Ou Egiptiese tekste bevat katerbehandeling en behandeling vir radikale oogsiektes

Ou Egiptiese tekste bevat katerbehandeling en behandeling vir radikale oogsiektes

Radikale chirurgie en medisyne met bestanddele wat nou bekend is dat dit giftig is, is een van die 1900-jarige mediese papirusse van antieke Egipte wat al baie jare in Grieks vertaal is. Ook in die mediese tekste is 'n behandeling vir hoofpyn van kater: trek 'n krans van blare van die struik chamaedaphne om die nek. Mense van daardie tyd het die blare van Alexandriese chamaedaphne gebruik vir algemene hoofpynbehandelings, maar dit is twyfelagtig of dit gewerk het.

Ruscus racemosus of digter se lourier, ook genoem Alexandrynse chamaedaphne, het vermoedelik hoofpyn in die antieke wêreld genees. (Foto deur Daderot/ Wikimedia Commons )

Die onthulling van antieke Egiptiese mediese tekste

Die 1 900 jaar oue tekste is gevind saam met ongeveer 500 000 ander tekste in die stad Oxyrhynchus omstreeks 1915. Navorsers Arthur Hunt en Bernard Grenfell het op die waardevolle trofee afgekom.

Die mediese papirus uit die biblioteek is nou in die hande van die Egypt Exploration Society by die Oxford University Sackler Library.

"Die studie en publikasie van soveel papirusse is 'n lang en stadige taak wat al 'n eeu lank aan die gang is," sê Live Science in 'n artikel oor Deel 80, "wat studies en ontsyferings bevat van ongeveer 30 mediese papiere wat by Oxyrhynchus gevind is, insluitend die papirus met die katerbehandeling. Hierdie gepubliseerde bundel verteenwoordig 'die grootste enkele versameling mediese papirusse wat gepubliseer moet word', skryf Vivian Nutton, 'n professor aan die University College London, aan die begin van die bundel. Die versameling bevat mediese verhandelings en behandelings vir 'n wye verskeidenheid siektes, insluitend aambeie, maagsere, tandprobleme en selfs fragmente wat oogchirurgie bespreek.

Hierdie papirus in die antieke Griekse taal bevat 'n behandeling vir hoofpyn as gevolg van te veel drink. (Foto van Egyptian Exploration Society)

Hoofpyn? Miskien sal sommige Chamaedaphne help

Die ou skrywers het geleen uit Griekse mediese kennis in die Hellenistiese stad Oxyrhynchus. Die Griekse kultuur het oor Egipte en die Midde -Ooste versprei na die verowerings van Alexander van Masedonië.

Dit is moontlik dat die outeurs van die Egiptiese tekste beïnvloed is deur die ou Griekse geneesheer Discorides, wat oor chamaedaphne in sy mediese teks geskryf het Die kruie:

Chamaedaphne stuur enkeltakke 'n voet lank-reguit, dun en glad; die blare hiervan is soortgelyk aan die [ander] baai, maar baie gladder, dunner en groener. Die vrugte is rond en rooi, groei naby die blare. Die blare hiervan (in klein stukkies gesny en besmeer) help hoofpyn en brand van die maag. Hulle hou op om vas te vat, as 'n drankie saam met wyn. Die sap (wat saam met wyn gedrink word) dryf die menstruele vloei en urine uit, en dit word ook in 'n pessarium toegedien. Sommige noem dit Alexandrina, daphnitis of hydragogon, die Romeine, laureola, sommige lactago en die Galliërs, ousubim. ('N PDF van hierdie boek is hier beskikbaar.)

Antieke oogbehandelings was pynlik en giftig

Een van die oogbehandelings in 'n antieke Egiptiese teks was 'n konkoksie genaamd collyrium, wat bedoel was om slymvliesafskeidings uit die oog te genees. Dit bevat kopervlokkies, wit lood, gewaste loodvleis wat geproduseer word in smelting, antimoonoksied, papawersap, stysel, Arabiese gom, die plant Keltiese naald, gedroogde rose en reënwater.

As dit giftig is, sal dit nie soveel skade doen as 'n aanbevole oogoperasie vir 'n omgedraaide ooglid nie. 'N Fragment van die behandeling wat oorleef, vertaal deur Marguerite Hirt van die Universiteit van Cambridge, lees gedeeltelik: "... die oog ... Ek het begin ... by die tempel ... die ander uit die tempel ... om met 'n klein ronde mes te verwyder ... die rand van die ooglid van buite ... van binne tot ek daaruit geskep het ... "

Hierdie papirus bevat die resep vir tandpoeier om tandvleisprobleme te genees. (Foto van Egypt Exploration Society)

Siek dae, katerbehandelings en niere in die ou Egiptiese Papyri

As 'n persoon wat in die koninklike grafdorp, Deir el-Medina, werk, 'n skrikwekkende oogoperasie moes ondergaan of moes rus as gevolg van 'n siekte in die tydperk van die nuwe koninkryk van Egipte, ongeveer 3,100-3,600 jaar gelede, het hulle 'n toestand gehad gesondheidsorg verskaf om hulle te help.

Blykbaar het antieke mense ook soveel probleme met kater gehad as wat moderne mense doen. 'N Ander verhaal, berig deur Ancient Origins in 2014, was oor die 1 000-jarige Kitab al-tabikh ( Kookboek ), wat die kater geneesmiddel bevat Kkishkiyya. Die bestanddele was vleis, kekerertjies en groente in 'n bredie met die byvoeging van 'n spesiale bestanddeel wat bekend staan ​​as khask, 'n gegiste jogurt-, melk- en wei -produk, wat vermoedelik die sleutel is tot die verligting van sogenaamde oormatige hitte in die kop en maag. Die boek beveel ook aan om kool te eet voordat u alkohol drink, snacks tussen drankies eet om die effek daarvan te vertraag en die volgende dag te drink aan water voordat u die bredie eet. Vandag, Kkishkiyya word steeds op dieselfde manier gekook, meestal in die noorde van Irak en die Levant.

Die boek is geskryf deur Ibn Sayyar al-Warraq en was die mees omvattende werk in sy soort. Dit bevat meer as 600 resepte vir kulinêre en medisinale geregte, waaronder 'n bekende antieke kater in die Midde-Ooste, bestanddele om seksuele prestasie te verbeter en geregte om 'n verskeidenheid gesondheidsprobleme te genees. Die ou teks is vertaal deur Nawal Nasrallah, 'n voormalige professor in Engels en vergelykende letterkunde aan die Universiteit van Bagdad, in die Annale van die Kalief se Kombuis , maak hierdie fassinerende resepte vir die eerste keer toeganklik vir die Engelssprekende wêreld.

Ten slotte is dit opmerklik dat die antieke Egiptiese mediese papirus onlangs insig gegee het. 'N Doktorale student aan die Universiteit van Kopenhagen ontsyfer 'n mediese papirus wat 'n nier noem. Dit toon dat die ou Egiptenare meer kennis gehad het van die organe van die menslike liggaam as wat voorheen geglo is. Dit is ook die oudste voorbeeld van 'n mediese teks wat na 'n nier verwys.

Voorgestelde foto: Hierdie papirus is 'n voorbeeld van tekste wat by Oxyrhynchus ontdek is en bevat Euclid's Elements of Geometry ( Wikimedia Commons )

Deur Mark Miller


7 van die mees verregaande mediese behandelings in die geskiedenis

Dit is moeilik om tred te hou met die behandelingsaanbevelings wat uit die mediese gemeenskap kom. Die een dag is iets goed vir jou, en die volgende dag is dit dodelik en moet dit vermy word. Verslawende middels soos heroïen is aan kinders gegee om hoes te genees, elektriese skokterapie is 'n lang gebruik vir impotensie, en “miracle ” dieetpille is soos lekkergoed uitgedeel. Hieronder is sewe van die mees skokkende behandelings wat dokters aanbeveel.


Hierdie 1,900-jarige Egiptiese papirus onthul katermiddel

Nuut vertaal 1 900-jarige Egiptiese papirus in Grieks geskryf het, het onthul dat a Dit lyk asof die blaarryke ketting die oplossing is vir die hoofpyn. Die belangrikste bestanddeel vir die genesing is die stadiggroeiende immergroen struik, Danae racemosa, algemeen bekend as Alexandriese lourier of Digter se lourier.

Volgens dr David Leith, 'n historikus aan die Universiteit van Exeter, wat aan die vertaalprojek deelgeneem het, 'Antieke Egiptenare het 'n krans van blare gemaak van 'n struik met die naam Alexandriese laurier en dit om hul nekke gedra, omdat daar gedink is hierdie plant kan hoofpyn verlig”.

Die Oxyrhynchus -papirus wat die middel vir 'n kater bevat, is tussen 500 000 dokumente gevind. Die papirusfragmente is in 1898 daarna ontdek deurlopende opgrawings in die ou Egiptiese stad Oxyrhynchus, ongeveer 160 km suid-suidwes van Kaïro geleë.

Soos dit lyk, het die inwoners van Oxyrhynchus die gewoonte gehad om hul asblik in die Sahara te gooi. Die opgrawings, onder leiding van die Oxford -argeoloë Bernard Grenfell en Arthur Hunt, het in 1896 begin. 'N Groot versameling verlore evangelies, Griekse skrywers en werke (insluitend Sophocles ’), publieke en persoonlike rekords en mediese verhandelinge is tussen ander papirusfragmente opgegrawe, almal dateer uit die eerste tot die sesde eeu nC

A pas gepubliseerde boek bevat 30 vertaalde mediese papirusse en verteenwoordig "Die grootste enkele versameling mediese papirusse wat gepubliseer word, en#8221, soos professor Vivian Nutton aan die University College London in haar inleidende nota skryf.

Dit is die 80ste volume wat vrygestel word tydens hierdie deurlopende navorsers se poging om die totaal van stukkies en bevat mediese verhandelinge en komplekse behandelings vir 'n wye verskeidenheid siektes soos aambeie, maagsere, tandprobleme, selfs verskillende oogtoestande.

'Dit lyk asof die middels die grens tussen magie en medisyne oorskry - en hoewel sommige ou dokters nie daarvan gehou het om' magiese 'middels te gebruik nie, was dit nog lank nie altyd die geval nie,' Dr Leith sê.

Om al hierdie papirusse te bestudeer en te publiseer, is 'n veeleisende en langdurige taak wat al meer as 'n eeu lank aan die gang is. Die stukkies is vertaal deur navorsers aan die Universiteit van Oxford en University College in Londen. Hulle is tans gehuisves in die Oxford University Sackler Library, maar die eienaar daarvan is die Egypt Exploration Society.

Professor Nutton glo dat die skrywers van hierdie ou papirusse dit was sterk beïnvloed deur die Griekse kennis, wat redelik redelik was, aangesien die ou Egiptenare na die verowering van Egipte en die wyer Midde -Ooste deur Alexander die Grote die Griekse kultuur omhels het.

Navorsers werk nou koorsagtig oor die voortgesette vertaling van hierdie enorme versameling tekste om meer verborge geheime uit die verlede te onthul.


Antieke Egiptiese medisyne

Die Ou Egiptenare, soos die Antieke Grieke en Romeine, het moderne historici baie kennis en bewyse verskaf oor hul houding teenoor medisyne en die mediese kennis wat hulle gehad het. Hierdie bewyse kom uit die talle papirusse wat in argeologiese soektogte gevind is.

Soos die prehistoriese mens, was sommige van die oortuigings van die Egiptenare gebaseer op mites en legendes. Hulle kennis was egter ook gebaseer op 'n toenemende kennis van die menslike anatomie en gewone verstand.

In die ou Egipte is die behandeling van siektes nie meer slegs deur towenaars en medisyne uitgevoer nie. Ons het bewyse dat mense bestaan ​​wat na dokters en dokters verwys is.

'Dit is sewe dae sedert gister sedert ek my liefde gesien het,
En siekte het oor my gekruip,
My ledemate het swaar geword,
Ek kan nie my eie liggaam voel nie.
As die meester-dokters na my toe kom,
Ek kry geen troos uit hul middels nie.
En die priester-towenaars het geen genesing nie,
My siekte word nie gediagnoseer nie.
My liefde is vir my verreweg beter as my middels.
Sy is vir my belangriker as al die mediese boeke. ”

'N Antieke Egiptiese liefdesgedig geskryf in ongeveer 1500 v.C.

Argeologiese opgrawings het ook bewyse gevind van mans met die titel dokters. Die hiërogliewe op die deur na die graf van Irj beskryf hom as 'n dokter aan die hof van die farao's. Irj het ongeveer 1500 vC geleef. Hy is beskryf as:

"Paleisdokter, superintendent van die hofgeneeshere, paleisoogarts, paleisarts van die buik en een wat die interne vloeistowwe verstaan ​​en wat die anus beskerm."

Dokters het nog vroeër in die ou Egipte gewoon. Imphotep was die dokter van koning Zozer en het ongeveer 2600 vC geleef. Imphotep is so belangrik geag dat hy na sy dood as 'n god van genesing aanbid is.

Byna al ons kennis oor antieke Egiptiese mediese kennis kom uit die ontdekkings van papirusdokumente. Die baie droë atmosfeer in Egipte het beteken dat baie van hierdie dokumente ondanks hul ouderdom baie goed bewaar gebly het. Talle papirusdokumente kom uit die era 1900 vC tot 1500 vC. Uit hierdie dokumente weet ons dat die ou Egiptenare nog steeds geglo het dat die bonatuurlike siektes veroorsaak het.

As daar geen duidelike rede vir 'n siekte was nie, het baie dokters en priesters uit Egipte geglo dat siektes deur geestelike wesens veroorsaak word. Toe niemand kon verduidelik waarom iemand 'n siekte het nie, is towerspreuke en toverdrankies gebruik om die geeste uit te dryf.

Sommige van hierdie towerspreuke was:

'Hierdie woorde moet oor die siek persoon gesê word. 'O Gees, 'n wyfie mannetjie wat in my vlees en in my ledemate skuil, skuil uit my vlees. Kom uit my ledemate! ” Dit was 'n middel vir 'n ma en kind. “Kom! U wat bose dinge uit my maag en my ledemate verdryf. Wie dit drink, sal genees word net soos die gode hierbo genees is. ” Dit is aan die einde van hierdie geneesmiddel bygevoeg: 'Hierdie spreuk is regtig uitstekend - baie keer suksesvol.' Dit was die bedoeling om te sê wanneer u 'n middel drink.

Dit was 'n middel vir mense wat kaal word:

“Vet van leeu, vet van seekoei, vet van kat, vet van krokodil, vet van steenbok, vet van slang, word saam gemeng en die kop van die bles word saam met hulle gesalf.

Die eertydse Egiptenare het ook 'n god gehad wat bose geeste sou afskrik - Bes.

Ondanks hierdie gebruik van middels wat uit 'n gebrek aan kennis kom, het die Ou Egiptenare ook hul kennis ontwikkel as gevolg van opvoeding. Ou papirus vertel ons dat die ou Egiptenare dinge ontdek het oor hoe die menslike liggaam werk en dat hulle weet dat die hart, polsslag, bloed en lug belangrik is vir die werking van die menslike liggaam. 'N Hart wat flou klop, het aan dokters gesê dat die pasiënt probleme ondervind.

Die eertydse Egiptenare het hulle kennis neergeskryf, en dit word gevind op wat bekend staan ​​as die Papirus Ebers:

'46 vate gaan van die hart na elke ledemaat, as 'n dokter sy hand of vingers op die agterkant van die kop, hande, maag, arms of voete plaas, hoor hy die hart. Die hart praat uit elke ledemaat. ”

'Daar is 4 vate aan sy neusgate, 2 gee slym en 2 gee bloed, daar is 4 vate in sy voorkop, daar is 6 vate wat na die arms lei, daar is 6 vate wat na die voete lei, daar is 2 vate na sy testikels (en ) daar is 2 vate na die boude. ”

Die dokument gee eintlik name aan organe soos die milt, die hart, die anus, die longe, ens. Hulle moes dus geweet het dat dit bestaan. Een papirus, die Edwin Smith Papyrus, bevat 'n gedetailleerde beskrywing van die brein, sodat hierdie orgaan ook goed nagevors is volgens die destydse standaarde. Dit is waarskynlik dat hierdie kennis gekom het as gevolg van die gebruik wat die ou Egiptenare gehad het om dooie liggame te balsem.

Die werk van 'n balsem is breedvoerig beskryf deur Herodotus wat van Griekeland afkomstig was, maar in die 5de eeu die ou Egipte besoek het:

'Eers neem hulle 'n skewe stuk metaal en trek 'n deel van die brein deur die neusgate en spoel dan die res uit met dwelms. Daarna sny hulle met 'n skerp klip aan die kant van die liggaam en haal die hele inhoud van die buik uit. Daarna vul hulle die holte met mirre, kassia en ander speserye, en die liggaam word 70 dae in natron geplaas.

Die organe wat tydens die balsemingsproses verwyder is, is saam met die speserye in 'n pot geplaas en in die graf van die begrawe persoon geplaas. Alhoewel die godsdienstige wet die balsemers verbied het om die liggaam te bestudeer, is dit byna seker dat hulle net 'n bietjie kennis van die menslike anatomie sou opgedoen het uit die werk wat hulle gedoen het.


15 Skrikwekkende 18de eeuse middels vir wat u kwel

Kan u 'n beeld neem van iemand wat 'n beroerte het, sny, verbrand en bloei? Of vryf giftige lood op iemand om hul rektumkanker te genees? Welkom by slegs 'n paar van die oplossings Die boek van Phisick, 'n merkwaardige leesbare, handgeskrewe resepteboek met natuurlike middels. Dit is aanvanklik in 1710 deur 'n onbekende skrywer geskryf en daarna jare lank deur verskillende anonieme hande bygevoeg. Die resepte behels meestal die gebruik van plante en minerale om alles van slegte asem tot kanker te bestry. Sommige van die behandelings kan nog steeds gevind word in nie-Westerse benaderings tot medisyne, ander blyk 'n veilige manier te wees om die dood van die pasiënt te bespoedig. Almal van hulle sal u 'n bietjie meer verdraagsaam maak teenoor u medevergoeding.

1. "Vir die byt van 'n mal hond"

Hondsdolheid is byna altyd dodelik, tensy die besmette 'n moderne behandelingskans van twee weke kry om hul liggaam te help om die virus te identifiseer en te beveg. Die behandeling voorgeskryf in Phisick is hopeloos onvoldoende - en wreed, inaggenome die hidrofobie wat gewoonlik met hondsdolheid gepaardgaan:

Neem 40 korrels gemaalde lewerwortel en 20 korrels peper in 'n halwe liter melk ... neem hierdie hoeveelheid vier oggende saam en gebruik dan die koue bad, elke tweede dag, 'n maand.

Phisick bied ook 'n gebeurlikheidsbehandeling "as die waansin begin word." Drink 'n drankie tee, gemaak van kaneel, muskus en 'n stroop van naeltjies met 'n drankjag, en "bly dertig dae voordat u dit herhaal." As die simptome wat verband hou met waansin reeds begin het, sou baie dae van niksdoen die einde van baie pasiënte sien - maar ongelukkig so ook 30 dae van enige ander behandeling in hierdie era.

2. "Om swart wurms in die gesig dood te maak"

Mense het lankal gedink dat swartkoppies klein wurms in die vel is, en u kan sien hoe maklik die aanname gemaak kan word deur na 'n paar van die baie swartkoppie -ekstraksievideo's op YouTube te kyk. (Moenie kyk terwyl jy eet nie.) Die suksesvolle verwydering van swartkoppies het die klein lyk van die aanstootlike ongedierte opgelewer. Die resep was eenvoudig: rooiwynasyn, prunella en nagskermwater. Prunella kom vandag nog oral in die kruie-medisyne oor die hele wêreld voor, as 'n algemene 'genees-alles' voorgeskryf. Die nagskermwater (wat steeds vir medisinale en kulinêre doeleindes te koop is) was waarskynlik die res van die kook van die bessies en blare solanum nigrum plant. Dit sou dit Black Nightshade gemaak het, wat, hoewel dit nog steeds in groot hoeveelhede giftig is, nie so giftig is as sy neef Deadly Nightshade nie. Waarskynlik net giftig genoeg om al die klein wurms in jou gesig te spoel.

2. "Wit lood vlegsel"

Wit lood is eeue lank as 'n wonderbaarlike wondermiddel gebruik. Deur dit oor 'n persoon se rug te smeer, word gesê dat dit 'n miskraam voorkom en 'die bloedige vloed' (ook onstuitbare, dikwels dodelike diarree) genees. Praktisyns het geglo dat dit, as dit op die maag aangebring word, eetlus kan veroorsaak en die King's Evil versag - pynlose maar onooglike besmette limfkliere, so genoem omdat dit geglo word dat die aanraking van 'n soewerein wat deur God bepaal is, dit kan genees. Daar word ook geglo dat dit goed is vir swellings, kneusplekke, infeksie en alle probleme wat u met u 'grondslag' (onder) kan ondervind. As dit eers gemaak is, sal die mengsel vir 20 jaar goed wees.

Wit lood, of loodasetaat, is 'n samentrekkende middel, wat bloedvate en porieë kan swel en verminder. Die dodelike hoë toksisiteit van wit lood was óf onbekend óf eenvoudig nie 'n groot bron van kommer vir die mense van die 18de eeu nie. Die gevolge van loodvergiftiging - algemene swak gesondheid, verminderde lewensduur, gevare vir fetale ontwikkeling en selfs kindersterftes - was 'n verwagte deel van die lewe in die era. Dit sou moeilik gewees het om wit lood as 'n unieke bron van enige van die siektes te identifiseer.

4. "'n Pleasent Purge"

Dit is sinvol as u daaraan dink: Om gesond te word, het burgers van die 18de eeu geglo, moet u alles wat u siek maak uit u liggaam spoel. Daarom was purgeermiddels (enige middel wat 'n pasiënt sou laat verdryf wat in sy spysverteringstelsel was, gewoonlik deur diarree) 'n groot deel van die medisyne voor die 19de eeu-selfs al het u siekte niks met u spysverteringstelsel te doen nie.

Die Boek van Phisick bevat resepte vir veelvuldige lakseermiddels. Die 'Pleasent' een is 'n mengsel van "manna" (gedroogde sap van die Suid -Europese asboom) en suurlemoensap. Maar as u iets sterk genoeg wil hê om dermwurms dood te maak - wat baie gereeld voorkom totdat chemiese plaagdoders wyd gebruik is - en 'n swak maag versterk, gebruik u aalwyn in plaas van as. Die gelatienagtige deel van die plant kan in pille gerol word en aan die pasiënt gevoer word. (Alhoewel ons meestal aan aalwyn dink met betrekking tot die vel, toon studies dat dit nuttig kan wees vir inflammatoriese dermsiektes.)

Alhoewel hulle in die 18de eeu as 'n genesing beskou is, het purgeermiddels eintlik die teenoorgestelde effek gehad: hulle het 'n pasiënt leeggemaak van water wat broodnodig was, wat hom swak en uitgeput gelaat het, maar met dieselfde keelontsteking as voordat hy streng ondergaan is regime van aanhoudende maagkrampe en kak.

5. "'n Sonding vir 'n kanker in die bors"

Borskanker het sedert die antieke Egipte in die opgetekende geskiedenis verskyn, hoewel dit gewoonlik nie behandel is totdat die gewas pynlik of merkbaar deur die vel geword het nie. Die van Phisick 'n hoopvolle middel bevat bestanddele soos salie, lourierblare, kamille en rooi rose, wat presies agt dae lank in 'n kolk laat ryp word.

Teen die einde van die 18de eeu het nuwe dokters die idees uitgedaag dat borskanker veroorsaak word deur nie genoeg seks nie, te veel seks, kinderloosheid, te veel swart gal of depressie. Die idee van radikale mastektomie as behandeling was in sy kinderskoene (as u 'n sterk maag het, lees Fanny Burney se verslag van haar eie voor-narkose mastektomie hier). Maar meestal behandel mense steeds borskanker met aktuele salf. Selfs as daar geen rede was om te glo dat dit sou werk nie, is dit die menslike natuur om aan te hou probeer.

6. "Om op te hou bloei"

Een van die belangrikste probleme met hierdie resep is dat dit nie spesifiseer watter bloeding dit wil stop nie. Die ander is dat die aktiewe bestanddeel die baie skadelike wit lood is, wat as wonde 'n pynstiller werk. Dokters uit die negentiende eeu sou dit tydens operasies gebruik, wat onmiddellik geamputeerde ledemate met groot hoeveelhede bedek, maar die instruksies in Phisick Moenie iets sê oor die toediening van 'n wond nie:

Maak linne, doop een in die [lood] water en smeer dit op die put van die maag. As dit nie een vir elke pols doen nie, en twee vir die voete.

Op grond van boeke wat later gepubliseer is, kan ons aflei dat dit 'n resep is vir die behandeling van bloeding. In Materia medica, geskryf 170 jaar daarna Phisick, suiker van lood ('n ander naam vir wit lood) word steeds aanbeveel vir alle vorme van interne bloeding, insluitend brongiale, derm-, nier- en baarmoeder. Deur eers die loodspuit op die buik aan te bring, blyk dit 'n poging te wees om een ​​of al die drie laasgenoemde te beheer. En alhoewel loodsuiker maklik in die vel opgeneem word, het die moontlike toestande wat hierdie bloeding veroorsaak - tifus, nierversaking, miskraam - waarskynlik meer nodig as 'n blaasontsteking.

7. "'n Goeie oorvloedige water en geskik vir die gryp"

Surfeit water was die Alka-Seltzer van 1710-'n manier om 'n maag te vestig wat 'n oorvloed van genot geniet het; die betrokke water was gewoonlik alkohol. Die resep dui ook aan dat dit gebruik kan word om water te maak, wat 'n moeilike baba kalmeer. Grypwater word vandag nog gebruik, maar nie hierdie formulering nie, wat meer geskik lyk vir 'n lawaai Velociraptor: Die resep benodig 'n liter brandewyn en soveel volwasse papawersblare - wat baie opium sou bevat - as wat in 'n houer gestop kan word. Die aftreksel word 'n paar dae laat staan, gespanne, en dan met 'n paar lekker drankies gemeng om dit smaakliker te maak: "3 of 4 lepels op 'n slag is genoeg" vir 'n volwassene. En vir kinders, net twee, met 'n bietjie water. Dit was waarskynlik ongelooflik doeltreffend — bewusteloos word selde deur maagprobleme gepla.

8. "Vir die Colick"

Phisick Dit bevat baie resepte om 'n kind se maagpyn te kalmeer, wat nie almal op opiaat was nie. Maar u kan kies vir die papawersaadmiddel voordat u hierdie resep gebruik, wat aanvanklik behels het om die mis van duiwe te braai en dan die gevolglike pasta op die naeltjie van die kind aan te bring. En dit is die minste onaangename deel van die behandeling: Die kind moet ook 'n klysma van warm melk, "of gebraaide hawer, of kamille, of 'n sak sand of 'n warm Tyle kry." (Elders in Phisick daar word aangedui dat 'n sak warm sand of 'n warm teël ekstern op 'n maagpyn toegedien moet word - alhoewel ons nie sal weet hoeveel arme kinders sand in die boude moes verduur nie.)

Die laaste deel van die behandeling is een waarvan ons vaagweg vertroud is, bewaar in 'n kru omgangstaal wat gewoonlik gebruik word om die waarheid van iemand te bevraagteken: Spesiale klysma -toestelle - 'glisters' genoem in Phisick maar ook as "Clysters" geskryf - is gebruik om tabakrook in die ingewande te dwing. Daar word vermoed dat tabakrook 'n opwekkende middel is, en word rektaal gebruik vir alles, van die herlewing van verdrinkingslagoffers tot die stop van epileptiese aanvalle.

9. "Vir 'n apopleksie"

Iemand wat 'n apopleksie ondergaan het, is geïdentifiseer deur 'skielik alle sintuie weggeneem'. Ons gebruik die term nou selde omdat ons weet dat die toestand van 'alle sintuie skielik weggeneem' word veroorsaak deur baie verskillende uiters ernstige siektes, soos beroerte, interne bloeding of brein -aneurisme. Behandeling vir sulke siektes in die 18de eeu was niks anders as marteling nie: Eerstens, laat die pasiënt bloei deur 16 of 18 gram bloed (ongeveer twee koppies) te laat ontsnap, wat vermoedelik die liggaam van slegte bloed reinig, die bloedsomloop stimuleer en balanseer die humors. Dit word gewoonlik gedoen met 'n vlam, 'n metaalstrook met 'n skerp driehoekige kop wat spesifiek ontwerp is om are te steek. Die bloed drup dan in 'n bak wat spesiaal daarvoor gemaak is.

Vervolgens word die pasiënt gestop en besoedel. Dit het behels dat spesiale koppies-gewoonlik van metaal, glas of keramiek-oor vuur tot byna rooiwarm verhit word. Daarna word die koppies op die vel aangebring, dit verbrand en terselfdertyd 'n vakuum geskep, wat 'n geweldige vlek veroorsaak. As die vel vooraf met 'n skeermiddel deurboor is, sal die resultaat 'n "nat koppie" wees, omdat die beker met bloed gevul word. Die resep het ook voorgeskryf dat die nek en arms geblaas word, wat dieselfde proses was, maar sonder die afskorting. (Klik hier om die proses te sien, wat nog steeds in sommige genesingskringe gebruik word, maar wees gewaarsku, dit is nie aangenaam nie.)

Ongelukkig is die behandeling van hierdie swak apoplektiese wese nog nie verby nie. Daarna kom 'sterk glinster' (enemas) en die hou van 'n rooiwarm skopgraaf naby hul kop. Dit word gevolg deur die toediening van 'n onbeduidende speserye op die voetsole en die pasiënt se hande in naby kookwater.

10. "Vallende siekte"

Phisick sê hierdie siekte "word geken deur skielik neer te val, te sukkel en 'n wit skuim uit hul mond te kom." Vandag noem ons dit epilepsie. Die voorgeskrewe behandeling is die naaste Phisick kom uit en uit hokus pokus: Die hare van 'n sterk jong man, sowel as 'die been wat in 'n takbok groei', moet gekook en gepoeier word, en dan aan die pasiënt in die hoeveelheid 'soveel as' sal twee dae voor die nuwemaan op 'n graan loog. " 'N Volmaan word beskou as een van die ergste tye vir 'n persoon wat aan epilepsie gely het, aangesien dit geglo het dat dit waansin veroorsaak het (dus die' luna 'in die kranksinnige).

11. "Vir stuiptrekkings by kinders"

Alhoewel die meeste van hierdie medisinale resepte 'n bietjie logika het, is daar 'n paar wat die leser hopeloos verward laat voel. Om pasmaak by kinders te genees, word dit byvoorbeeld aanbeveel om 'n "lewende varkbont" te neem en dit aan die agterkant van die ongelukkige kind te klap. Die voël sal sukkel en "Dit sal die velle wegtrek en swak word en kleur, so pas nog een aan totdat die velle dit verlaat." Hierdie behandeling - die aanwending van 'n duif se 'grondslag' op die aangetaste gebied - word ook voorgeskryf om gif uit 'n slangbyt te dreineer.

12. "Vir 'n oog in die oë"

As u dink dat die antwoord in 'n goeie doem uit 'n emmer putwater lê, dink u nie aan hierdie situasie nie. Diegene wat hoop om van die oogkolle ontslae te raak, was: "Neem urine en sit dit in 'n piouterbak", en plaas nog 'n pioenskottel bo -op om die kondens op te vang terwyl die onderste skottel verhit word. Dan word die spesiale piepwater opgevang en in die oog laat val.

Die toediening van hierdie spesiale water beloof om "die spikkels te verminder, die oë skoon te maak en 'n uitstekende middel vir seer oë." Interessant genoeg word die gebruik van urine as oogspoel vandag nog toegepas, hoewel dit grootliks deur die mediese gemeenskap afgekeur word.

13. "Om oorbodige hare te verwyder"

Vir 'n era wat min moeite gehad het om deel te neem aan sommige van die gevaarlikste gifstowwe en walglike konkoksies wat in die natuur beskikbaar is, PhisickDie geheim vir haarverwydering was nogal mak: meng soutwater eenvoudig met 'n vasspoeg, 'n spoeg wat vroegoggend uit die mond geneem is voordat jy eet. Daar word vermoed dat dit spesiale genesende eienskappe het, en dit is selfs in die Bybel genoem. Ongelukkig is dit nie bekend vir sy vermoë om keratien af ​​te breek nie.

14. "Vir die hoofpyn"

Phisick bied 'n verskeidenheid eenvoudige hoofpynkure. Sommige is byna skokkend redelik (drink sterk koffie of tee), sommige is na verwagting vreemd (kam opwaarts en streel met neutmuskaat en asyn), en sommige is net terug in die kategorie "oh 18th century, no" (maak braak, trek bloed uit die tempel, blaasnek). Die hoofpyn is een van die siektes wat ons geleer het om te bestuur, maar nie uitgewis het nie. Baie mense wat migraine ly, sal graag lemoenskil aan hul voorkop bind en parfuumwater snuif (ook behandelings aanbeveel) as hulle net 'n oomblik dink dat dit sal werk.

15. "Vir die klein wit wurms in die grondslag"

Selfs in die 21ste eeu is penwurms steeds die algemeenste wurminfeksie in Amerika, veral onder kinders. Hierdie parasiete woon in die rektum en die onderste ingewande, en die wyfies kruip uit om hul eiers gedurende die nag in die anale gebied te lê. As kinders aan hul jeukende boude krap en aan dinge raak, versprei hulle die eiers na nabygeleë gashere (gewoonlik ander kinders). Vandag is daar 'n aantal vinnige medisyne wat die wurms kan verdryf, en natuurlike middels soos knoffel is ook volop. Maar Phisick stel voor dat u 'n vleispospottie, vasgemaak aan 'n tou, maak om vinnig te verwyder. Die idee is dat as die wurms 'n rukkie aan hul eie lot oorgelaat word, die wurms gelukkig in die valse 'gasheer' sal tuisgaan. Die setpil word dan vinnig verwyder, en hopelik neem die ongewenste interlopers dit mee. Die proses moet herhaal word totdat al die wurms weg is.


Die oudste mediese boeke ter wêreld

Alhoewel die meeste mediese papirusse wat ons ken uit die Renaissance kom, is dit seker dat dit slegs afskrifte is, dikwels derde- of vierdehandse, van ouer werke. Soms is verdwaalde bladsye op die papirusrolle gekopieer deur skrifgeleerdes sonder voorafgaande mediese opleiding, wat nie aandag gegee het aan die kontinuïteit van die onderwerp nie.

Lank gelede, toe skryfwerk 'n geheime wetenskap was, was die Egiptiese skrifgeleerde nie 'n eenvoudige kopieerder nie. Hy het die gesamentlike opleiding gehad van 'n kalligraaf, 'n filosoof, 'n geleerde en 'n wetenskaplike. Many physicians prided themselves on bearing the title of scribe among their others, and like Hesyreh, had themselves portrayed with the palette and reeds, the sesh, symbol of that learned class. The actual copying was probably performed in the pir-ankh or Houses of Life that were attached to the temples and where the scholars, physicians, philosophers and scientists of the time used to meet.

We know of nine principal medical papyri. They are called after their original owners (Edwin Smith, Chester Beatty, Carlsberg), the site of their discovery (Kahoun, Ramesseum), the towns were they are kept (Leyden, London, Berlin) or their editor (Ebers).

The Kahoun Papyrus is the most ancient scroll and was discovered at Fayoum and was called by mistake the Kahoun Papyrus. It dates from 1950 B.C. And has on its back an account from the time of Amenemhat III (1840-1792 B.C.). Not only is this the oldest known papyrus, but the original from which it was copied seems also more antique than the originals of the other papyri.

It consists of three sections, one dealing with human medicine, the second with veterinary science, and the third with mathematics. It is written in hieratic handwriting like the other papyri, except the veterinary section which, possibly because of its greater antiquity, is written in hieroglyphic, a script usually reserved for theological writings.

The medical section is composed of three leaves the first, found in a very fragmentary condition, was already repaired in ancient times with strips from other papyri pasted on the back.

The first two pages contain 17 gynecological prescriptions and instructions without titles. No surgery is prescribed substances recommended are beer, milk, oil, dates, herbs, incense and sometimes repulsive substances. Use is often made of fumigations, pastes, and vaginal applications.

The third page contains 17 prescriptions concerning the assessment of sterility and of pregnancy, and the ascertaining of the sex of unborn children. Many of the indications concerning pregnancy and childbirth refer to the state of the breasts, their firmness and to the color of the face and eyes.

The Ramesseum IV and V papyri were probably written about 1900 B.C., i.e. At about the same epoch as the Kahoun Papyrus.

Papyrus IV is very similar to the Kahoun Papyrus it contains many identical prescriptions and also is concerned with labor, the protection of the newborn on the day of its birth, the prognostication of its viability, and it contains one anti-conceptional formula made out of crocodile dung which completes a similar one in the Kahoun papyrus.

Papyrus V is purely medical. Even though its beginning and end are lost it still contains 20 prescriptions of which many are dealing with relaxing ‘stiffened’ limbs. This papyrus is written in hieroglyphic script, and not in hieratic. The titles are written in horizontal lines at the top of the pages and the prescriptions are listed underneath in vertical columns.

The Berlin Papyrus was found at the time of Usaphais in an old chest containing antique writings. The legend states that it was found in a chest with scribe's tools, under the feet of a statue of Anubis at Letopolis under Usaphais, the 3rd Pharaoh of the 1st dynasty. It covers 25 pages and contains 240 recipes, of which three are written in a different handwriting. A large part of its contents consists of a word-for-word repetition with many errors and careless copying of certain paragraphs of the Ebers and Hearst documents. Included are sections on rheumatism, a treatise on vessels similar to the second book on the heart, in the Ebers papyrus, a gloss that completes the latter, and a note on its origin, more detailed than that which is found in Ebers.

The London Medical Papyrus lies midway between a medical papyri and a non-medical work of pure magic. It contains 61 recipes of which only 25 are medical. The rest, of which part is of foreign origin, is purely magical. It claims to be discovered by the priests of the temple of Tebmut in the sanctuary of the goddess: "Behold! The darkness of the night enveloped the Earth but the moon cast her beams upon all pages of this book and it was brought to the treasury of His Majesty King Khufu."

The Hearst Papyrus covers 18 and a half pages and describes 260 medical cases of which 96 are found in the Ebers Papyrus. It contains also a chapter on bone affections. On the whole, it is considered inferior to the Ebers papyrus, although it improves on it in certain passages.

The Ebers Papyrus is the longest of all the known papyri and the most important, considering the physiological and medical knowledge it reveals. It is complete in 108 pages and bears the date of the 9th year of the reign of Amenophis I (1550 B.C.).

The Ebers does not constitute a book in our modern sense. It is rather a mosaic of leaves and extracts drawn from different sources and compiled at the scribe's will.

It starts with a magic introduction, possibly aiming at reassuring its user as to its divine origin and at asserting that the power of magic derives from Thot the benefactor, charged by Re to relieve suffering humanity: "I have come from Heliopolis with the old ones in the temple, the possessors of protection, the rulers of eternity I have come from Sais with the mother of the gods. They have given me their protection. I have formulae composed by the lord of the universe in order to expel afflictions caused by a god or goddess, by dead man or woman, etc., which are in this my head, in this my nape, in these my shoulders, in this my flesh, in these my limbs, and in order to punish the Accuser, the head of them who cause decay to enter into this my flesh, and feebleness into these my limbs. I belong to Re he has said: 'I will save him from his enemies and Thot shall be his guide, he who lets writing speak and has composed the books he gives to the skillful, to the physicians who accompany him, skill to cure. The one whom the god loves, him he shall keep alive.'" The last sentence could be used as a spell for the patient had to say, 'It is I whom the god loves and he shall keep me alive.'

In parts of the papyrus we find theological tendencies and attributions of many of the prescriptions to the gods.

Other sections contains information on digestive diseases and worms and their treatment, sections on the treatment of eye diseases, on the care of the skin and hair, on fractures and burns, resembling very much the Edwin Smith papyrus on the treatment of stiffened and painful limbs, on gynecological disease which often repeats in the Kahoun papyrus, a treatise on the heart and vessels which is the only one dealing with anatomy and physiology, and finally a surgical section limited to tumors and abscesses.

Whereas the previous papyri are mainly collections of prescriptions, the 877 paragraphs of this compilation contain, besides the therapeutic recipes, diagnostic notes and, for the first time in history, theoretical considerations on the problems of life, health, and disease devoid of religious or magical considerations. Some of the illness identified include anasacra, leprosy, fevers, dysentery, different kinds of worms, heart disease, dropsy, faintness, rheumatism, stiffness of joints and limbs, liver diseases, polyuria (possibly diabetes), intestinal obstructions, gangrene, burns, blisters, affection of the ears, nose, tongue, gums and teeth, sections on how to stimulate hair growth, diseases of the breast, gynecological diseases, contraceptive measures, and methods to help childbirth and gonorrhea.

The descriptions are pretty, often poetic. A weak person is compared to a "breath that passes away." Many are remarkable in their precision such as those of angina pectoris, aneurysm and hernia.

In our last issue we gave a basic overview of the various papyri. Our present article will discuss practical applications of the ancient Egyptian medicine. The following information is quoted from Magic and Medical Science in Ancient Egypt (see end of article for full information).

"The physician was taught to deal gently and meticulously with his patients. Reading the papyri one is constantly struck by the kindness shown to the maimed and the diseased. Whatever their illness, the sick were never considered, as in some other civilizations, untouchable, demon-possessed creatures. The wise Amenemope says, 'Do not mock at the blind do not scoff at dwarfs do not injure the lame do not sneer at a man who is in the hand of God (of unsound mind).' A suffering person is not to be left without help: Go in to him, and do not abandon him." (Ebers 200)

During clinical consultations there was a detailed examination in the course of which the physician had to exert his powers of observation to the utmost to detect as many symptoms and to elicit as many signs as he could. According to the available clinical descriptions, it started with a detailed history-taking and questionnaire.

A detailed inspection of the face: color secretions from nose, eyes, of the neck abdomen, and limbs: swelling, shaking, varicosities, perspiration, stiffness. The general appearance and nutrition of the body were observed: '&hellip[a patient] whose body shrinks' (Ebers.197) the expression of the face: 'If &hellipthou findest that he has been changed and has turned deathly pale [this one has crossed the channel to the beyond]' (Eb. 198) the color of the eyes the pigmentation and the color of the skin: '&hellipIf thou findest on his shoulders, his arms that there is color&hellip' We find statements such as there is a 'perishing of the mind' and 'his heart is forgetful like one who is thinking of something else.'

The smell of the body, of the sweat, of the breath and of wounds was noted. A wound in the Smith papyrus is said to smell like the urine of sheep the breath of a patent is compared to a latrine the smell of a mother's milk is said to be like a particular fruit and like that of fish if bad and a gynecological lesion smells of burnt meat.

Urine and fecal matter were then inspected: 'thou shalt rise every day to examine that which has fallen from his hinder part&hellip if&hellip comes out of him like black bile, then&hellip if thou examinest him after doing [treatment] and something comes out of his anus like porridge of beans, then thou shalt say to this: that which is in his cardia has come out.'

So we can see that great care was taken to listen to how the body was functioning.

Palpation of the pulse was very important and noted in the papyri. Also that of the abdomen was no less important: 'If thou examinest a man suffering from a resistance in his cardia, and thou findest that it goes and comes under thy fingers like oil in a leather bag&hellip', or '&hellipthen thou shalt examine him lying extended on his back. If thou findest his belly warm and a resistance in his cardia, thou shalt say to him: it is a liver case. Thou shalt prepare the secret herbal remedy which is made by the physician&hellip If, after having done that, thou findest the two sides of the belly: the right one warm, and the left one cool, then&hellip thou shalt again examine him, if thou findest his entire belly cool thou shalt say: his liver is opened he has received the remedy [i.e. the remedy has operated].

The palpation of tumors was detailed and painstaking. The temperature of different parts of the body was compared. Wounds were also felt with the same care: a fractured skull was compared to a punctured earthen jar, the pulsations of the brain were compared to those of an open fontanelle. Fractures were distinguished from luxations by feeling crepitus under the fingers.

Percussion was also an aspect of clinical observation. We find references such as, '&hellipthen thou shalt put thy hand over his cardia if thou findest his cardia drumming and it is coming and going under thy finger&hellip' Also references are made explaining other sounds that are discovered during examination.

Functional testing was also important. The physician would examine the shoulders and breast and how they were aligned and moving. References are made to examining the jaw '&hellipif the mouth is open and cannot close&hellip' in a case of dislocation of the lumbar vertebrae: '&hellipthou should say to him: extend now thy two legs and contract them both again&hellip' in case of hernia: '&hellipgrasp him and see if (?) has arisen by his cough.'

The information obtained through examination was then sifted and a diagnosis and prognosis were formed accordingly. It would appear that diseases were not named, and the physician was instructed thusly, '&hellipyou will say concerning him&hellip'

In spite of the rarity of names of diseases, there existed the conception of syndromes, i.e., of collections of manifestations forming recurring and distinctive clinical pictures. The obvious recurrences between lesion and symptoms, and by the realization of the diagnostic and prognostic connotations of symptom-complex were explicitly stated.

Egyptians took their health very seriously. Herodotus, in the 5th century B.C. Expressed his admiration of the health of the Egyptians, saying that they were the healthiest in the world after the Libyans. Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century A.D. Stated that, "&hellipthe whole manner of life of Egyptians was so evenly ordered that it would appear as though it had been arranged according the rules of health by a learned physician rather than by a law-giver."

"The importance of health to the average ancient Egyptian is seen in the composition of personal names and in the forms of daily greeting. Many names were formed with the word snb (seneb) which means healthy, not with the negative meaning of health, i.e. Absence of disease, but with the positive sense of vigor and efficiency. Such names as 'I possess health,' 'Let your father be healthy,' were very common. All forms of greeting formula, all letters, addresses, salutes and travel recommendations ended with wishes of good health."

In the way of thinking of the time, these were not mere words. The Egyptians believed in the importance of names and words and their power in shaping the present and the future. It was important in shaping a newborn's future life. It is fairly certain that hygiene in ancient Egypt must have occupied the best minds, and reached, at least for those times, a high degree of perfection. It would appear that the concepts of health deteriorated after the Ptolemaic era, especially under the Ottoman occupation.

Bodily cleanliness was an important aspect of the early Egyptian life, "even the Greeks thought excessive the care that Egyptians took of their bodies. All their travelers talk with admiration of the Egyptian customs of washing the hands and the crockery, and of taking purgatives and emetics every month. These customs were certainly in large part due to the example and teaching of the priests, who practiced an extremely fastidious ritual of cleanliness and of whom Herodotus wrote that they must certainly have received many benefits to submit to these innumerable observances."

Soap was still unknown they used instead natron, ashes, or soda which are all good detergents and dissolve fatty matter. Both men and women removed hair from their entire body, and anointed their heads with scented oils. Guests were honored by placing cones of scented fat on their heads.

Those who wished to erase the marks of the years and to prevent the appearance of wrinkles, freckles, and other outrages of age unitized fenugreek oil, extracted according to the instructions of the Smith papyrus. Body smell has always been a matter of concern in the civilized East where perspiration is profuse. The Ebers papyrus recommends a prescription against bad body smell in summer.

There appears to be enough evidence that demonstrates the value the Egyptians placed in being healthy and preserving their health. They had their successes and failures, as we have our success and failures. But, they appeared to be experienced clinicians knowing the resources and limits of their art.

As part of this ancient practice with love from Heaven in co-operation with those who agree and believe 100% in the healing power of Heaven, I now speak peace, love and lifelight all over planet earth and invoke Divine intervention to touch the seekers, suffering, ignorant, poor and hungry people. This is in no way my power. I am only an instrument - connector - bridge builder. Receive, receive, receive, receive and receive. All glory to Heaven and the Parents from Above.


Powder of Sympathy

istockphoto Seventeenth century medicine can seem a bit crazy to modern people, but perhaps nothing seems wackier than Sir Kenelm Digby's "Powder Of Sympathy."

The powder was intended as a treatment for a very specific injury: rapier wounds. It was made of earthworms, pigs' brains, iron oxide (rust), and bits of mummified corpses, ground into a powder. The powder was applied not to the wound itself but to the offending weapon.

Digby thought that the strange concoction would somehow encourage the wound itself to heal - via a process called "sympathetic magic."


Tapeworm Diet

During Victorian times, people came up with a radical solution to reduce weight—tapeworms. The idea behind it was simple: a person consumes a tapeworm egg so that when the parasite hatches and grows inside of the person's intestines, it starts to ingest whatever the person eats. This supposedly allows the person to lose weight without decreasing the amount of food they eat. While today it is known that tapeworms can be dangerous and in some cases even lethal, this questionable practice is still alive today.

But what did they do when they wanted to stop losing weight? How did they get it out? This is so gross lol


5. Comfrey

Traditionally known in some cultures as "knitbone" or "boneset", the health benefits of this unassuming leafy green can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. Comfrey is widely appreciated for its capacity to help heal broken bones and damaged tissues. In more modern times, science has shown us that these healing properties are partly due to a compound called &lsquoallantoin&rsquo which can accelerate cellular mitosis - the process of new tissue growth. Historically, comfrey also has a strong reputation for helping with external wounds that are healing poorly.


A Beautiful Mind: The History of the Treatment of Mental Illness

Asylums. Electro-Shock Therapy. Skull Drills. Pills. Exorcisms. Isolation. Lobotomies. Many of the drastic procedures that have been put in place to relieve a person with mental illness such as schizophrenia are only successful in creating ‘vegetables’ out of patients, not curing their illness but making them ghosts of their previous selves.

Throughout history, there have been radical changes in how the mentally ill are treated and cared for most of these occurred because of changing societal views and knowledge of mental illness. These changes have brought psychiatrics out of a negative light and have given psychiatric studies a brighter, more positive outlook.

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The history of treating mental illnesses dates as far back as 5000 B.C.E. with the evidence of “trephined skulls.”

In the ancient world cultures, a well-known belief was that mental illness was “the result of supernatural phenomena” this included phenomena from “demonic possession” to “sorcery” and “the evil eye”. The most commonly believed cause, demonic possession, was treated by chipping a hole, or “trephine”, into the skull of the patient by which “the evil spirits would be released,” therefore healing the patient.

Although ancient Persians also believed that the illnesses were caused by demons, they practiced precautionary measures such as personal hygiene and “purity of the mind and body” in order to “prevent and protect one from diseases”.

Similarly, the Egyptians recommended that those stricken with mental illness should participate in “recreational activities” in order to relieve symptoms which displayed that, as a civilization, the Egyptians were very advanced in their treatment of mental handicaps. (Foerschner)

During the 5 th and 3 rd centuries B.C.E., the Greeks changed the way that psychological disorders were viewed. The philosopher and physician, Hippocrates, discovered that illnesses come from “natural occurrences in the body” (Foerschner).

As Hippocrates was studying mental illness, he stepped away from the superstitious beliefs and towards the medical aspect of it. He studied the pathology of the brain and suggested that mental illness stemmed from imbalances in the body.

These imbalances were in the “four essential fluids” blood, phlegm, bile, and black bile which produce “unique personalities of individuals.” In order to restore the body’s balance, the Greeks used techniques such as phlebotomies, bloodletting, purging, and imposing diets on the afflicted (Foerschner).One treatment that Hippocrates advocated was changing the occupation and/or environment of the patient.

Although these treatments had gained popularity amongst most cultures, there were still vast majorities of people who believed in the supernatural causes of mental illness and used treatments such as amulets, talismans, and sedatives to “ease the torment” of the afflicted (Foerschner).

Historically, those with mental illnesses had a “social stigma” attached to them. It was believed that “a mentally ill member implies a hereditary, disabling condition in the bloodline” threatening the family’s “identity as an honorable unit”.

In countries, or cultures, that had strong ties to family honor, such as China and Japan and even some parts of the United States, the ill were hidden by their families so that the community or society that they were a part of wouldn’t believe the illness was “a result of immoral behavior by the individual and/or their relatives”.

As a result of this social stigma, many of the mentally ill were forced to either “live a life of confinement” or were abandoned and forced to live on the streets. Any of those that were abandoned to live on the streets and were rumored “dangerous and unmanageable” were either put in jail or dungeons, out of the public eye (Foerschner, 1).

According to Dr. Eve Leeman of the New York- Presbyterian Hospital, the social views on the sexes also affected the treatment of patients, particularly women. In the early 20 th century, women were “preferentially sterilized and lobotomized” and were sometimes even subjected to unnecessary procedures such as the five women in the Stockton State Hospital who were given a clitoridectomy. The justification for these procedures was that having a mental illness was “unladylike” and required “surgical intervention” (Leeman).

These negative perspectives of the mentally ill were maintained throughout history and into modern societies as shown by Nurse Ratched’s treatment of the patients in One Who Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest (Kesey). Throughout the novel, Nurse Ratched abuses her position and uses her power to submit her patients to cruel treatment as punishment for misbehavior.

This is due to the fact that she doesn’t see her patients as human beings but as animals who need to be trained.

In the early 15 th century many of those afflicted with psychological disorders were placed in workhouses, madhouses, or asylums because it was too burdensome for the families to care for them. The state of these institutions was abhorable.

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Those that were admitted to madhouses were abused and often abandoned by their caregivers who were not trained in the treatment of mental disorders. Private madhouses, however, were often run by clergy men on direct orders from the Vatican and were significantly more humane.

The treatments instituted by the clergymen included regular church attendance, pilgrimages, as well as priests solacing individuals to confess their sins and repent. Asylums, on the other hand, were incredibly inhumane in the treatment of their patients.

Many of those admitted were abused, abandoned, treated like animals, restrained with shackles and iron collars, cared for by untrained staff, and even put on display. An infamous example of the horrors of early asylums would be La Bicetre.

In this French asylum, patients were shackled to walls with very little room to move, were not adequately fed, only visited when brought food, their rooms were not cleaned, and they were therefore forced to sit in their own wastes. Another example would be Saint Mary of Bethlehem, an asylum nicknamed “Bedlam” due to its horrific treatment of the mentally ill.

Their “violent” patients were on display like “sideshow freaks” and their “gentler” patients were forced to beg on the streets. Patients who were allowed to be visited by family often begged their families to be released, however, since the current stigma of mental handicaps was so negative, their pleas would be ignored.

Treatments in these asylums, as well as others, included purging, bloodletting, blistering, dousing patients in either boiling or ice-cold water to “shock” them, sedatives, and using physical restraints such as straitjackets (Foerschner).

Due to the obviously horrific treatment of patients in asylums, many reforms began to take place starting in the mid-to-late 1800s.

Two reformists greatly influenced the spread of what is known as the “Humanitarian Movement,” the first being Phillipe Pinel, in Paris. Pinel believed that “mentally ill patients would improve if they were treated with kindness and consideration” instead of filthy, noisy, and abusive environments he implemented his hypothesis when he took over La Bicetre.

Another major reformist, William Tuke, founded the York Retreat where patients were treated with “respect and compassion” (Foerschner). After Tuke and Pinel, came Dorothea Dix who advocated the hospital movement and in 40 years, got the U.S. government to fund the building of 32 state psychiatric hospitals as well as organizing reforms in asylums across the world (Module 2).

The Hospital movement started in the 18 th century and was justified by reasons such as: “to protect society and the insane from harm, to cure those amenable to treatment, to improve the lives of the incurable, and to fulfill the humanitarian duty of caring for the insane” (Dain).

Along with the creation of state psychiatric hospitals, various organizations and acts, such as Mental Health America (MHA) and the U.S. Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963, were created to “improve the lives of the mentally ill in the United States” (Module 2). With the reforms came the increase in psychoanalysis.

Sigmund Freud, who is referred to as the father of psychology, was, basically, the creator of psychoanalysis. Freud wrote the Psychoanalytic Theory in which he explains “the id, the ego, and the superego” as well as therapeutic techniques such as hypnosis, “free thinking”, and dream analysis (Foerschner). Freud believed that allowing a patient to focus on repressed thoughts and feelings, he could cure the patient of his/her disorder.

One form of psychoanalysis had goals to help and individual “identify and achieve their own goals” and would keep patients occupied and “thus cure them from delusions and irrationalities” (Dain). Lastly, Somatic treatment was introduced in asylums which included psycho-pharmacology, psychosurgery, electroconvulsive therapy, and electric shock therapy, among others.

The first non-sedative drug used in the treatment of patients was chlorpromazine which “cured” many mental ailments and patients “became free of symptoms entirely and returned to functional lives” (Drake).

The introduction of pharmacology led to the deinstitutionalization reform which changed the view from institutionalized care to “community-oriented care” to improve the “quality of life” (Module 2). According to Foerschner, this backfired and led to 1/3 of the homeless population being the mentally ill.

Many of the treatments enacted on mentally ill patients throughout history have been “pathological sciences” or “sensational scientific discoveries that later turned out to be nothing more than wishful thinking or subjective effects” and haven’t actually benefited those being treated.

But, with these failures have come new lessons which will inform the development of new treatments for new psychological disorders. iPhone addictions and the new difficulties brought on by Social Media and the Internet are growing challenges within younger generations and solutions will need to be found.