Neutraliteitswet 1936 - Geskiedenis

Neutraliteitswet 1936 - Geskiedenis

Neutraliteitswet van 1936

Ethiopiese leier

In Februarie 1936 het die Kongres die Neutraliteitswet van 1936 aangeneem. Dit het die Neutraliteitswet van 1935 uitgebrei en dit uitgebrei tot lenings. Dit het nie burgeroorloë gedek nie.


Die Italiaanse inval in Ethiopië het die kongres verdere stukrag gegee om bykomende neutraliteitswetgewing te aanvaar. Die tweede neutraliteitswet, wat op 29 Februarie 1936 onderteken is, dwing die president om te verklaar dat daar 'n oorlogstoestand bestaan. Boonop verbied die wet die voorsiening van lenings vir die strydlustiges, en aanvaar sodoende sommige van die bevindinge van die Nye -kommissie, wat verklaar dat bankiers die Verenigde State in die Eerste Wêreldoorlog gedryf het. Die twee uitsonderings, die wet dek nie burgerlike oorlog soos die Spaanse Amerikaanse oorlog. Dit het ook vragmotors en olie vrygestel, gevolglik het Amerikaanse maatskappye sowel olie as vragmotors aan die Franco -regime in Spanje verkoop.


Neutraliteitswet 1936 - Geskiedenis

Senatore Nye en Borah

Op 31 Augustus 1935 onderteken president Roosevelt onwillig die eerste neutraliteitswet. Dit het van hom vereis om 'n wapenverbod op alle partye in 'n oorlog op te lê.

Die stemming van die Verenigde State in die vroeë deel van die dertigerjare was uiters isolasionisties. 'N Spesiale ondersoek is deur die senaat onder leiding van senator Nye van Noord -Dakota gedoen om vas te stel of wapenvervaardigers wins gemaak het tydens die Eerste Wêreldoorlog. Die antwoord was oorweldigend bevestigend. Die argument is dus dat die Verenigde State op bevel van die wapenmakers betrokke was by die Eerste Wêreldoorlog.

As gevolg hiervan het die kongres 'n besluit begin bespreek wat Amerikaanse betrokkenheid by buitelandse oorloë sou beperk.

Die president versoek 'n wet wat hom in staat sal stel om 'n embargo op die wapen te plaas na die land wat hy as die aggressor beskou het terwyl hy voortgaan om wapens aan die slagoffer te verkoop. Die kongres het die wetsontwerp van die administrasie verwerp en in plaas daarvan gestem vir 'n wetsontwerp wat lui dat wanneer die president 'n oorlogstoestand verklaar, hy 'n wapenembargo aan alle kante moet verklaar. Roosevelt het die wetsontwerp onwillig onderteken.


Bespreking: Neutraliteitswette van die 1930's

Dit lyk asof hierdie artikel stilstaan ​​by die konteks van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, maar gedeeltes van hierdie wet bly tans van krag. Die artikel 2007 Laotiaanse staatsgreep -sameswering -aantyging noem 'n beweerde oortreding van die wet op neutraliteit en verwys die leser na hierdie artikel, maar hier is geen relevante inligting nie. Ek dink 'n gedeelte in hierdie artikel moet toegewy wees aan die beskrywing van die implikasies van die neutraliteitswet in sy huidige vorm.-72.155.121.7 (kontak) 13:57, 2 Desember 2008 (UTC)

Ek stem saam. Don Black (wit nasionalis) is ook skuldig bevind onder die "Neutraliteitswet" in 1981. 'n Skakel na hierdie artikel, maar soos die ander redakteur sê, is daar niks oor die huidige wet nie. Sal Beback praat 19:19, 16 April 2009 (UTC) Y Daar is nou 'n gedeelte oor die voortgesette gebruik van die neutraliteitswet. AxelBoldt (kontak) 16:49, 15 Maart 2010 (UTC)

Lelik Lelik Lelik sleg en bougie

Kan iemand my sê wanneer hierdie dade die eerste keer teen Duitsland ingeroep is?

Baie dankie Neutraliteitswet 04:30, 1 Oktober 2006 (UTC)

Die artikel verwys na die "skuiwergate in die 1935 -wet". Maar daar is geen verwysing na 'n 1935 -wet nie. MrG 4.225.208.30 22:16, 12 Augustus 2007 (UTC)

Hierdie artikel maak nie eens melding van die Neutraliteitswet van 1935 nie. Dit noem slegs 1936, 1937, 1939. Iemand moet inligting wat hulle oor die 1935 -wet ken, by die artikel voeg. Noneforall (kontak) 01:37, 2 April 2008 (UTC)

Y Die wet van 1935 word nou gedek. AxelBoldt (kontak) 16:49, 15 Maart 2010 (UTC)

Die artikel moet die politiek van die saak beskryf. Het die Republikeine of die Demokrate hierdie dade in die algemeen bevoordeel? Het Roosevelt hulle gewillig of met hartseer onderteken? AxelBoldt (kontak) 02:47, 5 Junie 2008 (UTC)

Y Dit word nou behandel in die agtergrond -afdeling. AxelBoldt (kontak) 16:49, 15 Maart 2010 (UTC)

In elke geval het die president voorsiening gemaak vir die optrede deur te bevind dat daar in 'n spesifieke geval 'n oorlogstoestand was. Dit was 'n leemte wat president Franklin D. Roosevelt noukeurig uitgebuit het om te verseker dat Amerikaanse bondgenote in die buiteland nie onbehoorlik deur die dade gepenaliseer word nie.

In die Encyclopaedia Britannica, artikel "internasionale betrekkinge", onderafdeling "The return of U.S. isolationism" wat ek gelees het

Die effek van hierdie dade was egter om Amerikaanse hulp aan Abessinië, Spanje en China uit te sluit en sodoende die slagoffers van aggressie meer as die aggressors seer te maak.

Verder sê ons artikels:

Toe Japan China in Julie 1937 binnedring, met die begin van die Sino-Japannese Oorlog (1937-1945), het president Roosevelt gekies om nie die neutraliteitswette aan te roep deur te weier om die geveg as 'n oorlogstoestand te identifiseer nie. Sodoende het hy verseker dat China se pogings om homself te verdedig nie deur die wetgewing belemmer word nie.

Ek lees in die Encyclopaedia Britannica, artikel "internasionale betrekkinge", onderafdeling "Japan se aggressie in China":

Maar Roosevelt is deur die neutraliteitshandelinge verhinder om China te help, selfs nadat Amerikaanse en Britse geweerbote op die Yangtze gesink het.

Alhoewel ek niks van die onderwerp weet nie, blyk dit dat ons dekking in wese nie met die van EB verskil nie. AxelBoldt (kontak) 03:19, 5 Junie 2008 (UTC)

Ek dink hierdie kwessies is nou uitgesorteer. AxelBoldt (kontak) 16:49, 15 Maart 2010 (UTC)

"uit vrees dat hulle die administrasie se opsies om die land se bondgenote te ondersteun, sal beperk"

Die implikasie dat Frankryk en Groot -Brit die bondgenote van die VSA in die 30's was, is nie iets wat ek voorheen gelees het nie.

Ek was nie bewus daarvan dat die Verenigde State van Amerika gedurende die negentien dertigerjare 'n betekenisvolle bondgenootskap gehad het nie, of dat 'n figuur gesê het dat Wes -Europese lande bondgenote was. Hierdie bewoording moet verander. 67.167.2.58 (kontak) 14:53, 1 September 2010 (UTC)

Y Ek het "bondgenote" verander na "vriendelike nasies". AxelBoldt (kontak) 01:52, 21 Mei 2013 (UTC)

Ek is nie 'n deskundige nie, maar het die Neutraliteitswet van 1936 die Neutraliteitswet van 1935 nie kanselleer nie, wat die VSA in staat stel om wapens aan lande te kry, maar slegs as dit met kontant gekoop word ('kontant-en-dra') ?

Kontant-en-dra is deur die wet van 1937 ingestel. AxelBoldt (kontak) 01:52, 21 Mei 2013 (UTC)

Ek is net 'n hoërskoolleerling, maar ek het opgemerk dat Duitsland in die afdeling, Neutraliteitswet van 1939, verklaar dat: "In September, na die inval van Pole in 1939, het Duitsland Groot -Brittanje binnegeval. Toe Frankryk daarna verklaar het oorlog teen Duitsland, het Roosevelt die bepalings van die neutraliteitswet ingeroep, maar voor die kongres gekom en betreur dat die neutraliteitswette passiewe hulp aan 'n aggressor kan verleen. [6] "

Ek het nie geglo dit is korrek nie. Daarom volg ek die skakel na die aangehaalde bron, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/fdr-urges-repeal-of-neutrality-act-embargo-provisions, wat dit nie noem nie, ' Duitsland val Groot -Brittanje binne. " soos beskryf.

Ek sal dit waardeer as iemand daarna kyk en dit redigeer indien nodig. --Login-error23 (kontak) 01:10, 19 April 2012 (UTC)

Goeie werk! jy het 'n skerp oog en ek het die probleem opgelos. Rjensen (kontak) 01:27, 19 April 2012 (UTC)

Dankie ek is bly dit is opgelos. --Login-error23 (kontak) 02:00, 19 April 2012 (UTC)


“ Neutraliteitswet ” van 1937

Baie primêre dokumente hou verband met verskeie temas in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis en regering en word saamgestel deur verskillende redakteurs vir spesifieke versamelings. In die keuselys bied ons skakels na verskillende uittreksels van die dokument, met studievrae wat relevant is vir spesifieke temas.

Verwante hulpbronne

Om die gesamentlike resolusie getiteld “ Gesamentlike resolusie te maak wat voorsiening maak vir die verbod op die uitvoer van wapens, ammunisie en oorlogsimplemente na strydende lande, die verbod op die vervoer van wapens, ammunisie en oorlogsimplementasies vir vaartuie van die Verenigde State vir die gebruik van strydlustige state vir die registrasie en lisensiëring van persone wat besig is met die vervaardiging, uitvoer of invoer van wapens, ammunisie of oorlogsimplemente en die beperking van die reis deur Amerikaanse burgers op oorlogskepe tydens oorlog ”, goedgekeur op 31 Augustus 1935 , soos gewysig.

Besluit deur die Senaat en die Huis van Verteenwoordigers van die Verenigde State van Amerika in die kongres, dat die gesamentlike resolusie 'n gesamentlike resolusie bevat wat voorsiening maak vir die verbod op die uitvoer van wapens, ammunisie en oorlogsimplementasies na strydende lande, die verbod op vervoer van wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie deur vaartuie van die Verenigde State vir die gebruik van strydlustige state vir die registrasie en lisensiëring van persone wat besig is met die vervaardiging, uitvoer of invoer van wapens, ammunisie of oorlogsimplemente en beperkings reis deur Amerikaanse burgers op oorlogskepe tydens oorlog ”, goedgekeur op 31 Augustus 1935, soos gewysig, word soos volg gewysig:

UITVOER VAN WAPENS, AMMUNISIE EN UITVOERINGS VAN OORLOG

AFDELING 1. (a) Elke keer as die president bevind dat daar 'n oorlogstoestand bestaan ​​tussen of tussen twee of meer buitelandse state, kondig die president so 'n feit aan, en dit is daarna onwettig om uit te voer of te probeer uitvoer, of laat uitvoer, wapens, ammunisie of oorlogsimplemente vanaf enige plek in die Verenigde State na 'n strydlustige staat wat in so 'n afkondiging genoem word, of na 'n neutrale staat vir die oorskakeling na of vir die gebruik van 'n strydende staat.

(b) Die president sal van tyd tot tyd, deur proklamasie, sodanige embargo op die uitvoer van wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie na ander state uitbrei soos wat hulle by sodanige oorlog betrokke kan raak.

(c) Elke keer as die president agterkom dat daar 'n burgerlike twis in 'n vreemde staat bestaan ​​en dat sodanige burgerstryd van groot omvang is of onder sulke omstandighede plaasvind dat die uitvoer van wapens, ammunisie of oorlogsimplemente uit die Verenigde State 'n vreemde staat die vrede van die Verenigde State sou bedreig of in gevaar stel, sal die president hierdie feit bekend maak, en dit sal daarna onwettig wees om wapens, ammunisie of oorlogsimplemente uit te voer of te probeer uitvoer of te laat uitvoer; plek in die Verenigde State na so 'n vreemde staat, of na 'n neutrale staat vir oorlegging na, of vir die gebruik van, so 'n vreemde staat.

(d) Die president sal van tyd tot tyd by wyse van proklamasie die wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie beslis vermeld, waarvan die uitvoer deur hierdie afdeling verbied is. Die wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie wat so opgesom is, moet die bevat wat in die president se proklamasie, genommer 2163, van 10 April 1936, opgesom is, maar mag nie grondstowwe of ander artikels of materiaal bevat wat nie dieselfde algemene karakter het as dié wat in die genoemde proklamasie, en in die Konvensie vir die Toesig oor die Internasionale Handel in Wapens en Ammunisie en in Oorlogsuitvoering, onderteken te Genève 17 Junie 1925.

(e) Wie, in stryd met enige van die bepalings van hierdie Wet, wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie uit die Verenigde State sal uitvoer, of probeer uitvoer, of dit laat uitvoer; of gevangenisstraf van hoogstens vyf jaar, of albei, en die eiendom, vaartuig of voertuig wat dit bevat, is onderworpe aan die bepalings van artikels 1 tot 8, insluitend titel 6, hoofstuk 30, van die Wet wat op 15 Junie 1917 goedgekeur is (40 Stat. 223-225 USC, 1934 ed., Titel 22, sess. 238-245).

(f) In die geval van die verbeuring van wapens, ammunisie of oorlogsmiddele weens 'n oortreding van hierdie wet. geen openbare of privaat verkoop is nodig nie, maar wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie word by die oorlogsekretaris afgelewer vir die gebruik of beskikking wat deur die president van die Verenigde State goedgekeur word.

(g) telkens, na die oordeel van die President, die voorwaardes wat daartoe gelei het dat hy 'n proklamasie onder die gesag van hierdie artikel kon uitreik, ophou om dit te herroep en die bepalings van hierdie artikel nie meer van toepassing is nie. ten opsigte van die staat of state genoem in sodanige afkondiging, behalwe met betrekking tot misdrywe wat gepleeg is, of verbeurings wat aangegaan is, voor sodanige herroeping.

UITVOER VAN ANDER ARTIKELS EN MATERIAAL

SEK. 2. (a) Elke keer as die president 'n proklamasie onder die gesag van artikel 1 van hierdie wet uitgevaardig het, en hy sal daarna bevind dat die plasing van beperkings op die versending van sekere artikels of materiaal bykomend tot wapens, ammunisie en werktuie van oorlog van die Verenigde State tot strydlustige state, of na 'n staat waarin burgerstryd bestaan, is nodig om die veiligheid te bevorder of die vrede van die Verenigde State te bewaar of om die lewens van die burgers van die Verenigde State te beskerm, sal hy dit verkondig, en dit is daarna onwettig, behalwe onder die beperkings en uitsonderings wat die president mag voorskryf met betrekking tot mere, riviere en binnelandse waters wat aan die Verenigde State grens, en oor vervoer op of oor lande wat aan die Verenigde State grens, vir enige Amerikaanse vaartuig om sulke artikels of materiaal na 'n strydlustige staat of na 'n staat waarin burgerstryd bestaan, te vervoer, genoem in die proklamasie wat ingevolge artikel 1 van hierdie wet uitgereik is, of aan 'n y neutrale toestand vir die oorskakeling na, of vir die gebruik van, enige sodanige strydlustige staat of enige sodanige toestand waarin burgerstryd bestaan. Die president sal van tyd tot tyd die artikels en materiaal beslis wat dit vir Amerikaanse vaartuie onwettig is om dit te vervoer, af en toe beslis.

(b) Elke keer as die president 'n proklamasie uitgevaardig het onder die gesag van artikel 1 van hierdie wet, en hy sal daarna vind dat die beperkinge op die uitvoer van artikels of materiaal uit die Verenigde State na strydende state, of na 'n staat waarin burgerlike twis bestaan, wat nodig is om die veiligheid te bevorder of die vrede van die Verenigde State te bewaar of om die lewens of handel van burgers van die Verenigde State te beskerm, sal hy dit aankondig, en dit sal daarna onwettig wees, behalwe onder sulke beperkings en uitsonderings soos die president mag voorskryf oor mere, riviere en binnelandse waters wat aan die Verenigde State grens, en oor vervoer op of oor land wat aan die Verenigde State grens, om uit te voer of te vervoer, of om uit te voer of te vervoer, of te laat uitgevoer of vervoer word, van die Verenigde State na 'n strydlustige staat, of na 'n staat waarin daar burgerlike twis is, genoem in so 'n afkondiging uitgereik kragtens artikel 1 van hierdie Wet, of na 'n neutrale staat vir die oorlegging na, of vir die gebruik van, so 'n strydlustige staat of 'n staat waarin burgeroorlog bestaan, enige artikels of materiaal, totdat alle reg, titel en rente daarin aan 'n buitelandse regering oorgedra is, agentskap, instelling, vereniging, vennootskap, korporasie of nasionaal. Die versender van sodanige voorwerpe of materiaal moet 'n eedverklaring by die versamelaar van die hawe waaruit dit uitgevoer moet word, by die versamelaar indien dat daar by die burgers van die Verenigde State geen reg, titel of belang by sulke artikels of materiaal bestaan ​​nie. , en om te voldoen aan die reëls en regulasies wat van tyd tot tyd deur die president bekend gemaak word. So 'n verklaring wat ingedien word, is 'n beslissende bewys teen enige eis van enige burger van die Verenigde State van reg, titel of belang in sodanige artikels of materiaal. Versekering wat deur onderskrywers geskrywe word op enige artikels of materiaal waarvan die uitvoer verbied is deur hierdie wet, of op artikels of materiaal wat deur 'n Amerikaanse vaartuig in stryd met subartikel (a) van hierdie afdeling vervoer word, word nie as 'n Amerikaanse belang daarin beskou nie, en geen versekeringspolis uitgereik op sodanige voorwerpe of materiaal en geen verlies daaronder of deur die eienaar van die vaartuig wat dit dra, sal 'n grondslag wees vir enige eis wat deur die regering van die Verenigde State ingedien word nie.

(c) Die president sal van tyd tot tyd by proklamasie die beperkings wat onder die gesag van hierdie artikel opgelê word, van tyd tot tyd uitbrei na ander state namate hulle verklaar kan word om strydende state te word kragtens proklamasies wat onder die gesag van artikel 1 van hierdie wet uitgereik word .

(d) Die President kan van tyd tot tyd alle proklamasies wat deur hom onder die gesag van hierdie artikel uitgereik is, van tyd tot tyd verander, wysig of herroep.

(e) Behalwe ten opsigte van misdrywe wat gepleeg is, of verbeurdverklaring voor 1 Mei 1939, is hierdie afdeling en alle proklamasies wat daarvolgens uitgereik is, nie van krag na 1 Mei 1939 nie.

SEK. 3. (a) wanneer die president 'n proklamasie ingevolge artikel 1 van hierdie wet uitgevaardig het, is dit daarna onwettig vir enige persoon in die Verenigde State om effekte, sekuriteite of ander verpligtinge van die regering van 'n strydlustige staat of van 'n staat waarin burgerlike twis bestaan, genoem in so 'n afkondiging, of van 'n politieke onderafdeling van so 'n staat, of van enige persoon wat namens of namens die regering van so 'n staat optree, of van enige faksie of beweerde regering in so 'n staat waarin burgerstryd bestaan, of van enige persoon wat namens 'n faksie optree of 'n beweerde regering in 'n staat waarin burgerstryd bestaan, uitgereik na die datum van sodanige afkondiging, of om 'n lening te maak of enige krediet uitreik aan so 'n regering, politieke onderafdeling, faksie, beweerde regering of persoon, of om 'n bydrae vir so 'n regering te vra of te ontvang, politieke onderverdeling, faksie, beweer regering of persoon: Met dien verstande dat, indien die president bevind dat sodanige optrede die kommersiële of ander belange van die Verenigde State of sy burgers sal beskerm, hy na sy goeddunke en in so 'n mate en volgens die regulasies wat hy mag, behalwe uit die werking van hierdie afdeling, gewone kommersiële krediete en korttermynverpligtinge ten gunste van regstransaksies voorskryf en van 'n karakter wat gebruik word in normale kommersiële transaksies in vredestyd. Niks in hierdie subartikel mag uitgelê word om die werwing of insameling van fondse wat vir mediese hulp en hulp gebruik kan word, of vir voedsel en klere om menslike lyding te verlig, te verbied wanneer sodanige werwing of insameling van geld gemaak word namens en vir gebruik deur enige persoon of organisasie wat nie vir of namens so 'n regering, politieke onderafdeling, faksie of beweerde regering optree nie, maar al die versoeke en insamelings van fondse is onderhewig aan die goedkeuring van die president en word ingevolge sulke reëls gemaak en regulasies soos hy voorskryf.

(b) Die bepalings van hierdie artikel is nie van toepassing op die hernuwing of aanpassing van die skuld wat op die datum van die president se afkondiging mag bestaan ​​nie.

(c) Elkeen wat die bepalings van hierdie artikel of van enige regulasies hierna uitgevaardig skend, sal by skuldigbevinding daarvan 'n boete van hoogstens $ 50 000 of 'n gevangenisstraf van hoogstens vyf jaar, of albei, beboet word. Indien die oortreding deur 'n korporasie, organisasie of vereniging plaasvind, kan elke beampte of agent daarvan wat aan die oortreding deelneem, die boete hiervoor voorgeskryf word.

(d) Telkens wanneer die President sodanige afkondiging wat onder die gesag van artikel 1 van hierdie Wet uitgereik is, herroep het, sal die bepalings van hierdie artikel en van enige regulasies wat die President hierna uitgevaardig het, nie meer geld nie ten opsigte van die staat of state genoem in sodanige afkondiging, behalwe ten opsigte van oortredings wat voor die herroeping gepleeg is.

SEK. 4. Hierdie wet is nie van toepassing op 'n Amerikaanse republiek of republieke wat oorlog voer teen 'n nie-Amerikaanse staat of state nie, mits die Amerikaanse republiek nie saamwerk met 'n nie-Amerikaanse staat of state in so 'n oorlog nie.

NASIONALE BESTUURSRAAD

SEK. 5. (a) Hiermee word 'n nasionale raad vir beheer oor ammunisie (hierna die raad genoem) ingestel om die bepalings van hierdie wet uit te voer. Die raad bestaan ​​uit die minister van buitelandse sake, wat voorsitter en uitvoerende beampte van die raad is, die sekretaris van die tesourie, die minister van oorlog, die sekretaris van die vloot en die sekretaris van handel. Tensy anders bepaal in hierdie Wet, of deur ander wetgewing, berus die administrasie van hierdie Wet by die Staatsdepartement. Die Staatssekretaris maak sodanige reëls en regulasies bekend met betrekking tot die toepassing van hierdie artikel wat hy nodig ag om die bepalings daarvan uit te voer. Die raad word deur die voorsitter belê en hou minstens een vergadering per jaar.

(b) Elke persoon wat hom besig hou met die vervaardiging, uitvoer of invoer van die wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie waarna in hierdie wet verwys word, hetsy as uitvoerder, invoerder, vervaardiger of handelaar, moet by die Buitelandse minister sy naam, of besigheidsnaam, hoofbedryfsplek en besigheidsplekke in die Verenigde State, en 'n lys van die wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie wat hy vervaardig, invoer of uitvoer.

(c) Elke persoon wat ingevolge hierdie afdeling moet registreer, moet die staatsekretaris in kennis stel van enige verandering in die wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie wat hy uitvoer, invoer of vervaardig en na sodanige kennisgewing sal die staatssekretaris aan persoon 'n gewysigde registrasiesertifikaat, gratis, wat geldig bly tot die datum waarop die oorspronklike sertifikaat verstryk. Elke persoon wat ingevolge die bepalings van hierdie afdeling moet registreer, betaal 'n registrasiegeld van $ 500, tensy hy wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie vervaardig, uitgevoer of ingevoer het tot 'n totale verkoopwaarde van minder as $ 50,000 gedurende die twaalf maande wat voorafgegaan het sy registrasie, in welke geval hy 'n registrasiefooi van $ 100 betaal. Na ontvangs van die vereiste registrasiegeld, sal die staatsekretaris 'n registrasiesertifikaat uitreik wat geldig is vir vyf jaar, wat hernu kan word vir verdere tydperke van vyf jaar na betaling van elke hernuwing van 'n bedrag van $ 500 in die geval van persone wat vervaardig het , wapens, ammunisie en oorlogsimplemente uitgevoer of ingevoer tot 'n totale verkoopwaarde van meer as $ 50,000 gedurende die twaalf maande wat onmiddellik voorafgaan aan die hernuwing, of 'n fooi van $ 100 in die geval van persone wat wapens vervaardig, uitvoer of invoer, ammunisie en oorlogsimplemente tot 'n totale verkoopwaarde van minder as $ 50,000 gedurende die twaalf maande onmiddellik voor die hernuwing. Die sekretaris van die tesourie word versoek om die bedrag van $ 400 terug te betaal uit enige geld in die tesourie wat nie andersins bewillig is nie, aan elke persoon wat 'n registrasiefooi van $ 500 ingevolge hierdie wet betaal het, wat vervaardig, uitgevoer of ingevoer het wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie tot 'n totale verkoopwaarde van minder as $ 50,000 gedurende die twaalf maande onmiddellik voor sy registrasie.

(d) Dit is onwettig vir enige persoon om die wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie waarna in hierdie wet verwys word, uit die Verenigde State na enige ander staat uit te voer of te probeer uitvoer, of om dit in te voer, of te probeer om die wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie waarna in hierdie wet verwys word, uit enige ander staat na die Verenigde State in te voer, sonder om eers 'n lisensie daarvoor te verkry.

(e) Alle persone wat ingevolge hierdie artikel moet registreer, hou, onderhewig aan die inspeksie van die Staatsekretaris, of enige persoon of persone wat deur hom aangewys is, die permanente rekords van vervaardiging vir uitvoer, invoer en uitvoer van wapens, ammunisie, en oorlogsimplemente soos die minister van buitelandse sake voorskryf.

(f) Lisensies word uitgereik aan persone wat geregistreer het soos hiervoor bepaal, behalwe in gevalle van uitvoer- of invoerlisensies waar die uitvoer van wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie in stryd is met hierdie Wet of enige ander wet van die Verenigde State, of van 'n verdrag waartoe die Verenigde State 'n party is, in welke gevalle sulke lisensies nie uitgereik sal word nie.

(g) Elke keer as die President 'n proklamasie ingevolge artikel 1 van hierdie Wet uitgevaardig het, sal alle lisensies wat daarvoor kragtens hierdie Wet uitgereik is, ipso facto en onmiddellik na die uitreiking van sodanige proklamasie ophou om toestemming te verleen om wapens, ammunisie, of oorlogsimplementering van enige plek in die Verenigde State na 'n strydlustige staat, of na 'n staat waarin daar burgerlike twis is, genoem in so 'n afkondiging, of na 'n neutrale staat vir oorskakeling na, of vir die gebruik van, so 'n strydlustige staat of sodanige staat waarin burgerlike twis bestaan ​​en genoemde lisensies, vir sover dit die toestemming verleen om uit te voer na die staat of state genoem in die proklamasie, is nietig.

(h) Geen amptenaar, uitvoerende departement of onafhanklike stigting van die regering mag namens die Verenigde State wapens, ammunisie of oorlogsmiddele koop van iemand wat ingevolge die bepalings van hierdie Daad.

(i) Die bepalings van die Wet van 29 Augustus 1916 met betrekking tot die verkoop van wapens en winkels aan die regering van Kuba (39 Stat. 619, 643 USC, 1934 uitg., titel 50, art. 72), is hierby op 31 Desember 1937 herroep.

(j) Die Raad moet 'n jaarlikse verslag aan die kongres maak, waarvan afskrifte versprei word, net soos ander verslae wat aan die kongres gestuur word. Sulke verslae bevat die inligting en gegewens wat deur die raad ingesamel is en wat van waarde geag kan word by die vasstelling van vrae wat verband hou met die beheer van wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie. Die Raad sal in sodanige verslae 'n lys bevat van alle persone wat ingevolge die bepalings van hierdie wet moet registreer, en volledige inligting rakende die lisensies wat hieronder uitgereik word.

(k) Die President is hiermee gemagtig om op aanbeveling van die Raad van tyd tot tyd 'n lys artikels bekend te maak wat vir die doeleindes van hierdie afdeling beskou word as wapens, ammunisie en oorlogswerktuie.

AMERIKAANSE SKEPPE VERBOD VANAF DIE WAARSKAP NA BELLIGERENTE STATE

SEK. 6. (a) Elke keer as die president 'n proklamasie ingevolge artikel 1 van hierdie wet uitgevaardig het, is dit daarna onwettig totdat 'n Amerikaanse vaartuig enige wapens, ammunisie of oorlogswerktuie vervoer na enige strydlustige staat, of na enige staat waarin burgerlike twis bestaan, genoem in so 'n afkondiging, of na 'n neutrale staat vir oorlading na, of vir die gebruik van, so 'n strydlustige staat of 'n staat waarin burgerstryd bestaan.

(b) Wie, in stryd met die bepalings van hierdie afdeling, 'n Amerikaanse vaartuig wat sodanige vrag uit die hawe of uit die jurisdiksie van die Verenigde State vervoer, neem, of dit sal toestaan, huur, of versoek om 'n ander te neem. word 'n boete van nie meer as $ 10 000 of gevangenisstraf van hoogstens vyf jaar opgelê, of albei en, boonop, so 'n vaartuig, en haar gereedskap, klere, meubels en toerusting, en die wapens, ammunisie en oorlogsimplemente aan boord, word aan die Verenigde State verbeur.

GEBRUIK VAN AMERIKAANSE HAVE AS VOORSIENINGSBasis

SEK. 7. (a) wanneer die president, of enige persoon wat deur hom gemagtig is, tydens 'n oorlog waarin die Verenigde State neutraal is, aanleiding het om te glo dat enige vaartuig, in die buiteland of in die buiteland, of dit goedkeuring vereis of nie, is op die punt om uit die hawe van die Verenigde State brandstof, mans, wapens, ammunisie, oorlogsimplemente of ander voorrade aan 'n oorlogskip, tender of voorraadskip van 'n strydlustige staat te vervoer, maar die getuienis word nie voldoende geag regverdig die verbod op die vertrek van die vaartuig soos bepaal in artikel 1, titel V, hoofstuk 30, van die Wet wat 15 Junie 1917 goedgekeur is (40 Stat. 217, 221 USC, 1934 ed., titel 18, art. 31), en as die optrede na die oordeel van die president dien om vrede tussen die Verenigde State en buitelandse state te handhaaf, of om die kommersiële belange van die Verenigde State en sy burgers te beskerm, of om die veiligheid of neutraliteit van die Verenigde State te bevorder, het die mag en dit is sy plig om die eienaar, meester, o persoon in bevel daarvan om, voor vertrek uit 'n hawe van die Verenigde State, 'n verband met voldoende waarborge aan die Verenigde State te gee, in die mate wat hy goed ag, op voorwaarde dat die vaartuig nie die manne of deel van die vrag, na enige oorlogskip, tender of toevoerskip van 'n strydlustige staat.

(b) As die president, of enige persoon wat deur hom gemagtig is, bevind dat 'n vaartuig, in die buiteland of in die buiteland, in 'n hawe van die Verenigde State tydens 'n oorlog voorheen uit 'n hawe van die Verenigde State gereis het en afgelewer het sy vrag of enige deel daarvan na 'n oorlogskip, tender of toevoerskip van 'n strydlustige staat, kan hy die vertrek van sodanige vaartuig gedurende die oorlogstydperk verbied.

VEILIGHEIDS- EN GEWAPENDE HANDELSKOEPPE

SEK. 8. Wanneer die president tydens enige oorlog waarin die Verenigde State neutraal is, bevind dat spesiale beperkings op die gebruik van die hawens en territoriale waters van die Verenigde State deur duikbote of gewapende handelskepe van 'n vreemde staat dien om vrede tussen die Verenigde State en buitelandse state te handhaaf, of om die kommersiële belange van die Verenigde State en sy burgers te beskerm, of om die veiligheid van die Verenigde State te bevorder, en dit te verkondig, is dit daarna onwettig vir sodanige duikboot of gewapende handelsvaartuig om 'n hawe of die territoriale waters van die Verenigde State binne te gaan of daaruit te vertrek, behalwe onder die voorwaardes en onderhewig aan die beperkings wat die president mag voorskryf. Elke keer as die voorwaardes wat veroorsaak het dat hy sy proklamasie afgelei het, na sy oordeel ophou bestaan, moet hy sy proklamasie herroep en sal die bepalings van hierdie artikel nie meer geld nie.

REIS OP SKEPPE VAN BELLIGERENTE STATE

SEK. 9. Elke keer as die president 'n proklamasie uitgevaardig het onder die gesag van artikel 1 van hierdie wet, is dit daarna onwettig vir 'n burger van die Verenigde State om op 'n vaartuig van die staat of state genoem in hierdie proklamasie te reis, behalwe in ooreenstemming met die reëls en regulasies wat die president voorskryf: Met dien verstande dat die bepalings van hierdie afdeling nie van toepassing is op 'n burger van die Verenigde State wat op 'n vaartuig reis waarvan die reis begin is voor die datum van die president se afkondiging nie, en wat het geen geleentheid gehad om sy reis na die datum te staak nie: en bepaal: verder, dat hulle nie onder negentig dae na die datum van die proklamasie van die president van toepassing sal wees op 'n burger van die Verenigde State wat van 'n vreemde staat na die Verenigde State terugkeer nie. Telkens, na die oordeel van die president, die voorwaardes wat veroorsaak het dat hy sy proklamasie afgekondig het, ophou bestaan ​​het, herroep hy sy proklamasie en sal die bepalings van hierdie artikel nie meer geld nie ten opsigte van die staat of state genoem in die proklamasie, behalwe ten opsigte van misdrywe wat voor die herroeping gepleeg is.

ARMING OF AMERICAN MERCHANT VESSELS PROHIBITED

SEK. 10. Whenever the President shall have issued a proclamation under the authority of section 1, it shall thereafter be unlawful, until such proclamation is revoked, for any American vessel engaged in commerce with any belligerent state, or any state wherein civil strife exists, named in such proclamation, to be armed or to carry any armament, arms, ammunition, or implements of war, except small arms and ammunition therefor which the President may deem necessary and shall publicly designate for the preservation of discipline aboard such vessels.

SEK. 11. The President may, from time to time, promulgate such rules and regulations, not inconsistent with law, as may be necessary and proper to carry out any of the provisions of this Act and he may exercise any power or authority conferred on him by this Act through such officer or officers, or agency or agencies, as he shall direct.

GENERAL PENALTY PROVISION

SEK. 12. In every case of the violation of any of the provisions of this Act or of any rule or regulation issued pursuant thereto where a specific penalty is not herein provided, such violator or violators, upon conviction, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

SEK. 13. For the purposes of this Act-

(a) The term ’United States’, when used in a geographical sense, includes the several States and Territories, the insular possessions of the United States (including the Philippine Islands), the Canal Zone, and the District of Columbia.

(b) The term ’person’ includes a partnership, company, association, or corporation, as well as a natural person.

(c) The term ’vessel’ means every description of watercraft (including aircraft) or other contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on, under, or over water.

(d) The term ’American vessel’ means any vessel (including aircraft) documented under the laws of the United States.

(e) The term ’vehicle’ means every description of carriage (including aircraft) or other contrivance used, or capable of being used, as a means of transportation on or over land.

(f) The term ’state’ shall include nation, government, and country.

SEPARABILITY OF PROVISIONS

SEK. 14. If any of the provisions of this Act, or the application thereof to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the remainder of the Act, and the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, shall not be affected thereby.

SEK. 15. There is hereby authorized to be appropriated from time to time, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such amounts as may be necessary to carry out the provisions and accomplish the purposes of this Act.”


Activity 2. The Neutrality Acts, 1935–1937

In response to public demand generated in part by Merchants of Death, Congress in the mid-1930s passed a series neutrality laws designed to prevent U.S. involvement in another war. In this activity, students will look at these neutrality acts and determine their effectiveness.

To begin, have students read the following, excerpts of which may be found on pages 5–9 of the Text Document, as homework. They are located in their entirety at the EDSITEment-reviewed resource Teaching American History, and at “WWII Resources,” which is accessible via the EDSITEment-reviewed resource Digital History.

To help guide their reading, students should answer the following questions, located on pages 4–5 of the Text Document:

  • What were the key provisions of the Neutrality Act of 1935? Why do you think each of these was included?
  • Why did Bennett Champ Clark believe that the Neutrality Act was necessary?
  • Who, according to Clark, would lose if the Neutrality Act was passed and why?
  • What problem did Senator Connally and President Roosevelt see in the 1935 Neutrality Act? Why do you think Roosevelt signed it, in spite of this problem?
  • What provisions were added by the Neutrality Act of 1936? Why do you think each of these was included?
  • What provisions were added by the Neutrality Act of 1937? Why do you think each of these was included?

In class the following day, students should consult the interactive timeline, “America on the Sidelines: The United States and World Affairs, 1931–1941.” On this timeline, students will learn about events in Europe between 1933 and 1939, as well as how the United States reacted to them. Remind students to keep the provisions of the Neutrality Acts in mind as they go through the interactive. In addition, they should be given a blank map of Europe in the 1930s (a good one is available at this site), on which they should note the locations that are mentioned in the various events. This exercise will take approximately one class period to complete, so ensure adequate computer lab time.

Note that each event has at least one primary source document associated with it. These are included to provide students with a deeper understanding of the events, but they are not absolutely necessary to the lesson. Teachers should decide whether or not to require their students to read these, depending on the skill level of their students and the amount of time available for this subject.

After studying the interactive timeline in conjunction with the documents, students should answer the following questions, located in worksheet form on page 11 of the Text Document:

  • How successful were the Neutrality Acts in keeping the United States out of war in the 1930s?
  • How might the events of the 1930s have worked out differently if Americans had nie been prohibited from selling arms or extending loans to belligerents?

Students’ answers to these two questions should form the basis for a concluding class discussion about the effectiveness of the Neutrality Acts. This issue should be considered on two different levels. On the one hand, students should be asked whether the laws had their intended effect of keeping the United States out of war during the 1930s (the obvious answer to which is “yes”). More importantly, students should be asked to consider the larger implication of the neutrality laws. What was their effect on the role of the United States in foreign affairs? How likely was it that, in the absence of the Neutrality Acts, the United States might have been drawn into the Italo-Ethiopian War, the Spanish Civil War, or a war arising over the Rhineland, Austria, or the Sudetenland? Might the United States have been able to play a more productive role in European politics had these laws not been passed?

The letter that students write for Activity 1 might be graded as one means of assessment.

As a concluding assessment activity, students should be asked to write an essay in response to the following question:

  • Although President Roosevelt signed the Neutrality Act of 1935, he indicated that it “might have exactly the opposite effect from that which was intended.” In light of the actual events of 1933–1939, do you think his concern was warranted?

Finally, students might be asked to write a paragraph for each of the following, identifying and explaining their significance:

  • Merchants of Death
  • Neutrality Acts
  • Spanish Civil War
  • Rynland
  • Sudetenland
  • Munich Agreement

Finally, students should be able to locate the following on a blank map of Europe in the 1930s:

  • Duitsland
  • Italië
  • Spanje
  • Oostenryk
  • Tsjeggo -Slowakye
  • Pole

The EDSITEment-reviewed site of the United States Senate includes a brief narrative about the Nye Committee, which was formed in 1934 in response to investigate the charges made by Hanighen and Engelbrecht in Merchants of Death. Students might be asked to read this account and suggest why the Nye Committee’s activities would have helped pave the way for the Neutrality Acts.

The Document Library at the EDSITEment-reviewed New Deal Network features an editorial entitled “Pro-Fascist Neutrality,” which appeared in the influential liberal journal Die Nasie in January, 1937. The editorial is useful for this lesson in that it illustrates one of the chief arguments against how the Neutrality Acts were applied—that a supposedly “impartial” arms embargo might have the practical effect of helping one side over the other. Students might read this as an adjunct to the second activity. They might further be asked whether the same logic might not be applied to other events of the 1930s, such as the Italo-Ethiopian War.

On October 5, 1937, President Roosevelt gave a speech in Charlottesville, Virginia, in which he lamented the state of world affairs and suggested an international “quarantine” in order to fight an “epidemic of world lawlessness.” The speech is available in its entirety at Teaching American History. Students might be asked to read it in light of the Neutrality Acts and consider why the speech was so controversial.


Neutrality Acts

The Neutrality Acts of the 1930s were a series of laws passed by Congress to subside the growing turmoil in Asia and Europe—feuds that eventually led to World War II. The Neutrality Acts ultimately spawned out of America’s willingness to practice non-interventionism and isolationism. This passive view on foreign policy stemmed from the United States’ involvement in World War I—The Neutrality Acts were passed to ensure that the United States would not entangle itself in foreign conflicts.

The Neutrality Acts, as the name suggests, was a series of laws that affirmed the United States’ inclination to sit on the sidelines during times of war. Ultimately, the legacy of the Neutrality acts proved somewhat futile, because they failed to make a distinction between victims and aggressors during times of conflict. The United States, through the Neutrality Act, treated all countries engaged in violence as “belligerents” or aggressors and thus deemed all clashes as unworthy for intervention. The failure to elaborate on international conflicts and label opposing sides as either “friendly” or “aggressive” initially limited the United States’ ability to aid Great Britain and other European allies against Nazi Germany. The Neutrality Acts were repealed in 1941, in the face of Pearl Harbor and the German submarine attack on U.S. naval ships.

Background of the Neutrality Acts:

The Neutrality Acts of the 1930s were spurred from the United States’ entry into World War I—an entry that many Americans believed was orchestrated by American arms dealers and bankers for the purpose of increasing profits. This sentiment eventually gained enough momentum to influence America’s stance on isolationism.

Prominent members in the United States Congress pushed for strong Neutrality Acts, which were the basis for Republican foreign policy. That being said, the support of non-interventionism was not limited to the right.

Democratic President, Franklin Roosevelt and his Secretary of State, Cordell Hull, were skeptical of the Neutrality Acts because they feared the legislation would restrict the United States from supporting its allies in times of crisis.

Even with a largely democratic House and Senate, ample support was realized to pass the Neutrality Acts. In response to the passing, President Roosevelt declined to veto the Neutrality Act—he had no interest in angering the public in the light of the upcoming Presidential election of 1936. When signed into law, the Neutrality Acts were perpetually revised and agglomerated with provisions—in total, the Neutrality Act is a grouping of 4 separate Neutrality Acts. Below is a description of each Neutrality Act:

The Neutrality Act of 1935:

President Franklin Roosevelt’s State Department lobbied for a series of embargo provisions that would enable the President to impose sanctions on the Neutrality Acts. This request was rejected by Congress.

The Neutrality Acts of 1935 was officially signed into law in August of 1935 to impose a general embargo on arms trading and the delivery of war materials between all parties in a conflict or war. Furthermore, the Neutrality Acts of 1935 declared that citizens of the United States who were to travel on warning shops did so at their own risk—the government would not partake in any retribution for attacks or causalities on said vessels.

The Neutrality Acts of 1935 also declared a “moral embargo” on any belligerent nation (again this proved ambiguous) who actively covered trades under the provisions of the Neutrality Act.

The Neutrality Act of 1936:

Passed in February of 1936, The Neutrality Act of 1936 effectively renewed the provisions of the Neutrality Act of 1935 for a 14-month period. Additionally, the Neutrality Act of 1936 forbade any forms of financing, including all loans of forms of credit supplied to belligerent nations. The Neutrality Act of 1936 however, made no mention of civil conflicts, such as those in Spain during the late 1930s. In response, a number of American companies (such as Standard Oil, General Motors, Ford, and Texaco) used the loophole of the Neutrality Act of 1936 to sell various items to Don Francisco Franco (the Head of State of Spain) on credit. By the latter portion of 1939, Franco owed these American companies over 100 million dollars.

The Neutrality Act of 1937:

In January of 1937, the United States Congress passed a joint resolution that outlawed the sale of all arms with Spain. The Neutrality Act of 1937, which was passed in May, included several provisions of its predecessors, only without expiration dates attached. Furthermore, the Neutrality Act of 1937 included isolation practices for all international civil wars.

The Neutrality Act of 1937 also prohibited U.S. ships from transporting any passenger or military article to belligerent nations. U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling, via waterways, to belligerent nations.

The Neutrality Act of 1937 included a “cash and carry” provision which was formally devised by Roosevelt’s top advisor, Bernard Baruch. The cash and carry provision stated that the President may authorize the sale of supplies and materials to belligerent nations in Europe, so long as the recipient arranged for the transport of said goods and provided payment immediately in cash. This provision was included in the Neutrality Act of 1937 because it was believed that due to the immediacy of liquid payment, the United States would not be drawn into the conflict. Roosevelt viewed the provision as a means to aid Great Britain and France in the event of a war with Nazi Germany. France and Britain were the benefactors of the provision because of their geographic location and naval powers—they were the only two nations that controlled the seas and were thus able to take advantage of such transactions.

The Neutrality act of 1937 was put to the test when Japan invaded China in July of 1937 (the start of the Sino-Japanese War). Roosevelt, who supported China, chose not to invoke the provisions of the Neutrality Acts since the parties never declared a formal war. By refraining, Roosevelt ensured that China’s efforts to defend itself would not be impeded by the Neutrality act. China relied on arms imports and only Japan could take advantage of the cash and carry provision. This maneuver outraged isolationists in the government who believed that the Neutrality Acts were being undermined. In turn, Roosevelt exclaimed that American ships were prohibited from transporting arms to belligerents, but British ships were able to transport American arms to China. This flow of arms marked the beginning of the “quarantine phase” where America shifted from neutrality towards a foreign policy that was set on eliminating all aggressors.

Neutrality Act of 1939:

At the beginning of 1939 (following the Nazi takeover of Czechoslovakia), Roosevelt lobbied Congress to renew the cash and carry provision. Roosevelt was ultimately rejected, as the provision lapsed and the mandatory arms embargo remained active.

After Germany had invaded Poland in September of the same year, France and Great Britain declared war on the Nazi regime. In response, Roosevelt invoked the provisions of the Neutrality Acts but stated that the acts may provide passive aid to aggressive nations. Roosevelt eventually prevailed over isolationism supporters and in November the Neutrality Act of 1939 was passed, which allowed arms trade with belligerent nations (only on a cash and carry basis) to be enacted. This ended the arms embargo and repealed the Neutrality Acts of 1935 and 1937.

American ships and citizens were outlawed from entering war zones (specifically designated by Roosevelt) and the National Munitions Control Board was responsible for issuing licenses for all arms transactions as specified under the Neutrality Act of 1939. Any arms transaction that was fortified without a license carried a penalty of up to two years in federal prison.

The End of the Neutrality Acts:

The passing of the Lend-Lease Act, in March of 1941, marked the dissolution of Neutrality police. America, through the Lend-Lease Act, was able to lend, sell, or give war supplies to allied nations.


1937-1939 Neutrality Acts

The 1936 Neutrality Act imposed a general embargo on trading in arms and war materials with all parties in a war and forbade all loans or credits to belligerents. However, this act did not cover "civil wars" or materials such as trucks and oil. During the Spanish Civil War some U.S. companies such as Texaco, Standard Oil, Ford Motor Company and General Motors sold such items to General Francisco Franco on credit.

The 1937 Neutrality Act, passed in May, included the provisions of the earlier acts, this time without expiration date, and extended them to cover civil wars as well. Further, U.S. ships were prohibited from transporting any passengers or articles to belligerents, and U.S. citizens were forbidden from traveling on ships of belligerent nations.

Gerald Nye was a supporter of the Popular Front government and strongly opposed the support given to Franco's forces during the conflict. In May, 1938, he introduced a Senate resolution that proposed the lifting of the embargo on shipment of arms to the Spanish government. President Franklin D. Roosevelt made it clear he was opposed to this resolution and it was defeated in the Foreign Relations Committee by seventeen votes to one.

After Adolf Hitler ordered the invasion of Czechoslovakia, President Roosevelt lobbied Congress to have the 1937 Neutrality Act amended. His views were rejected but after the invasion of Poland, which led to the outbreak of the Second World War, Roosevelt argued that the Neutrality Act may give passive aid to an aggressor.

The 1939 Neutrality Act was passed on 4th November. This allowed for arms trade with belligerent nations on a cash-and-carry basis, thus in effect ending the arms embargo. The following year, William Stephenson, the head of British Security Coordination (BSC), admitted that: "The procurement of certain supplies for Britain was high on my priority list and it was the burning urgency of this requirement that made me instinctively concentrate on the single individual who could help me. I turned to Bill Donovan." William Donovan arranged meetings with Henry Stimson (Secretary of War), Cordell Hull (Secretary of State) and Frank Knox (Secretary of the Navy). The main topic was Britain's lack of destroyers and the possibility of finding a formula for transfer of fifty "over-age" destroyers to the Royal Navy without a legal breach of U.S. neutrality legislation.

On 22nd August, 1940, William Stephenson reported to London that the destroyer deal was agreed upon. The agreement for transferring 50 aging American destroyers, in return for the rights to air and naval basis in Bermuda, Newfoundland, the Caribbean and British Guiana, was announced 3rd September, 1940. The bases were leased for 99 years and the destroyers were of great value as convey escorts. Lord Louis Mountbatten, the British Chief of Combined Operations, commented: "We were told that the man primarily responsible for the loan of the 50 American destroyers to the Royal Navy at a critical moment was Bill Stephenson that he had managed to persuade the president that this was in the ultimate interests of America themselves and various other loans of that sort were arranged. These destroyers were very important to us. although they were only old destroyers, the main thing was to have combat ships that could actually guard against and attack U-boats."

Winston Churchill developed a strong personal relationship with Franklin D. Roosevelt and he asked him for help to beat Nazi Germany. On 17th December, 1940, Roosevelt made a speech to the American public: "In the present world situation of course there is absolutely no doubt in the mind of a very overwhelming number of Americans that the best immediate defence of the United States is the success of Great Britain in defending itself and that, therefore, quite aside from our historic and current interest in the survival of democracy in the world as a whole, it is equally important, from a selfish point of view of American defence, that we should do everything to help the British Empire to defend itself. In other words, if you lend certain munitions and get the munitions back at the end of the war, if they are intact - haven't been hurt - you are all right if they have been damaged or have deteriorated or have been lost completely, it seems to me you come out pretty well if you have them replaced by the fellow to whom you have lent them."

On 11th March 1941, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act. The legislation gave President Franklin D. Roosevelt the powers to sell, transfer, exchange, lend equipment to any country to help it defend itself against the Axis powers. This effectively brought an end to the Neutrality Acts. A sum of $50 billion was appropriated by Congress for Lend-Lease. The money went to 38 different countries with Britain receiving over $31 billion.


The U.S. Neutrality Acts

In the 1930s, the United States Government enacted a series of laws designed to prevent the United States from being embroiled in a foreign war by clearly stating the terms of U.S. neutrality. Although many Americans had rallied to join President Woodrow Wilson&rsquos crusade to make the world &ldquosafe for democracy&rdquo in 1917, by the 1930s critics argued that U.S. involvement in the First World War had been driven by bankers and munitions traders with business interests in Europe. These findings fueled a growing &ldquoisolationist&rdquo movement that argued the United States should steer clear of future wars and remain neutral by avoiding financial deals with countries at war.

First Neutrality Act

By the mid-1930s, events in Europe and Asia indicated that a new world war might soon erupt and the U.S. Congress took action to enforce U.S. neutrality. On August 31, 1935, Congress passed the first Neutrality Act prohibiting the export of &ldquoarms, ammunition, and implements of war&rdquo from the United States to foreign nations at war and requiring arms manufacturers in the United States to apply for an export license. American citizens traveling in war zones were also advised that they did so at their own risk. President Franklin D. Roosevelt originally opposed the legislation, but relented in the face of strong Congressional and public opinion. On February 29, 1936, Congress renewed the Act until May of 1937 and prohibited Americans from extending any loans to belligerent nations.

Neutrality Act of 1937

The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and the rising tide of fascism in Europe increased support for extending and expanding the Neutrality Act of 1937. Under this law, U.S.citizens were forbidden from traveling on belligerent ships, and American merchant ships were prevented from transporting arms to belligerents even if those arms were produced outside of the United States. The Act gave the President the authority to bar all belligerent ships from U.S. waters, and to extend the export embargo to any additional &ldquoarticles or materials.&rdquo Finally, civil wars would also fall under the terms of the Act.

The Neutrality Act of 1937 did contain one important concession to Roosevelt: belligerent nations were allowed, at the discretion of the President, to acquire any items except arms from the United States, so long as they immediately paid for such items and carried them on non-American ships&mdashthe so-called &ldquocash-and-carry&rdquo provision. Since vital raw materials such as oil were not considered &ldquoimplements of war,&rdquo the &ldquocash-and-carry&rdquo clause would be quite valuable to whatever nation could make use of it. Roosevelt had engineered its inclusion as a deliberate way to assist Great Britain and France in any war against the Axis Powers, since he realized that they were the only countries that had both the hard currency and ships to make use of &ldquocash-and-carry.&rdquo Unlike the rest of the Act, which was permanent, this provision was set to expire after two years.

Neutrality Act of 1939

Following Germany&rsquos occupation of Czechoslovakia in March of 1939, Roosevelt suffered a humiliating defeat when Congress rebuffed his attempt to renew &ldquocash-and-carry&rdquo and expand it to include arms sales. President Roosevelt persisted and as war spread in Europe, his chances of expanding &ldquocash-and-carry&rdquo increased. After a fierce debate in Congress, in November of 1939, a final Neutrality Act passed. This Act lifted the arms embargo and put all trade with belligerent nations under the terms of &ldquocash-and-carry.&rdquo The ban on loans remained in effect, and American ships were barred from transporting goods to belligerent ports.

In October of 1941, after the United States had committed itself to aiding the Allies through Lend-Lease, Roosevelt gradually sought to repeal certain portions of the Act. On October 17, 1941, the House of Representatives revoked section VI, which forbade the arming of U.S. merchant ships, by a wide margin. Following a series of deadly U-boat attacks against U.S. Navy and merchant ships, the Senate passed another bill in November that also repealed legislation banning American ships from entering belligerent ports or &ldquocombat zones.&rdquo

Overall, the Neutrality Acts represented a compromise whereby the United States Government accommodated the isolationist sentiment of the American public, but still retained some ability to interact with the world. In the end, the terms of the Neutrality Acts became irrelevant once the United States joined the Allies in the fight against Nazi Germany and Japan in December 1941.

Bron: Office of the Historian, Foreign Service Institute, United States Department of State.

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Beantwoord hierdie vraag

Probability

The newest invention of the 6.041x staff is a three-sided die. On any roll of this die, the result is 1 with probability 1/2, 2 with probability 1/4, and 3 with probability 1/4. Consider a sequence of six independent rolls of this

Why did Britain and France adopt a policy of appeasement when meeting with Hitler at the Munich conference A They knew he had an agreement with the Soviet union over Poland B they were led to believe he wouldn't try to take any

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The newest invention is a three-sided die. On any roll of this die, the result is 1 with probability 1/2, 2 with probability 1/4, and 3 with probability 1/4. Consider a sequence of six independent rolls of this die. 1. Find the

Geskiedenis

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The conditional probability that exactly k rolls resulted in a 3, given that at least one roll resulted in a 3, is of the form: 11−(c1/c2)c3(c3k)(1c2)k(c1c2)c3−k,for k=1,2,…,6. Find the values of the constants c1, c2, and c3

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Neutrality Acts: Definition

FDR’s other problem was the pesky neutrality laws from the 1930s that were designed to prevent the United States from being lured into war, and which especially sought to avoid the circumstances that had led to U.S. entry into World War I. Thus, for example, Americans on belligerent ships were at first told that they traveled at their own risk, and neutrality legislation later in the 1930s prohibited such travel altogether. The neutrality legislation also prevented the United States from selling weapons to countries at war. America could sell other goods to belligerents, but only on a cash-and-carry basis and transported in the recipient country’s ships. America’s ships could not venture into war zones to conduct wartime trade.

FDR sought to change the part of the neutrality legislation that stopped the United States from selling weapons to nations at war. As of 1939, therefore, it became legal for a belligerent (Britain, in this case) to acquire weapons from the United States on a cash-and-carry basis. The prohibition on the lending of money to belligerents was preserved, and the requirement that the equipment be transported in the belligerent’s own ships meant that American ships would not be exposed to danger.


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