Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft

Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft

Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft

Die Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft (2MR1-2MR4, 2MRT1-2MRT3A) was 'n suksesvolle verkenningsvliegtuig wat ontwerp is deur Herbert Smith wat 'n tweede loopbaan gehad het as 'n intermediêre afrigter.

Normaalweg het die Japannese vloot spesifikasies vir nuwe vliegtuie aan 'n aantal vervaardigers uitgereik, maar Mitsubishi was die enigste maatskappy wat gevra is om 'n tipe 10 draerverkenningsvliegtuig te ontwerp. Hulle ontwerp was gebaseer op Herbert Smith se Type 10 Fighter (1MF1 tot 1MF5). Die nuwe vliegtuig is uitgebrei sodat dit 'n bemanning van twee kon vervoer. Die vlerkspan is met 12 voet vergroot en 3 voet lank. Die laai gewig het nie veel toegeneem nie, en ten spyte van dieselfde enjin as die maksimum spoed van 'n enkele sitplek, het die motor slegs met 5 km / h gedaal, van 132 km / h op die vegter tot 127 km / h op die verkenningsvliegtuig. Die vliegtuig is gebou met 'n houtraamwerk en stofbedekking. Vroeë weergawes gebruik 'n motor-tipe verkoeler wat voor die enjin gemonteer is, maar alle diensvliegtuie gebruik Lamblin-verkoelers wat óf onder die romp óf onder die onderste vlerke gemonteer is.

Die eerste prototipe het sy eerste vlug op 12 Januarie 1922 in Nagoya gemaak. Na vroeë toetse aanvaar die vloot dit as die Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft, en die eerste van 159 vliegtuie is in 1922 vervaardig. Die produksie duur voort tot 1930 en die vliegtuig bly tot dieselfde jaar in diens.

Die vliegtuig is ook omskep in 'n tussentydse afrigter. Dit het gepaard gegaan met dubbele kontroles op bestaande vliegtuie, en die afrigter is vervaardig in 'n groter aantal variante as die oorspronklike verkenningsweergawe, wat wissel van die 2MRT1 tot die 2MRT3A.

Die 2MRT -weergawe van die vliegtuig was die enigste intermediêre afrigter wat in die Japannese vloot gebruik is tot en met die bekendstelling van die Kusho K5Y Type 93 Intermediate Trainer.

Variante

2MR1

Die 2MR1 was die vroegste weergawe van die vliegtuig en het 'n motor-tipe heuningkoekradiator voor die enjin gemonteer.

2MR2

Die 2MR2 het die heuningkoekradiator vervang met 'n Lamblin -verkoeler onder die romp. Dit was beide meer vaartbelyn en minder kwesbaar vir skade as die motor-tipe verkoeler van die 2MR1. Die vlieëniersitplek is vorentoe geskuif en die stertoppervlakke is herontwerp.

2 MR3

Op die 2MR3 is die stertoppervlaktes groter gemaak.

2MR4

Die 2MR4 was die belangrikste produksie weergawe van die vliegtuig. Dit het die Lamblin -verkoeler verkoop, meer afgeronde vleuelpunte gehad en die vlieëniersitplek het teruggekeer na sy oorspronklike posisie.

Karigane-tipe

Die Karigane-tipe is in 1928 ontwikkel as 'n privaat deur Mitsubishi. Sy verkoelers is na 'n nuwe posisie onder die vlerke verskuif, die vertikale stert is langer gemaak en die prestasie is verbeter. Hierdie weergawe van die vliegtuig het nie in produksie gekom nie.

2MRT1

Die 2MRT1 was 'n tussentydse afrigter wat vervaardig is deur dubbele kontroles op die 2MR1 te plaas.

2MRT1A

Die 2MRT1A was soortgelyk aan die 2MRT1, maar met die herontwerpte stert van die 2RM2.

2MRT2

Die 2MRT2 was die eerste afrigter met die Lamblin -verkoeler wat onder die romp gedra is.

2MRT2A

Die 2MRT2A was die opleidingsweergawe van die 2MRT3, maar met die verkoeler onder die ondervleuel gemonteer in plaas van onder die romp, en die stuurkajuit van die vlieënier het teruggeskuif en ongestadigde vlerke.

2MRT3

Die 2MRT3 was soortgelyk aan die 2MRT3, maar met die verkoeler onder die vleuel.

2MRT3A

Die 2MRT3A het flotasiesakke in die agterste romp gedra om dit makliker te maak om noodlandings op water te maak.

Statistieke
Enjin: Mitsubishi Type Hi agtsilinder watergekoelde enjin
Krag: 300 pk
Bemanning: 2
Span: 39ft 6in
Lengte: 26 voet
Hoogte: 9 voet 6 in
Leeg gewig: 2,160 lb
Laai gewig: 2,910 pond
Maksimum spoed: 127 mph
Klimkoers: 17 minute tot 9,843 voet
Diensplafon:
Uithouvermoë: 3,5 uur
Bewapening: Twee vasgemaakte 7,7 mm -masjiengewere wat vorentoe geskiet is, twee buigbare, gemonteerde 7,7 mm -masjiengewere
Bomlading: Drie bomme van 66lb


Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft - Geskiedenis

Mitsubishi Type 10 Carrier Fighter

Kort geskiedenis van die tipe 10

deur Johan Myhrman

In 1921 word Herbert Smith uitgenooi na Nagoya om Mitsubishi te help met die ontwikkeling van die eerste doelbewuste ontwerpte vegvliegtuig ter wêreld, maar ook die eerste vliegtuig wat van die eerste doelbewuste ontwerpte vliegdekskip ter wêreld gestyg het: die Mitsubishi Type 10 -vegvliegtuig (1921 was die 10de jaar van die keiser Taisho se bewind). Smith was die belangrikste keuse van Mitsubishi, aangesien hy vroeër die suksesvolle Sopwith Pup en die Sopwith Triplane ontwerp het.

Die 1MF was 'n vegter van klassieke ontwerp, met hout bedekte houtstruktuur met twee 7,7 masjiengewere. 'N 300 pk Hispano Suiza 300 pk 8 silinder V watergekoelde enjin het die vliegtuig aangedryf wat 150 minute lank in die lug gehou kon word. Die eerste prototipe is in Oktober 1921 voltooi en het 'n heuningkoekradiator voor die enjin. Die nuwe vegter is die daaropvolgende maand suksesvol getoets en deur die vloot aanvaar as 'n plaasvervanger vir die Gloster Sparrowhawk. Die Tipe 10 het bedien vanaf 1923 tot 1930, toe dit vervang is deur die Nakajima A1N Type 3 -vegvliegtuig.

Die vervaardigingsweergawe van die vliegtuig het die heuningkoekradiator vervang deur Lamblin -verkoelers waarvoor Mitsubishi in 1923 die vervaardigingsregte gekry het. Die verkoelers was twee klein trommels met koelvinne onder die vleuel. Die herontwerp het die vegter 'n meer skerp en vaartbelynde neus gegee. 'N Totaal van 138 tipe 10 -vegters is tussen 1921 en 1929 gebou. Die laaste is opleiers.

Om die landings van draers moontlik te maak, was die Type 10 toegerus met kloue wat op die asas gemonteer is. Die kloue is ontwerp om die arresterende drade op die draer Hosho vas te gryp. Die drade was in Britse styl vir die tydperk van die boog na die agterstewe. Die idee hieragter was dat die drade die vliegtuig by die landing sou lei en verhoed dat dit van koers af stuur. Bykomende drade is ook oor die dek gespan om die vliegtuig te stop. Die boog-agterste draadreëling was nie baie betroubaar nie en is gou verwyder.

Die eerste opstyg en landing op die Hosho is op 28 Februarie 1923 gemaak deur William Jordan, 'n lid van die span van Herbert Smith. Vir hierdie prestasie verdien Jordan 10.000 yen (15.000 volgens sommige bronne), nogtans 'n enorme hoeveelheid geld in 1923. 'n Maand later word Shunichi Kira die eerste Japanse vlieënier wat op die vervoerder land.

Die Type 10 -vegter het tydens sy aktiewe lewe 'n ontwikkelingsfase beleef wat verskeie subtipes tot gevolg gehad het. Die subtipe benamings is 'n bietjie ingewikkeld. Om mee te begin is daar twee basiese tipes, die 1MF-1 met die heuningkoekradiator en die 1MF-2 met die Lamblin-verkoeler.

Onder die 1MF-1's is daar drie hoofsoorte. Die eerste is die eerste prototipe, die 1MF1 soos hieronder gesien. Die prototipes is in groen geverf en laat die aluminium enjin panele kaal. Die onderkant was helder dop, wat 'n bruin kleur gegee het. Vleuel en wielstutte was swart en wit hysbakmerke op die agterste romp geverf. By die aflewering van die eerste prototipes is die Mitsubishi drie diamant -kentekens op die stert geverf. Dit lyk asof die vervaardigingsplaatjie wat gewoonlik onder die stertvlak voorkom, op die eerste 1MF1's ontbreek.

Tipies van die 1MF1 was die & quotear & quot of uitgebreide ailerons soortgelyk aan die Fokker DVII. Dit is op die 1MF1A uitgevee toe die vleuel uitgebrei is. Die laaste 1MF-1 subtipe was die 1MF2 met 'n groter stertoppervlakte en twee vlerke, dit wil sê vier vleuelstutte. Die konfigurasie van die lugblaaie het verander deur die prototipes om uiteindelik vervang te word deur vier groot vierkantige ventilasieopeninge.

Die tipe 10-vegters wat in produksie was, was almal 1MF-2's. Die eerste subtipe is die 1MF3 met die heuningkoekradiator vervang deur die Lamblin -tipe. Die profiel hieronder toon 'n 1MF3 van die vliegdekskip Hosho. Die & quotA & quot draer -identifikasiekode is gebruik tot 1926 toe dit deur Katakana vervang is.

Die 1MF3 is verder ontwikkel deur die herontwerp van die uitlaatspruitstuk te verander deur die manier waarop die enjinkleppe vasgemaak is, te verander. Die stertarea is herontwerp en verwyder die laaste visuele invloed van Sopwith. Die ingangspunt vir die horisontale roerdrade is vorentoe op die romp geskuif toe dit gedoen is. Die gestikte gewrig wat halfpad langs die agterste romp geloop het, is ook verwyder. Die vangdraadhake is waarskynlik ook van die wielasse na die agterste stut verplaas.

Hieronder is 'n 1MF3A op die vervoerder Akagi. Die 1MF is gebruik op die Akagi vanaf 1927 en van die Kaga in 1928. Die vliegtuig is in die algemeen silwer/grys en die swart identifikasiekode word op die stert, bo -vleuel gedra, en word herhaal in die regter- en linkerondervleuel.

Radikale veranderinge is aangebring vir die 1MF4 -subtipe deur die kajuit vorentoe te skuif en die vleuelhouer te verander om die gewigverskuiwing te vergoed. Die enjinkap is ook effens aangepas. Hieronder is 'n 1MF4 (of moontlik 'n 1MF5) aan die einde van 1920: ook van die Akagi. Let daarop dat die identifikasiekodegetalle hipoteties is. Rooi stert- en rompband is bygevoeg, sowel as swart identifikasiekode wat op die agterste romp herhaal word, die stertkode is wit. Die navigasie lig op die vleuelstutte en die vertikale stert is reeds op die 1MF3's aangebring.

Die laaste subtipe was die 1MF5 met geringe veranderinge. Daar was ook 'n 1MF5A wat 'n afrigter was met 'n vergrote vleueloppervlakte vir veiliger vervoer. Hulle was toegerus met vlotte onder elke vleuel en onderstebo wat onderstebo was in geval van noodlanding op water. Sommige 1MF5A'a het selfs 'n ekstra aileron tussen die boonste en onderste vlerke aangebring.


Mitsubishi 2MR4 (Type 10) Carrier Reconnaissance biplane, c. 1930.

Mitsubishi 2MR (Type 10) Carrier Reconnaissance biplane, “A-64 ”, c. 1930, met 'n geveglyn van IJN -slagskepe in die verte.

Uit die wiki: “ Die Mitsubishi 2MR was 'n Japannese verkenningsvliegtuig uit die twintigerjare, ook bekend as die Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft of die C1M in die Navy se kort aanwysingskema. Die 2MR is ontwerp vir Mitsubishi deur die Britse vliegtuigontwerper Herbert Smith, en is gedurende die 1920's en 1930's deur die Japannese keiserlike vloot gebruik.

Die tweedekkervliegtuigreeks van die 2MR het gedurende die 1920's en in die dertigerjare aan boord van Japan se vliegdekskepe diens gedoen, met weergawes wat tot die laat-1930's as tussentydse opleiers gebruik is. Baie is tot burgerlike gebruik oorgeskakel, en word beide as opleiers en vir kommunikasiedoeleindes vir koerantondernemings gebruik. Sommige het tot 1938 in burgerlike diens gebly. ”


Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft - Geskiedenis



























Noord-Amerikaanse RA-5C Vigilante
U.S.N. Draer -gebaseerde swaar supersoniese verkenningsvliegtuig, V.S.A.

Argieffoto's [1]

[Noord-Amerikaanse RA-5C Waaksaam (NA-316, BuNo 156641, c/n NR316-34) te sien in die USS Midway Museum, San Diego, Kalifornië (2/18/2006 foto's kopiereg en kopie 2006 Skytamer Images deur John Shupek)]

Oorsig - Noord -Amerikaanse A -5 Vigilante (reeks) [2]

    Noord-Amerikaanse A-5 (A3J) Vigilante (reeks)
  • Rol: Kernaanvalbomaanvaller of verkenningsvliegtuig
  • Nasionale herkoms: Verenigde State
  • Vervaardiger: North American Aviation
  • Eerste vlug: 31 Augustus 1958
  • Inleiding: Junie 1961
  • Afgetree: 20 November 1979
  • Status: Afgetree
  • Primêre gebruiker: Amerikaanse vloot
  • Geproduseer: 1956-1963, 1968-1970
  • Aantal gebou: 167 (137 gebou as of omskep in RA-5C)

Die Noord-Amerikaanse A-5 Vigilante is 'n Amerikaanse supersoniese bomwerper wat deur North American Aviation ontwerp en gebou is vir die Amerikaanse vloot. Sy diens in die kernaanvalrol om die Douglas A-3 Skywarrior te vervang, was egter baie kort, aangesien die RA-5C tydens die Viëtnam-oorlog uitgebreide diens in die taktiese verkenningsrol gehad het. Voor die eenwording van die Navy -aanwysingsvolgorde met die Air Force -volgorde in 1962, is dit aangewys as die A3J Vigilante.

Ontwerp en ontwikkeling [2]

In 1953 het North American Aviation begin met 'n privaatstudie vir 'n langafstandafstandbomwerper met lang afstand, wat in staat is om kernwapens teen supersoniese spoed te lewer. Hierdie voorstel, die North American General Purpose Attack Weapon (NAGPAW) -konsep, is in 1955 deur die Amerikaanse vloot aanvaar, met 'n paar hersienings. 'N Kontrak is op 29 Augustus 1956 toegeken. Sy eerste vlug het twee jaar later op 31 Augustus 1958 plaasgevind. in Columbus, Ohio.

Ten tyde van die bekendstelling daarvan was die Vigilante een van die grootste en verreweg die mees ingewikkelde vliegtuie wat vanaf 'n Amerikaanse vlootvliegtuig vervoer kon word. Dit het 'n hoogs gemonteerde vleuel met 'n grenslaag-beheerstelsel (geblaasde flappe) om die laaisnelheid te verbeter. Daar was geen ailerons nie. Rolbeheer is verskaf deur spoilers tesame met differensiële afbuiging van die bewegende stertoppervlaktes. Die gebruik van aluminium-litiumlegering vir vlerkvelle en titanium vir kritieke strukture was ook ongewoon. Die A-5 het twee wydverspreide General Electric J79-turbojet-enjins (dieselfde as die wat op die McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II-vegvliegtuig gebruik is), gevoed deur inlaatrampe en 'n enkele groot bewegende vertikale stabiliseerder. Voorlopige ontwerpstudies het twee vertikale vin/roere gebruik. Die vlerke, vertikale stabiliseerder en die neusradome is gevou vir draerberging. Die Vigilante het 'n bemanning van twee in tandem gesit, 'n vlieënier en 'n bombardier-navigator (BN) (verkennings-/aanvalnavigator (RAN) op latere verkenningsversies) op individuele Noord-Amerikaanse HS-1A uitwerpstoele.

Ondanks die feit dat die A-5 deur die Amerikaanse vloot as '' swaar '' aangewys is, was dit verrassend rats sonder om bomme of missiele te sleep, maar selfs begeleidende vegters het bevind dat die skoon vliegtuig en kragtige enjins die Vigilante baie vinnig op hoë en lae hoogtes gemaak het. Die hoë naderingsnelheid en hoë aanvalshoek in die landingskonfigurasie het die terugkeer na die vliegdekskip egter 'n uitdaging gemaak vir onervare of onbewuste vlieëniers.

Die Vigilante het gevorderde en komplekse elektronika gehad toe dit die eerste keer in diens geneem is. Dit het een van die eerste 'fly-by-wire'-stelsels op 'n operasionele vliegtuig (met meganiese/hidrouliese rugsteun) en 'n gerekenariseerde AN/ASB-12 nav/aanvalstelsel met 'n head-up-skerm (' Pilot's Projected Display Indicator ') (PPDI), een van die eerste), multi-modus radar, radar-toegeruste traagheidsnavigasiestelsel (REINS, gebaseer op tegnologie wat ontwikkel is vir die Noord-Amerikaanse Navaho-missiel), geslote kringtelevisiekamera onder die neus, en 'n vroeë digitale rekenaar bekend as 'veelsydige digitale ontleder' (VERDAN) om dit alles te bestuur.

Gegewe die oorspronklike ontwerp as 'n draer-gebaseerde, supersoniese, kern-swaar aanvalsvliegtuig, is die hoofbewapening van die Vigilante in 'n nuwe 'lineêre bombaai' tussen die enjins in die agterste romp gedra, wat die bom van die vliegtuig positief skei. teen supersoniese snelhede. Die enkele kernwapen, gewoonlik die Mk 28 -bom, was aan twee weggooibare brandstoftenks in die silindriese baai vasgemaak in 'n samestelling wat bekend staan ​​as die "stores train". Aan die agterkant van die mees agterste brandstoftenk is 'n stel vinne vasgemaak. Hierdie brandstoftenks moes tydens die vlug na die teiken leeggemaak word en dan met 'n plofbare drogue -geweer met die bom neergelê word. Die trein van die winkel is met 'n afstand van ongeveer 30 voet per sekonde (30 knope) na die vliegtuig teruggedryf. Dit het daarna 'n tipiese ballistiese pad gevolg.

In die praktyk was die stelsel nie betroubaar nie en was daar nooit lewendige wapens in die lineêre bombaai nie. In die RA-5C-konfigurasie is die baai uitsluitlik vir brandstof gebruik. By drie geleenthede het die skok van die katapultlansering veroorsaak dat die brandstofblikke op die dek uitgestoot het, wat een vliegtuigverlies tot gevolg gehad het.

Die Vigilante het oorspronklik twee vleuelpilare gehad, hoofsaaklik bedoel vir valtenks. Die tweede Vigilante-variant, die A3J-2 (A-5B), bevat interne tenks vir 'n ekstra 460 liter brandstof (wat 'n uitgesproke dorsale "bult" bygevoeg het), saam met twee ekstra vleuelhardpunte, vir 'n totaal van vier. In die praktyk is die hardpoints selde gebruik. Ander verbeterings sluit in blaasklappe aan die voorkant van die vleuel en stewiger landingsgestel.

Die verkenningsweergawe van die Vigilante, die RA-5C, het 'n effens groter vleueloppervlak en het 'n lang kanovormige kuip onder die romp bygevoeg vir 'n multi-sensor verkenningspak. Dit het 'n APD-7-lugradar (SLAR) aan die sykant, 'n AAS-21-infrarooi lynskandeerder en kamerapakke, sowel as verbeterde ECM, bygevoeg. 'N Elektroniese intelligensiestelsel AN/ALQ-61 kan ook uitgevoer word. Die RA-5C het die AN/ASB-12-bombardementstelsel behou en kon in teorie wapens dra, hoewel dit nooit in diens was nie. Latere geboude RA-5C's het kragtiger J79-10-enjins met 'n nagebrandkrag van 17 900 lbf (80 kN). Die verkenningsvigilante weeg byna vyf ton meer as die stakingweergawe met byna dieselfde stukrag en 'n slegs beskeie vergrote vleuel. Hierdie veranderinge kos dit versnelling en klimtempo, hoewel dit vinnig gebly het tydens vlakke.

Die Royal Australian Air Force beskou die RA-5C Vigilante as 'n plaasvervanger vir sy English Electric Canberra. Die McDonnell F-4C/RF-4C, Dassault Mirage IVA en die soortgelyke BAC TSR-2 is ook oorweeg. Die TFX (later die F-111C Aardvark) is egter aanvaar.

Operasionele geskiedenis [2]>

Die Vigilante, wat aangewys is as A3J-1, het in Junie 1961 vir die eerste keer die eskaderdiens aangegaan met die Heavy Attack Squadron THREE (VAH-3) by Naval Air Station Sanford, Florida, en vervang die Douglas A-3 Skywarrior in die swaar aanval, bv. "Strategiese kernstaking " rol. Alle variante van die Vigilante is gebou by die North American Aviation-fasiliteit op die Port Columbus-lughawe in Columbus, Ohio, langs die Noord-Amerikaanse T-2 Buckeye, T-39 Sabreliner en OV-10 Bronco.

Ingevolge die Tri-Services-aanwysingsplan wat in September 1962 onder Robert McNamara geïmplementeer is, is die Vigilante herontwerp A-5, met die aanvanklike A3J-1 wat A-5A word en die opgedateerde A3J-2 word A-5B. Die daaropvolgende verkenningsweergawe, oorspronklik A3J-3P, het die RA-5C geword.

Die vroeë diens van die Vigilante was moeilik, met baie tandeprobleme vir sy gevorderde stelsels. Alhoewel hierdie stelsels hoogs gesofistikeerd was, was die tegnologie nog in sy kinderskoene en die betroubaarheid daarvan was swak. Alhoewel die meeste van hierdie betroubaarheidskwessies uiteindelik uitgewerk is omdat onderhoudspersoneel meer ervaring opgedoen het met die ondersteuning van hierdie stelsels, was die vliegtuig gedurende sy loopbaan geneig om 'n onderhoudsintensiewe platform te bly.

Die diens van die A-5 het saamgeval met 'n groot beleidsverskuiwing in die strategiese rol van die Amerikaanse vloot, wat oorgeskakel het na die onderduik van ballistiese missiele eerder as bemande bomwerpers. As gevolg hiervan is die verkryging van die A-5 in 1963 beëindig en die tipe is omgeskakel na die vinnige verkenningsrol.

Die eerste RA-5C's is afgelewer by VAH-3, die A-5A en A-5B Replacement Air Group (RAG)/Fleet Replacement Squadron (FRS), wat later herontwerp is as Reconnaissance Attack Squadron Three (RVAH-3), by NAS Sanford , Florida in Julie 1963. Toe hulle oorgaan van die aanvalweergawe na die verkenningsweergawe, is alle Vigilante -eskaders daarna herontwerp van VAH na RVAH.

Onder die kennis van Commander, Reconnaissance Attack Wing One (COMRECONATKWING ONE), is uiteindelik altesaam 10 RA-5C-eskaders gestig. RVAH-3 was steeds verantwoordelik vir die staatsgebaseerde RA-5C-opleidingsmissie van vliegpersoneel, onderhouds- en ondersteuningspersoneel, terwyl RVAH-1, RVAH-5, RVAH-6, RVAH-7, RVAH-9, RVAH-11 , RVAH-12, RVAH-13 en RVAH-14 word gereeld aan boord van Forrestal, Saratoga, Ranger, Independence, Kitty Hawk, Constellation, Enterprise, America, John F. Kennedy en uiteindelik die vliegdekskepe van die Nimitz-klas na die Atlantiese Oseaan, die Middellandse See en Wes -Stille Oseaan.

Agt uit tien eskaders van RA-5C Vigilantes het ook uitgebreide diens in die Viëtnam-oorlog begin, wat in Augustus 1964 begin het en gevaarlike mediumvlak-verkenningsopdragte na die staking uitgevoer het. Alhoewel dit vinnig en wendbaar was, het 18 RA-5C's in die geveg verlore gegaan: 14 weens vuurvliegtuie, 3 teen raket-tot-lug-missiele en 1 na 'n MiG-21 tydens Operation Linebacker II. Nege meer RA-5C's het in operasionele ongelukke verlore gegaan terwyl hulle by die Task Force 77 gedien het. Gedeeltelik as gevolg van hierdie gevegsverliese, is 36 bykomende RA-5C-vliegtuie van 1968 tot 1970 gebou as vervangingsverlies.

In 1968 het die kongres die oorspronklike werksbasis van die vliegtuig van NAS Sanford, Florida, gesluit en die ouervleuel, Reconnaissance Attack Wing One, alle ondergeskikte eskaders, en alle vliegtuie en personeel oorgedra na Turner AFB, 'n Strategiese Lugkommando (SAC) Boeing B-52 Stratofortress en Boeing KC-135 basis in Albany, Georgia. Die huurder SAC -bomvleuel is daarna geïnaktiveer en die beheer van Turner AFB is van die lugmag na die vloot oorgeplaas met die installasie wat die naam Naval Air Station Albany geword het. In 1974, na skaars ses jaar diens as 'n vlootstasie, het die kongres besluit om NAS Albany te sluit as deel van 'n vermindering van die post-Viëtnamese mag, en het alle RA-5C-eenhede en personeel oorgeplaas na NAS Key West, Florida.

Ten spyte van die nuttige diens van die Vigilante, was dit duur en ingewikkeld om te bestuur en besige groot hoeveelhede kosbare vliegdek- en hangardekruimte aan boord van beide konvensionele en kernaangedrewe vliegdekskepe in 'n tyd toe die lugvleuels vervoer word, met die bekendstelling van die F-14 Tomcat en S-3 Viking was gemiddeld 90 vliegtuie, waarvan baie groter was as hul voorgangers. Met die einde van die Viëtnam-oorlog begin die oprigting van RVAH-eskaders in 1974, met die laaste Vigilante-eskader, RVAH-7, wat sy finale ontplooiing aan die westelike Stille Oseaan aan boord van USS Ranger aan die einde van 1979 voltooi het. Die laaste vlug deur 'n RA-5C het geneem plaas op 20 November 1979 toe 'n Vigilante NAS Key West, Florida, vertrek. Verkenningsaanval Wing One is in Januarie 1980 in NAS Key West, Florida, gestaak.

Die Vigilante het nie die loopbaan van die A-3 Skywarrior beëindig nie, wat as fotoverkenningsvliegtuie, elektroniese oorlogvoeringplatforms, tenkwaens vir tenkstelle en uitvoerende vervoervliegtuie aangewys sou word, aangewys as RA-3A/B, EA-3A/B, ERA -3B, EKA-3B KA-3B en VA-3B, in die 1980's en vroeë 1990's.

Vegters het die RA-5C vervang in die vervoer-gebaseerde verkenningsrol. Die RF-8G-weergawe van die Vought F-8 Crusader, gewysig met interne kameras, het sedert die vroeë 1960's reeds in twee ligte fotografiese eskaders (VFP-62 en VFP-63) gedien, wat vanaf ouer vliegdekskepe werk wat nie die Waaksaam. Die Marine Corps se enigste fotografiese eskader (VMFP-3) sou ook gedurende hierdie tydperk aan boord van vliegdekskepe met RF-4B Phantom II-vliegtuie ontplooi. Hierdie eskaders het die rol van die Vigilante vervang deurdat hulle gedurende die laat sewentigerjare en vroeg tot middel-tagtigerjare losskakels van die primêre eskader aan die lugvleuels van die primêre eskader verskaf het, totdat die heropdrag oorgedra is na die vlootvegtergemeenskap van die vloot wat die F- 14 Tomcat.

Uitgesoekte modelle van die F-14 Tomcat sou uiteindelik die multi-sensor Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance Pod System (TARPS) en die Digital Tactical Air Reconnaissance Pod (D-TARPS) dra. Tot op hede het die gewig van vegvliegtuie soos die F-14 Tomcat en Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet ontwikkel tot dieselfde klas van 28950 kg as die Vigilante.

Op 13 Desember 1960 het marinebevelvoerder Leroy Heath (vlieënier) en luitenant Larry Monroe (Bombardier/Navigator) 'n wêreldhoogte -rekord van 91.850,8 voet (27.874,2 m) opgestel in 'n A3J Vigilante met 'n 1000 kg -vrag, wat die vorige rekord met meer as vier geslaan het myl (6 km). Hierdie nuwe rekord het meer as 13 jaar gehou.

Die poging is bewerkstellig deur 'n snelheid van Mach 2.1 te bereik, en dan op te trek om 'n ballistiese baan te skep buite die hoogte waarop sy vlerke kan bly funksioneer. Die enjins vlam in die dun atmosfeer en die vliegtuig rol op sy rug. Dit was reeds in vorige vlugte ervaar, en die vlieënier het die bedieningspaneel eenvoudig vrygestel en die vliegtuig het weer beheer gekry toe dit terug daal na die dikker lug van die onderste atmosfeer.

Variante [2]

  • XA3J-1 (NA-247): Prototipes, twee gebou, een omskep in RA-5C, een het in 1959 neergestort.
  • A3J-1: 58 gebou, 6 gekanselleer, oorlewendes word in 1962 weer A-5A aangewys, 42 omskep in RA-5C.
  • A3J-2: 18 gebou, herontwerp A-5B, 5 voltooi as XA3J-3P (YA-5C), alles omskep in RA-5C.
  • XA3J-3P: 5 en keer A3J-2 voltooi vanaf A3J-2-bestelling sonder verkenningstelsels en toegewys aan vlieënierbekendstelling, later omgeskakel na RA-5C.
  • A3J-3P: 20 gebou, heraangewys RA-5C.
  • A-5A: A3J-1 heraangewys.
  • A-5B: A3J-2 heraangewys.
  • YA-5C: Die vyf XA3J-3P-vliegtuie is heraangewys, voordat dit na RA-5C omgeskakel is.
  • RA-5C: Verkenningsvliegtuie, 77 gekontrakteer, 8 gekanselleer, 69 gebou, plus 20 herontwerp en 61 omskep van vorige variante.
  • NR-349: Voorgestelde verbeterde bemande interceptor vir die Amerikaanse lugmag met drie J79-enjins en 'n bewapening van ses AIM-54 Phoenix-missiele.

Operateurs [2]

Noord-Amerikaanse A-5A Vigilante Spesifikasies [2]

Algemene kenmerke

  • Bemanning: 2
  • Lengte: 23,32 m
  • Spanwydte: 16,16 m
  • Hoogte: 5,91 m
  • Vleueloppervlakte: 70,1 vierkante voet (65,1 m en sup2)
  • Leeg gewig: 32.783 lb (14.870 kg)
  • Bruto gewig: 47.631 lb (21.605 kg)
  • Maksimum opstyggewig: 63.685 lb (28.615 kg)
  • Motor: 2 keer General Electric J79-GE-8 naverbrande turbojet-enjins, 10 900 lbf (48 kN) elk droog, 17 000 lbf (76 kN) met naverbrander

Optrede

  • Maksimum spoed: 1,149 kn (1,122 km/h) by 40,000 voet (12,000 m)
  • Maksimum spoed: Mach 2
  • Bestrydingsreikwydte: 974 nmi (1,804 km) (om te mik en terug te keer)
  • Veerbootreeks: 1 571 nmi (2 909 km)
  • Diensplafon: 15,900 m (52,100 voet)
  • Klimtempo: 8.000 voet/min (41 m/s)
  • Vleuelbelasting: 393 kg/m en sup2 (80,4 lb/sq ft)
  • Stoot/gewig: 0,72 lbf/lb (0,007 kN/kg)
  • Bomme: 1 & keer B27, B28 of B43 vryval kernbom in interne wapenbaai 2 & keer B43, Mark 83, of Mark 84 bomme op twee eksterne hardpoints.

Avionika (A-5 of RA-5C)

  • AN/ASB-12 bombardement en versterker navigasie radar (A-5, RA-5C)
  • Westinghouse AN/APD-7 SLAR (RA-5C)
  • Sanders AN/ALQ-100 E/F/G/H-Band Radar Jammer (RA-5C)
  • Sanders AN/ALQ-41 X-Band Radar Jammer (A-5, RA-5C)
  • AIL AN/ALQ-61 Radio/Radar/IR ECM-ontvanger (RA-5C)
  • Litton ALR-45 "COMPASS TIE" 2-18 GHz radarwaarskuwingsontvanger (RA-5C)
  • Magnavox AN/APR-27 SAM Radar Waarskuwing Ontvanger (RA-5C)
  • Itek AN/APR-25 S/X/C-Band Radar Detection and Homing Set (RA-5C)
  • Motorola AN/APR-18 elektroniese verkenningstelsel (A-5, RA-5C)
  • AN/AAS-21 IR-verkenningskamera (RA-5C)

Kopiereg en kopie 1998-2019 (ons 21ste jaar) Skytamer Images, Whittier, Kalifornië
ALLE REGTE VOORBEHOU


Top 10 vliegtuigdraers

Wat is die beste vliegdekskip ter wêreld? Wat is die grootste moderne vliegdekskip en waarom? Ons Top 10 -analise is gebaseer op die gesamentlike telling van grootte, verplasing, lugvlieg, aanvallende en verdedigende wapens en ander funksies.

Hierdie lys bevat ook vliegdekskepe wat tans in aanbou is, maar binne die volgende paar jaar in diens sal tree.

Tans is die top 10 dodelikste vliegdekskepe ter wêreld:

Rompontwerp van die Ford -klas is soortgelyk aan dié van die Nimitz -klas. Die nuwe vliegdekskepe het 'n kleiner, herontwerpte en meer geheime eiland. Die nuwe vliegdekskepe het dieselfde verplasing as die vorige Nimitz -klas, maar is toegerus met meer outomatiese en doeltreffende stelsels.

Elkeen van hierdie vaartuie sal 'n lugvlieg hê wat 85 vliegtuie met vaste vlerk, VSTOL-vliegtuie, helikopters of onbemande lugvoertuie sal insluit. Dit sal insluit F-35B/C en F/A-18E/F Super Hornet-meervoudige vegters, EA-18G Growler elektroniese oorlogsvliegtuie, E-2D Advanced Hawkeye vroeë waarskuwingsvliegtuie, MH-60R en MH-60S vloothelikopters. Dit is 'n groter en kragtiger krag as 'n volledige lugmag van baie nasies. Deur hierdie vliegdekskepe te bedryf, sal die Verenigde State gedurende die 21ste eeu onbetwiste seemag op aarde bly.

Verdedigingswapens van die Ford -klas bevat twee lanseerders met 16 Evolved Sea Sparrow Missiles (ESSM) elk. Hierdie missiele word gebruik teen inkomende hoëspoed-maneuver-missiele. Dit het ook twee lanseerders met 21 Rolling Airframe-missiele (RAM) wat ook van naby gebruik word teen anti-skeepsraketten. Daar is ook vier 20 mm Phalanx-wapenstelsels wat naby is.

Altesaam 10 van hierdie superwaens is gebou, waaronder 3 Nimitz -klas skepe en 7 verbeterde Nimitz -klas skepe. Dit was die grootste oorlogskepe wat gebou en in diens was.

Hierdie vliegdekskepe met kernkrag kan ongeveer 80 vastevlerkvliegtuie en helikopters dra. Hierdie skepe bedryf F/A-18E/F Super Hornets meervoudige vegters, F/A-18C Hornets grondaanvalvliegtuie, EA-6B Prowlers elektroniese oorlogsvliegtuie, E-2C Hawkeye vroeë waarskuwingsvliegtuie, C-2 Greyhound vervoervliegtuie en verskillende helikopters vir nuts-, vervoer- en duikbootoorlogsoperasies.

Hierdie superwaens gebruik gewoonlik meer as 60 vliegtuie en helikopters. Die oplewingskapasiteit is egter 130 F/A-18 Hornets.

Hierdie superwaens het outomatiese selfverdedigingstelsels teen kruisraketten teen skepe deur die wapen en elektroniese oorlogstelsels van die skip te integreer en te koördineer.

In die komende dekades moet al hierdie vaartuie vervang word deur die nuwe Ford -klas vliegdekskepe.

Die admiraal Kuznetsov is in 1991 by die Russiese vloot aangestel. Dit is kleiner as Amerikaanse superwaens, maar het kragtige aanvallende wapens.

Die gebrek aan katapulte verhinder die lanseer van vliegtuie met swaar stootvragte, en die lug superioriteit van die lugvleuel is duidelik. Hierdie oorlogskip het ongeveer 40 vliegtuie en helikopters met vaste vlerk, insluitend Su-33-lugvliegtuie en ander weergawes van Ka-27-helikopter. Daar is ook 'n tweesitplek Su-25UTG-vliegtuig wat gebruik word vir vlieëniersopleiding.

Die admiraal Kuznetsov is 'n swaar lugvaartkruiser eerder as net 'n vliegdekskip. Dit bevat 'n aantal aanvallende wapens wat tipies verband hou met begeleide missielkruisers. Die draer self is in staat om doelwitte van oppervlak, ondergrond en lug in te skakel.

Hierdie skip word konvensioneel aangedryf met olie-ketels eerder as kernreaktor.

Die diens van die admiraal Kuznetsov in die Russiese vloot word geteister deur verskillende ongelukke en vliegtuigongelukke. Daar is probleme met die dryfstelsel van die skip. Rusland sukkel beslis om sy enigste vliegdekskip te behou en funksioneel te hou. Daar is geen onmiddellike planne in Rusland om die opvolger vir hierdie skip te bou nie.

Sedert 2018 word hierdie Russiese vliegdekskip herstel, opgeknap en opgegradeer om sy lewensduur te verleng. Dit sal na verwagting in 2021 weer in diens wees.

Onvoltooide romp van die tweede skip van die klas is deur die Chinese vloot verkry. Dit is met 'n moderne uitrusting opgeknap en in 2012 in diens van die Chinese vloot as die Liaoning.

In 2017 is nog 'n vliegdekskip van hierdie klas in China gelanseer. Dit is gebou vir 'n verbeterde tipe 001A -projek. Dit is in 2019 in gebruik geneem as die Shandong. Dit is die eerste vliegdekskip wat ooit in China vervaardig is.

Die Shandong kan tot 44 vaste vlerkvliegtuie en helikopters vervoer. It operates a mix of Chinese J-15 air superiority fighters, Z-8 naval helicopters and Russian Ka-31 airborne early warning helicopters.

This Chinese carrier is fitted only with short-range defensive weapons. It represent a significant shift in the balance of naval power in the area.

Two Queen Elizabeth class aircraft carriers were ordered by the Royal Navy. The first of the class, HMS Koningin Elizabeth, was laid down in 2009. It became operational in 2017.

The sister ship, HMS Prins van Wallis was laid down in 2011 and launched in 2017. It is planned to be commissioned with the Royal Navy in 2020. These new aircraft carriers are the largest warships ever built for the Royal Navy.

The Queen Elizabeth class carriers are be much more capable comparing with the previous Invincible class light aircraft carriers. These can carry over 40 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters.

The Queen Elizabeth class carriers have broadly similar dimensions and displacement to the Russian Admiral Kuznetsov and Chinese Liaoning. The Russian and Chinese carriers operate air superiority fighters, while the Queen Elizabeth class ships will carry lighter but stealthy F-35B stealthy multi-role fighters with STOVL capability. These fighters will perform air defense, ground attack and reconnaissance missions. Also there is a mix of CH-47 Chinook, Merlin and AW159 (previously knonwn as Lynx Wildcat) helicopters for utility and anti-submarine warfare roles.

Defensive weapons are limited to Phalanx close-in weapon systems to counter airborne threats and 30 mm naval guns to counter seaborne threats.

It is a relatively modern nuclear-powered warship. It was commissioned with the French Navy in 2001. Currently it is the flagship of the French Navy. It is the only nuclear-powered aircraft carrier, built outside United States.

The Charled de Gaulle can carry over 40 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. It can operate over 30 navalized Rafale multi-role fighters. Also there are E-2C Hawkeye airborne early warning aircraft as well as SA 365F Dauphin or AS 322 Cougar helicopters.

Second ship of the class was planned but never ordered due to lack of funding.

The Indian Navy Vikramaditya light aircraft carrier is a modified and refitted former Kiev class aviation cruiser. For the Russia Navy it was too expensive to operate these aviation cruisers on a post-Cold War budget. Eventually one of the Ships was sold to India.

In 2004 an agreement was signed with Russia for the sale of this ship to India. It was commissioned to service with the Indian Navy in 2014. It will replace the ageing Viraat aircraft carrier.

The INS Vikramaditya can operate about 30 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters including MiG-29KU and MiG-29KUB carrier-based multi-role fighters, Sea Harrier STOVL ground attack aircraft, HAL Dhruv utility helicopters helicopters and Ka-31 airborne early warning helicopters. Maximum capacity is 30 aircraft and 6 helicopters.

The INS Vikramaditya lost some offensive heavy weapons of the Admiral Gorshkov, carried at the bow. Currently it is armed only with short-range air defense weapons.

The Sao Paulo is a Clemenceau class aircraft carrier. It was originally commissioned with the French Navy in 1963 as the Foch. The ship was sold to Brazil in 2000 where it became the new flagship of Brazilian Navy.

The Sao Paulo can carry a mix of up to 40 aircraft and helicopters. However this aircraft carrier currently serves mainly for pilots training. Its offensive capability is limited.

Airwing of this aircraft carrier is rather weak. Its main interceptor and attack aircraft is the A-4KU Skyhawk. These aircraft carry AIM-9 Sidewinder short-range air-to-air missiles and free-fall bombs. These ageing aircraft have only a limited anti-shipping and ground attack capability and can not match modern air superiority fighters and ground attack aircraft.

The Cavour light aircraft carrier was commissioned in 2008. Currently it is a new flagship of the Italian Navy.

This modern warship was designed to operate V/STOL aircraft, helicopters and serve as a command center. T he Cavour can also transport military personnel and vehicles.

The Cavour can carry over 20 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. Currently it operates Boeing V-8B Harrier II Plus ground attack aircraft. In the near future these will be replaced by the new Lockheed Martin F-35Bs.

For utility, anti-submarine warfare and airborne surveillance roles this light aircraft carrier operates EH-101, NH-90 and SH-3D helicopters.

This light aircraft carrier has amphibious assault capability. It can transport main battle tanks and amphibious assault vehicles in its aircraft hangar. Also it accommodates a regiment of 325 marines.

The Chakri Narue light aircraft carrier was built in Spain. It was commissioned with the Royal Thai Navy in 1997. It is the first aircraft carrier to be operated by a country in Southeast Asia.

It has an airwing of about 30 fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. These include AV-8S Matador ground attack aircraft and S-70B Seahawk, Sea King or CH-47 Chinook helicopters for anti-submarine wearfare, utility and transport missions.

However the Chakri Naruebet lacks defensive weapons. The planned primary anti-aircraft armament including an 8-cell VLS launcher for Sea Sparrow missiles and four Vulcan Phalanx CIWS mountings have not been installed. This vessel is protected just by Mistral short-range infra-red homing missiles.

Die Chakri Naruebet makes few operational sorties, and when it does put to sea it is usually to carry members of the Thai Royal family. The vessel is therefore to be regarded less as a V/STOL amphibious warfare capable carrier and more as the most expensive royal yacht afloat.


Mitsubishi Ha 43 Model 11 (Ha 211 Ru), Radial 18 Engine

This Japanese engine incorporated fuel injection, fan cooling, and turbo-supercharging. Mitsubishi began development in 1941, and 16 engines were known to have been built during World War II. The engine powered several prototype aircraft including the: Mitsubishi Ki-83 Army Experimental Long-range Fighter Tachikawa Ki-70 Army Experimental Command Reconnaissance Plane(Allied Code Name Clara) Tachikawa Ki-74 Army Experimental Long Range Bomber(Allied Code Name Patsy) Mitsubishi A7M3-J Navy Experimental 17-Shi Ko (A) Type Carrier Fighter Reppu (Allied Code Name Sam). None became operational, and the engines, which were not fully developed, proved unreliable during flight tests.

The Tachikawa Ki-70 was intended as a reconnaissance aircraft, but its performance fell below that of advanced versions of its predecessor, being overweight and the Ha-211 engine being unreliable. The Tachikawa Ki-74 was to be capable of bombing the United States mainland. However, the unreliable Ha-211 engines suffered from development problems, and the war ended before replacement engines could be tested.

See more items in

National Air and Space Museum Collection

Inventory Number

Fisiese beskrywing

Type: Reciprocating, 18 cylinders, 2 rows, radial, air-cooled, turbosupercharged


Japanese Aircraft of WWII

Imperial Japanese Naval Air Service World War II aircraft camouflage
At the time of the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese navy fighters and some bombers were painted overall in a very pale grey or grey green though some aircraft were already being painted in the standard dark green over light grey that would be used for most of the rest of the war. In some instances splotches were added over the standard scheme to break up the shape. Aircraft that had been in service earlier often had a multi-colour scheme that used various shades of brown and green. Cowlings for radial engines were normally painted black, which was also used for aircraft that operated at night. Aircraft used for training were painted orange, often with green uppersurfaces later in the war. Each manufacturer used their own colors.

Imperial Japanese Army Air Forces World War II aircraft camouflage
Early in the war, Japanese Army aircraft were often light grey overall, though this was gradually replaced with various shades of green and brown, either as a solid colour or mottled. Undersides were normally left unfinished. Not all aircraft were camouflaged, with many aircraft retaining a natural metal finish even late in the war. Reconnaissance aircraft were painted light grey or light grey green and aircraft operating at night were painted black (often overall). Like the Japanese Navy, many pre-war aircraft remained in use with earlier 3 colour schemes and a lot of local variations existed.


Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft - History

US Military Aircraft Designation Systems

    Why did the US military restart the aircraft designation numbers in the 1960s?
    - question from name withheld

A designation consists of a letter (or set of letters) indicating the type and mission of the aircraft, and a sequence number indicating a specific aircraft within a category, separated by a hyphen. The number may be followed by a series letter to indicate a variant of an aircraft. Most aircraft are also given a proper name, but this is not part of the formal designation.

Before the adoption of the Tri-Service system in 1962, the US Navy had its own system of aircraft designations, completely different from that used by the USAAF and USAF. This system consisted of up to five parts:

(1) One or two letters to indicate the function. These included: (2) A sequence number, to distinguish between aircraft of the same function built by the same manufacturer. The number was left out if it was 1.

(3) A letter to indicate the manufacturer. Because the US Navy used aircraft from considerably more than 26 different manufacturers, most of the letters of the alphabet were shared between several companies. The same company also frequently used more than one letter at various times. If the same aircraft was built by more than one firm, the designation was changed to reflect the individual manufacturers. For example, the Chance-Vought F4U Corsair was also built by Goodyear, whose Corsairs were designated FG. Some of the most important manufacturers were: (4) After a dash, a number to indicate a subtype.

(5) Optionally, a letter to indicate a minor variation on a subtype.

When Robert McNamara became Secretary of Defense under Pres. Kennedy, he found the differences between these systems so confusing that he ordered the Air Force, Navy, and Army to devise a simpler naming convention common to all three services. Thus was born the Tri-Service system of 1962. For the most part, this system is the same as the Air Force convention.

    Tri-Service system, adopted 1962

The Tri-Service System underwent further changes, although it still retained the basic scheme of the older systems. The most important changes were that the system now included Navy aircraft as well as USAF and Army, and that most of the numeric sequences were restarted from 1, since some were now well past 100 and were becoming unwieldy.

Starting from the central dash and moving *left*, the letter codes now consist of up to four letters (although only the "basic mission" code is mandatory, and I've never seen a real designation with more than three letters).

(1) Vehicle type (optional indicates something other than a conventional fixed-wing aircraft): (2) Basic mission: (3) Modified mission (optional indicates that a type originally designed for the mission indicated by its "basic mission" code has been modified for a different mission) includes the A, C, E, F, O, P, R, S, T, and U mission codes, plus: (4) Status (optional indicates any unusual status): The sequence numbers are based on the vehicle type (if present) or the basic mission. For example, all helicopters (vehicle type "H") are numbered in a single sequence regardless of the basic mission code. In contrast, conventional aircraft (with no vehicle type code) follow separate sequences for attack aircraft, bombers, fighter, transports, and so on. There are a few exceptions here. For example, the AV-8 Harrier seems to have taken the number 8 slot in the "A" series rather than in the "V" sequence. For some reason, the "T" (trainer) sequence, last seen in the Cessna T-47 in 1984, was restarted with the Beech T-1 Jayhawk in 1990. Further adding to the confusion is the fact that two recent trainer programs were given the designations T-48 and T-49.

Other examples also exist illustrating how the system has not been followed perfectly. Some exceptions include:

    The A-37 Dragonfly, an attack version of T-37 trainer. There was an AT-37, so the A-37 should have either continued the AT-37 designation or been given a proper A-series number.

As indicated above, the numbering of aircraft was restarted at 1 when the services switched to the new system. While Air Force aircraft in service at the time retained their original designations (e.g. the F-111 and B-52), all Navy aircraft then in service were renumbered to conform to the new system:

    Some aircraft were simply given the designation already used by the USAF for the same aircraft while others were given new designations. Examples of the latter included:

Although the new system is much simpler and easier to understand, it hasn't always been applied faithfully. For example, why was the F-117 stealth fighter numbered under the older convention even though it was developed almost 20 years after switching to the new system? Why does it have an "F" designation when it isn't really a fighter? Why were the F-13 and F-19 designations skipped? Regardless, I hope this discussion alleviates your confusion about the diferent designation schemes used by the US military.
- antwoord deur Jeff Scott, 4 February 2001


Mitsubishi Navy Type 10 Carrier Reconnaissance Aircraft - History

Mitsubishi A6M Reisen
'Zero'
Aircraft Series

All text material on this site is
© Peter Lewis
1985, 1999
unless otherwise acknowledged

Development of the A6M Series

The Japanese Navy were among the pioneers in the use of carrier-borne fighter aircraft, launching the world's first true aircraft carrier in November 1921, preceding the British HMS Argus by several months. To equip this vessel, Mitsubishi developed the Type 10 fighter, the first designed specifically for carrier operation - naval aircraft of other nations at that time were adaptations of existing land-based fighters. The Type 10 served until 1929, when replaced by the Type 3 fighter, which was a Nakajima-built adaptation of the British Gloster Gambet. This aircraft was re-designated the A1N1 while in service, 'A' signifies carrier-based fighter, and 'N' denotes Nakajima manufacture.
The A1N1 was followed by the 1931 Nakajima Type 90 (A2N) biplane and the 1935 Type 95 (A4N) which was faster but less agile. Mitsubishi then reclaimed the market from Nakajima with the Type 96 (A5N) all-metal monoplane fighter. Replacing the earlier A2N and A4N biplanes, they were superior to all opposition aircraft encountered in the escalating war over the Chinese mainland. Equally as important, the Type 96 gave Japanese designers, engineers and craftsmen experience with techniques such as minimising drag, flush riveting, weight saving, and the installation of radial engines into high-speed airframes.
Even as the Type 96 was put into service in 1937, it was realised that the Navy required a fighter of much greater range for deep penetration escort duties in China, and that the Type 96 would soon be obsolete compared to American and European equipment, which was already being fitted with retractable landing gear and much heavier firepower.
Coupled with this realisation of the limitations of the over-land performance of the Type 96, was a shift in the beliefs held by the Japanese Naval Command on the theory and practice of naval aviation. Tradition held that naval aircraft were an adjunct to the big gun useful for reconnaissance, defence, spotting and hindering the enemy until the battleships could be bought to bear on him. This viewpoint, which had been destroyed in respect to land-based aviation by World War 1, was prevalent among other Naval powers until well into World War 2. By adopting the philosophy of the naval air force as an independent arm - fighting and securing superiority well beyond the reach of naval artillery - the Japanese were several years ahead of other nations in producing a series of specialised aircraft well suited to specific tasks. This was at variance with the multirole aircraft concept adopted by other naval powers, a concept that led to such machines as the Fairey Swordfish.
As a result of these experiences and discussions, the Imperial Navy in 1937 issued specifications for the 12-Shi (12th year since Emperor Hirohito's reign started in 1926) carrier-borne fighter. These specifications demanded speed, rate of climb and armament equal to the highest levels in the world, coupled with unheard of range and exceptional maneuverability. Mitsubishi formed a design team under Jiro Horikoshi to study the proposal. Nakajima decided that the Navy's demands were impossible, and told them that they were withdrawing from the competition.
Horikoshi, having retained and strengthened the Type 96 design team, had the project formulated by January 1938. Yoshitoshi Sone and Teruo Tojo performed the calculations, Sone and Yoshio Yoshikawa did the structural work, Denichiro Inoue and Shotaro Tanaka designed the powerplant installation, Yoshimi Hatakenaka handled armament and ancillary equipment, and Sadahiko Kato and Takeyoshi Mori were responsible for landing gear and related equipment. The Mitsubishi MK2 Zuisei 13 of 875hp was selected, and advanced techniques utilising extra-super duralumin to ensure lightness, simplicity and utility were employed. As the specification called only for attack - and Japanese military philosophy reinforced this viewpoint - safety devices such as pilot armour and self-sealing fuel tanks were ignored. Armament was to be a pair of licence-built Oerlikon 20mm cannon (Type 99) in the wings and two 7.7mm machine guns (Type 97 ) in the fuselage.
Construction of the first prototype began later that year and was completed in March 1939. With no provision for armour, lightness of airframe, and lack of heavy fittings, the prototype Type 0 weighed 43801b compared to the prototype Spitfire's 5332lb. Light weight and modest power gave long range and good performance, but meant that substantially heavier and more powerful engines could not be fitted without extensive redesign. As an offensive, rather than a defensive, weapon the Zero' s very success contained the seeds of its own downfall.
The prototype was declared ready for tests at Mitsubishi's Nagoya factory on 16th March 1939. Engine tests were run on the 18th, and the next day it was towed (by ox-cart!) to the airfield at Kagamigahara. Test pilot Katsuzo Shima lifted it off at 5.30pm on 1st April for the initial flight. After correction of braking and vibration problems, official tests of the A6M1 took place and a second, identical prototype was built. Apart from its lack of outright speed - 304mph instead of the required 315mph - all requirements were met, and the A6M1 was officially accepted by the Navy on the 14th September 1939. Its military designation became A6M1 Type 0 Carrier-borne Fighter.
The '0' was derived from the last digit of the Japanese calendar year in which the aircraft would be placed in full service, 2600 (equivalent to 1940) in Japanese this became Rei Shiki Sento Ki, Type Zero Fighter, often shortened to Rei-Sen or Reisen. During the 1940s, the Allies applied code-names to all known Japanese aircraft, and the A6M2 became 'Zeke', the later clip-wing [email protected] 'Hamp', the A6M3-22 'Zeke Mark 2' and the A6M2-N floatplane version 'Rufe'. By this time the term 'Zero' was already popular (although British personnel in the Singapore/Malaya theatre initially knew them as 'Navy Noughts'), and even today people identify virtually any low-wing radial-engined Japanese fighter as a 'Zero'.
In order to solve the lack of speed in the A6M1, the A6M2 with the 940hp Nakajima Sakae 12 motor was designed, and 15 pre-production machines were dispatched to Hankow in China for operational trials on 21 July 1940. Sixteen months before Pearl Harbour, the Zero flew its first combat mission. Such was the superiority over the Chinese fighters that the Chinese refused to fight. Only two Zeros were lost to enemy activity in this period, shot down by anti- aircraft fire.
Mitsubishi built another 47 A6M2 Model 11 aircraft by November 1940 before introducing the Model 21, which incorporated folding wingtips. Under the 'Model' designation system, a change in the first digit denoted an airframe change, alteration of the second digit denoted an engine change. Thus the Model 'two one' showed that it differed structurally from the Model 'one one' but retained the same motor. The A6M2 Model 21 was the standard JNAF fighter at the time of the attack on Pearl Harbour, 328 of this model being amongst the 521 naval fighters on board the Japanese aircraft carriers at that time.
Further models of the A6M were introduced to overcome problems and design limitations, and to try to keep the superiority that the type enjoyed over contemporary Allied aircraft:
A6M3 Model 32: Engine change to 1130hp Sakae 21, and removal of the folding wingtip section, giving a clipped wing. To retain the centre of gravity position with the heavier engine, the latter was moved back towards the bulkhead. This reduced the fuel tank volume thus reducing the combat radius.
A6M3 Model 22: Adding the original folding-tip wing to the Model 32 engine/body combination, and incorporating a 12 gallon fuel tank in each wing in an attempt to reclaim lost range. By the time the Model 22 reached production, the Model 52 was approaching operational status thus the Model 22, appearing in combat after the Model 32, had a short operational life. 560 were built late 1942 and early 1943 (this figure is thought to include Nakajima production).
A6M5 Model 52: Similar to the Model 32, but with some weight saving measures in the wing structure, heavier gauge wing skins to allow higher dive speed, individual exhaust stacks for additional thrust. The most numerous and widely used version of the Zero.
By the time that the Model 52 became outdated - 1944 - further modifications of the basic design began to display an air of desperation. New designs such as the A7M Reppu, J2M Raiden and N1K Shiden could not be debugged or produced in sufficient volume, so the Zero had to soldier on. The A6M4 (turbo-supercharged engine) A6M6


8. Russian Kirov Class

Russian Kirov Class is a nuclear-powered battlecruiser designed to carry out offensive ops. It was built in the 1980s along with three others each allegedly costing about US$2 billion. While three of the ships in this class are undergoing renovation today, there is one that is still operational and serves to defend the name.