Geskiedenis van South Bend, Indiana

Geskiedenis van South Bend, Indiana

Die vroeë geskiedenis van South Bend, Indiana, het 'n beslis Franse rolverdeling. Die Franse ontdekkingsreisiger La Salle beland op die oewer van die St. Twee jaar later ontmoet hy inheemse Amerikaanse leiers op dieselfde plek en sluit die Miami -verdrae met hulle. In 1820 bou die eerste permanente setlaar, Pierre Navarre, 'n hut op aan die noordekant van die St. Joseph -rivier. Byna 20 jaar later het die eerwaarde Edward Sorin, saam met ses Katolieke broers, die bekendste instelling van South Bend, die Universiteit van Notre Dame, gestig. Mary's College, wat van Bertrand, Michigan, verhuis is. Die College Football Hall of Fame is in South Bend geleë en het die vertoning op 25 Augustus 1995 vir die publiek oopgemaak. South Bend het in die 20ste eeu industrieel gegroei, met groot vervaardigers soos Bendix en Studebaker wat die stad se ekonomiese vooruitgang gelei het. Geleidelik het die verlies van baie van die kernvervaardigers van South Bend die stad uitdagings gebied, maar die aantal klein vervaardigers het die afgelope jaar toegeneem.


South Bend Draaibank Geskiedenis

Voor die internet, voor satelliete, voor veseloptika, hiperteks en modems, het telegrawe die wêreld verbind. Een kabeladres wat destyds by baie bekend was, was 'Tweeling'. As u hierdie adres bedraad het, sou u John en Miles O'Brien, stigters van South Bend Lathe Works, bereik. Die broers was 'n tweeling wat so eenders gelyk het, selfs hul naaste vriende kon hulle nie onderskei nie, ondanks die feit dat een in 'n ongeluk drie vingers verloor het.

Dit is nie bekend hoe Miles sy vingers verloor het nie. Miskien het hy hulle verloor terwyl hy een van die draaibanke dra wat die broers ontwerp, gebou en getoets het in die eenvertrekwinkel wat hulle in 1906 as The South Bend Machine Tool Company opgerig het. Hierdie poging was die hoogtepunt van 20 jaar ervaring met gereedskap-en-sterf. Hulle is in 1868 in Cork County, Ierland, gebore en is deur hul pa grootgemaak nadat hul ma tydens die bevalling gesterf het. Die gesin immigreer in die 1870's na Connecticut waar John en Miles openbare en parochiale skole bywoon. Op die ouderdom van 15 het hulle werk gekry by die Stanley Works -aanleg in New England waar hulle hul vak begin leer het. Miles het 'n tyd lank onder leiding van Thomas Edison gewerk, totdat die uitvinder die broers aangesê het om hul ervaring met masjienwinkels af te handel met ingenieurswese -kursusse. Hulle het die Purdue -universiteit in West Lafayette, Indiana, bygewoon, en daarna by verskillende werkgeleenthede in die staat gewerk. Op 'n tydstip is John as 'n superintendent in 'n fietsfabriek aangestel, maar eers 'n jaar later ontdek die eienaar dat Miles die werk eintlik gevul het, want John werk reeds in Elkhart, Indiana.

Op 35 -jarige ouderdom het die broers besluit om hul eie winkel op te rig en 'n draaibank te bou wat hulle voor Miles se dae by die Edison Phonograph Company ontwerp het. Hulle het 'n winkel met een kamer gevul met toerusting vir $ 65 per maand gehuur op die hoek van West Washington- en Johnsonstraat in South Bend, Indiana. Op 'n stadium het hulle 'n enjin gebou wat gebruik word om ketelbuise vir hul verhuurder uit te blaas. Toe hy hulle vra om meer te maak, het hulle geweier. Hulle wou uitsluitlik konsentreer op draaibanke, die belangrikste masjiengereedskap. As gevolg hiervan is die O'Brien's uitgenooi om 'n ander winkel te vind om hul draaibanke te maak. In 1908 het hulle in 'n gehuurde gedeelte van die voormalige Singer Naaimasjien -fabriek in E. Madisonstraat in South Bend ingetrek en 'n South Bend Lathe Works geword om hul produk meer akkuraat te weerspieël. Teen 1919 het South Bend Lathe Works 44 groottes van een draaibank vervaardig en teen 1930 47 persent van die draaibanke in die Verenigde State gedurende 1929 en 1930 gebou, volgens 'n nuusberig wat in 1931 gepubliseer is, wat 'n studie van die Amerikaanse handelsdepartement.

In die kwarteeu sedert sy stigting, het South Bend Lathe Works die grootste eksklusiewe vervaardiger van metaalbewerkingsdraaibanke ter wêreld geword, met kliënte in meer as 88 lande. Die masjiene is in elke industrie gebruik, in skole, tuiswerkswinkels en groot vervaardigers van Bermuda tot Mali, Indochina en Siberië. South Bend -draaibanke is gekies deur ingenieurs en wetenskaplikes wat admiraal Richard Byrd op sy twee ekspedisies na Antarktika vergesel het. Volgens die South Bend Tribune in 1936 is dit volgens die South Bend Tribune in 1936 gebruik waar die grootste akkuraatheid vereis is, insluitend vliegtuig- en radiotoerusting. Miles is daardie jaar dood en het 'n lewenslange vennootskap beëindig. Deel van hul sukses was hul bereidwilligheid om as gelykes te werk. Albei het die titel "President" op hul besigheidskaartjies gehad. Een sou as president dien, en een as sekretaris-tesourier, en elke twee jaar het hulle pligte uitgeruil.

'N Groot deel van hul sukses was ook te danke aan hul fokus op die opleiding van vaardige masjiniste. John O'Brien het 'How to Run a Draaibank' geskryf, wat miljoene eksemplare oor die hele wêreld verkoop het, asook handleidings oor die opstel en onderhoud van draaibanke. Ten minste 75 persent van die skole en kolleges in die Verenigde State gebruik South Bend-draaibanke in hul ingenieurs-, beroeps- en tegniese afdelings, volgens 'n vroeë South Bend-koerant, The New-Times. Hulle het ook 'n bekostigbare 9-duim presisie draaibank vir die tuiswerkswinkel ontwikkel en bemark, met dieselfde akkuraatheid as masjiene wat in die industrie gebruik word. Dertig jaar nadat twee mans 'n draaibank begin bou het, was 475 mans en vroue in diens om ongeveer 100 verskillende draaibanke te vervaardig, wat wissel van nege tot 16 duim swaai- en bedlengtes van twee tot 14 voet, en 40 verskillende aanhangsels vir hulle. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog het South Bend Lathe Works nie net regeringskontrakte ontvang om draaibanke te bou nie, maar ook 'n Bureau of Ordnance -vlag, en die gesogte "E" wimpel, die hoogste toekenning wat aan die Amerikaanse vloot toegeken is vir uitstekende prestasie op vlootkontrakte. Die jaar na die einde van die oorlog sterf John O'Brien.

Veranderinge het ná die oorlog voortgeduur. In 1959 koop American Steel, later bekend as Amsted Industries, van Chicago, Illinois, South Bend Lathe Works met sy werksmag van 360. In die daaropvolgende jare is die produkreeks uitgebrei, wat boor- en tapmasjiene en meganiese perse insluit. Die onderneming het ook in 1965 in die ou Studebaker-fabriek in Sample Street in South Bend ingetrek. Amsted het die fabriek in 1975 amper gesluit, maar sy 500 werknemers en stadsamptenare het aansoek gedoen om 'n toelaag vir werknemersbesit, en dit die grootste werknemerbesit gemaak. fabriek in die VSA Die volgende jaar het die tydskrif Time berig oor 'n finansiële ommekeer vir South Bend Lathe Works in 'n artikel oor voorraadplanne vir werknemersbesit. In die artikel word gesê dat die toename in produktiwiteit te wyte was aan ekonomiese herstel in die VSA, maar dat South Bend Lathe moontlik glad nie bestaan ​​nie, was dit nie vir die ESOP nie. Na verskeie eienaarskapsveranderinge, is die onderneming 'tuis' en was die begeerte om te slaag nog nooit so groot nie!

Ons produkreeks bevat die legendariese 10K en Heavy 10 draaibanke, sowel as 'n wye verskeidenheid groottes van ander draaibanke wat alle gebruikers tot die swaar industriële masjienwinkels dek. Ons keuse van masjiene van topgehalte voldoen aan die mees kieskeurige eienaar.
Die O'Brien -broers sou trots wees op die huidige South Bend Lathe Co.

'N Verwante O'Brien -familieverhaal: In 1946 het die dogter en neice van die O'Brien -broers die weggooidoek uitgevind. Lees die volledige storie!


Geskiedenis

Die fakulteit in die geskiedenisgeskiedenis wil 'n stimulerende en ondersteunende omgewing skep vir die studie van mense, bewegings, nasies en gebeure in die menslike geskiedenis. Ons streef daarna om studente te help om 'n sterk begrip van die verlede en 'n deeglike betrokkenheid by die hede te ontwikkel. In ooreenstemming met die algemene missie van IU South Bend, berei ons studente voor vir toekomstige loopbane, verdere navorsing en opvoeding en 'n lewe van burgerlike burgerskap.

Die bestudering van die geskiedenis omvat alle aangetekende uitdrukkings van menslike aktiwiteite van die vroegste tye tot die hede. wêreld.  

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Beurse

Beurse kan 'n baie belangrike rol speel om u universiteitsopleiding bekostigbaar en haalbaar te maak. Ons moedig u aan om vroegtydig met u soektog na beurse te begin, aandag te gee aan sperdatums en onderweg vrae te stel.


'N Terugblik: 150 jaar geskiedenis van die South Bend -omgewing

In die afgelope 250 jaar het historiese samelewings in die Verenigde State ontstaan ​​om historiese inligting te bewaar, te interpreteer en te versamel. Die belange van hierdie groepe wissel in omvang en breedte, waarvan sommige die nasionale geskiedenis insluit en ander wat spesialiseer in 'n land of stad.

Sommige van die vroegste van hierdie historiese organisasies huisves in Massachusetts, New York en Connecticut, maar Indiana is nie ver agter nie. Die Indiana Historical Society is in 1830 gestig deur prominente burgers in Indianapolis.

Die tweede oudste in die staat, die Northern Indiana Historical Society, het in South Bend ontstaan ​​en staan ​​vandag bekend as The History Museum. Die eerste vergadering van die genootskap, wat gestig is deur baie bekende name in die annale van die plaaslike geskiedenis - Lathrop Taylor, Horatio Chapin, Elisha Egbert - het op 26 Oktober 1867 plaasgevind.

Oorspronklik het hierdie leunstoelhistorici gereeld gereël op die eerste Dinsdagaand van elke maand, behalwe gedurende die somer, in die boonste verhaal van die South Bend -biblioteek. In 1906 verhuis die organisasie na die eerste verdieping van die St Joseph County Courthouse in 1855 en bly daar tot 1994, toe 'n nuwe museumfasiliteit op die terrein van die Oliver Mansion in die West Washington Street Historic District gebou is.

Hierdie jaar vier die Northern Indiana Historical Society sy 150ste bestaansjaar op verskeie maniere, waaronder die uitstalling "Our Amazing Cabinet of Curiosities: Keepers of History for 150 Years" en die 150 Lecture Series.

Hierdie inligting is verskaf deur The History Museum. Bel die museum by 574-235-9664 as u foto's van plaaslike museums wil skenk of 'n digitale kopie van u beeld wil maak.


Inhoud

Memorial Hospital is in 1894 gestig in 'n omgeboude huis as Epworth Hospital and Training School. Die hospitaal het hierdie woning vinnig gegroei, en 'n vierverdiepinghuis met 50 beddens is in 1901 geopen. Epworth-hospitaal het uitgebrei en in 1945 is dit herdoop tot Memorial Hospital of South Bend. Die hospitaal werk tans onder 'n moedermaatskappy, Memorial Health System, Inc., wat Memorial Hospital, Memorial Health Foundation, Memorial Home Care en Memorial Medical Group insluit. [1] Al hierdie organisasies is gesertifiseer as 501 (c) (3) organisasies sonder winsbejag, behalwe Memorial Home Care, 'n winsgewende organisasie vir tuisgesondheid.

In Maart 2011 is aangekondig dat Memorial Hospital 'n vennootskap met Elkhart General Hospital aangaan om die twee gesondheidsorgstelsels saam te smelt. [4] In 2012 is aangekondig dat die nuwe naam van die gekombineerde gesondheidsorgstelsel [./Https://www.beaconhealthsystem.org/ Beacon Health System] sal wees. [5]

Memorial Hospital is 'n aangewese vlak II -traumasentrum. [1] [2] Kliniese dienste sluit in binnepasiënt- en polikliniese chirurgie, hart en vaskulêre, pasgebore intensiewe sorg, kindergeneeskunde, bevalling, kinderterapie, kanker, rehabilitasie, slaapstoornisse, sportgeneeskunde, radiologie, bariatrie, beroepsgesondheid en kliniese navorsing. Die hospitaal bied ook pasiënt- en gesinsondersteuningsdienste, gemeenskapsuitreikings en beeldingsdienste. [6] In Maart 2011 het Memorial Hospital die bates van die binnekant van Madison Center, 'n plaaslike geestesgesondheidsorgfasiliteit, gekoop en ongeveer 90 beddens bygevoeg en 'n program vir binnepasiëntpsigiatrie vir beide volwassenes en pediatriese pasiënte in die nuwe Memorial Epworth -sentrum begin. [7]

Memorial Hospital plaas innovasie baie belangrik. Volgens die Journal of Healthcare Management, "ondervind hospitale baie dieselfde mededingende probleme wat ander bedrywe teister, soos die gebrek aan gedifferensieerde dienste, 'n krimpende bedryfsmarge en 'n tekort aan talent." [8] Memorial het 'n toegewyde sentrum vir navorsing en ontwikkeling daargestel. Die organisasie werk saam met talle besighede buite die gesondheidsorg, waaronder 3M, Dupont, IDEO, Land's End, Motorola, Steelcase, Walmart en Whirlpool om standaarde te ontwikkel vir die bestuur van 'n interne innovasieprogram. [8] [9] [10] Resultate van die organisasie se pogings sluit in 'n laboratorium vir innovasie -onderrig en kleinhandelklinieke. [9] [10]

Ongeveer 3 800 mense werk by Memorial Health System. [11] Hierdie getal maak dit die tweede grootste werkgewer in die St. Joseph County, Indiana -streek. [3] Volgens 'n ekonomiese impakstudie wat deur Quantech Research Associates gedoen is, het Memorial -werknemers ". Meer as $ 5 miljoen betaal aan staats- en plaaslike inkomstebelasting, benewens meer as $ 50 miljoen aan federale inkomstebelasting." [11] [12] Die hospitaal het in 2008 $ 368,5 miljoen se inkomste genereer. [13]


'N Terugblik: 150 jaar geskiedenis van die South Bend -omgewing

In die afgelope 250 jaar het historiese samelewings in die Verenigde State ontstaan ​​om historiese inligting te bewaar, te interpreteer en te versamel. Die belange van hierdie groepe wissel in omvang en breedte, waarvan sommige nasionale geskiedenis insluit en ander wat spesialiseer in 'n land of stad.

Sommige van die vroegste van hierdie historiese organisasies huisves in Massachusetts, New York en Connecticut, maar Indiana is nie ver agter nie. Die Indiana Historical Society is in 1830 gestig deur prominente burgers in Indianapolis.

Die tweede oudste in die staat, die Northern Indiana Historical Society, het in South Bend ontstaan ​​en staan ​​vandag bekend as The History Museum. Die eerste vergadering van die genootskap, wat gestig is deur baie bekende name in die annale van die plaaslike geskiedenis - Lathrop Taylor, Horatio Chapin, Elisha Egbert - het op 26 Oktober 1867 plaasgevind.

Oorspronklik het hierdie leunstoelhistorici gereeld gereël op die eerste Dinsdagaand van elke maand, behalwe gedurende die somer, in die boonste verhaal van die South Bend -biblioteek. In 1906 verhuis die organisasie na die eerste verdieping van die St Joseph County Courthouse in 1855 en bly daar tot 1994, toe 'n nuwe museumfasiliteit op die terrein van die Oliver Mansion in die West Washington Street Historic District gebou is.

Hierdie jaar vier die Northern Indiana Historical Society sy 150ste bestaansjaar op verskeie maniere, waaronder die uitstalling "Our Amazing Cabinet of Curiosities: Keepers of History for 150 Years" en die 150 Lecture Series.

Hierdie inligting is verskaf deur The History Museum. Bel die museum by 574-235-9664 as u foto's van plaaslike museums wil skenk of 'n digitale kopie van u beeld wil maak.


South Bend 150 geskiedenis tydlyn

Circa 1600: Hierdie streek word bewoon deur die St. Joseph Potawatomi, direkte voorouers van die Pokagon Band van Potawatomi wat die Great Lakes -streek al duisende jare lank die tuiste genoem het. Die Potawatomi vestig hulle langs wat uiteindelik die St. Joseph -rivier genoem sal word.

1679: René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, die eerste Europeër wat na die sogenaamde South Bend reis, besoek die gebied en maak kontak met die Potawatomi en ander inboorlinge wat langs die rivier woon. Kort daarna kom Jesuïete -priesters aan met die bedoeling om die Potawatomi tot Katolisisme te verander.

1820: Pierre Navarre, 'n agent van die American Fur Co., kom aan en word die eerste persoon van Europese afkoms wat hom hier vestig. Hy stig 'n pos om handel te dryf met die plaaslike Potawatomi, trou met 'n Potawatomi -vrou met die naam Angelique, en hulle het ten minste ses kinders saam.

1823: Alexis Coquillard bou 'n huis in South Bend en word beskou as die stigter van die stad. Hy vestig 'n handelspos aan die St. Joseph -rivier, wat 'n middelpunt word van die bonthandel met inheemse Amerikaners.

1829: Die eerste poskantoor word in die stad gebou, wat destyds bekend staan ​​as Southold.

1830: Die stad word herdoop na South Bend en die eerste rondgaande hof word gevestig.

1831: South Bend se eerste koerant, die North-Western Pioneer en St. Joseph's Intelligencer, word gepubliseer. Alexis Coquillard en Lathrop Taylor lê die platteland van South Bend in, wat die setel van die land word.

1833: Pokagon Band van Potawatomi, onder leiding van Leopold Pokagon, onderhandel oor die reg om in die onderste Great Lakes -gebied te bly, insluitend wat nou South Bend is. Omdat die Pokagons 'n sterk verbintenis met die katolisisme toon, kon hulle die 1833 -verdrag van Chicago wat die voorwaardes vir die verwydering van die Potawatomi weswaarts bepaal het, trotseer.

1838: Meer as 850 Potawatomi word gedwing om die gebied te verlaat en 'n reis van 900 myl na Kansas te begin, wat die hele afstand in net meer as twee maande loop. Die gedwonge verwydering van die Potawatomi deur die Amerikaanse weermag staan ​​bekend as die Trail of Death.

1839: Peter Coleman is die eerste Afro-Amerikaner wat hom permanent in South Bend gevestig het.

1842: Eerwaarde Edward Sorin, 'n jong Franse priester, en ses godsdienstige broers arriveer uit Vincennes, Ind., En vind die Universiteit van Notre Dame.

1844: South Bend se eerste dam aan die St. Joseph -rivier word voltooi.

1846: Christopher Emerick plaas die stad Lowell, Ind., Aan die oostekant van die St. Joseph -rivier. Dit word uiteindelik deel van South Bend.

1847: Die eerste brug oor die St. Joseph -rivier word gebou.

1850: Die bevolking van South Bend bereik 1,652.

1851: Die eerste trein arriveer in South Bend.

1852: Studebaker -broers open 'n smidswinkel op die hoek van Jefferson Boulevard en Michiganstraat.

1855: Eerste vrywillige brandweer word gestig.

1855: Tweede St Joseph County Courthouse gebou.

1855: Saint Mary's Academy verhuis van Bertrand, Mich., Na South Bend. Dit word later die naam Saint Mary's College herdoop.

1858: Farrow Powell en hul gesin word een van die eerste Afro-Amerikaners wat South Bend hul tuiste gemaak het. Familielede het gehelp om die Olivet AME Church, die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse kerk in South Bend, te begin.

1860: Bevolking in South Bend bereik 3.832.

1860: Henry M. Benjamin organiseer die eerste bofbalspan in South Bend, die Hoosier Base Ball Club.

1861: 'n beroep op rekrute vir soldate van die Unie om in die burgeroorlog te veg.

1861-65: Broers Studebaker verskaf waens aan die weermag van die Unie tydens die burgeroorlog.

1862: Eerste openbare skool gestig.

1862: Camp Rose word in South Bend gestig as 'n kortstondige kamp waar die 73ste, 87ste en 99ste regiment bymekaargekom het.

1863: Eerste National Bank of South Bend georganiseer.

1865: South Bend word as 'n stad ingelyf en die eerste burgemeester, William G. George, word verkies.

1867: Northern Indiana Historical Society word gestig.

1868: Singer Naaimasjien Co open fabriek in South Bend.

1868: James Oliver stig South Bend Iron Works Co., wat later Oliver Chilled Plough Works word.

1869: Schuyler Colfax, van South Bend, voormalige uitgewer van die St. Joseph Valley Register, word vise -president van die Verenigde State.

1870: Olivet African Methodist Episcopal Church word die eerste Afro-Amerikaanse kerk wat in South Bend gestig is.

1870: South Bend -bevolking bereik 7,206.

1870: South Bend High School gestig.

1870: Birdsell Manufacturing Co gestig.

1872: South Bend Tribune begin publiseer.

1872: Good's Opera House maak oop vir besigheid.

1873: Stad beveel dat die standpyp gebou moet word.

1878: Ontwikkeling begin oor wat Howard Park word, die stad se eerste park.

1878: O'Brien Paint and Varnish Co. gestig.

1879: Oorspronklike Oliver Hotel maak oop vir besigheid.

1880: Bevolking bereik 30,280.

1880: City se eerste telefooncentrale gestig.

1882: Eerste elektriese tram in die Verenigde State in gebruik geneem in Michiganstraat.

1882: Eerste YMCA in South Bend word gevorm.

1882: South Bend Toy Co gestig.

1886-1889: Tippecanoe Place, die groot herehuis vir Clement Studebaker en sy gesin, word in West Washingtonstraat gebou.

1889: Die eerste openbare biblioteek in South Bend word georganiseer.

1889: Baksteenpaadjies van South Bend -strate begin.

1890: Bevolking bereik 21,819.

1896: Derde St. Joseph County Courthouse gebou. Die voormalige hofgebou word na Lafayette Boulevard gerig.

1899: Oliver Hotel maak oop in die sentrum van South Bend.

1900: Bevolking bereik 35,999.

1900: Leeper Park gestig.

1900: Vandalia/Penn -treinstasie maak oop op die hoek van die hoof- en Bronsonstraat.

1901: Epworth -hospitaal word geopen. (Dit word later Memorial Hospital.)

1902: Potawatomi Zoo word gestig as die eerste dieretuin in Indiana.

1902: Studebaker begin met die vervaardiging en verkoop van sy eerste motors.

1903: Die eerste voorstedelike spoorlyn van Area word oopgemaak, wat South Bend, LaPorte en Michigan City verbind.

1903: South Bend Police Department begin.

1907: "The History of St. Joseph County, Indiana," deur Timothy Howard, die eerste omvattende geskiedenis van die South Bend -gebied, word gepubliseer.

1908: Die South Shore Railroad, 'n elektriese voorstedelike verbinding tussen South Bend en Chicago, word voltooi.

1909: Kamer van Koophandel word gestig.

1910: Bevolking bereik 58 684.

1913: Lincoln Highway Association gestig, verantwoordelik vir die ontwikkeling van die eerste transkontinentale snelweg vir motors in die Verenigde State. Die oorspronklike roete van die snelweg loop deur South Bend.

1917: Sers. Alex Arch, van South Bend, vuur die eerste Amerikaanse skoot van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog af

1918: Baie plaaslike brouerye sluit aan die begin van die verbod in Indiana, wat twee jaar voor die landwye verbod begin het. Sommige brouerye bly bedrywig deur oor te skakel na koeldrankproduksie.

1920: Bevolking bereik 70 983.

1920: Studebaker se motorvervaardiging verhuis van Detroit na South Bend. Laaste perdewa vervaardig.

1922: Eerwaarde Buford Gordon, 'n opgeleide sosioloog en pastoor by die huidige First AME Zion Church in South Bend, skryf en publiseer "The Negro in South Bend", die eerste sosiologiese studie van die Afro-Amerikaanse ervaring hier.

1922: Die Engman Public Natatorium, die openbare natatorium in besit van die stad, open in West Washington Street. Vir die eerste 14 jaar is slegs wit mense toegelaat om die fasiliteit te gebruik.

1922: Palace Theatre word geopen. Dit word later die naam van die Morris Performing Arts Center genoem.

1923: Vincent Bendix begin Bendix Corp. in South Bend, en groei dit tot 'n wêreldwye onderneming wat bekend is vir sy motor- en vliegtuigremme, vergassers en beginritte.

1925: Hering House open in Division Street (nou Western Avenue) as 'n gemeenskapsentrum en plek vir sosiale aktiwiteite vir Afro -Amerikaners. Dit duur tot 1965.

1928: Die eerste lugposdienste arriveer in South Bend.

1929: Nuwe treinstasie van Union Station word geopen.

1930: Stad se bevolking bereik 104.193.

1931: Bendix -lughawe word oopgemaak. Dit word later die South Bend Internasionale Lughawe herdoop.

1933: Indiana Universiteit begin hier 'n georganiseerde uitbreidingsprogram aanbied, met die meeste klasse wat saans by die South Bend Central High School aangebied word.

1934: Busse begin met die vervanging van elektriese trollies in South Bend -strate.

1936: Die Bendix Strike begin by die Bendix -fabriek in South Bend. Dit is die eerste nasionale staking in die UAW.

1940: Die bevolking van die stad is 101 268.

1943: Met baie mans wat in die Tweede Wêreldoorlog diens doen, word die All-American Girls Professional Baseball League gestig. Die South Bend Blue Sox is een van die vier oorspronklike spanne. Die Blue Sox, wat tuiswedstryde op Bendix Field en Playland Park speel, duur voort tot 1954, elke jaar van die bestaan ​​van die liga.

1950: City natatorium word ten volle geïntegreer.

1952: WSBT-TV, wat besit word deur Schurz Communications Inc., teken in die lug as UHF Channel 34, en verhuis na Channel 22 in 1958.

1953: Hoërskool St. Joseph word geopen.

1956: Indiana Toll Road, met 'n roete net noord van South Bend, word oopgemaak.

1960: Stad se bevolking bereik 132.445.

1961: Indiana University South Bend-kampus open met 1 500 studente en 'n klein voltydse fakulteit.

1963: Studebaker Corp. kondig die sluiting van die South Bend -aanleg aan. Die laaste motor word hier op 20 Desember vervaardig.

1965: Stedelike vernuwing begin in die sentrum van South Bend, wat lei tot die sloping van baie van die stad se oudste geboue.

1966: Holy Cross College open.

1970: Die stad se bevolking is 125.580.

1973: Scottsdale Mall maak aan die suidekant van die stad oop.

1977: Century Center, die stad se konvensiesentrum, word gebou.

1980: City se bevolking is 109.727. Met die verskuiwing van die bevolking na die voorstede, is dit die eerste aangetekende bevolkingsdaling in die geskiedenis van South Bend.

1981: Openbare skole in South Bend word volledig geïntegreer, gebaseer op 'n toestemmingsbesluit wat by die federale hof onderteken is.

1984: Die voormalige industriële East Race Waterway van die stad word geopen as 'n mensgemaakte raftingbaan in witwater, die eerste in Noord-Amerika.

1987: Stanley Coveleski Regional Baseball Stadium word geopen as die tuiste van die South Bend White Sox, 'n klas A -filiaal van die Chicago White Sox.

1990: Bevolking is 105.511.

2004: Scottsdale Mall gesloop. Grond herontwikkel in 'n nuwe strook sentrum kompleks genaamd Erskine Village.

2009: Met baie van die voormalige geboue van Studebaker Corp. wat nou gesloop is, hernoem die stad daardie gebied Ignition Park en begin die bemarking van die grond vir die ontwikkeling van hoëtegnologie-ondernemings.

2015: South Bend Cubs, 'n klas A -vennoot van die Chicago Cubs, speel hul eerste tuiswedstryd op Four Winds Field.


Skakelhof

Die St. Joseph Probate Court, geleë in South Bend, Indiana, en is sedert 1997 in die Thomas N Frederick Juvenile Justice Center (JJC) in 1000 South Michigan Street geleë. Die sentrum bevat ruim openbare parkeerplek, maklike toegang tot openbare vervoer en kantore vir die: Hof- en aposs -personeel, County Clerk, Proefafdeling, CASA -program, Kinderproduksiespan (St. Joseph County Office of Family And Children), St. Joseph County aanklaer en St. Joseph County Openbare Verdediger. Die JJC is 'n moderne gebou. Die ontwerp en tegnologie daarvan is 'n integrale deel van die Court & aposs -fasiliteit. Integrator.com (voorheen Security Automation Systems) van Noblesville, Indiana, het verskillende komponente geïnstalleer om sekuriteit te bied, insluitend uitgebreide monitering van veilige en nie-veilige gebiede. Al die proefregters is tans in die JJC geleë.

Tans is daar drie soorte howe in die St Joseph County Court -stelsel. Die regters en landdroste van die St Joseph County Court -stelsel is op drie verskillende plekke in die land geleë. Landdroste is regsbeamptes, soortgelyk aan regters, wat verhore oor sake hou, maar nie opinies kan uitreik nie. Daar is twee howe in die sentrum van South Bend wat die regter van die rondgaande hof, sewe hooggeregshofregters en drie landdroste huisves. Die Probate Court sit ook in South Bend en huisves die Probate Court -regter en drie landdroste. 'N Ander hofgebou in Mishawaka huisves een regter van die hooggeregshof en een landdros in die rondgaande hof.


Inhoud

Buttigieg is gebore op 19 Januarie 1982 in South Bend, Indiana, die enigste kind van Jennifer Anne Montgomery en Joseph A. Buttigieg. Sy ma gebruik die naam Anne Montgomery. [20] [21] [22] [23] [24] [25] Sy ouers ontmoet en trou terwyl hulle as fakulteit aan die New Mexico State University werksaam was. [26] Sy vader is gebore en getoë in Hamrun, Malta, en het as jezuïet gestudeer voordat hy na die Verenigde State emigreer en 'n sekulêre loopbaan begin as professor in letterkunde aan die Universiteit van Notre Dame naby South Bend, [27 ] [28] waar hy 29 jaar lank klas gegee het. [29] Sy vader is 'n vertaler en redakteur van die drie-volume Engelse uitgawe van die Marxistiese filosoof Antonio Gramsci's Prison Notebooks en het sy strewe na letterkunde op die universiteit beïnvloed. [30] Sy ma is gebore in Stanislaus County, Kalifornië, [31] [ gebruiker-gegenereerde bron? ] studeer aan die Radford High School in El Paso, Texas, [32] Haar ma is in Oklahoma gebore. [20] [33] en haar pa is in Indiana gebore. [20] [34]

Onderwys

Buttigieg was valikus van die klas van 2000 aan die St. Joseph High School in South Bend. [35] Daardie jaar het hy die eerste prys in die John F. Kennedy Presidensiële Biblioteek en Museum gewen Profiele in moed opstelwedstryd. Hy reis na Boston om die toekenning te aanvaar en ontmoet Caroline Kennedy en ander lede van president Kennedy se familie. Die onderwerp van sy wenopstel was die integriteit en politieke moed van die destydse Amerikaanse verteenwoordiger Bernie Sanders van Vermont, een van slegs twee onafhanklike politici in die kongres. [36] [37] In 2000 is Buttigieg ook gekies as een van twee studente -afgevaardigdes van Indiana na die Senaat Jeugprogram van die Verenigde State, [38] 'n jaarlikse beurskompetisie wat gesamentlik deur die Amerikaanse senaat en die Hearst Foundations geborg word. [39]

Buttigieg het die Harvard -universiteit bygewoon, waar hy 'n hoofvak in geskiedenis en letterkunde behaal het. [40] Hy word president van die Studente -advieskomitee van die Harvard Institute of Politics en werk aan die instituut se jaarlikse studie van die jeug se houding oor politiek. [41] [42] Hy skryf sy voorgraadse proefskrif, getiteld Die Quiet American se taak in die wildernis, oor die invloed van puriteinisme op die Amerikaanse buitelandse beleid, soos weerspieël in Graham Greene se roman Die Stil Amerikaner. [43] [44] Die titel van sy proefskrif is ook 'n sinspeling op die werk van die Amerikaanse historikus Perry Miller Opdrag tot in die wildernis. [45] Hy het gegradueer magna cum laude van Harvard in 2004, en is verkies tot lid van Phi Beta Kappa. [1]

Buttigieg het 'n Rhodes -beurs ontvang om aan die Universiteit van Oxford te studeer. [1] In 2007 ontvang hy 'n Bachelor of Arts-graad met eersteklas honneurs in filosofie, politiek en ekonomie nadat hy aan die Pembroke College, Oxford, gestudeer het. [46] [47] [48] [49] By Oxford was hy 'n redakteur van die Oxford International Review, [50] en was 'n mede-stigter [50] en lid van die Democratic Renaissance Project, 'n informele debat- en besprekingsgroep van ongeveer 'n dosyn Oxford-studente. [51] [52]

Professionele loopbaan

Voordat hy afgestudeer het, was Buttigieg 'n ondersoekende intern by WMAQ-TV, Chicago se NBC News-filiaal. [53] He also interned for Democrat Jill Long Thompson during her unsuccessful 2002 congressional bid. [54]

After college, Buttigieg worked on John Kerry's 2004 presidential campaign as a policy and research specialist for several months in Arizona and New Mexico. [55] [56] When he accepted the offer to work for Kerry's campaign, he declined another to work for Barack Obama's 2004 United States Senate campaign. [55] From 2004 to 2005, Buttigieg was conference director of the Cohen Group. [57] In 2006, he lent assistance to Joe Donnelly's successful congressional campaign. [58]

After earning his Oxford degree, in 2007 Buttigieg became a consultant at the Chicago office of McKinsey & Company, [59] [60] where he worked on energy, retail, economic development, and logistics for three years. [61] [62] His clients at McKinsey included the health insurer Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan, electronics retailer Best Buy, Canadian supermarket chain Loblaws, two nonprofit environmentalist groups (the Natural Resources Defense Council and Energy Foundation) and several U.S. government agencies (the EPA, Energy Department, Defense Department, and Postal Service). [63] [64] He took a leave of absence from McKinsey in 2008 to become research director for Jill Long Thompson's unsuccessful campaign for Indiana governor. [65] [66] [67] Buttigieg left McKinsey in 2010 in order to focus full-time on his campaign for Indiana state treasurer. [59]

Buttigieg has been involved with the Truman National Security Project since 2005 and serves as a fellow with expertise in Afghanistan and Pakistan. [61] In 2014, he was named to the organization's board of advisors. [68]

Military service

Buttigieg joined the U.S. Navy Reserve through the direct commission officer (DCO) program and was sworn in as an ensign in naval intelligence in September 2009. [69] In 2014, he took a seven-month leave during his mayoral term to deploy to Afghanistan. [70] [71] [72] While there, Buttigieg was part of a unit assigned to identify and disrupt terrorist finance networks. Part of this was done at Bagram Air Base, but he was also an armed driver for his commander on more than 100 trips into Kabul. Buttigieg has jokingly has referred to this role as "military Uber", because he had to watch out for ambushes and explosive devices along the roads and ensure that the vehicle was guarded. [73] In order to better communicate with the local Afghans, he learned some Dari (a dialect of the Persian language). Buttigieg was awarded the Joint Service Commendation Medal. [6] He resigned his commission from the U.S. Navy Reserve in 2017. [74] [75]

Indiana state treasurer election

Buttigieg was the Democratic nominee for state treasurer of Indiana in 2010. He received 37.5% of the vote, losing to Republican incumbent Richard Mourdock. [76] [77] Much of Buttigieg's campaign had focused on criticizing Mourdock for investing state pension funds in Chrysler junk bonds, and for having subsequently filed a lawsuit against Chrysler's bankruptcy restructuring, which Buttigieg argued imperiled Chrysler jobs in the state of Indiana. [78] [79] [80]

First term

Buttigieg was elected mayor of South Bend in the November 2011 election, with 10,991 of the 14,883 votes cast (74%). [81] He took office in January 2012 at the age of 29, becoming the second-youngest mayor in South Bend history (Schuyler Colfax III had become mayor in 1898 when aged 28) [82] and the youngest incumbent mayor, at the time, of a U.S. city with at least 100,000 residents. [81]

On April 14, 2011, before Buttigieg took office as mayor, Jiha'd Vasquez, a 16-year-old black boy, was found hanging from an electrical tower. [83] [84] Vasquez's backpack, on the ground near his body, had several items missing, according to Vasquez's mother Stephanie Jones. [83] The coroner, Chuck Hurley, who had no medical experience, claimed Vasquez's death was a suicide Buttigieg later appointed Hurley to serve as interim police chief. [83] Vasquez's body was cremated without an autopsy being conducted. [83] Jones attempted to get Buttigieg to investigate her son's death, but he did not, fearing "potential political risks." [83] According to Jones, Buttigieg told her to call his office, but she never got a response. [83] Jones and South Bend NAACP legal redress chair Tom Bush claimed the event was a cover-up, with Bush saying he suspected the Ku Klux Klan may be involved and hoped for a federal investigation, but did not expect it, saying "the only reason this will get done is if you’re on a microphone yelling and screaming." [85] When Buttigieg's presidential campaign was asked about the incident by a reporter in 2019, they did not give a response. [83] In 2019, Jones and St. Joseph County coroner Mike McGann argued that the case should be reopened however, sheriff William Redman said he would not consider reopening the case unless further evidence came to light. [85]

In 2012, after a federal investigation ruled that South Bend police had illegally recorded telephone calls of several officers, Buttigieg demoted police chief Darryl Boykins. [86] (Boykins had first been appointed in 2008 by Mayor Stephen Luecke, and reappointed by Buttigieg earlier in 2012. [87] ) Buttigieg also dismissed the department's communications director, the one who had actually "discovered the recordings but continued to record the line at Boykins' command". [86] The police communications director alleged that the recordings captured four senior police officers making racist remarks and discussing illegal acts. [86] [88] The city is 26% black, but only 6% of the police force is black. [89]

Buttigieg has written that his "first serious mistake as mayor" came shortly after taking office in 2012, when he decided to ask for Boykins's resignation. The city's first ever African-American police chief accepted the request. However, the next day, backed by supporters and legal counsel, Boykin requested reinstatement. When Buttigieg denied this request, Boykin sued the city for racial discrimination, [90] arguing that the taping policy had existed under previous police chiefs, who were white. [91] Buttigieg settled the suits brought by Boykins and the four officers out of court for over $800,000. [86] [92] A federal judge ruled in 2015 that Boykins's recordings violated the Federal Wiretap Act. [88] Buttigieg came under pressure from political opponents to release the tapes, but said that doing so would be a violation of the Wiretap Act. [88] He called for the eradication of racial bias in the police force. [86] An Indiana court is hearing a case for the release of the tapes. [91]

As mayor, Buttigieg promoted a number of development and redevelopment projects. [93] Buttigieg was a leading figure behind the creation of a nightly laser-light display along downtown South Bend's St. Joseph River trail as public art. The project cost $700,000, which was raised from private funds. [94] The "River Lights" installation was unveiled in May 2015 as part of the city's 150th anniversary celebrations. [86] He also oversaw the city's launching of a 3-1-1 system in 2013. [95] [96] Buttigieg's administration oversaw the sale of numerous city-owned properties. [97] [98] [99] [100] One of Buttigieg's signature programs was the "Vacant and Abandoned Properties Initiative". Known locally as "1,000 Properties in 1,000 Days", it is a project to repair or demolish blighted properties across South Bend. [101] [102] The program reached its goal two months before its scheduled end date in November 2015. [103] By the thousandth day of the program, before Buttigieg's first term ended, nearly 40% of the targeted houses were repaired, and 679 were demolished or under contract for demolition. [104] Buttigieg took note of the fact that many homes within communities of color were the ones demolished, leading to early distrust between the city and these communities. [105]

While mayor, Buttigieg served for seven months in Afghanistan as a lieutenant in the U.S. Navy Reserve, returning to the United States on September 23, 2014. [106] While deployed, he was assigned to the Afghan Threat Finance Cell, a counterterrorism unit that targeted Taliban insurgency financing. [107] [108] In his absence, Deputy Mayor Mark Neal, South Bend's city comptroller, served as executive from February 2014 until Buttigieg returned to his role as mayor in October 2014. [81] [106] [109]

In 2015, during the controversy over Indiana Senate Bill 101 – the original version of which was widely criticized for allowing discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people – Buttigieg emerged as a leading opponent of the legislation. Amid his reelection campaign, he came out as gay to express his solidarity with the LGBTQ community. [110] [111]

Second term

In 2014, Buttigieg announced that he would seek a second term in 2015. [112] He won the Democratic primary with 78% of the vote, defeating Henry Davis Jr., the city councilman from the second district. [113] In November 2015, he was elected to his second term as mayor with over 80% of the vote, defeating Republican Kelly Jones by a margin of 8,515 to 2,074 votes. [114]

In 2013, Buttigieg proposed a "Smart Streets" urban development program to improve South Bend's downtown area, [86] and in early 2015 – after traffic studies and public hearings – he secured a bond issue for the program backed by tax increment financing. [115] [116] "Smart Streets" was a complete streets implementation program. [117] "Smart Streets" was aimed at improving economic development and urban vibrancy as well as road safety. [118] Elements of the project were finished in 2016, [86] and it was officially completed in 2017. [118] The project was credited with spurring private development in the city. [116]

In 2016, Buttigieg signed an executive order helping to establish a recognized city identification card. [119] [120]

In a new phase of the Vacant and Abandoned Properties Initiative, South Bend partnered with the Notre Dame Clinical Law Center to provide free legal assistance to qualifying applicants wishing to acquire vacant lots and, with local nonprofits, to repair or construct homes and provide low-income home ownership assistance using South Bend HUD (Housing and Urban Development) funds. [121] [122]

In 2016, the City of South Bend partnered with the State of Indiana and private developers to break ground on a $165 million renovation of the former Studebaker complex, with the aim to make the complex home to tech companies and residential condos. [123] This development is in the so-called "Renaissance District", which includes nearby Ignition Park. [124] [125] In 2017, it was announced that the long-abandoned Studebaker Building 84 (also known as "Ivy Tower") would have its exterior renovated with $3.5 million in Regional Cities funds from the State of Indiana and another $3.5 million from South Bend tax increment financing, with plans for the building and other structures in its complex to serve as a technology hub. [126]

Under Buttigieg, the city also began a "smart sewer" program, the first phase of which was finished in 2017 at a cost of $150 million. [124] The effort utilized federal funds [127] and by 2019 had reduced the combined sewer overflow by 75%. [124] The impetus for the effort was a fine that the EPA had levied against the city in 2011 for Clean Water Act violations. [124] However, Buttigieg also, in 2019, sought for the city to be released from an agreement with the EPA brokered under his mayoral predecessor Steve Luecke, in which South Bend had agreed to make hundreds of millions dollars in further improvements to its sewer system by 2031. [128]

In April 2019, the Common Council approved Buttigieg's request to enable his administration to develop a city climate plan. The Common Council did so, and that month Buttigieg contracted with the Chicago firm Delta Institute to develop a plan. [129] In late November 2019, the city's Common Council voted 7–0 to approve the resultant "Carbon Neutral 2050" plan, setting the goal of meeting the Paris Agreement's 26% emission reduction by 2025, and aiming for a further reductions of 45% by 2035. [130]

Buttigieg continued to support private developments in the city. [131] [132] [133] [134] [135] By one account, by the year 2019, the city had seen $374 million in private investment for mixed-use developments since Buttigieg had taken office. [136] [94] By another account, during Buttigieg's tenure, Downtown South Bend saw roughly $200 million in private investment. [137]

Beginning in August 2018, Buttigieg promoted the idea of moving the city's South Shore Line station from South Bend International Airport to the city's downtown. [138] He made it a goal to have the city complete this project by 2025. [139]

In 2019, South Bend launched Commuters Trust, a new transportation benefit program created in collaboration with local employers and transportation providers (including South Bend Transpo and Lyft) and made possible by a $1 million three-year grant from Bloomberg Philanthropies Mayors Challenge. [140] [141]

Under Buttigieg, South Bend invested $50 million in the city's parks, many of which had been neglected during the preceding decades. [94]

After a white South Bend police officer shot and killed Eric Logan, an African-American man, in June 2019, Buttigieg was drawn from his presidential campaign to focus on the emerging public reaction. Body cameras were not turned on during Logan's death. [142] Soon after Logan's death, Buttigieg presided over a town hall attended by disaffected activists from the African-American community as well as relatives of the deceased man. The local police union accused Buttigieg of making decisions for political gain. [143] [144] In November 2019, Buttigieg secured $180,000 to commission a review of South Bend's police department policies and practices to be conducted by Chicago-based consulting firm 21CP Solutions. [145]

In 2020, the website "Best Cities" ranked South Bend number 39 on its list of the 100 best small cities in the United States, giving much credit to the progress made under Buttigieg. [146]

Increased national profile

In the 2016 U.S. Senate election in Indiana, he campaigned on behalf of Democratic Senate nominee Evan Bayh [147] and criticized Bayh's opponent, Todd Young, for having voiced support in 2010 for retaining the military's don't ask, don't tell policy, which Bayh had voted to repeal. [148] In the 2016 Democratic presidential primaries, Buttigieg endorsed Hillary Clinton. [149] He also endorsed Democratic nominee Lynn Coleman in that year's election for Indiana's 2nd congressional district, which includes South Bend. [150]

In 2016, columnist Frank Bruni of Die New York Times published a column praising Buttigieg's work as mayor, with a headline asking if he might be "the first gay president". [151] Additionally, Barack Obama was cited as mentioning him as one of the Democratic Party's talents in a November 2016 profile on the outgoing president conducted by Die New Yorker. [152]

By the end of 2017, it had been noted that, as his national profile increased following his run in the 2017 DNC chairmanship election, Buttigieg had increased his out-of-city travel. [153] By the early months of 2018, there was speculation that Buttigieg was looking towards running for either governor or president in the year 2020. [154] [155] There was some speculation that, despite a presidential bid being a long shot, he garner enough recognition to become a dark horse contender for the vice presidential slot on the Democratic ticket. [154]

For the 2018 midterms, Buttigieg founded the political action committee Hitting Home PAC. [156] That October, Buttigieg personally endorsed 21 congressional candidates. [157] He also later endorsed Mel Hall, Democratic nominee in the election for Indiana's 2nd congressional district. [158] Buttigieg also campaigned in support of Joe Donnelly's reelection campaign in the United States Senate election in Indiana. [159] Buttigieg campaigned for candidates in more than a dozen states, including early presidential primary states such as Iowa and South Carolina, a move indicating potential interest in running for president. [157] He officially announced his run on January 23, 2019. [160]

Succession as mayor

In December 2018, Buttigieg announced that he would not seek a third term as mayor of South Bend. [161] In February 2019, Buttigieg endorsed James Mueller in the 2019 South Bend mayoral election. [162] [163] Mueller was a high-school classmate of Buttigieg's and his mayoral chief of staff, and later executive director of the South Bend Department of Community Investment. [162] Mueller's campaign promised to continue the progress that had been made under Buttigieg's mayoralty. [164] Buttigieg appeared in campaign ads for Mueller and donated to Mueller's campaign. [165] Mueller won the May 2019 Democratic primary with 37% of the vote in a crowded field. [166] [162] [167] In the November 2019 general election, Mueller defeated Republican nominee Sean M. Haas with 63% of the vote. [168] [169] Mueller took office on New Year's Day 2020. [24]

In January 2017, Buttigieg announced his candidacy for chair of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) in its 2017 chairmanship election. [170] He built a national profile as an emerging dark horse in the race for the chairmanship with the backing of former DNC chairman Howard Dean, former Maryland governor Martin O'Malley, Indiana senator Joe Donnelly, and North Dakota senator Heidi Heitkamp. [171] [172] Buttigieg "campaigned on the idea that the aging Democratic Party needed to empower its millennial members". [171]

Former U.S. Secretary of Labor Tom Perez and U.S. representative Keith Ellison quickly emerged as the favored candidates of a majority of DNC members. Buttigieg withdrew from the race on the day of the election without endorsing a candidate, and Perez was elected chair after two rounds of voting. [171]

On January 23, 2019, Buttigieg announced that he was forming an exploratory committee to run for President of the United States in the upcoming 2020 election. [173] Buttigieg sought the Democratic Party nomination for president. [174] [175] If he had been elected, he would have been the youngest and first openly gay American president. [173] Buttigieg officially launched his campaign on April 14, 2019, in South Bend. [8] [176]

Buttigieg described himself as a progressive and a supporter of democratic capitalism. [177] Historian David Mislin identifies Buttigieg as a pragmatic progressive in the tradition of the Social Gospel movement once strong in the Midwest. [178] Buttigieg identifies regulatory capture as a significant problem in American society. [177] Amid the start of his presidential effort, Buttigieg published his debut book, autobiography Shortest Way Home.

Initially regarded as a long-shot candidate, [179] [180] [181] Buttigieg rose into the top-tier of candidates in the primary by December 2019. [182] In early February 2020, Buttigieg led the 2020 Iowa Democratic caucuses results with 26.2% to Bernie Sanders' 26.1%, winning 14 delegates to Sanders's 12. [183] [184] The LGBTQ Victory Fund, Buttigieg's first national endorsement, [c] noted the historical first of an LGBTQ candidate winning a state presidential primary. [185] Buttigieg finished second behind Sanders in the New Hampshire primary. [11] After placing a fourth in the South Carolina primary with 8.2% of the vote, behind Joe Biden (48.7%), Bernie Sanders (19.8%), and Tom Steyer (11.3%) he dropped out of the race on March 1, 2020, and endorsed Biden. [14] [15]

In April 2020, Buttigieg launched Win The Era PAC – a new super PAC to raise money and distribute it to down-ballot Democrats. [186] The PAC focused on local elected positions, and its list of endorsements included candidates such as Jaime Harrison, Cal Cunningham, Gina Ortiz Jones, Christine Hunschofsky, and Levar Stoney. [187] On June 8, 2020, the University of Notre Dame announced that it had hired Buttigieg as a teacher and researcher for the 2020–21 academic year. [188]

Buttigieg acted as a surrogate for Biden's campaign in the general election. [189] [190] He delivered a speech on the closing night of the 2020 Democratic National Convention, [191] and also announced Indiana's votes during the convention's roll call. [192] On September 5, 2020, Buttigieg was announced to be a member of the advisory council of the Biden-Harris Transition Team, which was planning the presidential transition of Joe Biden. [193] [194] Ahead of the vice presidential debate, Buttigieg played the role as a stand-in for Republican vice president Mike Pence in Democratic vice presidential nominee Kamala Harris's debate prep. Buttigieg was selected to do this because of his experience working with Pence during the overlapping time when Buttigieg was serving as mayor and Pence was serving as governor of Indiana. [195]

In October 2020, Buttigieg released his second book, Trust: America's Best Chance. [196]

Following the end of his presidential campaign, Buttigieg was considered a possible Cabinet appointee in Joe Biden's administration. [197] [198] After Biden was declared the winner of the election on November 7, 2020, Buttigieg was again mentioned as a possible nominee for Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Ambassador to the United Nations, Ambassador to China or Secretary of Transportation. [199] On December 15, 2020, Biden announced that he would nominate Buttigieg as his Secretary of Transportation. [16] The Senate Commerce Committee advanced Buttigieg's nomination to the full Senate with a vote of 21–3. [200] Buttigieg was confirmed on February 2, 2021, with a vote of 86–13 [201] and was sworn in the next morning. [202]

In his early acts as secretary, Buttigieg worked on re-organizing the department's internal policy structure, including carrying out a thorough review process of rules enacted under the Trump administration. [203] [204]

In late February 2021, Buttigieg addressed the African American Mayors Association to discuss systemic racism. He argued that misguided investments in the federal transport and infrastructure policy had contributed to racial inequity. [205] In early March, Politiek noted that Buttigieg had mentioned racial equity in almost every interview he gave to the press as it related to his work at the department. [206]

Early into his tenure, Buttigieg noted that the United States' actions surrounding road traffic safety is lacking and encouraged the improved design of roads. He also encouraged a shift in the policy from decisions based on cars to decisions based on human actions. [207]

In March 2021, Buttigieg indicated he was open to tolls on Interstate 80, but not the tollage of bridges, suggesting "big picture solutions" instead, like a mileage tax. [208] [209] The Biden administration, however, did not include a gas tax or mileage tax in the infrastructure plan it released that month. [210]

In late March 2021, Buttigieg informed Congress that the administration was planning to prioritize the construction of the Gateway Rail Tunnel Project due to its economic significance. [211] The progress of the project, which was stalled by President Trump, [212] was announced to be moving faster, according to New York senator, Chuck Schumer. Buttigieg announced the environmental impact assessment of the project - which was largely seen as a sign of major progress in the project. [213]

Buttigieg has served as a promoter of the American Jobs Plan. [214]

On May 19, 2021, Buttigieg reinstated a Obama-era pilot program which ensures local hiring for public works projects, with the goal of helping minorities and disadvantaged individuals. This program had been revoked in 2017 during the Trump administration, when the Department of Transportation (under the leadership of Elaine Chao) moved back to rules established during the Reagan administration, which banned geographic-based hiring preferences. [215]

Infrastructure

During his 2020 campaign for the Democratic nomination, Buttigieg proposed spending $1 trillion on U.S. infrastructure projects over the next ten years, estimating that the plan would create at least six million jobs. The plan focused on green energy, protecting tap water from lead, fixing roads and bridges, improving public transportation, repairing schools, guaranteeing broadband internet access, and preparing communities for floods and other natural disasters. [216] [217] [218]

Social issues

Buttigieg supports abortion rights [219] [220] and the repeal of the Hyde Amendment, which blocks federal funding for abortion services except in cases of rape, incest, or the life of the mother is in danger. [221] He favors amending civil rights legislation, including the Federal Equality Act so that LGBT Americans receive federal non-discrimination protections. [222]

Buttigieg supports expanding opportunities for national service, including a voluntary year of national service for those turning 18 years old. [223] [224] [225]

In July 2019, Buttigieg shared his "Douglass Plan", named after abolitionist Frederick Douglass, to address systemic racism in America. [226] The initiative would allocate $10 billion to African-American entrepreneurship over five years, grant $25 billion to historically black colleges, legalize marijuana, expunge drug convictions, halve the federal prison population, and propose a federal New Voting Rights Act designed to increase voting access. [227] [226]

Buttigieg supports eliminating the death penalty, [228] marijuana legalization, [229] moving toward reversing criminal sentences for minor drug-related offenses, [230] and eliminating incarceration for drug possession offenses. [231]

In 2019, he called for the U.S. to "decriminalize mental illness and addiction through diversion, treatment, and re-entry programs" with a goal of decreasing "the number of people incarcerated due to mental illness or substance use by 75% in the first term." [232] [233]

Voting rights

Buttigieg favors the abolition of the Electoral College [234] and has also called for restoring voting rights to felons who have completed their prison sentences. [230] [235]

Campaign finance reform

He supports a constitutional amendment on campaign finance to reduce the undue influence of money in politics. [236] During his 2020 presidential run in response to accusation of campaign finance concerns Buttigieg's campaign told Nuusweek that the candidate does "not accept contributions from registered federal lobbyists, corporate PACs or the fossil fuel industry." In the statement, it was also made known that "Pete has made enacting critical campaign finance reforms part of his campaign platform, including strengthening the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and pushing to overturn Citizens United and Buckley v. Valeo, if necessary, by a constitutional amendment." [237]

Statehood advocacy

Climate change

During his campaign for the Democratic presidential nomination, Buttigieg stated that, if elected, he would restore the United States' commitment to the Paris Climate Agreement and double its pledge to the Green Climate Fund. He also supports the Green New Deal proposed by House Democrats, [238] [239] solar panel subsidies, and a carbon tax and dividend policy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. [240] [241]

Economic beliefs

Buttigieg identifies as a democratic capitalist and has decried crony capitalism. [242] He has entertained the possibility of antitrust actions against large technology companies on the basis of privacy and data security concerns. [243] During the Democratic primary, he supported deficit and debt reduction, arguing that large debt makes it harder to invest in infrastructure, health and safety. [244]

Workers' rights

In July 2019, he released a plan to strengthen union bargaining power, to raise the minimum wage to $15, and to offer national paid family leave. [245]

Onderwys

Buttigieg's education plan includes a $700 billion investment in universal full-day child care and pre-K for all children from infancy to age 5. [246] Buttigieg also wants to triple Title I funding for schools. [247] Other goals include doubling the amount of new teachers of color in the next 10 years, addressing school segregation with a $500 million fund, paying teachers more, expanding mental health services in schools, and creating more after-school programs and summer learning opportunities. [246]

His plan for debt-free college partially involves expanding Pell Grants for low and middle-income students, as well as other investments and ending Trump's tax cuts for the wealthy. [248] Under his plan, the bottom 80% of students would get free college, with the other 20% paying some or all of the tuition themselves on a sliding scale. [249] Buttigieg opposes free college tuition for all students because he believes it unfairly subsidizes higher-income families at the expense of lower-income people who do not attend college, a position distinguishing him from other progressives who support free college tuition for all. [250]

Buitelandse beleid

Buttigieg called for modifying the structure of defense spending, [251] while suggesting that he might favor an overall increase in defense spending. [252]

Buttigieg has said that he believes the 2001 U.S. invasion of Afghanistan following the September 11 attacks was justified [243] but now supports withdrawing American troops from the region with a maintained intelligence presence. [253] He is a committed supporter of Israel, [254] [255] favors a two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, [255] [256] opposes proposals for Israel to annex the Israeli-occupied West Bank, [255] and disapproves of Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu's comments in support of applying Israeli law in Jewish settlements in the West Bank. [257]

In 2008, Buttigieg wrote an op-ed in the New York Times calling on the United States to support the de facto independent Republic of Somaliland [258]

In June 2019, Buttigieg said: "We will remain open to working with a regime like the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for the benefit of the American people. But we can no longer sell out our deepest values for the sake of fossil fuel access and lucrative business deals." [259] He supports ending U.S. support for Saudi Arabia in Saudi Arabia's war in Yemen. [260]

Buttigieg has condemned China for its mass detention of ethnic Uyghurs in Xinjiang. [261] He criticized Trump's decision to withdraw U.S. troops from Syria, which critics say gave Turkey the green light to launch its military offensive against Syrian Kurds. [262]

Health care

In 2018, Buttigieg said he favored Medicare for All. [263] During his presidential campaign, Buttigieg has promoted "Medicare for All Who Want It" (a public option for health insurance). [264] [265] [266] He has spoken favorably of Maryland's all-payer rate setting. [267] Buttigieg has described "Medicare for All Who Want It" as inclusive, more efficient than the current system, and a possible precursor or "glide path" to single-payer health insurance. [267] [266] He also favors a partial expansion of Medicare that would allow Americans ages 50 to 64 to buy into Medicare, and supports proposed legislation (the Family and Medical Insurance Leave Act), that would "create a fund to guarantee up to 12 weeks of partial income for workers to care for newborn children or family members with serious illnesses." [268]

In August 2019, Buttigieg released a $300 billion plan to expand mental health care services and fight addiction. [269] [233]

Immigrasie

Buttigieg supports Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and has drawn attention to the Trump administration's aggressive deportation policies. He defended a resident of Granger, Indiana, who was deported after living in the U.S. for 17 years despite regularly checking in with ICE and applying for a green card. [270]

Buttigieg has said Trump has been reckless in sending American troops to the southern border, and that it is a measure of last resort. [271]

Buttigieg is a Christian, [272] [273] and he has said his faith has had a strong influence in his life. [223] [274] [151] He was baptized in the Catholic Church as an infant and he attended Catholic schools. [273] While at the University of Oxford, Buttigieg began to attend Christ Church Cathedral and said he felt "more-or-less Anglican" by the time he returned to South Bend. [273] St. Augustine, James Martin, and Garry Wills are among his religious influences. [274] A member of the Episcopal Church, Buttigieg is a congregant at the Cathedral of St. James in downtown South Bend. [223]

In addition to his native English, Buttigieg has some knowledge of Norwegian, Spanish, Italian, Maltese, Arabic, Dari Persian, and French. [275] [46] Buttigieg plays guitar and piano, [276] [277] and in 2013 performed with the South Bend Symphony Orchestra as a guest piano soloist with Ben Folds. [278] [279] Buttigieg was a 2014 Aspen Institute Rodel Fellow. [280]

In a June 2015 piece in the South Bend Tribune, Buttigieg came out as gay. [110] By coming out, Buttigieg became Indiana's first openly gay elected executive. [281] [282] [283] He was the first elected official in Indiana to come out while in office, [284] and the highest elected official in Indiana to come out. [283] Buttigieg was also the first openly gay Democratic presidential candidate, and the second overall, after Republican Fred Karger, who ran in 2012. [285]

On December 14, 2017, in a post on Facebook, Buttigieg announced his engagement to Chasten Glezman, a junior high school teacher. [286] [287] They had been dating since August 2015 after meeting on the dating app Hinge. [28] [288] They were married on June 16, 2018, in a private ceremony at the Cathedral of St. James in South Bend. [289] [273] This made Buttigieg the first mayor of South Bend to get married while in office. [290] Chasten uses his husband's surname, Buttigieg. [291] Buttigieg and his husband plan to have children in the near future, he revealed on The Carlos Watson Show in September 2020. [292]

In 2015, Buttigieg was a recipient of the Fenn Award, given by the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. It was given in recognition of his work as mayor. [293] In June 2019, to mark the 50th anniversary of the Stonewall riots, Queerty named him one of its "Pride50" people identified as "trailblazing individuals who actively ensure society remains moving towards equality, acceptance and dignity for all queer people". [294] In October 2019, at the Golden Heart Awards, run by God's Love We Deliver, Buttigieg was awarded the "Golden Heart Award for Outstanding Leadership and Public Service". [295] In August 2020, Equality California, an LGBT-rights organization, gave Buttigieg and his husband Chasten their Equality Trailblazer Award. [296] Attitude, an LGBTQ publication, named Buttigieg their Person of the Year in 2020, in recognition of his groundbreaking run for the presidency. [297]


Ons Geskiedenis

Originally opened in 1846, referred to White Hall. Ten years later the county purchased more property on the north side of the St. Joseph River. By the turn of the century it was decided the old structures need replacement to better serve the county. In 1905 the county board of charities purchased a farm northwest of South Bend. In 1907 the Saint Joseph County Infirmary opened, the name change to reflect its change in mission. The facility contained the main house, a pole barn, and a pump house. There was also a poor farm cemetery 1/2 mile east of the home.

By the 1930s, the facility became so overcrowded that patients determined as "feeble-minded" had to be housed with the insane. Although by the early 1950s, those diagnosed with severe mental illness were moved to Norman Beatty Mental Hospital. The lock-up cells however, were used through the 1970s for those that had escaped, were a danger to others or frequently broke rules. In the late 1970s the facility changed it's name to Portage Manor and farming operations ceased. Today the main focus of the facility is residential long-term care.


A Look Back: South Bend was home to one of largest meat markets in northern Indiana

Eastwood’s Meat Market once stood at 224 W. Washington St., near where the Tower Building stands today in downtown South Bend.

In 1901, when this photograph was taken, Eastwood’s was one of 51 meat markets in South Bend.

Today, we enjoy all-in-one grocery stores, but until the 1920s meat was exclusively sold at these specialty stores. Though one might think of the art of butchery as merely dividing up an animal for sale, there are many different specializations. Some butchers worked in primal cuts, the initial separation from the carcass. Secondary butchers divide the primal cuts into boned and trimmed pieces packaged for sale.

Charcutiers were particularly important before refrigeration, creating cured meats such as sausages, bacon and salted pork. Yet others might have ethnic specializations, such as kosher butchers or those catering to the Polish community.

Eastwood’s was a more general store, selling secondary cuts and products from larger meatpackers such as Armour & Co. It was founded by Le Roy Eastwood, who moved to the area with his father shortly after the Civil War. His father opened a meat market in the 100 block of North Main Street. Their store operated for several years, only to be lost to a fire just one day after insurance on the building had expired. After this disaster, the younger Eastwood went into business for himself and, by 1890, owned the largest meat market in northern Indiana.

Eastwood moved to California in 1889 due to what was described as a “catarrhal affection,” and there passed away at the age of 44. His influence led meat magnate Philip D. Armour to send a letter of condolence to Eastwood’s widow. Despite his death, the family business continued for many decades.

Eventually, due to the combined popularity of corporate slaughterhouses, larger grocery stores and ease of transportation, the demand for so many specialized butchers decreased. Fifteen years after this photograph, only six meat markets remained in the city — including Eastwood’s.


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