander is wonderlik. Die mikrofilmrolle 1865-1919 bevat alle skepe, uit alle hawens in chronologiese volgorde van aankoms. Dit wissel in die aangetekende inligting, afhangende van die Kanadese immigrasievereistes wat tans van krag is. U vind passasiers wat na die Verenigde State bestem is op hierdie rolle, maar soms kan die inligting wat vir die passasiers aangeteken is, minimaal wees in vergelyking met diegene wat na Kanadese bestemmings gebind was. Hierdie rekords is oor die algemeen onindekseer by die National Library & amp Archives of Canada. Daar is 'n ou nominale kaartindeks, met twyfelagtige akkuraatheid, vir Quebec-aankomste 1865-1869 en Halifax-aankomste 1881-1882. Elke indekskaart bevat naam, soms ouderdom, naam van skip, datum van aankoms en die spoelnommer waarop die lys is verskyn. As u die indeks raadpleeg, moet u oppas vir spellingvariasies en verkeerde lêers.

VORM 30A IMMIGRASIERekords wat 1919-1924 geskep is

Vorm 30A Immigrasie rekords is gedurende die periode 1919-1924 gehou en die alfabetiese mikrofilm rolle bevat almal Kanadese het passasiers gebind almal hawens in Kanada en na Kanada via Amerikaanse hawens. Dit is in die vorm van 'n enkele manifesblad vir elke passasier. In 1925 keer Kanada terug na 'n standaard 'groot blad' en 'passasiersmanifes'. Hou in gedagte dat die vorm 30A-alfabetiese rolle nie in 'n streng alfabetiese volgorde is nie, met rekords wat soms ingedien word. Klik hier om 'n faksimilee van 'n leë vorm 30A -rekord te sien en die tipe inligting wat dit kan bevat. Vir 'n kort rukkie het sommige hawens gedurende hierdie tydperk ook groot manifeste ingedien, dus kyk na die onderstaande lys. Besoek die webwerf van die National Library & Archives of Canada vir meer inligting oor die vorm 30A -besittings en hoe u die rekords kan raadpleeg.

Passasiers wat gedurende 1919-1924 direk vanaf die Kanadese hawens direk na Amerikaanse bestemmings reis nie verskyn op 'n vorm 30A -rekord. Aangesien sommige hawens gedurende die vorm 30A -tydperk ook die grootblad vir 'n kort tydjie behoue ​​gebly het (hierdie lyste bevat alle passasiers, ongeag die bestemming), vind u moontlik Amerikaanse passasiers, maar die St. Albans -lyste sal beter wees bron van inligting.

  • Quebec, PQ het groot publikasies tot 1921-07-13 voortgesit
  • Halifax, NS, het groot publikasies tot 1922-10-02 voortgesit
  • Saint John, NB, het groot manifeste tot 1922-09-30 voortgesit
  • Noord-Sydney, NS, het groot publikasies tot 1922-08-31 voortgesit
  • Vancouver, BC, het die groot blad manifesteer tot 1922-09-28
  • Victoria, BC (en die hawens van die Stille Oseaan) het groot manifeste tot 1922-09-30 voortgesit
  • *New York, NY (kan. Aankomste) het groot manifeste tot 1921-12-08 voortgesit
  • *Die hawens in die ooste van die VSA (kan. Aankomste) het tot 1921-11-04 groot manifeste voortgesit

*let op: die passasiers wat op die lyste na die Amerikaanse hawens verskyn, is slegs diegene wat hul voorneme verklaar het om direk na Kanada te gaan.

IMMIGRASIEREKORDE GEMAAK 1925-1935

Op 1 Januarie 1925 het Kanada die gebruik van vorm 30A -immigrasievorms opgeskort en die gebruik van die grootblad -manifes vir alle hawens hervat. In die National Library & amp Archives of Canada is 'n aanlyn -indeks in samewerking met die Pier 21 Society vir passasiersaankomste na Kanada geskep vir die jare 1925 tot 1935. Hierdie indeks is gemaak uit 'n mikrofilm Immigrasie -indeks, en enigste verteenwoordig diegene wat van plan was om in Kanada te bly. As u na die aanlynindeks soek, maak gebruik van die & quotwildcard & quot opsie om te verseker dat u moontlike spellingvariasies sien. Die aanlyn -indeks is eenvoudig 'n indeks en die lys van passasiers wat vir dieselfde aankoms mikrofilm, sal baie meer inligting bevat. Hou in gedagte dat die indeks foute en/of weglatings bevat, aangesien sommige van die mikrofilmindeks moeilik was om te lees of te ontsyfer. As u op soek is na 'n Amerikaanse passasier wat gedurende 1925-1935 via Kanada aangekom het, sal daar wees geen Kanadese rekord gevind. Die enigste bewys van die aankoms vir sulke passasiers is hul Amerikaanse grensrekord. Hierdie Amerikaanse grensinskrywingsrekords (The St. Albans Lists) is vernoem na die bewaarplek van die rekords. St. Albans, Vermont, Distrik.

IMMIGRASIERekords wat na 1935 geskep is

Die rekords oor immigrasie na Kanada, wat vanaf 1 Januarie 1936 geskep is, is nog nie vir die publiek beskikbaar nie. U kan 'n opsomming verkry uit die landingsertifikaat vir u eie aankoms, maar burgerskap en immigrasie kan die volledige passasierslys nie vir u kopieer nie, weens Kanadese privaatheidswette. U kan lees oor rekords na 1935 op die webwerf van die National Archives of Canada. U kan ook 'n opsomming kry vir aankoms van ander in die periode na 1935, maar sekere voorwaardes geld. . . sien die skakel na die post-1935 rekords hierbo.

VERMENINGSREKENNINGE VAN VERENIGDE STATE

Albans -lyste: Vanaf 1895 kan daar, benewens die Kanadese skeepslys, ook 'n Amerikaanse rekord wees in die immigrasierekords by die Amerikaanse National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), genaamd die "St. Albans Lists". Die St. Albans -lyste is eintlik verskeie publikasies. Raadpleeg die Prologue-artikel by NARA & quot By Way of Canada. Vir meer inligting oor hierdie rekords. & Quot Die twee van u belangstelling word hieronder gegee met die NARA-publikasienommer (dws M-1461). Nie alle grenshawe het immigrante in 1895 begin opneem nie. Dit is nodig om die indeks te raadpleeg. Dieselfde rekords is ook beskikbaar by die LDS Family History Centers, maar hulle gebruik 'n ander publikasienommer.
Besoek hierdie webwerf Immigration Microfilm CATalog Converter om die LDS -ekwivalent van die NARA -mikrofilmgetalle te leer

U sou eers wou hê:
M-1461 Soundex-indeks na Kanadese grensinskrywings deur die St. Albans, VT, distrik, 1895-1924. M1461. 400 rolle. (Rol 218 word nie gebruik nie). 16 mm. Dit is 'n Soundex -naamindeks vir inskrywings by al die hawens langs die Kanadese grens en die Groot Mere. Die rekord sal 'n kaartrekord wees met baie of min inligting (gewoonlik baie!). U kan 'n rollys van hierdie rekords sien.

U sal ook wil sien:
M-1464 Manifeste van passasiers wat in die St. Albans, VT, distrik deur die Kanadese Stille Oseaan en Atlantiese hawens aankom, 1895-1954. M1464. 640 rolle. Dit is eintlik groot velle, soos vir skepe, maar dit is ingevul toe die immigrant deur 'n grenshawe soos Port Huron, Buffalo of Chicago die VSA binnekom. Hierdie rekords word gewoonlik eers deur datum(maand), dan deur hawe(grenshawe), dan deur see hawe(Quebec, Montreal, Halifax, Saint John). Hierdie rekords bevat baie meer inligting as die vorige Kanadese passasierslyste. Hulle gee ook die naam/adres en die mense wat agtergebly het, met die verhouding met die immigrant, hulle gee die naam/adres en die verhouding van die persoon na wie die immigrant in die VSA sou gaan. U kan ook die hoogte, oogkleur en haarkleur van u immigrant uitvind.

IMMIGRASIE & ampc. OPTEKTE GEMAAK VOOR 1865

Voor-argivering: Baie rekords vir die vooraf-argiveringsperiode kan hier gevind word op die baie honderde bladsye op TheShipsList deur die navigasiebalk bo-aan elke bladsy te gebruik. . bv. Passasierslyste. Gee ook spesiale aandag aan die koerantberigte van Ships 'Arrivals in Quebec, aangesien passasiers gereeld genoem word, of 'n voorval het veroorsaak dat hul naam genoem word. . . en. . . TheShipsList nuwe projek van die St. Lawrence Steamboat Co. hul innerlike reis na Kanadese of Amerikaanse bestemmings.
Skakels na hulpbronne buite die webwerf kan onderaan hierdie bladsy gevind word, byvoorbeeld: As u 'n idee wil hê van hoe dit was om na Kanada te kom en dan in die 19de eeu die binneland in te trek, moet u die webblad besoek. webwerf: The Voyage. U vind emigrasiehandboeke, soos die CAA- of AAA -boeke van vandag, wat ons kan help wanneer ons 'n reis beplan. Van besondere belang is die verslag van die immigrasie -agent van 1853, aangesien dit roetes en tariewe in Kanada en ook na die Verenigde State van Quebec en Montreal bevat. U vind ook baie reisrekeninge en ander interessanthede. 'N Paar vroeë manifeste is by die LAC gevind en dit is aanlyn beskikbaar om te soek. Die kommersiële webwerf in Geneas bevat hierdie vroeë rekords in 'n databasis, vrylik beskikbaar om te soek en behoorlik aangehaal. Die inGeneas -webwerf het ook 'n 'betaal' -databasis wat hulle gereeld byvoeg, wat redelik gratis is om te soek, maar as u 'n afskrif van die rekord wil hê, is daar 'n fooi. Lorine McGinnis Schulzes 'Olive Tree Genealogy -webwerf is 'n waardevolle webwerf vir vroeë Kanadese rekords. Kies 'Tot Kanada' in die spyskaart bo. Lorine het skakels na landrekords en County Altlas- en sensusrekords, wat u kan help om te bepaal waar u meer oor u immigrantevoorouers kan vind. Die Olyfboom bevat ook skakels en inligting oor baie vroeë Palts- en Franse rekords vir Kanada. Besoek ook by die LAC die genealogiese navorsingsbladsye om meer te wete te kom oor 'France to the Colonies' waarvoor hulle verspreide rekords hou vir die jare 1732 en 1749 tot 1760 plus die LI-RA-MA (Russian Consular records) 1898-1922

KANADSE MIKROFILMHOUINGS & BRONNE

Passasierslyste, 1865-1922 LAC geskandeerde passasierslys beelde

Die National Archives of Canada (LAC) het afskrifte van al die beskikbare manifeste op mikrofilm, 1865-1935 (sien die lys van hawens en jare hieronder). Vir die periode 1919-1924 is 'n ander tipe rekord gehou, vorm 30A. Passasiers wat na die Verenigde State bestem is, kan gevind word in Kanadese rekords, van 1865 tot 1919, en in sommige gevalle tot 1921-22. Sien passasierslyste per aankomshawe by die National Achives of Canada. In Kanada het die gebruik van passasiers -manifeste (passasierslyste) in verskillende jare vir verskillende hawens begin. U kan hierdie mikrofilms gratis leen deur u plaaslike biblioteek deur Inter Library Loan (ILL). U kan ook gratis ILL, vanaf Ottawa, na biblioteke in die VSA en buite Noord -Amerika. U kan die besonderhede van hierdie prosedure hier op die LAC -webwerf vind.

Terminologie en afkortings wat op Kanadese immigrasierekords gebruik word
by die National Library & amp Archives of Canada webwerf

Rekords is beskikbaar vir:

  • Qu & eacutebec -poorte
    • QU & EacuteBEC 1865 - 1921
    • QU & EacuteBEC/MONTR & EacuteAL 1919 - 1924: sien Immigrasievorm 30A
    • QU & EacuteBEC 1925 - 1935
    • MONTR & EacuteAL 1925 - 1935
    • HALIFAX 1881 - 1922
    • HALIFAX 1919 - 1924: sien immigrasievorm 30A
    • HALIFAX 1925 - 1935
    • SAINT JOHN 1900 - 1922
    • SAINT JOHN 1919 - 1924: sien Immigrasievorm 30A
    • SAINT JOHN 1925 - 1935
    • NORTH SYDNEY 1906 - 1922
    • NORTH SYDNEY 1919 - 1924: sien Immigrasievorm 30A
    • NORTH SYDNEY 1925 - 1935
    • VANCOUVER 1905 - 1922
    • VANCOUVER 1919 - 1924: sien immigrasievorm 30A
    • VICTORIA EN PACIFIC PORTS 1905 - 1922
    • VICTORIA EN PACIFIC PORTS 1919 - 1924: sien Immigrasievorm 30A
    • VANCOUVER EN VICTORIA 1925 - 1935
    • NEW YORK 1906 - 1921
    • NEW YORK 1919 - 1924: sien immigrasievorm 30A
    • NEW YORK 1925 - 1931
    • OOS -Amerikaanse HAVE 1905 - 1921
    • OOS -Amerikaanse HAVE 1919 - 1924: sien Immigrasievorm 30A
    • OOS -Amerikaanse HAVE 1925 - 1928

    *let op: die passasiers wat op die lyste na die Amerikaanse hawens is, is slegs diegene wat hul voorneme verklaar het om direk na Kanada te gaan.

    Kanadese bronne: (behalwe die National Library & amp Archives)
    Hierdie instellings hou slegs afskrifte van die mikrofilm van 1865 tot vroeg in 1919, tensy anders aangedui.

    • British Columbia Archives and Records Office, Victoria, British Columbia (V.C. slegs hawens)
    • Cloverdale Branch, Surrey Public Library, Surrey, British Columbia (die meeste rekords tot 1935 uitgesluit vorm 30A)
    • Nanaimo Library (Nanaimo Family History Society), 3999 Victoria Ave - Quebec films 31 Oktober 1895 tot April 1910 (meer films op bestelling)
    • Provinsiale argiewe van Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta Calgary
    • Openbare biblioteek, Calgary, Alberta Lethbridge
    • Openbare biblioteek (Lethbridge en distrikstak van die Alberta Genealogical Society), Lethbridge, Alberta (alle hawens, 1865 tot 1924)
    • Openbare biblioteek, Regina, Saskatchewan, Prairie History Room (alle beskikbare rekords tot 1921-1922, plus Noord-Sydney 1925-1935 US-CAN grensrekords 1909-1918) http://www.reginalibrary.ca/prairiehistory/
    • Saskatchewan Argiefraad, Regina en Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
    • Provinsiale argiewe van Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba
    • Argief van Ontario, Toronto, Ontario
    • North York Central Tak van die Toronto Public Library, Toronto, Ontario (die meeste rekords tot 1935 insluitend vorm 30A)
    • Munisipale biblioteek in Montreal, sentrale tak, Montréal, Quebec
    • Archives nationales du Quebec, Quebec, Quebec (Slegs Quebec -hawens)
    • Nova Scotia Archives and Records Management, Halifax, Nova Scotia (N.S. slegs hawens)

    LATTER DAG HEIL MIKROFILMBRONNE (by gesinsgeskiedenis sentrums)

    LDS -rekords van Kanadese aankomste: Die familiegeskiedenissentrums vir die laaste dae heiliges bevat ook afskrifte van die vroegste gearchiveerde rekords vir die hawens van Quebec en Halifax, wat net hieronder gelys word. Die LDS het nou ook passasielyste van skepe vir Kanada, 1900-1922, 1925-1935 en immigrasievorm 30A, aankomste van die see, mikrofilms van 1919-1924 gekoop en gekatalogiseer. Die filmnotas 1900-1922 en 1925-1935 bevat ook die National Library & amp Archives of Canada mikrofilmnommers, so as u die LAC-mikrofilmnommer hier gevind het, kan u die LDS-filmnommer maklik opspoor.
    Hierdie rekords is beskikbaar by die Family History Library in Salt Lake City, Utah, en by Family History Centers (FHC). Die FHC is vrylik oop vir die publiek. U hoef nie 'n lid van die kerk te wees om die biblioteek te gebruik nie. To locate the FHC nearest you, check your telephone book's "yellow pages" under "Churches, Latter Day Saints" for a listing, in North America, telephone 1-800-346-6044. Locations can also found at the LDS website.

    • Port of Quebec: Film # 0889440 to 0889467 for the years 1865 to 1899
    • Port of Halifax: Film # 0889429 to 0889439 for the years 1881 to 1899

    For the port of Quebec:
    Film # 0889440 to 0889467 for the years 1865 to 1899

    1874 to 1876
    LDS number 0889450

    1877 to 1879
    LDS number 0889451

    1881 to 1882-06---
    LDS number 0889453

    1882-06--- to 1882-11---
    LDS number 0889454

    1890 to 1891
    LDS number 0889462

    1892
    [Sept. to Nov. 1892 filmed in reverse chronological order]
    LDS number 0889463

    1894 to 1895
    LDS number 0889465

    1897 to 1898
    LDS number 0889467

    For the port of Halifax:
    Film # 0889429-0889439 for the years 1881 to 1899

    1881 to 1882
    LDS number 0889430

    1883 to 1884
    LDS number 0889431

    1885 to 1886
    LDS number 0889432

    1887 to 1888
    LDS number 0889433

    1889 to 1891
    LDS number 0889434

    1892 to 1893
    LDS number 0889435

    1894 to 1895
    LDS number 0889436

    The LDS also holds the microfilms for the nominal card indexes for these two ports, Quebec 1865 to 1869 and Halifax January 1881 to February 1882.

    The Halifax 1881-1882 reel number is 1642682

    The Quebec microfilms are not in strict numerical order, so it would be better to consult the Catalog at your local Family History Center. (to assist a little)
    The A-C Quebec 1865 reel number is 1818591

    IMMIGRATION RECORDS CREATED FOR HOME CHILDREN

    The Library & Archives of Canada has an online database for British "Home Children." This database contains the names of child migrants, but is not yet complete. The index was compiled by the British Isles Family History Society of Greater Ottawa, (BIFHSGO) and we owe them our thanks for a job well done. You should check out Marj Kohli's wonderful site Young Immigrants to Canada for more detailed discussion and information of additional record sources for children.

    IMMIGRATION LINKS FOR EARLY CANADIAN RECORDS

    • TheShipsList Passenger Records (on-site) (on-site)
    • Canadian Genealogy Centre (The National Library & Archives of Canada &c.)
    • Assisted Emigrants, Toronto Emigrant Office 1865-1883 (Ontario Archives, Hawke Papers) The Canadian Immigrant Experience.
    • Ward Chipman, Muster Master's Office (1777-1785)LAC - Loyalists to Nova Scotia & New Brunswick
    • Likacheff-Ragosine-Mathers (LI-RA-MA) CollectionLAC - 1898-1922 passport / indentity papers
    • Forging Our Legacy - Citizenship & Immigration Canada 1900-1977
    • The Olive Tree
    • InGeneas Free Database
    • Gail Facini's Lunenburg County Nova Scotia
    • Alan Tupman's Canadian Passenger lists
    • Morgan Robertson's Family Roots of Pictou and Antigonish Counties NS
    • Dave Hunter's Island Register PEI site
    • Immigrant Ships Transcribers Guild
    • Marj Kohli's Immigration Information 19th century

    TheShipsList®™ - (Swiggum) All Rights Reserved - Copyright © 1997-present
    These pages may be freely linked to but not duplicated in any fashion without written consent of .
    Last updated: June 05, 2012 and maintained by and M. Kohli


    ジェシー・B・オルデンドルフ

    オルデンドルフは1909年に海軍兵学校を174人中141番の席次で卒業。 [1] 卒業年次から「アナポリス1909年組」と呼称された世代からは首席卒業でソロモン諸島の戦いにおいて両用戦部隊司令官を指揮したセオドア・S・ウィルキンソン、戦艦「ノースカロライナ」初代艦長オーラフ・M・ハストベット、初代海軍作戦部長のウィリアム・S・ベンソンを父に持つ戦艦「ワシントン」初代艦長ハワード・H・J・ベンソンらがいる。第一次世界大戦前にカリフォルニア (USS California, ACR-6) 、プレブル (USS Preble, DD-12) 、デンバー (USS Denver, C-14) 、ホイップル (USS Whipple, DD-15) 、に乗り組み、その後再びカリフォルニアから改名したサンディエゴ (USS San Diego, CA-6) に乗り組んだ。続いてパナマ運河の調査艦ハンニバル (USS Hannibal, AG-1) に乗り組んだ [2] 。

    アメリカ合衆国が第一次世界大戦に参戦すると、オルデンドルフは陸軍の輸送艦サラトガを護衛したが、サラトガはニューヨークで事故のため沈没し、その後輸送艦プレジデント・リンカーン (USS President Lincoln) に砲術士官として乗り組んだ [3] 。プレジデント・リンカーンは1918年5月31日にアイルランド沖でドイツ潜水艦 U-90 から3発の魚雷を受け沈没した [4] 。

    両大戦間にオルデンドルフは貨物艦および輸送艦での任務に配属された。重巡洋艦シアトル (USS Seattle, CA-11) の機関士官および輸送艦パトリシア (USS Patricia) の副長を務め [3] 、その後陸上勤務に戻る。ピッツバーグ募兵事務所での勤務後、ボルチモアで機関検査官を務め、続いて水路局で勤務した [3] 。その後偵察ヨットのナイアガラ (USS Niagara, PY-9) に配属される。1921年から22年にかけてバーミングハム (USS Birmingham, CL-2) に乗り組み [3] カリブ海で勤務、特別任務戦隊司令官の副官を務めた。その後1922年から24年までと27年から28年まで、海軍工廠司令官の副官を務めた。

    オルデンドルフが艦長として初めて乗り組んだ艦は駆逐艦ディケーター (USS Decatur, DD-341) であった [3] 。1922年から27年まで艦長職を務めた後、翌28年から30年まで海軍大学校で学び、30年から32年まで戦艦ニューヨーク (USS New York, BB-34) の航海長を務める [3] 。32年から35年まで海軍士官学校で航海術の教官を務め、その後35年から37年までウェストバージニア (USS West Virginia, BB-48) の副長を務める [3] 。37年から39年まで航海局の新規採用部長に就任、39年から41年8月までの間に大佐に昇進し、重巡洋艦ヒューストン (USS Houston, CA-30) 艦長に着任する [3] [1] 。

    この期間の彼の旗艦は駆逐艦母艦のプレーリー (USS Prairie, AD-15) [3] および艦隊曳船のカイオワ (USS Kiowa, ATF-72) であった [3] 。

    1944年1月にオルデンドルフは太平洋戦線へ転属となり、第4巡洋艦隊を指揮、重巡洋艦ルイビル (USS Louisville, CA-28) を旗艦とした [1] 。第4巡洋艦隊は戦艦および巡洋艦から成り、空母部隊の作戦活動の支援およびマーシャル諸島、パラオ、マリアナ諸島、レイテ島への上陸部隊に対する火力支援を担当した [5] 。

    1944年10月24日のレイテ沖海戦でオルデンドルフ少将は第77.2任務群の指揮官であった [6] 。彼は麾下の戦艦と巡洋艦をスリガオ海峡で古典的な戦列に配置した [7] 。彼の部隊には真珠湾攻撃で一度撃沈された旧式戦艦が5隻含まれていた。10月25日の早朝、オルデンドルフは旗艦ルイビルに座乗し、西村祥治中将率いる日本艦隊を迎撃、十字砲火を加えてこれを壊滅させた [1] [8] 。戦艦扶桑および山城が沈没し、西村中将もこの戦闘で戦死した [9] 。オルデンドルフはこの戦闘による功績で海軍十字章を受章し [10] 、1944年12月15日に中将に昇進、第1戦艦戦隊の指揮官に就任した。中将昇進後オルデンドルフはリンガエン湾上陸戦で戦艦部隊を指揮し、1945年3月11日には乗艦のバルジがブイに衝突した際に鎖骨を骨折 [11] 、沖縄戦では [12] 1945年8月12日に乗艦していたペンシルベニア (USS Pennsylvania, BB-38) が天山艦上攻撃機の雷撃により艦尾に被雷、衝撃で数本の肋骨を骨折した [13] 。


    Adolf Hitler becomes the leader of the Nazi Party

    On July 29, 1921, Adolf Hitler becomes the leader of the National Socialist German Workers’ (Nazi) Party. Under Hitler, the Nazi Party grew into a mass movement and ruled Germany as a totalitarian state from 1933 to 1945.

    Hitler’s early years did not seem to predict his rise as a political leader. Born on April 20, 1889, in Braunau am Inn, Austria, he was a poor student and never graduated from high school. During World War I, he joined a Bavarian regiment of the German army and was considered a brave soldier however, his commanders felt he lacked leadership potential and never promoted him beyond corporal.

    Frustrated by Germany’s defeat in the war, which left the nation economically depressed and politically unstable, Hitler joined a fledgling organization called the German Workers’ Party in 1919. Founded earlier that same year by a small group of men including locksmith Anton Drexler and journalist Karl Harrer, the party promoted German pride and anti-Semitism, and expressed dissatisfaction with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles, the peace settlement that ended the war and required Germany to make numerous concessions and reparations. Hitler soon emerged as the party’s most charismatic public speaker and attracted new members with speeches blaming Jews and Marxists for Germany’s problems and espousing extreme nationalism and the concept of an Aryan “master race.” On July 29, 1921, Hitler assumed leadership of the organization, which by then had been renamed the Nationalist Socialist German Workers’ Party.

    In 1923, Hitler and his followers staged the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, a failed takeover of the government in Bavaria, a state in southern Germany. In the aftermath of this event, Hitler was convicted of treason and sentenced to five years in prison, but spent less than a year behind bars (during which time he dictated the first volume of “Mein Kampf,” or “My Struggle,” his political autobiography.) The publicity surrounding the Beer Hall Putsch and Hitler’s subsequent trial turned him into a national figure. After his release from jail, he set about rebuilding the Nazi Party and attempting to gain power through the democratic election process. 

    In 1929, Germany entered a severe economic depression that left millions of people unemployed. The Nazis capitalized on this situation by criticizing the ruling government and began to win elections. In the July 1932 elections, they captured 230 out of 608 seats in the Reichstag, or German parliament. In January 1933, Hitler was appointed German chancellor and in March of that year his Nazi government assumed dictatorial powers. The Nazis soon came to control every aspect of German life and all other political parties were banned.

    Following Germany’s defeat in World War II, during which some 6 million European Jews were murdered under Hitler’s state-sponsored extermination programs, the Nazi Party was outlawed and many of its top officials were convicted of war crimes. Hitler had committed suicide on April 30, 1945, shortly before Germany’s surrender.


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    UNIVERSITY ARCHIVES

    Western Reserve University awarded Williamson the honorary Doctor of Laws, 1926.

    Western Reserve University named the Bellfower Road Mather College residence Williamson House in honor of Williamson&rsquos service as President and trustee, 1945.

    Western Reserve University named the Euclid Avenue residence Williamson House and Annex in honor of Williamson&rsquos service as President and trustee, 1961.

    Pastor, First Presbyterian Church, Norwalk, Ohio, 1875-1884

    Pastor, First Presbyterian Church, Warren, Ohio, 1885-1888

    Pastor, Beckwith Memorial Church, Cleveland, Ohio, 1888-1901

    Trustee, Western Reserve University, 1905-1935

    Trustee, Adelbert College, 1905-1935

    Acting President, Society for Savings, Cleveland, Ohio, 1912-1915

    Executive Vice President, Society for Savings, Cleveland, Ohio, 1915-1921, 1924-1927


    Early Cinema Collection

    Cinema emerged in the late-nineteenth century through a combination of new advancements in technology with old traditions of screen presentation (see the Magic Lantern and Lantern Slide Catalog Collection for more on the history of these older technologies and screen practices).

    The highlight of our Early Cinema collection is the 1907 to 1927 run of the Moving Picture World, one of the earliest trade papers of the motion picture industry. The heyday of the Moving Picture World was during the 1910s and the period that film historians have called cinema's "transitional era" (lasting roughly from 1908 to 1917). As a series of dramatic changes swept the industry, including the rise of the star system, the transition from short films to features, the decline of the Motion Picture Patents Company (generally associated with its largest stakeholder, Thomas Edison), and the rise of "Independent" companies that became the Hollywood studios. Showmen read Moving Picture World to stay abreast of the rapidly changing marketplace and the latest batch of pictures. Even reading now, one hundred years later, you can feel the dizzying energy of change.

    Thanks to Domitor for supporting digitization of the early years of Moving Picture World and Marc Wanamaker, Eileen Bowser and the Museum of Modern Art for making rare copies available for scanning.


    NORFOLK

    A line of Catholic earls and dukes whose peerage dates back to the 11th century, when Ralph, a staller or constable of the court of Edward the Confessor (reign 1043 – 66) and a benefactor of St. Riquier's Abbey, Ponthieu, was confirmed in his lands. The earldom proper was created in 1140 or 1141 for Hugh Bigod (d. 1176 or 1177), who ruled East Anglia from Framlingham castle. Roger, fifth Bigod earl of Norfolk (1245 – 1306), died without heirs.

    The Mowbray Line. Edward I (reign 1274 – 1307) revived the earldom for his son, Thomas of Brotherton (1300 – 38), who in turn died leaving no son.

    Thomas de Mowbray. First duke of Norfolk b. 1366? d. Venice, Sept. 22, 1399. Thomas was the grandson of Thomas of Brotherton's daughter, Margaret (c. 1320 – 1400), and received the revived dukedom in 1397. He had been earl marshal at 20, and had achieved power for revealing to Richard II (reign 1377 – 99) the plots of the earls of Arundel and Gloucester. In 1398 he was accused of treasonable words and fled abroad.

    John de Mowbray. Second duke of Norfolk b. 1389d. Epworth, Isle of Axholme, Oct. 19, 1432. He distinguished

    himself in the wars with France (1417 – 21 1423 – 24), and was restored to his father's dukedom in 1425. He was marshal at the coronation of Henry VI in 1429.

    John de Mowbray. Third duke of Norfolk, hereditary earl marshal of England and fifth earl of Nottingham b. Sept. 12, 1415 d. Nov. 6, 1461. The son of John, he supported Richard, Duke of York, in the wars for the English succession (War of the Roses, 1455 – 85), but changed his allegiance to the Lancastrian King Henry VI in 1459. At the second battle of St. Alban's (1461) he fled from Henry VI's camp and fought for the Yorkist Edward IV, who was crowned king of England after his victory over the Lancastrians at Towton (1461).

    John de Mowbray. Fourth duke of Norfolk b. Oct. 18, 1444 d. Framlingham, Jan. 17, 1476. He also supported the Yorkist cause, but at his death the title again lapsed. Upon the marriage of his 5-year-old daughter, Anne, to Richard, Duke of York, second son of Edward IV, on Jan. 15, 1478, the dignity was added to his titles.

    The Howard Line. The illustrious house of Howard, which long stood next in blood to the sovereign, traces its lineage to John Howard of Wiggenhall St. Peter, Norfolk, whose son, William, became a judge in 1297. The Howards came to power as Yorkists.

    John Howard. First duke of Norfolk b. 1430? d. Bosworth Field, Aug. 22, 1485. As John of Stoke Neyland he became treasurer of Edward IV's household in 1468, and was summoned to Parliament as Lord Howard. He served as captain general at sea, and was later appointed lord admiral. On June 28, 1485, 12 days after young Richard, Duke of York and Norfolk, had been sent to the Tower by his uncle Richard III (reign 1483 – 85), John Howard was granted the vacant dukedom as constable of the Tower he probably was in league with the prince's murderers. At the battle of Bosworth he commanded Richard's vanguard of archers. The "Jockey of Norfolk" fell while fighting alongside his sovereign.

    Thomas Howard. Second duke of Norfolk b. 1443d. May 21, 1524. Like his father, John Howard, he fought for the cause of Richard III at Bosworth, and after defeat spent four years in the Tower as prisoner of the new Tudor king, Henry VII (reign 1485 – 1509). On release he was created earl of Surrey and proved an indispensable servant of the new monarchy as lord treasurer (1501 – 22) and as military general on the Scottish border. He inflicted the decisive defeat on the Scots at the battle of Flodden Field on Sept. 9, 1513, and for this service was elevated to the dukedom in February 1514, and named lord admiral. He was guardian of the realm while Henry VIII (reign 1509 – 47) met Francis I, King of France, on the Field of the Cloth of Gold at Calais on June 7, 1520.

    Thomas Howard. Third duke of Norfolk b. 1473 d. Kenninghall, Norfolk, Aug. 25, 1554. He succeeded his father, Thomas, and also became lord treasurer. In 1495 he was married to Anne, daughter of Edward IV. A man of "very great experience in political government," as the Venetian ambassador noted, he clung to office despite the upheavals of the Reformation. He rebuilt Kenninghall Palace in the form of a letter H, and the grandeur of it and his new palace at Norwich outdid the buildings of his rival Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. Like his father he was a fearless soldier and an astute politician. He had led the vanguard at Flodden Field, and was created earl of Surrey in February 1514. At intervals he devastated the Scottish border and raided the French coast. He led the council's attack on Cardinal wolsey, and at the latter's fall Thomas became henry viii's most trusted adviser. His position had been strengthened by the king's marriage to his niece, Anne Boleyn (1533), and by his daughter's marriage to Henry's natural son, the Duke of Richmond. His enemies hoped that Anne's trial for adultery (1536) would bring down the whole house of Howard, but Norfolk, who presided, acquiesced in her execution, and scotched a rumor that he was to be sent to the Tower by remarking that it were no more likely than "Tottenham shall turn French."

    That autumn he was sent to suppress the pilgrimage of grace, the popular rising under Robert aske that was provoked by recent religious changes. At first he offered the rebels the choice of battle or submission, but at Doncaster, seeing their numbers so strong, he made a truce while their demands were forwarded to the king. In January under royal instruction he dealt with severity against the rebels, terrifying the north by his executions. In 1539 Norfolk put forward the Act of Six Articles, devised by Stephen gardiner, which restated the doctrinal position of the Henrician Reformation. The passing of this act pointed to the decline of Thomas Cromwell's power, and it was Norfolk who in June 1540 arrested Cromwell at the council table and sent him to the Tower. In July, to consolidate his position the duke promoted the marriage of his niece Catherine Howard with Henry, but the sordid business of her trial and execution in February 1542 brought the house of Howard into disrepute. Thereafter, though far too useful to be cast aside, Norfolk remained outside the inner ring of councilors. In 1544 he defeated the Scots at Solway Moss and as general of the army in France captured Boulogne, though he was soon replaced by Edward Seymour, Earl of Hertford and Duke of Somerset (1506? – 52).

    As the uncle of Prince Edward, Hertford was bent on becoming regent on the accession (1547), but to achieve this meant the overthrow of the Howards. A dynastic alliance between the families, proposed by Norfolk, foundered and before the end of 1546 he was in the Tower, for his son Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, poet and soldier of renown, had played into Hertford's hands. Surrey, it was said, devised a plan for his sister, the widowed duchess of Richmond, to become Henry's mistress. He had designs on the regency himself and was indiscreet enough to quarter the royal arms with his own. There was sufficient evidence to send him to the block on January 19 on a technical charge of treason. Old Norfolk was compromised by his son's indiscretion. On January 29 King Henry appointed commissioners to give assent to the bill of attainder against the duke, but died during the night, so Norfolk's life was saved, though he remained a prisoner of state throughout Edward VI's reign. On Mary's accession (1553) he at once returned to power, and despite his age, he prepared for the coronation as lord treasurer and earl marshal. He died full of years and honors. Though he had suppressed the Pilgrimage of Grace and shared in the scramble for monastic lands, the third duke was essentially a conservative, and it was for political and dynastic reasons that he abhorred Protestantism and despised the New Learning.

    Thomas Howard. Fourth duke of Norfolk b. March 10, 1538 d. June 2, 1572. He was the son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. After a year in the custody of Sir John Williams he was placed at Reigate (1548) under his aunt, the Duchess of Richmond, who engaged John Foxe (1516 – 87) as his tutor. Brought to court on Queen Mary's accession (1553) he was placed in the households successively of Bps. Stephen Gardiner and John White, who sought to eradicate the teaching of Foxe. In 1554 he became a gentleman of the chamber of the Infante, Philip of Spain, and that summer succeeded to the dukedom of his grandfather. In 1555 he married Mary Fitzalan, daughter of Henry, Earl of Arundel, but she died in childbirth in June 1557. In the first week of Elizabeth's reign (1558 – 1603) Thomas married Margaret Audley, widow of Lord Henry Dudley. As premier peer and sole duke he was connected by descent or alliance with most of the nobility. He was the richest landowner and his Liberty of Norfolk was the greatest private franchise in the kingdom. Despite his power as a territorial magnate that enabled him to return East Anglian and Sussex members of Parliament to Westminster, Elizabeth delayed taking him into her confidence. In December 1559 she appointed him lieutenant general in the war against the French in Scotland, which culminated in the treaty of Edinburgh, breaking the "Auld Alliance." There he came close to William Cecil (1520 – 98) and shared his suspicion of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (1532? – 88), Elizabeth's favorite for seven years opposition to Dudley remained the basis of Norfolk's political action. On the queen's recovery from serious illness in October 1562 Dudley was made a privy councilor, and on Cecil's insistence Norfolk entered the council the same day to balance Leicester's power. Cecil, with the duke's enthusiastic support, began negotiations for Elizabeth's marriage to the Archduke Charles of Austria, which were to founder on the question of his right to a private Catholic chapel. In the Parliament of 1566 Norfolk was spokesman for the lords, insisting that Elizabeth should marry and settle the succession, and he displayed real political courage. As a result the Hapsburg negotiations were resumed, but the duke was too ill to attend the vital council meetings in the autumn of 1567 that settled the issue, and in his absence Leicester's intrigues for a French match and his stirring Protestant opinion against the Austrian alliance and its begetters wounded Norfolk.

    After Margaret Audley's death Norfolk married Elizabeth, widow of Lord Thomas Dacre, in January 1567. She was a devout Catholic. Her death in childbed that autumn brought him low and it was as a widower for the third time that he began to listen to the suggestion that he should marry mary stuart, queen of scots.

    Following Mary's flight to England Norfolk went as principal commissioner to York to investigate the charges brought against her in September 1568. Here William Maitland (1528? – 73), Mary's secretary for foreign affairs, whispered his proposal that a match with Mary would at a stroke solve the Scottish problem and the question of the succession in England. The duke had been openly mentioned as a consort for Mary on two earlier occasions, but now that the Casket Letters had convinced him of Mary's guilt in Lord Darnley's murder (1567) he was noncommittal. Elizabeth suspected that Norfolk was not behaving impartially toward Mary and recalled him from York to an enlarged commission in London. Intrigues and the double dealing of James Stewart, Earl of Moray (1531? – 70), here showed the duke in an unfavorable light and by the end of 1568 he had decided to go forward with the marriage scheme as the only avenue to power. To achieve this he made an uneasy alliance with Leicester and together they planned to get rid of William Cecil, then especially unpopular but Elizabeth stood by her secretary and his opponents could only pursue their goal by intrigue. Other schemes were devised, such as the design of Henry fitzalan, Earl of Arundel John Lumley Thomas, Earl of Northumberland and Charles, Earl of Westmorland, for liberating Mary with Spanish arms and deposing Elizabeth. In all these schemes Norfolk's marriage with Mary was a cardinal feature.

    Leicester prevaricated. He had insisted on obtaining Elizabeth's consent to the marriage himself and finally outwitted Norfolk. Elizabeth put Norfolk on his allegiance to deal no more with Mary and fearing for his life he fled from court to London and thence, on September 16, to Kenninghall. Having instructed the northern earls to call off their rising he went to Windsor to submit. The charges against him did not add up to high treason, but in the prevailing political uncertainty the Tower seemed the safest place for him, and the outbreak of the Northern Rebellion made an early release unlikely. In August 1570, after Norfolk had written a full submission, Elizabeth allowed him to go to the Charterhouse under strict supervision, on account of his health. Within weeks Roberto di Ridolfi (1531 – 1612), the Florentine banker, had him involved in his grand design for a Spanish invasion of England. Norfolk himself never signed the fatal letters to the Duke of Alva, Philip II, and the pope. With the unravelling of the Ridolfi conspiracy there was ample evidence to send Norfolk for trial on Jan. 16, 1572. Though he protested his innocence, his peers found him guilty. Elizabeth hesitated signing his death warrant but could not hold out indefinitely against the logic of statecraft, and the last duke of medieval creation was executed on June 2, maintaining his innocence and denying he was a Catholic. Though aloof and indecisive he remained a popular figure to the end.

    The dukedom did not pass to Thomas' eldest son, Philip howard, who lost the favor of Elizabeth I and was imprisoned allegedly for treason. Philip's eldest son, Thomas (1586 – 1646), however, was restored to the earldom of Arundel in 1604. The friend of the antiquaries Sir Robert Cotton and Sir Henry Spelman, he formed the first notable art collection in England. Out of sympathy with the court of Charles I (reign 1625 – 49), he left England for Italy before the civil war, but contributed £ 54,000 to the royalist cause, in recognition of which he was created earl of Norfolk on June 6, 1644. His second son, Henry (1608 – 54), a zealous royalist, fought at Edgehill, and upon his return to his estates found that they had passed into the possession of Parliament. By a vote of the House of Commons, he was allowed to compound them for £ 6,000 in 1648. Henry's son Thomas (1627 – 77), while in exile with his grandfather, developed brain fever from which he never recovered, but at the restoration of Charles II (reign 1660 – 85) he became the fifth duke of Norfolk by an act of Parliament on Dec. 29, 1660. He died unmarried, and with him the earldom of Arundel descended with the dukedom. His successors for the next century play little part in public affairs: Henry, sixth duke (1628 – 84), brother of Thomas, succeeded in 1677 Henry, seventh duke (1655 – 1701), son of Henry, succeeded in 1684 Thomas, eighth duke (1683 – 1732), nephew of Henry, succeeded in 1701 Edward, ninth duke (1685 – 1777), brother of Thomas, succeeded in 1732 Charles, tenth duke (1720 – 86), descendant of the seventh duke, succeeded in 1777.

    Charles Howard. Eleventh duke of Norfolk b. March 5, 1746 d. Norfolk House, London, Dec. 16, 1815. He had been a member of Parliament for Carlisle and turned Protestant during the gordon riots. Described as a hard drinker, he, with the Prince Regent George, set the fashion for late and boisterous dinners. At a political banquet (1798) he gave a toast to "our sovereign's health — the majesty of the people," which offended King George. He was dismissed from his posts. Charles took in hand the rebuilding of Arundel Castle (1791) and lived to see the completion of the new Baron's Hall (1815).

    Bernard Edward Howard. Twelfth duke of Norfolk b. Sheffield, Nov. 21, 1765 d. Norfolk House, London, March 19, 1842. The third cousin of Charles, Bernard was a Catholic and by an act of Parliament, was allowed to retain the hereditary dignity of earl marshal. He was admitted to the House of Lords after the Catholic Relief Bill (1829), and was named a privy councilor in 1830.

    Bernard Edward Howard. Thirteenth duke of Norfolk b. London, Aug. 12, 1791 d. Arundel Castle, Feb. 18, 1856. He succeeded his father, Bernard, and became the first avowed Catholic member of Parliament since 1688, being returned as member for Arundel on May 4, 1829, following the passage of Catholic Emancipation. As a supporter of Lord John Russell (1792 – 1878), he voted for the anti-Catholic Ecclesiastical Titles Bill (1850) and remained little more than Catholic in name until his deathbed reconciliation.

    Henry Granville Howard. Fourteenth duke of Norfolk b. London, Nov. 7, 1815 d. Arundel Castle, Nov. 25, 1860. He changed his surname to Fitzalan-Howard in 1842. He was a Whig member of Parliament for Arundel (1837 – 50) when he resigned his seat on the enactment of Russell's Ecclesiastical Titles Bill and broke with the Whigs. He was renowned for his zeal as a Catholic and for his charity.

    Henry Fitzalan-Howard. Fifteenth duke of Norfolk b. London, Dec. 27, 1847 d. there, Feb. 11, 1917. He succeeded in 1860 and was the first to play a notable part in public life since the Reformation. Educated under John Henry newman at the Oratory School, he became the recognized head of the English Catholic laity, and his influence aided Newman's election to the cardinalate in 1878. He was the first lord mayor of Sheffield and first mayor of Westminster. A Unionist, he resigned the post of postmaster general in 1900 to join the Imperial Yeomanry in South Africa. As earl marshal at the coronations of Edward VII (Aug. 9, 1902) and George V (June 22, 1911) he revised several ancient usages. He built churches at Arundel and at Norwich, the latter as a thank-offering for the birth of an heir to his second wife.

    Bernard Marmaduke Fitzalan-Howard. Sixteenth duke of Norfolk b. Arundel House, May 30, 1908. He officiated as earl marshal at the coronations of George VI (May 12, 1937) and Elizabeth II (June 2, 1953). Hy was 'n ervare grondeienaar en was 'n gesamentlike parlementêre sekretaris van die Ministerie van Landbou (1941 – 45). Sy belangstellings in sport en op die platteland het hom 'n gewilde figuur gemaak, en in 1962 en 1963 was hy bestuurder van die Engelse Krieket XI op sy Australiese toer. Hy het ook die staatsbegrafnis van Sir Winston Churchill in 1965 gelei.

    Bibliografie: a. Collins, The Peerage of England … , enl. s. e. brydges, 9 v. (Londen 1812). j. e. doyle, Die Amptelike Baronage van Engeland … 1066 – 1885, 3 v. (Londen 1885). e. losie, Die Peerage en Baronetage van die Britse Ryk soos tans (70ste uitg. Londen 1901). w. dugdale, Die Baronage van Engeland …, 2 v. (Londen 1675 – 76). c. gelees., Bibliografie van Britse geskiedenis: Tudor -periode, 1485 – 1603 (2de uitg. New York 1959). w. hunt et al., Die woordeboek van nasionale biografie van die vroegste tye tot 1900, 63 v. (Londen 1885 – 1900 herh. Met regstellings, 21 v., 1908 – 09, 1921 – 22, 1938 aanvulling 1901 –) 10: 1 – 76, j. tait, Die woordeboek van nasionale biografie van die vroegste tye tot 1900, 63 v. (Londen 1885 – 1900 herh. Met regstellings, 21 v., 1908 – 09, 1921 – 22, 1938 aanvulling 1901 –) 13: 1114 – 35. p. hughes, Die Reformasie in Engeland, 3 v. In 1 (5th, rev. Ed. New York 1963). j. kielie, 'N Literêre en biografiese geskiedenis of bibliografiese woordeboek van die Engelse katolieke van 1534 tot die huidige tyd, 5 v. (Londen-New York 1885 – 1902 repr. New York 1961) 5: 184 – 187. l. b. smid, 'N Tudor -tragedie: Die lewe en tye van Catherine Howard (New York 1961). n. williams, Thomas Howard, vierde hertog van Norfolk (Londen 1964).


    Verenigde State

    Verenigde State van Amerika Noord -Amerika ke ek des hae.

    (1956 -): In God We Trust

    Die Verenigde State van Amerika noem hierdie naam:

    • "Amerika"
    • "Die Verenigde State"
    • "USA" of "The USA"
    • "VS" of "Die VSA"
    • "Die Verenigde State van Amerika"
    • "Die state"
    • "Die VSA van A"
    • "Die Unie"
    • "Oom Sam"
    • "Estados Unidos de América"

    VSA se federale sarkar ke tiin bhaag hae: uitvoerende tak, Wetgewende tak, aur geregtelike tak.

    VSA ek federale konstitusionele republiek hae jisme vyftig state aur ek federale distrik hae. In sentraal-Noord-Amerika is dit agt en veertig state in Washington, DC, hoofstad, die Stille Oseaan en die Atlantiese Oseaan. Iske noord van my Kanada aur suid my Mexico hae. Alaska staat kontinent ke noordwes me hae aur iske oos my Kanada aur wes my Rusland hae. Hawaii staat ek Stille Oseaan ke biich me ek argipel hae. Usa ke aur territorium Caribbean aur Pacific me hae.

    Die oppervlakte van 3,79 miljoen vierkante myl (9,83 miljoen km²) is 328 miljoen jaar lank in die Verenigde State, met 'n oppervlakte van vier vierde myl.


    Kyk die video: 99-й день на Комсомольской бессрочный пикет в поддержку,, часть 1