Norman Kastele

Norman Kastele

Willem die Veroweraar het sy eerste kasteel by Hastings gebou kort nadat die Normandiërs in 1066 aangekom het. Hulle het gesoek na plekke wat 'n vyand natuurlike hindernisse bied, soos 'n steil heuwel of 'n groot uitgestrekte water. Dit was ook belangrik om 'n goeie uitsig op die omliggende platteland te hê.

Die Normandiese veroweraars het besef dat met slegs 10 000 soldate in Engeland 'n nadeel sou wees as die anderhalf miljoen Angelsakse besluit om teen hulle in opstand te kom. Om die gebied wat hulle verower het, te verdedig, begin die Normandiërs kastele regoor Engeland bou. Na raming het hulle 50 kastele in die eerste 20 jaar na die inval gebou. (1)

Richard Fitz Gilbert het, net soos die ander Normandiese leiers, gesoek na plekke wat natuurlike verdediging bied, soos 'n steil heuwel of 'n groot uitgestrekte water. Om sy landgoedere in Kent te beskerm, bou Richard 'n kasteel by Tonbridge, langs die rivier die Medway. Die kasteel, gebou in die motte-en-bailey-styl, was van hout. Plaaslike kleinboere moes 'n diep sirkelsloot grawe. Die verplaasde aarde is daarna in die middel gegooi om 'n hoë heuwel te skep wat 'motte' genoem word. Teen die tyd dat hulle klaar was, was die motte 18 meter hoog. Richard se arbeiders het 'n houttoring bo -op die heuwel opgerig. Die toring bied verblyf en 'n uitkykpunt.

'N Binnehof, bekend as die bailey, is langs die heuwel gebou. Die bailey is met 'n brug aan die heuwel gekoppel. As 'n aanvallende mag daarin slaag om die bailey binne te kom, kan die brug opgetrek word om die indringers weg te hou van die mense in die toring. Die bailey is omring deur 'n heining van houtpale wat 'n palissade genoem word. Die omheinde gebied bied 'n plek vir huise en stalle. Richard se arbeiders het ook 'n brug oor die sloot gebou wat die kasteel omring het. Toe dit met water gevul is, het hierdie sloot bekend geword as 'n grag. Die rivier Medway het 'n konstante toevoer van water vir die grag by Tonbridge gelewer. (2)

Normane het kastele by groot sentrums regoor die land gebou. Die eerstes is deur plaaslike mense gebou. Die Angelsaksiese Chronicle het gekla dat die kleinboere "die ongelukkige mense in die land swaar belas het met dwangarbeid op die kastele ... en toe die kastele gemaak is, het hulle dit met duiwels en goddelose mans gevul". (3)

Hierdie kastele is later in klip herbou. Soos Trevor Rowley opgemerk het: "Vir baie Engelse was die fisieke impak van die verowering gemanifesteer in die groot bouwerk - die kerke en die katedrale, en bowenal die kastele. Dit was laasgenoemde wat tasbare en onweerlegbare dinge bied bewys van Normandiese politieke en militêre oorheersing. " (4)

En hulle het die hele land gevul met hierdie kastele. Hulle het die ongelukkige mense in die land belas met dwangarbeid op die kastele. En toe die kastele gemaak is, vul hulle dit met goddelose mense.

Hulle maak 'n hoop grond so hoog as wat hulle kan, en omring dit met 'n sloot so breed en diep as moontlik. Hulle omring die boonste rand van die heuwel ... met 'n palissade van vierkantige hout wat stewig aan mekaar vasgemaak is ... Binne bou hulle hul huis, 'n vesting wat die hele gebied beveel ... Die poort kan slegs bereik word deur 'n brug oor te steek, wat begin vanaf die buitenste rand van die sloot.

The Battle of Hastings (antwoordkommentaar)

William the Conqueror (Antwoordkommentaar)

Die feodale stelsel (antwoordkommentaar)

Die Domesday -opname (antwoordkommentaar)

Thomas Becket en Henry II (antwoordkommentaar)

Waarom is Thomas Becket vermoor? (Antwoord kommentaar)

Verligte manuskripte in die Middeleeue (antwoordkommentaar)

Yalding: Middeleeuse dorpsprojek (differensiasie)

(1) Maurice Ashley, Die lewe en tye van William I (1973) bladsy 82

(2) John Simkin, Die Normandiese verowering (1996) bladsy 19

(3) Ordericus Vitalis, Kerklike geskiedenis (c. 1142)

(4) Trevor Rowley, Die Normandiese erfenis: 1066-1200 (1983) bladsy 36


Die geskiedenis van kastele

Kastele en versterkte huise kan oral in Brittanje gevind word. Indrukwekkend, onderdrukkend, dramaties, romanties: wie het hierdie kastele gebou, en waarom?

Baie versterkte terreine het begin as brons- of ystertydperke, gebou as verdedigingsposisies teen strydende stamme en / of indringers. Dit is dikwels op hoë grond gebou met 'n pragtige uitsig oor die omliggende platteland en bestaan ​​uit 'n reeks mure en slote. Een van die bekendste versterkings uit die Ystertydperk is Maiden Castle naby Dorchester in Dorset.

Na die Romeinse inval is sommige heuwelforte beset en gebruik deur die Romeine, terwyl ander vernietig is. Alhoewel die muur van Hadrianus nie as 'n kasteel as sodanig beskou kan word nie, het dit dieselfde doel gedien en die vyand uitgehou! Die muur van Hadrianus is gebou deur die Romeine in AD122-232 en strek 73 myl, van kus tot kus. Daar was militêre forte met 'n afstand van 5 myl.

Sommige heuwels soos Cadbury-kasteel is tydens die Romeinse besetting verlaat, maar daarna weer as 'n toevlugsoord vir Angelsaksiese indringers beset. Later sou die Angelsaksers ook heuwels herbeset as verdedigingsplekke teen die Viking-indringers.

Die aankoms van die Normandië in 1066 het gelei tot 'n nuwe era van kasteelbou. Aanvanklik was die gekose plekke in die dorpe en bevolkingsentrums. Later het kastele die antieke heuwelfortgebiede gereeld hergebruik, aangesien hul situasies in die landskap nog net so relevant was vir die Normanders as vir die mense uit die Ystertydperk. Die Normandiërs het ook die verdienste gesien om die Romeinse padnetwerk, wat nog steeds die belangrikste roetes deur die platteland was, te beheer, en daarom is 'n paar kastele gebou op strategiese punte, soos rivieroorgange en kruispunte.

Die eerste Normandiese kastele was motte-en-bailey-kastele, 'n hout- of kliphouer op 'n kunsmatige heuwel, 'n motte, omring deur 'n omheinde binnehof of bailey. Dit was op sy beurt omring deur 'n beskermende sloot en palisade.

Hierdie vestings was relatief maklik en vinnig om te bou. Die oorblyfsels van hierdie kastele kan op die hele platteland gevind word, meestal uit net die motte, bailey en slote. Sommige klip-geboude motte-en-bailey-kastele het ongeskonde voorbeelde oorleef, insluitend die Tower of London en Windsor Castle wat toevallig met twee baileys gebou is.

Durham Castle is 'n goeie voorbeeld van 'n vroeë motte-en-bailey-kasteel

Die motte-en-bailey-kasteelontwerp het in die 13de eeu in die onguns begin val en al hoe meer kastele is in klip gebou. Na 1270 en die verowering van Wallis was daar 'n bloeityd van 'n kasteelgebou onder Edward I in Wallis en die Walliese grense. Vanaf die 14de eeu het kastele hul verdedigingsrol begin kombineer met die van 'n goeie woning of paleis.

Model van Hemyock -kasteel in Devon, 'n tipiese voorbeeld van 'n laat -Middeleeuse kasteel

In Skotland was daar tot in die laat 12de eeu min kasteelgebou. Teen die 14de eeu was die toring of toringhuis 'n gewilde ontwerp, met meer as 800 in Skotland gebou. Dit was 'n hoë, vierkantige klipstruktuur, versterk en gekrenk, en dikwels omring deur 'n ommuurde binnehof.

In die Tudor -tydperk toe die bedreiging van inval groot was, het Henry VIII 'n string kastele laat bou wat langs die kus strek, van Cornwall tot Kent. Portland Castle in Dorset, Pendennis Castle en St. Mawes Castle in Cornwall, Calshot Castle in Hampshire, Deal Castle en Walmer Castle in Kent is enkele van die beste voorbeelde van hierdie versterkings.

In 1642 het die Engelse burgeroorlog uitgebreek en baie kastele is weer in gebruik geneem. Dit het gou duidelik geword dat die middeleeuse kastele kwesbaar sou wees vir die nuwe belegingswapen, die kanon. Bestaande verdedigingswerke is opgeknap en mure#8220 teëgewerk of deur die aarde ondersteun, om dit teen kanonvuur te beskerm. Na die burgeroorlog is baie kastele vernietig en die kasteelgebou het afgeneem namate vrede teruggekeer het.

Een van die beste voorbeelde van hoe 'n kasteel deur die eeue kan ontwikkel, is Dover Castle in Kent. Dit was oorspronklik 'n heuwelfort uit die Ystertydperk, en bevat nog steeds 'n Romeinse vuurtoring en 'n Angelsaksiese kerk wat waarskynlik deel was van 'n Saksiese versterkte nedersetting. Na sy oorwinning in die Slag van Hastings in 1066, versterk Willem die Veroweraar die verdediging met 'n Normandiese grondwerk en kasteel met hout. Sedert die Normandiese inval tot 1958 as garnisoen gebruik is, is in die laat 18de eeu tonnels onder die kasteel gegrawe. Gedurende die Tweede Wêreldoorlog is dieselfde tonnels gebruik as die hoofkwartier waaruit die ontruiming van Duinkerken plaasgevind het.

As u ook geïnteresseerd is in hierdie fassinerende geboue, blaai deur die interaktiewe kaarte van kastele in Engeland, Skotland en Wallis deur Historic UK ’ om meer te ontdek. Om die verdedigende grondwerke van hierdie kastele ten volle te waardeer, kan ons voorstel om die kaarte te bekyk via die ‘Satellite ’ opsie.


Kastele van Groot -Brittanje

Daar word algemeen aanvaar dat daar voor die Normandiese verowering van 1066 geen kastele in Engeland bestaan ​​het nie. Dit is meestal waar, terwyl die Angelsakse in plaas daarvan verkies het om versterkte houthuise te bou, genaamd ‘burhs ’ of ‘burghs ’. Alhoewel daar drie of vier klipkastele gebou was deur die Normandiese here op uitnodiging van Edward die Belyder voor 1066.

Edward die Belyder en die Normane

Die geskiedenis van kastele in Engeland kan 'n direkte skakel terugspoor na die ballingskap van Edward die Belyder tydens die vroeë deel van sy lewe in Normandië en Edward se familiêre bande met die Normandiërs deur sy moeder wat Norman was. Edward was die sewende seun van Ethelred the Unready, maar die eerste deur Ethelred se tweede vrou, Emma van Normandië.

Gedurende die vroeë jare van die lewe van Edward het Engeland Viking -aanvalle opgedoen en 'n grootskaalse inval onder leiding van Sweyn Forkbeard en sy seun, Cnut. In 1013 het Sweyn daarin geslaag om die Engelse troon in beslag te neem. Ethelred, Emma, ​​Edward en een van sy vader, Alfred, vlug na Normandië.

Edward het die grootste deel van die volgende 25 jaar in ballingskap in Normandië deurgebring, hoewel daar kort periodes was waarin hy na Engeland teruggekeer het. In die komende dekades het Edward kennis gemaak met die Normandiese lewenswyse en kultuur; hy het selfs waarskynlik Norman vlot gepraat.

Edward se terugkeer na Engeland en aansluiting by die Engelse kroon

In 1041 nooi Edward ’ se halfboer, Harthacnut, wat die jaar tevore tot die Engelse troon toegetree het, Edward uit die ballingskap in Normandië terug. Harthacnut het waarskynlik al 'n geruime tyd geweet dat hy nie lank sou lewe nie, aangesien hy baie siektes gehad het. Daar word vermoed dat sy rede om Edward uit te nooi om terug te keer uit Normandië, is sodat hy hom sy erfgenaam kon maak, aangesien hy geen kinders gehad het nie.

Harthacnut sterf in 1042 tydens 'n troue in Lambeth. Die oorsaak van sy dood word voorgestel as 'n beroerte, deur vergiftiging of as gevolg van TB.

By die dood van Harthacnut tree Edward op die Engelse troon toe. Daar was ander moontlike aansprake op die Engelse troon, hoewel Edward die steun van die magtigste Engelse graaf, Godwin, gehad het, wat sy aanspraak bevestig het.

Edward se regering en Norman -invloede

Toe Edward in 1041 na Engeland terugkeer, het hy baie vriende en lede van sy uitgebreide familie saamgebring. Baie van hierdie Normandiërs is in sleutelposisies in die Edwards -hof aangestel; dit was moontlik om die invloed van die Godwin -gesin, die magtigste gesin in Engeland, teë te werk. Individue soos Robert van Jumieges, wat eers in 1044 tot biskop van Londen en daarna in 1051 aartsbiskop van Canterbury gemaak is.

'N Ander Norman wat saam met Edward na Engeland gekom het, was Robert FitzWimarc. Robert was verwant aan beide Edward en die hertogen van Normandië. Hy sou ook Edward sowel as sy opvolger dien, William I. Edward beloon Robert met lande in Essex, veral rondom Clavering. Robert was teenwoordig by Edward se dood in 1066.

Ander Normane wat hulle in Engeland kom vestig het, was Ralph of Mantes (Ralph the Timid – neef van Edward) wat Edward sou dien as graaf van Hereford, Richard FitzScrob aan wie Edward lande toegeken het in Herefordshire, Shropshire en Worcestershire en Osbern Pinkster wat diens gedoen het onder Ralph van Mantes.

Robert Rhuddlan was nog 'n noemenswaardige Norman wat deur sy pa, Humphrey de Tullieul, na Engeland gebring is. Hy het gedien as 'n adjudant in die Edward -hof en daarna as Lord of North Wales onder die beskerming van Hugh d ’Avranches, graaf van Chester in sy latere lewe.

Hierdie individue bestaan ​​uit die sogenaamde "Norman faction" by Edward se hof. Hierdie Normandiese invloed by die Edward ’s-hof sou in 1051-1052 'n krisis veroorsaak, wat daartoe lei dat sommige van hierdie individue na Normandië en die Godwins terugvlug en weer beheer in die land uitoefen nadat hulle in konflik met Edward gekom het. .

Kastele voor verowering

Dit was deur hierdie Normandiese invloed dat die eerste kastele in Engeland gebou is. Robert FitzWimarc het een van die eerste kastele by Clavering in Essex gebou. Daar word dikwels na hierdie kasteel verwys as die Robert ‘-kasteel, en dit is waarheen baie van die Normandiese here tydens die Normandiese krisis van 1051-1052 teruggetrek het.

Nog 'n vooroorwinningshuis is in Ralford van Mantes in Hereford gebou. Ralph is in 1052 deur sy oom, Edward die Belydenis, graaf van Hereford gemaak. Na sy aanstelling as graaf blyk dit dat die Normandiese invloed in Herefordshire aansienlik gegroei het.

Twee ander kastele is in Normandië in Herefordshire gebou, Richard ’s Castle in die noorde van die graafskap is deur Richard FitzScrob gebou en Ewyas Harold Castle is deur Osbern Pinkster op die terrein van 'n vroeëre vesting gebou. 'N Datum van 1048 word voorgestel as die datum waarop die oorspronklike kasteel op hierdie webwerf begin is.


Castle Bromwich Castle

Om seker te maak dat hulle beheer oor die Angelsaksiese mense het, het koning William se Normandiese here kastele regoor die land gebou, ook in Castle Bromwich. Die klein heuwel wat uitkyk oor die Chesterweg waar dit die rivier die Tame oorgesteek het, was 'n goeie plek.

Die Bromwich -kasteel is van hout gemaak - dit was nooit 'n groot klipkasteel soos die kastele in Tamworth en Warwick nie.

Daar was waarskynlik 'n vierkantige houtwagtoring van drie verdiepings hoog bo -op die steil heuwel (die motte) omring deur 'n heining van skerp boomstamme.

Onder was die bailey. Dit was 'n groot erf waar die hoofsaal van die heer gestaan ​​het. In die bailey was daar ook stalle vir perde en werkswinkels. 'N Hoë houtheining het die bailey omring en vir verdere beskerming was daar 'n grag van 8 meter breed en 4 meter diep. Aan die noordekant was daar geen graaf nodig nie: die rivier die Tame het hier geloop.

Die kasteel van Bromwich het nie baie lank gewoon nie. Na 'n rukkie bou die heer van Bromwich vir hom 'n nuwe herehuis iewers naby. Dit was moontlik waar die Chelmsley Collector Road is, of dit is gebou waar Castle Bromwich Hall nou staan. In beide gevalle is die bewyse daarvan waarskynlik vernietig.

Toe die nuwe herehuis gebou is, was daar geen behoefte aan 'n kasteel in Bromwich nie en het die ou houtvesting in puin gelê en die heuwel toegegroei met bosse en bome.


Die kasteel soos ons dit vandag ken, is in 1066 in Engeland ingevoer tydens die Normandiese inval onder leiding van Willem die Veroweraar. Na hul oorwinning in die Slag van Hastings vestig die Normandiërs hulle in Engeland. Hulle het kastele regoor die land gebou om hul nuwe gebied te beheer en die Angelsaksiese bevolking te kalmeer. Hierdie vroeë kastele was hoofsaaklik van motte- en bailey -tipe. Die 'motte' bestaan ​​uit 'n groot hoop aarde met 'n houttoring bo -op, terwyl die 'bailey' 'n groot sloot en oeweromhulsel was wat die motte omring het.

Hierdie houtkastele was redelik goedkoop en baie vinnig om te bou. Die houtkastele het egter nadele. Hulle was baie kwesbaar vir aanvalle met vuur en die hout sou uiteindelik begin verrot. As gevolg van hierdie nadele het koning William beveel dat kastele in klip gebou moet word. Baie van die oorspronklike houtkastele is vervang met klipkastele.

Mettertyd is klipkastele in verskillende argitektoniese style gebou terwyl bouers met kasteelboutegnieke geëksperimenteer het. In hul kinderskoene was kastele hoofsaaklik militêre versterkings wat gebruik is om verowerde gebiede teen aanvalle te verdedig. Die strategiese ligging van die kasteel was uiters belangrik. Toe die Normandiërs egter hul beheer oor Engeland begin konsolideer, het kastele 'n verskeidenheid rolle begin speel. Kastele kan dien as 'n sentrum vir plaaslike regering, administrasie en geregtigheid. Hulle is ook deur kragtige here gebruik om hul rykdom en mag te toon deur middel van uitspattige argitektoniese style en versierings. Kastele is nie net deur die kroon gebou en gebruik nie. Trouens, die meerderheid kastele is deur die koning aan sy lojale here en edeles toegestaan ​​saam met groot gebiede. In ruil vir hierdie toelaes het die koning verwag dat sy edeles hierdie lande namens hom sou beheer en bestuur. Die kasteel self verteenwoordig ook 'n hele groep mense wat bygedra het tot die funksie daarvan, van konstabels, messelaars, smede en bediendes om maar 'n paar te noem.


Ierland se 'Normandiese' kastele

Vir baie mense kan die afdruk op Ierland van die mense wat dikwels die Anglo-Normandiërs genoem word, in een woord saamgevat word-kastele. Teen die vroeë moderne tydperk was Ierland die mees gekastelleerde landskap in Europa, en die oorgrote meerderheid is gebou deur afstammelinge van die individue wat dit in 1169 begin verower en koloniseer het.

Dit beteken natuurlik nie dat die Iere voorheen niks van versterking geweet het nie: wat hulle ook al was, Dún Aonghasa, Dunseverick, die Grianán van Aileach, Rathgall in Wicklow, Staigue Fort in Kerry en nog vele meer soos hulle was vestings - inderdaad, vestings. Die Iere het selfs begin eksperimenteer met kastele in die dekades voor die inval. In 1124, toe die koning van Connacht, Tairdelbach Ó Conchobair, 'n bod vir die hoë koningskap gemaak het, begin hy met die bou van drie afsonderlike kastele (en nog meer sou volg) wat so nuut was dat die skrywers van die Ierse annale geskep het nuwe terme—caisteóil, caislén, caistél- waarmee hulle hulle kan beskryf. Later sou die man wat die Anglo-Normanders na Ierland genooi het, Diarmait Mac Murchada van Leinster, self 'n caisteóil of tegnologie cloiche ('Kliphuis') by Varings. Ons het geen idee hoe 'kastele' soos hierdie lyk nie, maar die konstruksie daarvan vertel ons dat diegene wat die mag in Ierland van die twaalfde eeu gesoek en gewen het, die voordele-en toenemend, miskien, die noodsaaklikheid-van versterkings besef, om vas te hou daardie krag.

Bo: Kunstenaarsindruk van die motte- en bailey -struktuur wat oorspronklik deur Hugh de Lacy in Trim, Meath, gebou is. (Uto Hogerzeil)

Die eerste kasteelmanne

Bo: Byna dadelik het de Lacy begin bou aan die mees indrukwekkende Anglo-Normandiese klipkasteel wat ooit in Ierland gebou is, 'n stewige gordynmuur en 'n grag vol water uit die Boyne wat 'n pragtige donjon of 'n berging omring. Die huidige struktuur is voltooi na sy dood in 1186. (OPW)

Dit was veral die geval met die Anglo-Normandiërs wat aan die einde van die 1160's op die eiland begin aankom het, nadat hulle daar land beloof is deur Mac Murchada in ruil vir militêre diens aan hom. Die vroeë leiers - soos Robert fitz Stephen en Maurice fitz Gerald - was die seuns en kleinseuns van die manne wat uiteindelik uit die Normandiese ekstraksie gelei het, wat na 1066 die poging gelei het van die nuwe Normandiese konings van Engeland om Suid -Wallis van sy inheemse heersers te verower. Daar het hulle kastele vir die koning gebou en as sy konstabels daarin opgetree, en mettertyd hul eie heerskappye uitgekap wat deur hul eie kastele bestuur en verdedig is. Hulle was kasteelmanne, en toe hulle in die 1160's groener weivelde in Ierland soek, was dit noodwendig 'n verowering deur 'n kasteel.

Soos in Engeland en Wallis die geval was, was die oorgrote meerderheid van die vroeë kastele mottes, groot platte heuwels waarop 'n houttoring opgerig is. Baie leuens oorleef vandag nog in Ierland-miskien tot 400, hoewel dit soms moeilik kan wees om 'n erg verswakte motte van 'n ander natuurlike of mensgemaakte kenmerk te onderskei. Nodeloos om te sê dat nie een van die oorspronklike houttorings die tyd van die tyd oorleef het nie, maar ons kan 'n idee kry van hoe indrukwekkend die motto`s op hul beste was vanaf 'n plek soos Clough Castle, Co. Down, waar 'n latere Middeleeuse kliptoring nog steeds pryk die bokant van die heuwel. Baie, indien nie almal nie, het 'n borgtog aan hulle geheg, 'n buiteplein wat deur 'n sloot en palisade verdedig is, waar daar ongetwyfeld buitegeboue en werkswinkels geleë was en vee gehuisves is. Ongeveer 160 kan in die veld geïdentifiseer word, alhoewel die omtrek daarvan moeilik is om met die blote oog te bepaal.

'N Ander soort grondwerk, die ringwerkkasteel, speel ook 'n rol. Hierdie tipe versterking, wat baie moeilik in die veld geïdentifiseer kan word, was byna die teenoorgestelde van 'n motte, wat bestaan ​​uit sirkelvormige of subsirkulêre omhulsels wat gedefinieer word deur groot omheinde oewers en slote. Alhoewel ongeveer 135 moontlike voorbeelde in die National Monuments Database geïdentifiseer is, verg dit aansienlik meer gedetailleerde studie, hoofsaaklik vanweë die ooreenkoms met ander monumente soos ringforts. Die identifisering van hierdie tipe kasteel as 'n Anglo-Normandiese monument verg werklik argeologiese opgrawing.

Bo: Hierdie verspreidingskaart van mottes (na Glasscock [1975]) gee 'n goeie idee van die patroon van Anglo-Normandiese verowering.

Ons moet egter nie aan leuens dink as afgesonderde buiteposte soos die spreekwoordelike Amerikaanse kavalerie -fort in 'n John Ford -film oor die Amerikaanse grens nie. Die meerderheid was hoofletters, die koshuise en administratiewe sentrums-en in sommige gevalle geoktrooieerde gemeentes-van die heerlike en ridderlike klas wat na 1169 in Ierland gestig is deur opeenvolgende konings van Engeland en hul hoofhuurders. Die hoofhuurders van die kroon was mans soos Richard de Clare (Strongbow), wat die hele Leinster toegestaan ​​het, afgesien van die bestaande dorpe en hul binneland, of Hugh de Lacy, wat die groot heerskappy van Meath gekry het, wat strek vanaf die Shannon na die Ierse See. Beide mans het perkamenttoelaes in permanente kolonies verander deur hul heerskappy op te sny onder minder baronne en ridders wat die waagstuk geneem het om hulle na Ierland te volg, en dit was gewoonlik die heerskappye van hierdie mindere manne wat 'n motte en bailey in hul kern gehad het.

Bouers in klip

Bo: Die kroon het ook belê in manjifieke kastele op strategiese plekke namate die verowering verloop het, soos hierdie dertiende-eeuse struktuur in Roscommon.

Daar is nog 'n rede waarom ons nie die vroeë verloop van die Anglo-Normandiese nedersetting in Ierland kan bepaal deur bloot die ligging van mottes te bepaal nie. Dit is omdat dit, in teenstelling met wat soms geglo word, nie die geval is dat alle vroeë kastele van aarde en hout was nie en dat daar later kastele en mortierkastele gekom het. Sommige klipkastele is inderdaad redelik vroeg. Daar was natuurlik geen beter manier om aan die wêreld aan te kondig dat u hier sou bly as om die lang en duur konstruksie van 'n klipkasteel aan te pak nie. Die ink was skaars droog op die handves wat Meath aan Hugh de Lacy verleen het toe hy by Trim begin bou het aan die indrukwekkendste Anglo-Normandiese klipkasteel wat ooit in Ierland gebou is, 'n stewige gordynmuur en 'n graaf gevul met water uit die Boyne wat omsingel 'n wonderlike donjon of hou. Nie lank daarna nie bou John de Courcy 'n heel ander woning - veel minder kompleks in terme van argitektoniese ontwerp, al was dit massief - om die kuslyn by Carrickfergus te beveilig, en Theobald Walter (voorouer van die Butlers) wat in Nenagh 'n ewe kenmerkende groot ronde toring gebou het as deel van sy heerlike woning.

Hierdie mans was van die grootste aristokrate in die nuwe kolonie, maar ook minder manne, wat van vroeg af in klip gebou is - dink aan die vroeë Geraldine -kastele in Shanid en Croom, Limerick, die koshuise van die Talbots in Malahide of die Tyrrells by Castleknock. Die kroon het ook belê in pragtige kastele in dorpe wat geneig was om in koninklike hande te bly (bv. Dublin, Limerick, Dungarvan, Roscrea) en op strategiese plekke namate die verowering verloop het (bv. Athlone, Clonmacnoise, Rindoon en later in die dertiende eeu Roscommon ).

Die dertiende-eeuse bouboom

Die groot kastele van die Anglo-Normandiese Ierland is grootliks in die dertiende eeu. 'N Mens dink aan die kastele wat in Leinster gebou is deur Strongbow se opvolgers, die Marshals, waaronder Ferns, Carlow, Kilkenny, Dunamase en Lea, of Dundrum, Co. Down, wat de Courcy begin het voor sy ontydige afsterwe aan die hand van die de Lacys, wat , behalwe Trim, het waarskynlik ook begin met Carlingford Castle aan die suidelike oewer van Carlingford Lough en Greencastle wat sy noordelike oewer bewaak. Dit was hul bondgenote, de de Verdons, wat 'n manjifieke vesting noord van Dundalk by Castleroche opgerig het. En namate die de Burgh -gesin deur Connecht deur die eeu prominent gestyg het, versterk hulle hul oorheersing met kastele in Athenry, Galway, Ballintober, Roscommon, Ballymote, Co Sligo, en - nadat hulle die graafskap van Ulster verkry het - die ander Greencastle, met uitsig op Lough Foyle in Donegal.

Van ongeluk tot herstel

Bo: Nie alle toringhuise was 'Norman' nie. Hierdie een, Redwood Castle, Tipperary, was die tuiste van 'n regskool wat onderhou is deur die Mac Aodhagáin -stam, wat oorerflike brehons was.

Hoewel die clichébeeld van Ierland in die veertiende eeu oordrewe kan wees - die van 'n Engelse kolonie wat agteruitgaan, deur natuurrampe soos die Groot Europese hongersnood en die Swart Dood en deur 'n Ierse herlewing wat deur die Bruce Invasion veroorsaak is - is die algemene patroon was een van ekonomiese en politieke agteruitgang. En aangesien die bou en instandhouding van kastele afhang van 'n tyd van oorvloed, was dit eers toe die omstandighede verbeter het dat die bou van die kasteel hervat is. Toe dit die geval was, was die voorkeur vir geboue wat, hoewel dit algemeen as 'Normandiese kastele' beskou word, in werklikheid toringhuise is, waarvan die vroegste dateer uit minstens 200 jaar (en ongeveer 400 jaar) na die aanvanklike inval , baie is nie eers gebou deur afstammelinge van die indringers nie, maar deur Gaeliese here. Gewoonlik is dit 'n vierkantige toring met 'n gewelfde grondvloer en miskien drie boonste verdiepings, met een hoofkamer in elk. Die hoofkamer was dikwels op die eerste verdieping, met 'n goeie kamer bo en minder kamers op die solder. Baie mense het 'n aangehegte verbinding met die naam 'bawn' (van Iers badhún, 'Beesomhulsel').

Toringhuise was nie die kastele van die grotes nie. Hulle vernaamste bouers was die heersersklas, die gemakliker landelike geestelikes en, in dorpe soos Galway en Kilkenny, die ryker handelaars. Boonop het Gaeliese here - wie se voorouers aan die einde van die aggressie en verkryging van die oorspronklike indringers in die twaalfde eeu was - grond en heerskappy in die laat Middeleeue herwin en in die heidense families afgestam van die indringers, hulle was nie traag om tred te hou met die Joneses (of liewer met die Burkes en Barrys, Condons, Costellos en Cusacks, Plunketts, Powers and Prendergasts, Taaffes, Talbots, Tuites en Tyrrells) en hul eie toringhuise te bou nie.

Linzi Simpson is 'n konsultant in argeologie en het erfenis gebou deur Seán Duffy -lesings in die Middeleeuse geskiedenis in Trinity College Dublin.

VERDERE LEESWERK

T. McNeill, Kastele in Ierland: feodale mag in 'n Gaeliese wêreld (Londen, 1997).


ABC D E F G H.K LM.N. O Bl R S T W Y

Alnwick -kasteel: gestig in 1096 deur Yves de Vescy, die tuiste van die Percy Dukes of Northumberland sedert 1309, die 2de grootste bewoonde kasteel in Engeland. Lees meer hier.

Appleby -kasteel: gestig in 1100 deur Ranulf le Meschin, later in besit van die familie de Clifford.

Arundel -kasteel: 100 voet hoë motte- en bailey -kasteel uit 1068, omvattend opgeknap. Huis van die hertogte van Norfolk vir 850 jaar

Barnard Castle: omstreeks 1095 deur Guy de Baliol begin, later in besit van die Beauchamp Earls of Warwick, een van die sterkste vestings in die Middeleeuse Engeland.

Bedford Castle: Motte en bailey -kasteel, gestig deur Ralf de Tallebosc. In die 12de eeu herbou in klip.   Gehou deur William de Breaute teen koning Henry III en vernietig in 1224 na beleg.

Bellister -kasteel: laat 11de -eeuse motte en bailey -kasteel, later herbou in klip.

Berkeley -kasteel: waarskynlik begin deur Roger de Berkeley voordat hy in 1091 'n monnik word. Lees meer hier.

Berkhamstead Castle: gestig deur Robert van Mortain, halfbroer van Willem die Veroweraar.

Biggleswade Castle: Motte en bailey -kasteel waarvan die bestaan ​​in 1954 deur lugfotografie ontdek is.#Xa0 Geen sigbare oorskot nie.

Bolsover -kasteel: gestig kort na die Normandiese verowering deur Ranulf de Peverel, eggenoot van die voormalige minnares van William the Conqueror.

Bramber -kasteel: Motte en bailey -kasteel gebou deur William De Braose in 1070.

Brough Castle: gebou omstreeks 1100 bo -op 'n verlate Romeinse fort.

Bywell Castle: 'n Normandiese kasteel uit die 11de eeu wat waarskynlik omstreeks 1090 deur Guy de Ballliol gebou is, later versterk deur die Neville -familie

Cainhoe -kasteel: Laat 11de of vroeë 12de eeu motte en bailey kasteel met drie baileys!

Kasteel Canterbury: Twee kastele is gedurende die Normandiese tydperk in Canterbury gebou. Hierdie een, die groot kliphouer, was die tweede. Dit is gebou tydens die bewind van koning Henry I en het moontlik tot 80 meter hoog gestaan.

Carlisle Castle: Gebou as 'n motte en borgtog tydens die bewind van koning William II in 1093.   In 1122 in klip herbou in opdrag van koning Henry I.

Cartington -kasteel: Verwoeste kasteel uit die tyd van die eerste burgeroorlog van Engeland, gehou deur Ralph Fitzmain in 1154. Dit is herbou en uitgebrei in die 14de eeu, en kyk uit oor die rivier Coquet net noordwes van Rothbury.

Castle Acre: Uitgebreide motte en bailey -kasteel wat kort na 1066 deur William de Warenne gebou is.   Versterk tydens die bewind van koning Stephen en koning Henry II. Lees meer hier.

Castle Howe: Net buite Kendal bly daar slegs grondwerke oor van die kasteel van Ivo de Taillebois, wat omstreeks 1092 begin is.

Castle Rising: Glorieryke Normandiese kliphou en massiewe verdedigende grondwerke, gebou omstreeks 1140 deur William d'Albini. Een van die beste Normandiese kasteelruïnes in Engeland!

Chalgrave Castle: Baie min oorblyfsels van hierdie kasteel uit die 11de eeu naby Toddington in Bedfordshire.

Chester Castle: 'N Klipgeboude motte en borgtog wat gebou is deur Hugh de Avranches, graaf van Chester. Slegs fragmente van die torings en gordynmure bly oor.

Christchurch Castle: Motte en bailey -kasteel wat omstreeks 1100 deur Richard de Redvers, neef van Henry I., opgerig is. Die - nou verwoeste - kliptoring is omstreeks 1300 gebou.

Clare Castle: 'N Motte uit die 11de eeu en 'n bailey -vesting, gestig deur Richard Fitz Gilbert. In die 13de eeu het die de Clare -gesin die klipkasteel gebou en die motte bekroon met 'n veelhoekige skulp, met ongewone driehoekige steunpunte.

Clifford Castle: 11de -eeuse motte- en bailey -vesting gebou deur William fitz Osbern. In die vroeë 13de eeu herbou in klip deur Walter de Clifford.

Clun Castle: Motte and bailey castle built by Robert de Say around 1140-50.  Swiftly rebuilt in stone to secure England's border against the Welsh.

Colchester Castle: The largest Norman keep ever built in England!  One of the three original Royal castles of William the Conqueror. Begun in 1066, soon after the Battle of Hastings.

Corfe Castle: Begun by William the Conqueror soon after his arrival in England in 1066. Favourite castle of King John, who extended it widely.

Dane John Mound:This is Canterbury's other Norman castle, the original motte and bailey castle erected by William the Conqueror in 1066, while he was on the way to London.  Only the mound now remains.

Deddington Castle: Motte and bailey castle built by Bishop Odo of Bayeux, the half brother of William the Conqueror. Held by William de Chesney, Lord of Deddington, in the mid 12th century. Largely demolished by 1310.

Devizes Castle: Built as a motte and bailey castle 1080 by Osmund, Bishop of Salisbury. Rebuilt in stone by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury, by 1120. Changed hands repeatedly in England's first civil war.

Dover Castle: First motte and bailey castle built by William the Conqueror after the Battle of Hastings in 1066.  Rebuilt by King Henry II to house pilgrims on the way to Canterbury.

Duffield Castle: Stands on land granted to Henry de Ferrers by William the Conqueror after the Battle of Hastings.  Though Henry's chief seat was Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, he is thought to have built a wooden castle at Duffield.  Both Tutbury and Duffield were destroyed in 1173 by Henry II and rebuilt by Henry Ferrer's great great grandson, who enjoyed the favour of King John.

Durham Castle: Motte and bailey fortress built in 1072 by Waltheof, earl of Northumberland. Rebuilt and extended by the Bishops of Durham.

Egremont Castle: Built by William de Meschines about 1130-1140, close to an earlier Norman mound near this site.

Elsdon Castle: Built by Robert de Umfraville, not long after the Norman Conquest. Impressive earthworks remain.

Eynesford Castle: Originally a Saxon moated site until a very early Norman stone enclosure castle replaced this residence. In 1085, Ralph, son of Unspac held the castle for Lanfranc, the archbishop of Canterbury.

Farnham Castle: Stone motte and bailey castle, founded by Henry of Blois, bishop of Winchester, in 1138. Castle was slighted in 1155, but later rebuilt.

Framlingham Castle:Impressive 12th century stone enclosure, built on an older motte and bailey site. Power base of the Bigod family

Gloucester Castle: Probably constructed by the first Norman Sherrif of Gloucester, Roger de Pitres, as a simple motte and bailey castle. Rebuilt and extended over time until it fell into ruin and was replaced by the Gloucester gaol in 1791. No visible remains.

Hastings Castle: Begun on orders of William the Conqueror shortly after he landed in England. Initially built as a motte and bailey castle, and rebuilt in stone in 1070, again on William's orders. Now ruined.

Hedingham Castle: Stone ringwork and bailey, founded by Aubrey de Vere, earl of Oxford, with impressive Norman keep in the centre.

Helmsley Castle: Built by Walter L'Espec in 1120. Extensively rebuilt and remodelled.

Kenilworth Castle: England's largest castle ruin with remains of the original massive Norman keep at the centre of the site.

Kimbolton Castle: In 1066, King Harold II of England held Kimbolton Manor.  After he died at the Battle of Hastings the land passed to the de Bohun family, who built the first castle.

Launceston Castle: Motte and bailey castle built by Robert, count of Mortain, half-brother to William the Conqueror. Rebuilt in stone by Richard, earl of Cornwall in the 13th century.

Leeds Castle: 11th century earthwork motte and bailey castle founded by Hamon de Crevecoeur. His son Robert added a stone shell keep and gatehouse.  Extensively remodelled in King Edward I's reign and one of England's most beautiful castles.

Lewes Castle: Founded by William de Warenne in the 11th century. Rebuilt in stone by Hamelin de Plantagenet in the early 12th century.  Unusual construction with two mottes, both topped by shell keeps.

Lincoln Castle: Founded by William the Conqueror and built on the site of a Roman fort.  Again, constructed with two mottes.  One supports the 12th century shell keep, the other a  14th century tower.

Longtown Castle: Built in the 1180's by Walter de Lacy.  Fortified during the 12th century.  Only the gatehouse remains today.

Ludgershall Castle: 12th century castle used for a time as a royal hunting lodge.  Fell into decay after the 15th century and now only ruins remain.

Ludlow Castle: Built by Walter de Lacy, a trusted member of the household of William fitz Osbern, shortly after the conquest. Extensively remodelled during the Middle Ages.

Lydford Castle: The square stone keep in the centre of Lydford dates to the reign of King Richard the Lionheart. The original motte and bailey castle built shortly after the Norman conquest, is situated a little to the side of the modern castle.  Only the earthworks remain.

Morpeth Castle: 11th century motte and bailey castle, destroyed about 1215. A new castle was built in the bailey of the original in the 1340s, but little of that structure survives today.

Norham Castle: Early 12th century earthwork motte and bailey fortress, founded by Bishop, Ralph de Flambard. Rebuilt in stone in 1157 by Bishop Hugh de Puiset.

Norwich Castle: One of William the Conqueror's earliest castles.  King Henry I added the huge ornate keep which still stands today.

Odell Castle: Built by Walter de Wahul, count of Flanders. Ruined by the 16th century and later building has obliterated part of the motte and most of the masonry. 9 miles south-east is Bedford Castle.

Okehampton Castle: Baldwin de Brionne founded this castle - the largest in Devon - with its two story square keep.  Extended in the 14th century.

Old Sarum Castle: Used as a defensive structure since the Iron age.  William the Conqueror built a castle within the hillfort and paid off his army here in 1070. Extended by Roger of Salisbury.  King Henry II kept his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, prisoner in Old Sarum.

Oxford Castle: Founded by Robert d'Oilly shortly after the conquest. The shell keep on top of the motte is now ruined.

Pevensey Castle: William the Conqueror's first English castle. King Richard the Lionheart added a stone keep and bailey enclosure.  The site lost its importance in the 1500s.

Peveril Castle: 11th century stone enclosure built by William Peverel. King Henry II's small elegant square keep of two rooms from 1174 still survives.

Pickering Castle: 11th century earthwork motte and bailey castle built by William the Conqueror. Rebuilt in stone by King Henry II.

Pontefract Castle: Built by Ilbert de Lacy atop Saxon fortifications in the 1080s. Rebuilt in stone by the de Lacy family throughout the 12th and 13th centuries.  Principal royal castle in the north of England.

Portchester Castle: Stone keep built atop the Roman fort of Portus Adurni. Norman tower keep stands at the angle of the fort, with a square gatehouse and one square tower flanking the curtain wall.

Prudhoe Castle: Late 11th or early 12th century ringwork built by Robert de Umfraville. Inner timber defences were replaced by a stone curtain wall in the early 12th century.

Rayleigh Castle: The castle was built by Swein, son of Robert FitzWimarc and a wealthy landowner, sometime between the Norman conquest of 1066 and the completion of the Domesday Book in 1086, where it is mentioned.  Considered one of the earliest Norman castles in England.

Restormel Castle: Stone ringwork and bailey castle founded by Robert, count of Mortain. Later home to Edward, the Black Prince.

Rochester Castle: This has to be one of the most amazing Norman castles in England!  It's ruined, but the enormous square keep - the tallest in England and dating to 1127 - still dominates the skyline.

Rockingham Castle: Built by William the Conqueror and rebuilt in stone by King William II. Two baileys with the motte in between, it was a Royal fortress for 450 years. 

Rufus Castle: Built for King William II (called "Rufus" for his red hair). Captured by Robert, Earl of Gloucester, from King Stephen for his half-sister Empress Matilda. 

Sandal Castle: Early 12th century earthwork motte and bailey fortress built by William de Warenne. Stone castle built in 1180 by Hamelin de Plantagenet.  Extended and strengthened repeatedly during the 13th century.

Sherborne Old Castle: Built in 1120 by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury and Abbot of Sherborne.  Captured in June 1239 by King Stephen's army.  Not returned to the Bishops of Salisbury until 1355.

Shrewsbury Castle: Earthwork motte and bailey castle built by Roger de Montgomery. Rebuilt in stone in 1164 by King Henry II.  Great Hall added and defences strengthened by King Edward I in the 13th century.

Skipsea Castle: Unusual defensive structure - the motte stands in its own lake - built by Drogo de Beauvriere. A wooden causeway once connected the motte to the large bailey.  Rebuilt in stone by William le Gros in the 12th century.

Skipton Castle: One of the best preserved castles in England, Skipton was built by Robert de Romille around 1090.  The wooden palisade didn't hold back the Scots for long and Skipton was soon rebuilt in stone. 

St Briavel's Castle: This is a Norman castle you can actually stay in!  St Briavel's, once a Norman stronghold, was rebuilt as a hunting lodge for King John in 1205 and had additional towers added in 1293.  Today, St Briavel's is a Youth Hostels.

Sutton Valence Castle: Norman stone keep built by Baldwin de Bthune, count of Albermarle. Abandoned in the 14th century.  

Thetford Castle: Like Canterbury, Thetford had two Norman castles, both of motte and bailey design.  But only earthworks remain of both of them today. Castle Mound was 40 feet high and one of the largest mounds in England.  Red Castle, the earlier one, was built at the end of the 11th century.

Tonbridge Castle: Built by Richard Fitz Gilbert to guard the crossing of the River Medway. King William II besieged that castle in 1088.  It fell after two days. By 1100, the wooden castle was replaced with a stone shell keep. The castle was further extended during the 13th century.

Totnes Castle: Beautiful castle. The shell keep looks as if it floats above the town. Early parts of the castle were built in the 11th century, though the shell keep is from the 13th century.

Towcester Castle: Motte and bailey castle of which only the mount remains today. Thought to have been built during the power struggles of King Stephen and Empress Maud.

The Tower of London: England's most famous castle.  William the Conqueror started the White Tower shortly after his coronation, even importing the stone from Caen in Normandy.  Since then it's been a royal residence, traitor's prison, zoo and treasury.

Tutbury Castle: Started by William the Conqueror's Master of the Horse, Henry de Ferrers, in about 1089, on land that was granted him by William the Conqueror. Tutbury was destroyed in 1264 by Edward I to punish its rebellious owner. Rebuilt, it fell to the Duchy of Lancaster, who still owns the ruined site.

Wallingford Castle: Motte and bailey castle two baileys with the motte in between. Founded by Robert d'Oyley after the conquest. Held for Empress Matilda during England's first civil war.

Wark Castle: 12th century earthwork motte and bailey castle built by Walter Espec. King Henry II built the stone castle in 1157-61. An octagonal shell keep was added in the early 13th century.

Warkworth Castle: One of my favourite castles in all of England, Warkworth is not - strictly speaking - a Norman castle.  It was built in the earlier parts of the 12th century by Henry, son of King David I of Scotland.  He didn't hold it for long and in 1158 King Henry II gave Warkworth to Roger FitzRichard, who rebuilt it in stone. His son Robert continued to improve and add to the buildings. Read more here.

Warwick Castle: One of England's finest complete castles. Built by William the Conqueror in 1068. The Norman castle was rebuilt in stone by John de Plessis in the 13th century.  Warwick also has 14th century towers and a 15th century gatehouse and barbican.

Weeting Castle: 12th-century fortified manor house, now ruined.  The moat was added in the 14th century before the house was abandoned in 1390.

Wigmore Castle: Again, there are probably two Norman castles here.  One early motte and bailey castle and a 13th century stone motte and bailey castle.  And as in Lydford, the buildings have been buried to the level of the first floor.

Wilton Castle: 12th century fortified manor house.  Stone castle built in , 1335 by John de Heslerton.
Winchester Castle:Built in 1067, Winchester was one of the greatest strongholds in England.  Extended and rebuilt under Henry III, who added the Great Hall, and Edward II.

Windsor Castle: England's largest inhabited castle is a beautiful example of a castle with a double bailey and a motte in between. Despite centuries of building work, this layout is still at the heart of the castle.

Wolvesey Castle: Erected by the Henry of Blois, the Bishop of Winchester and brother to King Stephen  between 1130 and 1140 and pivotal in England's first civil war.  When Empress Matilda's forces assaulted the castle in 1141, the defenders destroyed most of Winchester.

Yielden Castle: Built around 1173 in the classical two-bailey style.  Abandoned by 1360.  Only earthworks remain today.

By the time William the Conqueror died, England had changed from an orderly, prosperous Anglo-Saxon society into a Norman kingdom, with different rules, laws, customs, loyalties . even a different language. And England had acquired hundreds of Norman castles, many of which still continue to enchant and amaze us.  I hope you enjoy exploring this list as much as I enjoyed compiling it.


Soldiers

One of the major considerations in determining the size of the castle is what size of soldiers will be used with it: 1/32, 1/64, 1/72, 1/132 scale, etc. Conversely, the scale of the soldiers will be determined to some extent by the physical size you have already set for the castle. Selecting soldiers is not an easy proposition. Medieval knights in some of the scales are not all that easy to come by. Noncombatants – serfs and castle workers –are not available at all, except perhaps from very expensive specialty museum model companies. The small figures (1/72, 22 mm) allow for the construction of smaller castles, but the detail is not as good as with some larger figures. Middle-sized figures (1/64 scale, 25 mm) are small enough to make relatively small castles and are large enough to have good detail. However, these figures are among some of the most expensive. Larger figures (1/32 scale, 54 mm) usually have the best detail and are the easiest to play with. However, at present, this is the most difficult scale to find figures. The 54 mm scale figures are what we typically think of as “toy figures.”In making suggestions on castle occupants, I will confine consideration to two types of soldier: the classic medieval knight and soldier in armor, and the classic “toy soldier,” that is, the 18th century Napoleonic soldier. If the former is your choice then the typical medieval castle will be the best. If you choose the latter then it would be better to include the later additions made in castles for cannon placements, or the specific cannon forts. In cannon forts, the sides were sloped to deflect cannon balls.

There are several companies around, which can be found on the internet by searching for “toy soldier.” I purchase my figures from three companies:

The Michigan Toy Soldier Company
1406 E 11 Mile Road
Royal Oak, MI 48067
248-586-1022
www.michtoy.com

Silver Eagle Wargame Supplies
4417 West 24th Place
Lawrence, KS 66047
785-838-4480
http://www.silvereaglewargames.com

Games Workshop
8 Neal Drive
Simsbury, CT 06070
800-394-GAME
www.games-workshop.com

Michigan Toy Soldier has the greatest selection of 1/72 (22 mm) figures, at the best price (less than $10, including shipping, for a box of 30-40 figures). They also have a limited number of 1/32 (54 mm) figures at a reasonable price ($15 for 12 figures). They have figures from many periods, such as Roman, Celt, and Egyptian armies (all 1/72), which are difficult to find elsewhere. They have figures in lead and rubber. Silver Eagle offers 1/64 (25 mm) lead figures. There are few from the medieval period – the most common early figures are from the 17th century. However, these figures can be painted, with striking results. The price is reasonable ($1 or less per figure). Games Workshop is the source for Warhammer Fantasy miniatures in 1/64 (25 mm) scale. These are plastic, with some lead, and are larger and more detailed than other 25 mm scale figures. For example, although the men are actually 25 mm – the same height as other 25 mm men – they are thicker and more detailed than other figures. Horses from this company are twice the size of the rather undersized horses offered by other companies in the 25 mm scale range. These are probably the best, most detailed figures available and they paint up beautifully. There are also lots of fantasy characters available, such and fairies and goblins. They are somewhat limited, however, in the range of available figure choices. They are also the most expensive ($1.50 to $35.00) per figure.No matter which type of soldiers you decide to use in your castle, it is important that you purchase at least one figure in your scale of choice before beginning construction. That will allow you to make the battlements, and other features such as arrow slits and windows, just the right size. Throughout the construction guide itself, I will assume that you have chosen your scale and have a figure to work with, so I will limit any further reference to scale.

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From Wood to Stone

Despite their imposing positions and solid construction, these early Norman castles with their wooden palisades and keep were more vulnerable to attack than castles built from stone. And in the tumultuous years following the conquest rebellions and uprisings were frequent, and castles were often under attack.

A popular tactic during dry spells was to fill the moat with straw and brushwood and set fire to it. The smoke would drive the defenders from the battlements, and eventually the wooden palisades would catch fire, weakening them enough to make them yield to a battering ram.

Also, the Norman 'occupation' was changing. Men who had come as invaders and had taken what they wanted increasingly saw England as their home. Many intermarried with the Anglo-Saxon population and castles built to house a garrison of men-at-arms were simply not comfortable enough to make a home and bring up a family.

Rochester Castle © Mark Bond | fotolia.com

So towards the end of the Conqueror's reign, many of the early castles were being rebuilt in stone and extended. Keeps became larger and more elaborate. Styles varied, round shell keeps and square tower keeps being the most common. Not only did they show their English subjects that the Normans were there to stay, but stone castles were also safer and stronger, and a few home comforts were also added.

Large keeps would have accommodation for the men of the garrison on the ground floor, while the knights or the lord's family would have rooms on the upper floors. The bailey would contain a well, enclosures for livestock and storage for food and fodder, along with a kitchen and maybe even a smithy.

Elaborate keeps, like Warkworth Castle or the White Tower, would even have a chapel for the family's use.


Castles in Scotland: From battling Vikings to defying the English

Dr Nicki Scott is a cultural resources adviser at Historic Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish government charged with safeguarding the nation’s historic environment and promoting its understanding and enjoyment on behalf of Scottish ministers

When were the first castles built in Scotland?

Early examples of castles first appear in Scotland in the 1100s – it’s likely that Norman practices were being adopted throughout the country.

What are the different types of castles? How did design progress from Motte and Bailey to stone fortresses?

Castle design, by its nature, is not a clear progression from one style to another. Motte and bailey was used early in Scotland, as demonstrated at Bass of Inverurie, built by David, Earl of Huntington (1152-1219), however, this type of construction was still being used throughout Scotland well into the 1300s. This style was relatively low cost, quick to construct and required few specialist skills.

Few examples of ringwork castles, defined by their defensive bank and ditch, survive these early simple structures would have been replaced with higher-status stone buildings.

High-status castles were often constructed with stone and required wealth and periods of peace to complete, as they had a longer construction time, although early examples of stone castles can be found in Orkney and the North of Scotland as stone was in greater supply throughout this region.

Curtain wall castles, complete with high perimeter walls enclosing a normally rectilinear area, housing sub-buildings within it, became dated and were replaced by the tower house castle, comprising a stone tower with adjoining buildings, as seen at Threave Castle in Dumfries and Galloway.

While castles had certain features in common, and had many of the same functions, the actual design was rarely replicated exactly from one example to the next and varied according to status, wealth and time.

An artist’s impression of Edinburgh Castle before the Lang Siege of 1573

How were castles constructed or located to best repel attacks?

Many castles were constructed to take advantage of strategic and fortified locations within the existing local landscape. A good example of this tactic is demonstrated at Edinburgh Castle, which sits on top of a high volcanic rock. Its prominent position offers a clear viewpoint in all directions, while the sheer rock faces surrounding it provide a natural defence and deterrent against sieges.

In terms of construction, thick walls with very few openings helped provide defence against siege weapons while corner towers allowed defenders to fire down on attackers from all directions. Moats and ditches also made it harder for attackers to get close to the castle walls themselves. Where arrow slits pierced walls, they were outwardly narrow to reduce the possibility of attackers firing in, and internally splayed to allow the defender a wide angle of attack.

Timber hoardings on top of wall-walks were often constructed during a siege. Later these were replaced with stone machicolations and gave cover to defenders, allowing them to fire and drop projectiles through the openings onto the attackers below, as during the Norse attack on Rothesay Castle in 1230 – the earliest record of an attack on a Scottish castle.

What was the role of a castle in peacetime?

Most castles were rarely called into military service so their peacetime role was actually their primary one.

Castles acted as administrative centres for lordships, where the lord could dispense justice, incarcerate those awaiting trial, collect rents, entertain and so on. They also provided the lord with comfortable accommodation. The building or remodelling of a castle also had a symbolic function, it represented the control that the lord had over the surrounding landscape.

What was the best way to attack a castle?
Attack plans were formulated depending on the castle and the resources available. During the Wars of Independence with England, James Douglas and Thomas Randolph retook Roxburgh and Edinburgh castles, respectively, by small-scale night-time attacks, scaling the walls with rope ladders.

Earlier in the same conflict Edward I had used a siege tower at Bothwell in 1301, he also had miners ready to dig under the walls if necessary – undermining was a technique that was also used at St Andrews Castle in the 1500s where the mine and countermine can still be explored by visitors today.

What was the best way to defend a castle?
Having an adequate garrison was essential, as was ensuring the castle’s defenders were well supplied, with provisions and fresh water being crucial resources to withstanding a siege. As well as this, ensuring the castle was defended by a loyal garrison was also important.

Maintaining loyalty of the garrison itself was not to be underestimated. While siege was required to capture Bothwell Castle in 1301, in the wake of Bannockburn in 1314, the keeper of the castle for Edward II turned both it and its garrison over to Scottish forces.

An engraving of Stirling Castle by John Slezer

What siege weapons did defenders most fear?
While it’s difficult to know this for certain, there are a number of factors that could contribute to fear during a siege. Knowing that a skilled commander was leading the opposing force could be an issue – the garrison at Stirling Castle surrendered to Edward I before he had a chance to use his new siege weapon ‘War Wolf’ in 1304. Although the length of the siege had much to do with this, Edward’s rather fearsome reputation may have contributed to this surrender.

Disease was probably another concern throughout a siege, as there would be less chance than normal to carry out castle maintenance and chores.

What brought about the end of the castle age? Was it just cannon or were there other factors?
The growing use of artillery was certainly a factor. Castles designed to withstand trebuchets and siege towers were not necessarily built to withstand the impact of cannon balls, nor were they designed to house cannon for their own defence.

There is evidence that many castles were adapted to accommodate these new advances in weaponry, such as Threave Castle, in Dumfries and Galloway, where external ramparts were built to provide gun emplacements.

From the 1600s onwards many castles were used primarily as a military garrison or barracks. Edinburgh Castle is still famously used by the British Army to this day.

With a more settled society, there was less need for nobles to have a fortified residence with fashions at the time favouring the ‘country house’ style, which became widely adopted.

What is the most complete castle in Scotland today?
Edinburgh and Stirling Castles have many of their Medieval and Renaissance buildings still intact, which have been refurbished to represent how they might have looked during these periods.

Craigmillar Castle, located just outside Edinburgh, is an example of a well-preserved ruin and today it is much as it would have been when it fell out of use as a residence in the 1700s.

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