Slag van Sabine Crossroads of Mansfield, 8 April 1864

Slag van Sabine Crossroads of Mansfield, 8 April 1864

Slag van Sabine Crossroads

Sabine Crossroads was die eerste van twee gevegte wat die kans op sukses van die Unie in die Rooi Rivier -veldtog beëindig het. Hierdie veldtog is middel Maart 1864 van stapel gestuur met die doel om Noordwes-Louisiana te verower en Texas te bedreig.

Dit het verskeie ernstige probleme opgedoen. Eerstens was daar geen duidelike bevelstruktuur nie. Generaal Banks was in beheer van die landekspedisie, terwyl admiraal Porter bevel gehad het oor 'n geweerbootvloot op die rivier, het generaal Sherman die algemene (indien verre) bevel van 'n groot deel van die leër losgemaak van sy bevel by Vicksburg en uiteindelik generaal Steele bevel gehad oor 'n ander leër, suidwaarts van Little Rock, Arkansas. Die twee ekspedisies was bedoel om bymekaar te kom by Shreveport, naby die grens van Texas en ver binne die konfederale gebied.

Die tweede groot probleem was dat daar min entoesiasme vir die veldtog was. General Banks, gevestig in New Orleans, sou verkies het om ooswaarts na Mobile te beweeg. U.S. Grant, wat aan die begin van Maart aangestel was in die algemene bevel van die leërs van die Unie, was dit met hom eens. Teen daardie tyd was die operasie egter reeds ver gevorder, en Grant het dit dus laat voortgaan. Hy het egter 'n tydsbeperking daarop gestel. Banks het tot 25 April tyd gehad om Shreveport te vang, anders sou hy die troepe wat deur Sherman geskenk is, moes teruggee.

Uiteindelik was die Rooi Rivier self slegs 'n kort tydjie in die lente opgevaar. In 1864 het die rivier laat opgestaan ​​en vroeg geval, wat vertragings veroorsaak het aan die begin van die ekspedisie en 'n ernstige krisis aan die einde daarvan.

Ondanks hierdie probleme het Banks goeie vordering gemaak. Einde Maart het hy Alexandria bereik, waar hy met Sherman se mans en die geweerbootvloot ontmoet het. Op 3 April het die vloot verby die stroomversnellings bo Alexandria gekom, en die opmars na Shreveport was aan die gang.

Teen die einde van 7 April het die federale mag die omgewing van Pleasant Hill bereik, slegs twee dae van Shreveport af. Dit was egter erg uitgerek langs 'n enkele pad, met byna 'n dae lange opmars tussen die voorwag en die agterkant van die weermag. Hoewel Banks dus op 8 April ongeveer 26 000 man beskikbaar gehad het, was slegs 'n klein deel van die mag betrokke by die gevegsdae.

Sy direkte teenstander was generaal Richard Taylor. Hy het 'n mag van ongeveer 11 000 man gehad, wat op 7 April op Mansfield was, direk in die pad van Banks se opmars. Sy onmiddellike meerdere, Edmund Kirby Smith, was ook in die omgewing. Na 'n besoek aan Taylor in Mansfield, het Kirby Smith hom bevel gegee om die stryd te vermy, maar om 'n posisie te kies waarin hy een kon veg. Hy sou ook 'n geldige verkenning uitstuur, wat Kirby Smith gehoop het sou onthul of Banks se infanterie kwesbaar is vir aanvalle.

Die oggend op 8 April het die federale voorskot voortgegaan. Die kavallerie was reeds 'n paar kilometer voor die infanteriekolomme. Teen die middag was die gaping groot genoeg om Taylor te oortuig dat die infanterie glad nie beweeg nie. Teen hierdie tyd het Taylor sy leër van Mansfield na Sabine Crossroads verskuif en 'n sterk posisie ingeneem aan die rand van 'n seldsame oop plek in die bos.

Die eerste federale troepe wat hierdie posisie ontdek het, was die kavallerie. Twee brigades infanterie uit die 13de korps het hulle gou vergesel. Twee uur se skermutseling het gevolg, voor omstreeks 16:00. 'n Konfederale aanval is van stapel gestuur, met brigadier-generaal Alfred Mouton se afdeling in die hart. Dit is moontlik dat Mouton hierdie aanval sonder bevele geloods het. Mouton is egter vroeg in die aanval dood, en Taylor het later die verantwoordelikheid vir die aksie geneem. Wie ook al die aanval beveel het, dit was 'n onmiddellike sukses. Die federale lyn, wat twee-tot-een in die getal was, het gou ineengestort. Die terugtog is in 'n nabye roete verander toe die terugtrekkende mans met die kavallerietoevoerstrein, wat te ver van die voorkant was, bots. Uiteindelik het 'n agterhoede-optrede deur Brigadier-generaal William H. Emory se afdeling Taylor se strewe gestuit. Toe dit donker word, beveel Banks die weermag om by Pleasant Hill te hergroepeer.

Die volgende dag het Taylor 'n tweede aanval op die magte by Pleasant Hill geloods en 'n ernstige nederlaag gely. Sy oorwinning by Sabine Crossroads was egter genoeg om die Rooi Rivier -ekspedisie te beëindig. Die tydsbeperkings wat aan Banks opgelê is, het beteken dat hy nie tyd gehad het om te hergroepeer na 'n beduidende nederlaag nie. Die terugtog self was amper besig om in 'n ramp te verander toe die dalende watervlakke in die Rooi Rivier dreig om die geweerbootvloot bo Alexandria vas te trek. Slegs baie moeite en vindingrykheid het verhinder dat die geringe terugslag by Sabine Crossroads en Pleasant Hill in een van die ergste nederlae van die Unie in die westelike teater kon verander.


Slag van Mansfield

Die Slag van Mansfield, ook bekend as die Slag van Sabine Crossroads, plaasgevind op 8 April 1864 in De Soto Parish, Louisiana. Konfederale magte onder bevel van Richard Taylor val 'n leër van die Unie aan onder bevel van Nathaniel Banks, 'n paar kilometer buite die stad Mansfield, naby Sabine Crossroads. Die Unie -magte het 'n kort rukkie hul posisies beklee voordat hulle deur konfederale aanvalle oorweldig is en van die veld verdryf is. Die stryd was 'n beslissende Konfederale oorwinning wat die vordering van die Unie -leër se Red River -veldtog tydens die Amerikaanse burgeroorlog gestuit het.

Lees meer oor Battle Of Mansfield: Prelude, The Battle, Aftermath

Beroemde aanhalings wat die woorde battle and/or mansfield bevat:

& ldquo Vir WAR, bestaan ​​dit nie uit nie Slag slegs, of die daad van veg, maar in 'n tydsperiode, waarin die wil om tevrede te stel deur Slag voldoende bekend is. Die aard van die oorlog bestaan ​​dus nie uit werklike gevegte nie, maar in die bekende ingesteldheid daaroor, en daar is altyd geen sekerheid vir die teendeel nie. Alle ander tye is VREDE. & rdquo
& mdashThomas Hobbes (1579 �)

& ldquo Dit is 'n vreeslike ding om alleen te wees & ja, dit is — dit is — maar moenie jou masker laat sak totdat jy nog `n masker onder voorberei het soos jy soos jy wil nie, maar` n masker. & rdquo
& mdashKatherine Mansfield (1888�)


Slag van Mansfield of Sabine Cross Roads

Vanaf hierdie punt strek die lyn ongeveer 400 meter noordoos, vandaar oos ongeveer 'n kilometer. Dit het ongeveer 'n half kilometer suid van hier af gestrek.

Opgerig deur die staat Louisiana.

Onderwerpe. Hierdie historiese merker word in hierdie onderwerplyste gelys: Roads & Vehicles & Bull War, US Civil.

Ligging. 32 & deg 0.801 ′ N, 93 & deg 40.257 ′ W. Marker is naby Mansfield, Louisiana, in De Soto Parish. Marker is op Louisiana Route 175 0.3 myl noord van Parish Road 48, aan die regterkant as u noord ry. Raak vir kaart. Marker is in hierdie poskantoor: Mansfield LA 71052, Verenigde State van Amerika. Raak vir aanwysings.

Ander merkers in die omgewing. Minstens 8 ander merkers is binne 8 myl van hierdie merker, gemeet soos die kraai vlieg. Battle of Mans field of Sabine Cross Roads (ongeveer mile myl weg) 'n ander merker ook genoem Battle of Mansfield of Sabine Cross Roads (ongeveer ½ myl ver) 'n ander merker ook genoem Battle of Mans field of Sabine Cross Roads ( ongeveer mile myl weg) Texas Monument (ongeveer 0,6 myl weg) Paul Bo et Laffitte (ongeveer 5,8 myl weg) Las Ormigas Spanish Land Grant (ongeveer 10 myl weg) Dubbelkerke (ongeveer 6,7 myl weg) Federal Advance (ongeveer 8 myl weg). Raak aan vir 'n lys en kaart van alle merkers in Mansfield.

Sien ook. . .
1. Civil War Trust webwerf oor die Slag van Mansfield. (Voorgelê op 10 Julie 2017 deur Mark Hilton van Montgomery, Alabama.)
2. Wikipedia -artikel oor die Slag van Mansfield. (Voorgelê op 10 Julie 2017 deur Mark Hilton van Montgomery, Alabama.)


Botsing by Sabine Crossroads tydens die Rooi Rivier -veldtog

Die terrein in die noordweste van Louisiana was dik beboste en weinig gereis, met slegs 'n smal pad wat na die staatslyn van Texas kom. Die afgelope twee dae het 3 000 blou geklede Unie-kavalleries rustig vorder weswaarts van die stad Alexandria, met die vertroue dat 'n ander federale leër, afstammend uit Arkansas, enige Konfederale opposisie van hul flank sou aftrek. Hulle oorvertroue is op 8 April 1864 se middag onbeskaamd verbreek toe 'n mag van die Konfederale kavallerie, wat meestal uit Texane bestaan, maar met 'n verstrooiing van Louisiane, Missouriërs en Arkansane, uit die omliggende bosveld breek en in die kwesbare Yankee -kolom neerstort. Binne 'n paar minute was maande se sorgvuldige planne vir 'n Unie -optog deur die laaglande van Oos -Texas 'n deurmekaarspul.

Die veldtog wat die troepe van die Unie tot hierdie konfrontasie by Sabine Crossroads gelei het, was die hoogtepunt van toenemende druk — politieke, diplomatieke en militêre — wat die uniemagte in Louisiana genoop het om die oorlog wes van die Mississippirivier uit te brei. Vir die polities aangestelde majoor -generaal Nathaniel P. Banks verteenwoordig die lande wes van die Mississippi weinig meer as 'n byvertoning. Sy eintlike ambisie was die belegging van Mobile, 'n belangrike hawe aan die kus van Alabama. Ongelukkig vir Banks was die Franse keiserlike magte in Mexiko aktief onder die voorwendsel dat hulle Europese belange teen die revolusionêre magte van Benito Juarez beskerm het en dreig om met Amerikaanse belange in Texas in te meng. Dit was reeds duidelik dat daar 'n sluipmengsel was op die diplomatieke front wat die Franse konsul in Richmond probeer het om Texaanse amptenare te oortuig om die Lone Star Republic weer te vestig en dat dit deur die konfederale owerhede summier afgewys is. Desondanks verteenwoordig die Franse genoeg van 'n moontlike bedreiging vir Washington om die magte van die Unie te wil laat optree, as hulle nie Texas uit die oorlog wil slaan nie, ten minste om verdere Franse inmenging noord van die grens te ontmoedig.

Banks is aangesê om voorlopig van Mobile te vergeet en is beveel om op Texas te fokus. Generaal-majoor Henry W. Halleck, die federale stafhoof, het aangedui dat hy 'n operasie langs die Rooi Rivier na Shreveport, La. , en 'n alternatiewe strategie moes ontwikkel word.

Gevolglik het Banks 'n ekspedisie van 3500 man gereël om 'n aantal posisies langs die kus van Texas te beklee. Alles het vlot verloop, insluitend die besetting van Brownsville op 3 November 1863, maar die gevange hawens het 'n swak rol gespeel in die beheer van die handel in Texas, en die kwesbaarheid van die wyd geskeide federale eenhede het verdere versterkende operasies nodig gemaak. In plaas van sanksies so ver van die hoofbasis van die Unie in New Orleans af, het generaal Halleck steeds sy oorspronklike Red River -plan verkies vir die departement se belangrikste militêre veldtog daardie lente. 'N Rit op die Rooi Rivier het gou die enigste praktiese manier geword om die Unie sy krag te konsentreer met 'n kort toevoerlyn uit Louisiana. Ook genl.maj. Frederick Steele se 10 400 troepe sou van hul basis in Little Rock, Ark., Afklim om Banks ’ -troepe te ondersteun terwyl hulle die binneland binnedring.

Die enigste ding wat teen die veldtog werk, was tyd. Generaal -majoor William Tecumseh Sherman was van plan om die somer op te trek na Atlanta, Ga., En wou hê dat Banks ’ -magte hom moes versterk. Om aan die rooster te voldoen, sou Banks die Rooi Rivier moes bestyg sodra die watervlak in die lente styg, die grens van Texas oorsteek en dan sy eie vernietigingspad deur die meer bevolkte en produktiewe oostelike deel van die staat skep. om by Sherman aan te sluit indien nodig.

Gevolglik was die bevelvoerders van die Unie in die vroeë maande van 1864 besig met die koördinering van die verskillende rolle wat hulle elkeen in die komende veldtog sou hê. Die belangrikste elemente was die skakel tussen Steele en Banks en die waterpeil oor die watervalle bokant Alexandria, wat diep genoeg sou moes wees om die kanonne en vervoer van die Mississippi -eskader te neem om die ekspedisie te ondersteun.

Op 1 Maart het Sherman in New Orleans aangekom om die plan af te handel en 10.000 man te belowe wat teen die Swartrivier na Harrisburg sou optrek en Alexandria teen 17 Maart sou bereik. William B. Franklin se XIX Corps, twee van die XIII Corps, en 'n afdeling kavallerie en berede infanterie onder bevel van brig. Genl Albert L. Lee, sou van Franklin, Tenn., Verhuis om die troepe van Sherman te verlig en hulle te bevry om diens by Sherman in die ooste te hervat. Steele het intussen die opdrag gekry om sy manne suidwaarts na Shreveport te bring, 'n stap wat nie sy entoesiastiese ondersteuning gehad het nie.

Nadat Sherman na Vicksburg vertrek het, het die plan in werking getree. Brigadier -generaal Andrew J. Smith is beveel om gesamentlike elemente van die XVI- en XVII -korps vanaf Louisiana vanaf Vicksburg te neem en die Rooi Rivier vir die byeenkoms te begin. Teen 11 Maart was hy in posisie, met sy troepe gelaai aan boord van die grootste Unie -armada wes van die Mississippi, insluitend ligte trek wat oor die valle gemanoeuvreer kon word Ouachita, 'n stoomboot met stoomwaentjies toegerus met haubits en 34 kanonne van verskillende grootte langs haar twee dekke en 'n verskeidenheid liggepantserde ysterjasse.

Soos geskeduleer, het die kanonbote op 12 Maart anker gesleep en die rivier opgeklim, wat net hoog genoeg gestyg het om die swaar belaaide vervoer te laat verbygaan. Die vordering was stadig, aangesien die geweerbote gereeld moes stop sodat troepe die rivier kon verwyder van obstruksies wat die vyand agtergelaat het. Hulle het Simmesport op die 13de bereik, en die weermag het 'n kamp beset wat verlate was deur die baie getal Konfederate wat stroomopwaarts na Fort de Russy teruggetrek het. Die volgende dag het Smith ’s se mans die Rebels gevolg, wat hulle gelei het op 'n jaagtog van 28 myl wat uiteindelik geëindig het toe die Federals die fort beslag gelê het. Ongelukkig vir Banks kon die grootste deel van die vyandelike mag ontsnap en 'n agterhoede van slegs 300 man agterlaat. Teleurgesteld het die weermag sy opmars voortgesit en vlak water, obstruksies en die nagmerrie -kinkels in die loop van die rivier bestry.

Op die 14de is die Federale weer vertraag deur 'n obstruksie van 'n dubbele ry hopies wat diep in die rivierbedding gery is en naby gesinkte vlotte veranker is. Daarbenewens is bome stroomop afgekap en toegelaat om af te dryf en tussen die hope te verstrengel. Na 'n frustrerende middag van gestamp en die stapels losgesleep het, het 'n groep ysterklere dit deurgedring en vinnig met die rivier opgestap, waar hulle begroet is deur wisselvallige, onakkurate artillerievuur. Na 'n kort verlowing is bevele gegee om direk na Alexandria te verhuis, maar die boodskap is op een of ander manier vertraag, en daar was 'n vyfuur lange wag voordat die laaste streep teen die rivier voltooi is. Die vertraging was alles wat genl.maj Richard Taylor en sy klein groepie Texans en Louisiane nodig gehad het om hul eie vervoer bo die waterval te kry en aan die Yankee -voorskot te ontsnap.

Teen die 17de het Smith sy deel aan die plan voltooi en sy leër van 8 000 man na die byeenkoms gebring, maar die leër van Franklin was nie daar om hulle te ontmoet nie. Omdat hy eers op 10 Maart sy bevele ontvang het, kon Franklin sy manne nie op 17 Maart na Alexandria bring nie, 'n optog van 175 myl. Boonop was troepe wat van verskillende plekke langs die Golf bymekaargekom het, sonder vervoer, en die kavalerie was nog steeds in New Orleans. Met al die vertragings kon Franklin se troepe Alexandria eers op die 25ste bereik.

Terwyl die meerderheid van die mans van Franklin nog sukkel om Alexandria te bereik, het majoor -generaal Joseph A. Mower ses infanterie -regimente gelei, 'n paar artillerie en 'n brigade van Albert Lee ’s kavalerie in die pittige vastigheid van die platteland van Louisiana om weg te ry. Taylor se lastige Texans. Met die hulp van Rebel-deserters het mans van die maaier deur 'n nag se reën en modder-diep modder geslinger tot 'n klein styging diep in die moeras genaamd Henderson's Hill, waar hulle 250 van die Konfederate verras en gevange geneem het, wat effektief uitgewis het Taylor se kavallerie en dwing hom om haastig saam met brig. Genl. Thomas Green se kavalerie in Texas.

Die uiteindelike doel van die Bank ’ -veldtog, die stad Shreveport, lê 340 myl verder teen die Rooi Rivier. Die belangrikste voorraaddepot vir die Konfederale weermag wes van die Mississippi, Shreveport, was toegerus met dokke, masjienwinkels en pakhuise. Die verdediging daarvan was ewe formidabel, met 'n reeks werke wat tot drie kilometer van die stad versprei het. Om daar te kom, sal die Unie -flottielie moet onderhandel oor 'n rivier wat deur 'n bevolkte platteland gedraai en gedraai is en oorheers word deur twee klein stroomversnellings, die watervalle van Alexandria genoem. Die stroomversnelling, net bokant die stad, was onmoontlik om oor te steek toe die rivier laag was. Toe die eskader Alexandria bereik, was die rivier nog redelik laag, en dit was waarskynlik 'n probleem vir die komende weke. Min het die indringers geweet dat die rivier vir die eerste keer in 20 jaar laag sou bly en selfs sou begin val lank voordat die lente eindig.

Ondanks die vlak water het Banks besluit om die opmars voort te sit, maar hy het dit ook veilig gespeel deur 'n deel van sy vlootmag onder die stroomstrome te hou en sy toerusting oor die valle per land te sleep. Teen 2 April was hy 80 myl langs die rivier by Natchitoches en het hy nog 2 000 man onder brig. Genl T. Kilby Smith verder by Grand Ecore.

Die bevelvoerder van die konfederale departement van Trans-Mississippi, bewus van Banks ’ se benadering uit die suide, het gesukkel om die Unie-opgang van New Orleans te vertraag totdat hy die bedreiging van generaal Steele uit Arkansas kon hanteer. Hy het soveel gereelde troepe bymekaargemaak as wat hy kon uit die departement se uitgeputte geledere, terwyl genl.maj John B. Magruder sy Texans na die Rooi Rivier marsjeer. Die meeste van die Konfederale soldate was swak toegerus en het feitlik honger gely en staan ​​voor 'n sterk, goed bewapende vyand met 'n uitstekende getal. Dit was 'n ongeleë tyd vir 'n politieke gebaar, maar die goewerneur van Texas, Pendleton Murrah, het die oomblik gekies om die spanning aan die grens van Texas verder te verhoog. Te midde van 'n politieke stryd met Richmond oor die toewysing van Texas -troepe na die Ooste toe hy hulle nodig gehad het om hul tuisstaat te verdedig, het Murrah geweier dat staatsmilisie -eenhede Louisiana kon oorsteek.

Ondanks al die probleme het die Konfederale genl.ster Sterling Price 'n leër van 5 000 Texane, Arkansane, Missouriërs en Choctaw -Indiane tussen Steele en Shreveport gekry. Steele het op 15 April tot by Camden gekom, maar konstante rebelle druk op sy toevoerlyne het hom uiteindelik genoodsaak om terug te trek na Little Rock, hoewel hy steeds 'n 2-tot-1-voordeel in troepesterkte gehad het. Die totale mislukking van die Camele -ekspedisie van Steele en#8217 het Banks sy verwagte steun ontneem en die konfederate bevel vrygelaat om sy magte verder na die suide te konsentreer.

Voordat die Unie by Camden omgekeer het, het elemente van die Banks ’ -leër bo Alexandria, wat oor land en water beweeg het, begin konsentreer op Mansfield, net 40 kilometer van die Texas -lyn af. Die Federals het deur die woude en moerasagtige baaie van die noordweste van Louisiana gegaan en moes noodgedwonge langs 'n smal pad marsjeer wat op sommige plekke skaars die voorraadwaens kon huisves. Onbekend aan Banks, het hy 'n tweede pad wat langs die rivier loop, misgeloop, en hy het eerder verder van sy vlootsteun af opgetrek. Teen 7 April het 3300 berede infanterie op soek na die hoofleër, wat 15 myl agterlangs gesukkel het. Intussen het Banks Kilby Smith verlaat en na Franklin se hoofkwartier in Pleasant Hill gery, agt kilometer van waar die kavallerie verken is.

Taylor bevind hom intussen in 'n desperate situasie. Nadat hy alles moontlik gedoen het om die opkomende Federals te vertraag en teister, was hy vasbeslote om nie meer die gebied van Louisiana prys te gee nie en besluit dat die tyd aangebreek het om standpunt in te neem. Om die leër van die Unie van 25 000 man in die gesig te staar, het hy 'n versameling suidelike eenhede wat vinnig saamgegooi is. Behalwe die gereelde onder brig. Genl Alfred Mouton en prins Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac (bekend aan sy manne as ‘ General Polecat), daar was vrywilligers van Missouri, Louisiana en Arkansas, en die veteraan Texas Cavalry Division onder General Green. Die verre van die samehangende leër van Taylor het nog steeds slegs 11 000 man bereik, maar sy mag het moed opgemaak en dit wat hulle in getalle kortgeknip het. Dit het vir Taylor nie gelyk asof hy 'n kans gehad het nie, maar met Smith ’s se kavallerie losgemaak en voor die hoofleër uit, was daar 'n moontlikheid om die Yankees 'n verwoestende sielkundige slag te gee.

Die eerste konfrontasie het die middag van 7 April plaasgevind op 'n plek genaamd Wilson ’s Farm, waar 'n deel van Albert Lee se kavallerie die platteland verken voor die hoofkolom. Die Yankee -kavalleriemag, wat hoofsaaklik bestaan ​​uit berede infanteriste wat kranksinnig geword het nadat hulle die aftree -voetsoldate van Taylor en#8217 agtervolg het, was nie voorbereid op die verrassende voorkoms van die Texas -troepe van Green ’s nie. Aanvanklik was daar onsekerheid aan beide kante, toe, in plaas van terug te trek soos voorheen die geval was, het die vier regimente van Suidelike ruiters vorentoe aangejaag en hul rebelleskreeu geskreeu toe die twee kante mekaar ontmoet in 'n vlaag geweerskote en perde. Die Konfederate het van die bloujasse af weggebreek en die toevoertrein bereik en hard geveg totdat hulle uiteindelik in die bos teruggedryf is.

Die Unie het 53 mans verloor tydens die stryd. Albert Lee was bekommerd oor nog sulke ontmoetings en het Banks vir infanterieondersteuning gevra en het die grootste deel van die XIII Corps ’ 4th Infantry Division onder leiding van kolonel William J. Landram gekry.

Die volgende dag gaan die optog van die Unie verder na die klein dorpie Mansfield, wat af en toe teen die Konfederale ruiters en sluipskutters in Louisiana kom. Drie kilometer verder het Taylor egter die plek gevind om sy standpunt in te neem. By 'n eensame kruising van plaaslike grondpaaie genaamd Sabine Crossroads, het die Konfederale generaal sy manne begin plaas. In die minderheid van die Federale en wag nog op versterkings van brig. Thomas Churchill, korps van Missouri en die infanterie van Arkansas om uit Keatchie te kom, het Taylor ten volle benut uit die oop weiding aan weerskante van die verhoogpad, waarlangs die Yankee -kolom sou moes verbyloop. 'N Spoorheining wat die velde omring, was die enigste beskerming vir sy onstuimige, maar gemoedelike troepe terwyl hulle hulself in posisie gooi.

Toe die middag nader kom, het Lee's se mans beslag gelê op Honeycutt Hill, 'n klein stuk grond wat grens aan die oop grond by die kruispad, en het Taylor se verdedigingslinie gewaar. Die federale troepe het die vyand voorbereid gevind om op te staan ​​en wag terwyl Banks na die hoof van die kolom ry met brig. Genl Thomas Edward G. Ransom, bevelvoerder van die XIII Corps, en die res van die 4de afdeling. Laat namiddag het Ransom meer as 4800 manskappe voor die Konfederale posisies in 'n L-vormige formasie voor die spoorheinings gehad, met Landram se twee brigades en die eerste brigade onder kolonel Frank Emerson en die 2de brigade onder kolonel Joseph Vance — en 'n paar artillerie het teruggekeer. Twee kavallerie -brigades was gestasioneer naby een van die flanke en Lee's links en kolonel Thomas Lucas regs. Toe die middag afneem, sukkel nog mans om die lang toevoerstrein, wat die pad verstik het, op die toneel van die aksie te bereik. As gevolg hiervan het Taylor numeriese meerderwaardigheid op die werklike slagveld geniet, en dit was tot sy voordeel om die stryd te begin voordat die Yankees meer manne kon dra.

Taylor het drie infanteriebrigades — onder brig. Gens. Horace Randal, Thomas Waul en William Scurry — noord en suid van die pad. Twee van die Texas -kavalerieregimente in Green ’, onder bevel van brig. Genl. Hamilton P. Bee, ondersteun deur twee artilleriebatterye aan die linkerkant, wat die lengte van die blootgestelde pad oor die Unie -magte strek, was brig. Generaal Alfred Mouton se afdeling, insluitend 'n brigade van Texaanse infanterie onder Polignac, 'n brigade van Louisiana onder kolonel Henry Gray, en nog twee artilleriebatterye. Links van hulle was kolonel William G. Vincent ’s, brig. Genl. Arthur P. Bagby ’s en kolonel Walter Lane se brigades, losgemaak van Green ’s Texas -kavallerie en gevorm tot 'n ad hoc -afdeling onder brig. Genl James Major. Op die pad tussen Walker ’s en Mouton ’s se afdelings was kolonel Xavier B. DeBray ’s 26ste Texas Cavalry, wat aanvanklik in die reservaat teruggehou is, maar later op die pad gestap het, voor die infanterie -eenhede.

Toe Taylor die woord gee, gewel die eenhede aan die linkerkant die spoorheining en begin laai, net om te wankel in die gesig van Union -gewere en artillerie. Deur hul beamptes aangemoedig, het die Konfederate weer aangekla, en nogmaals het die moorddadige vuur hulle op die grond laat jaag en hulle gedwing om dekking te soek in 'n depressie in die veld voor die federale posisies. Die aanval kos talle sterftes, waaronder Mouton, wat na bewering afgesny is terwyl hy 'n paar tydelik ongewapende Unie -gevangenes genader het, van wie sommige hul wapens laat val het en op die generaal geskiet het. Polignac het die bevel oorgeneem, maar nadat hy meer as 750 man binne 'n halfuur verloor het, is die Rebel -aanklag bestee.

Intussen het Major ’s en Bee ’s se afgetrede kavallerie afsonderlik begin werk rondom die Unie -flanke. 'N Brigade van Texaanse infanteriste onder brig. Genl William Scurry het die sentrum van die Unie getref, 'n paar keer afgeweer en weer aangekla. Uiteindelik, in 'n vasberade poging en te midde van skreeuende perde, sterwende mans, artillerie-skote en hand-tot-hand-gevegte, het die Rebel-troepe die top van die heuwel agter die posisies van die Unie bereik.

Een van Bee se regimente, kolonel Alexander W. Terrell en Texas Cavalry, het links oorgeskuif om die Major ’s -afdeling te versterk vir sy aanval op die federale regterkant. Die oorblywende eenheid aan die Rebel -regterkant, kolonel Augustus Buchel se eerste Texas -kavalerie, het die Landram -lyn na die suide omring en dreig om die Yankees te omring. Landram moes noodgedwonge 'n terugtog beveel om nie sy hele bevel te verloor nie, maar in die verwarring het sommige eenhede nooit die woord gekry nie en is hulle gevange geneem. Die toevlugsoord het vinnig 'n ongeorganiseerde roete geword, aangesien sommige van die Texans van Walker ’s gevange artilleriestukke op die vinnig verbrokkelde lyn van die Unie verander het.

Op daardie kritieke oomblik, nadat hy na die geluid van die gewere gery het, het Franklin met die XIII Corps ’ 3rd Division aangekom en daarin geslaag om 'n tweede verdedigingslinie oor die pad van toevlug te gooi. Niks sou op daardie stadium egter die laasgenoemde Konfederate stop nie. Hulle het vinnig die nuwe lyn oortref en die bloujasse weer in paniekerige vlug teruggery.

Franklin het sy perd verloor, 'n wond in een skeen gekry en was getuie van sy weermag se onwaardige toevlug terwyl sy manne oor hul eie voorraadwaens wemel. Omdat hy nie die 150 waens en 20 artilleriestukke in die stampvol, smal pad kon laat draai nie, het hy dit laat vaar. Hy het dit ten minste reggekry om brig. Genl William H. Emory om 'n strydlyn te vorm by Pleasant Grove, ongeveer drie kilometer suid van Sabine Crossroads. Emory ’s -afdeling moes deur die wild vlugtende kavallerie en los diere veg om die nuwe posisie te bereik. Ondanks ondanks Banks se dapper pogings om die gety van terugtog te stuit, stroom sy mans steeds agter en deur die perskeboord by Pleasant Grove, terwyl Emory se manne verstom kyk. Die agtervolgende Konfederate het 'n bietjie vertraag deur die ryk toevoerstrein te plunder, uiteindelik uit die bos oorkant die hoofweg, vanwaar Emory sy drie brigades opgestel het.

Deur die momentum van hul vinnige oorwinning op Sabine Crossroads, het die Konfederate geen tyd gemors om hulself op die nuwe pos van die Unie te begin nie. Weer het hulle die sentrum van die Unie geraak terwyl hul kavallerie die Federals probeer oortref het, maar elke poging het in bloedige teleurstelling misluk. Uiteindelik, met die nag, het die Konfederale aanvalle opgehou, en Banks het rekenskap geneem. Die omvang was groot: 2 200 troepe het verlore gegaan, 200 waens gevul met voorraad en 20 artilleriestukke geneem. Maar Banks was van mening dat sodra hy deur die XVI Corps versterk is, hy die Rebelle sou kon oorweldig en Shreveport betyds kon bereik. Hy het dit egter as verstandig geag dat sy mag nog 14 myl terugval na die stad Pleasant Hill.

Die Unie -leër het stilweg deur die nag beweeg en by Pleasant Hill hergroepeer. Die mag van Taylor, uiteindelik versterk met die infanteriedivisies van General Churchill, het die volgende oggend die Federale ingehaal. Met dieselfde taktiek wat die vorige dag so suksesvol was, het die Konfederate 'n artillerie -spervuur ​​oopgemaak terwyl hul kavallerie na die Unie -flanke gery het. Die infanterie van Churchill kom uit die bos aan die regterkant van die Unie en kom voor kolonel Lewis Benedict se brigade, ver voor die Union -lyn, uit. Met 'n geskreeu het die Missourians en Arkansans die federale posisie neergeslaan en Benedictus vermoor en onmiddellik die posisie in die stad bedreig. Onbekend aan Churchill se bevel, maar sy troepe het uit die bos gekom, kort voor die Unie -flank, en is gevolglik blootgestel aan 'n moorddadige brand deur A.J. Smith se regimente, geleë in die woud aan die federale linkerkant. Binnekort is die geskrikte Suidlanders uit die veld gevee en terug na die kloof anderkant die plato.

Die geluid van die aanvanklike aanval van Churchill was die teken van die konfederale eenhede aan die regterkant en die sentrum van die Unie. Eers beveel Walker en Green hul mans vorentoe, maar hul aanklag is in sy spore gestop en teruggegooi. Kolonel Buchel huiwer om weer te probeer en weet die vreeslike koste van so 'n aanval. Uiteindelik, nadat hy die derde bevel gekry het om te gaan, het hy sy manne uitgelei en in die dodelike flankende vuur van Smith se troppe opgetrek. Buchel het die helfte van sy regiment verloor en is self getref. Hy sterf dae later aan sy wonde.

Nou was dit Taylor se beurt om 'n nederlaag te proe toe die oorlewendes van Churchill se infanterie begin breek het vir die veiligheid van die bos. Binnekort kon hy niks anders doen as om sy posisie tot in die nag te hou nie, en dan met sy terugtog te begin.

Die Konfederate het 1 621 mans verloor (tot 1 369 federale ongevalle), en die uitgeputte oorlewendes was in 'n ellendige toestand. Selfs terwyl die Noordelike magte aanspraak maak op die oorwinning, beveel Banks egter dat Grand Encore uittree, wat spoedig tot 'n volledige onttrekking ontwikkel het. Banks ’ se weermag het die volgende paar maande probeer om sy vloot af te help in 'n rivier met 'n diepte in 'n seisoenale droogte, terwyl die konfederale eenhede hulle steeds van die oewer af teister. Banks het moontlik sy hele veldtog afgeskryf omdat hy van mening was dat die vordering in die binneland, as hy so streng teenstaan ​​as by Sabine Crossroads, sy veldtog sou vertraag tot die tyd wat Sherman verwag het dat hy in die ooste sou help. Whatever the case, the ultimate outcome of the Red River campaign was a victory for Taylor and his Confederates. Their sacrificial stand had defeated an overwhelmingly superior adversary and effectively ended the war west of the Mississippi.

This article was written by Pierre Comtois, and originally appeared in the October 1997 issue of America’s Civil War tydskrif. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to America’s Civil War tydskrif vandag!


Battle of Sabine Crossroads or Mansfield, 8 April 1864 - History

February 22, 1864 - Battle of Okolona - Class B.
Strength: Union 7,000 Confederates 2,500.
Casualties: Union 388 Confederates 144.
Confederate cavalry under General Nathan Bedford Forrest defeats Union cavalry under General Smith as he makes a late attempt to rendezvous with Sherman's Meridian Expedition. Fight over eleven miles ends when Confederate reinforcements help rout the Union, but can not pursue due to lack of ammunition.

March 12-14, 1864 - Fort de Russy - Class B.
Strength: Union 10,000 Confederates 350.
Casualties: Union 50 Confederates 324, including 317 captured.
First engagement of the Red River campaign ends with Union victory in General Banks' goal to capture Shreveport, the headquarters for the Confederate Army's operation west of the Mississippi River. Surprise attack takes only twenty minutes and gains central Louisiana for the Union.

April 8, 1864 - Battle of Sabine Crossroads - Class A. Strength: Union 14,000 Confederates 12,000. Casualties: Union 1,000 Confederates 694 (killed/wounded), 1,423 (captured/missing). In the final major battle of the Union's Red River campaign, a Confederate victory in the battle of staged reinforcements, stops the Federal attempt to capture Shreveport.

April 9-13, 1864 - Battle of Prairie D' Ane - Class B.
Strength: Union 13,000 Confederates 7,000.
Casualties: Union 100 Confederates 50.
Part of the Camden Expedition launched in conjunction with the Red River Campaign. General Steele was meant to drive south from Little Rock, pinch the Confederate Army, and meet up with General Banks, continuing into Texas. Despite a Union victory here, news of the Confederate victory at Sabine Crossroads caused Steele to abandon his mission and retreat north.

April 9, 1864 - Battle of Pleasant Hill - Class B.
Strength: Union 12,000 Confederates 12,100.
Casualties: Union 1,369 Confederates 1,626, including 426 captured.
Continuation of the Battle of Sabine Crossroads when Confederate General Taylor decides to assault the Union position sixteen miles southeast of the battlefield from the day before, but is defeated with heavy casualties on both sides. Union continues retreat to Grand Ecore, abandoning plans to capture Shreveport.

April 12, 1864 - Battle of Fort Pillow - Class B.
Strength: Union 600 Confederates 1,500-2,500
Casualties: Union 182 Confederates 100.
Battle along the Mississippi River in Tennessee forty miles north of Memphis ends in the massacre of black troops by General Nathan Bedford Forrest.

May 5-7, 1864 - Wilderness - Class A.
Strength: Union 124,000 Confederates 60-65,000.
Casualties: Union 17,666 Confederates 11,033.
First battle in the Overland Campaign between U.S. Grant and Robert E. Lee proves inconclusive as the Union continued their offensive toward Richmond.

May 8-21, 1864 - Spotsylvania Court House - Class A.
Strength: Union 100-110,000 Confederates 50-53,000.
Casualties: Union 18,399 Confederates 12,687.
Subsequent battle in the Overland Campaign between U.S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, who dug entrenchments along a Mule Shoe line with the battle at the Bloody Angle for eighteen hours one of the most costly of the war. Inconclusive result as Grant continues toward Richmond.

May 12-16, 1864 - Battle of Drewry's Bluff - Class B.
Strength: Union 30,000 Confederates 18,000.
Casualties: Union and Confederate, 6,600.
Union General Butler attacks the Confederate forces at Proctor's Creek south of Richmond over several days. Cautious and disorganized attacks are met by Confederate General Ransom and defeat, retreating back to Bermuda Hundred.

May 14-15, 1864 - Battle of Resaca - Class C.
Strength: Union 98,787 Confederates 60,000.
Casualties: Union 4-5,000, Confederate, 2,800.
The battle, an early contest of the Atlanta Campaign, was considered inconclusive, but did not halt Sherman's drive toward the coming battles of the Atlanta Campaign, i.e. Kennesaw Mountain one month later, and the effective occupation of Atlanta in September.

May 15, 1864 - Battle of New Market - Class B.
Strength: Union 6,275 Confederates 4,087.
Casualties: Union 841 Confederates 531.
Part of General Grant's Shenandoah Valley Campaigns of 1864 under General Sigel is defeated by a haphazard Confederate Army of General Brekinridge and cadets from the Virginia Military Academy. Aftermath of the battle: Union forced from the valley, General Sigel replaced by General Hunter, and Confederate Army able to benefit from the crops harvested by local farmers.

May 23-26, 1864 - Battle of North Anna - Class B.
Strength: Union 67,000-100,000 Confederates 50,000-53,000.
Casualties: Union 3,986 Confederates 1,552.
Moving south from the Spotsylvania battlefield in the Overland Campaign, General Grant engages Lee in several actions with varying success Telegraph Road Bridge, Jericho Mills, Ox Ford, Quarles Mill, and Hanover Junction. Inconclusive outcome leads to Grant moving southeast toward Cold Harbor.

May 28-30, 1864 - Battle of Totopotomy Creek - Class B.
Strength: Union 1 corps Confederates 1 corps.
Casualties: Union 731 Confederates 1,593.
General Robert E. Lee attacks the Union 5th Corps with Early's 2nd Corps as the Union moved toward Cold Harbor. Inconclusive outcome. Now part of Richmond National Battlefield Park.

May 31 - June 12, 1864 - Battle of Cold Harbor - Class A.
Strength: Union 108-117,000 Confederates 59-62,000.
Casualties: Union 12,738 Confederates 5,287.
In the first major battle of the 1864 pursuit of Richmond near the city, Grant encounters fortified positions, yet assaults their front in a series of battles on the south and northern ends of the line. One of the most lopsided engagements of the war.

June 5, 1864 - Battle of Piedmont - Class B.
Strength: Union 8,500 Confederates 5,500.
Casualties: Union 875 Confederates 1,500, including 1,000 captured.
After replacing General Sigel with General Hunter in command of Union forces in the Shenandoah Valley, Hunter has his first major action against the forces of General Jones. Union rout allows Hunter to occupy Staunton.

June 10, 1864 - Battle of Brice's Crossroads - Class B.
Strength: Union 8,100 Confederates 3,500.
Casualties: Union 2,240 Confederates 497.
Significant victory for the Confederates under General Forrest, defeating larger force of Union under General Sturgis. Mississippi citizens played a large part in the victory, providing Forrest with important intelligence of Union movements.

June 11-12, 1864 - Battle of Trevilian Station - Class B.
Strength: Union 9,286 Confederates 6,762.
Casualties: Union 1,512 Confederates 813.
Cavalry battle during the Overland Campaign pitting General Sheridan vs. General Fitzhugh Lee and Wade Hampton. Largest all cavalry battle of the war ends in tactical victory for the Confederates as Sheridan rejoins Grant's main army after failing to permanantly destroy the Virginia Central Railroad.

June 15-18, 1864 - Second Battle of Petersburg - Class A.
Strength: Union 13,000 (Day 1) to 62,000 (Day 4) Confederates 5,400 (Day 1) to 38,000 (Day 4).
Casualties: Union 11,386 Confederates 4,000.
Four days of battles with increasing reinforcements saw Union assaults and a series of mistakes against smaller Confederate forces in strong defensive positions. Due to the Confederate strength and victory, the Union begins the ten month Siege of Petersburg.

June 17-18, 1864 - Battle of Lynchburg - Class B.
Strength: Union 16,643 Confederates 14,000.
Casualties: Union 75 Confederates 6.
Valley Campaign of 1864 continues when General Hunter attempts to capture the supply town of Lynchburg, but fails against General Jubal Early's troops, who now, with Hunter's retreat into West Virginia, had free range up the Shenandoah Valley toward Washington, D.C.

June 21-23, 1864 - Battle of Jerusalem Plank Road - Class B.
Strength: Union 27,000 Confederates 8,000.
Casualties: Union 2,962 Confederates 572.
First battle in Petersburg Campaign to extend Union siege lines west and destroy the Weldon Railroad. Outcome of Union failure to destroy the railroad, but extending their lines lead to battle draw.

June 27, 1864 - Battle of Kennesaw Mountain - Class B.
Strength: Union 16,225 Confederates 17,733.
Casualties: Union 3,000 Confederates 1,000.
Frontal assault by General Sherman in Atlanta Campaign is defeated by Confederate General Johnston's troops, but victory fails to stop Sherman's march to the city.

Note: Photo above: Battle walk in the woods of the Wilderness Battlefield during the 150th anniversary in 2014. Casualty and troop strength numbers from Wikipedia Commons.


Map Battle ground of Sabine Cross Roads and Pleasant Hill, 1864 Copy 1

The maps in the Map Collections materials were either published prior to 1922, produced by the United States government, or both (see catalogue records that accompany each map for information regarding date of publication and source). The Library of Congress is providing access to these materials for educational and research purposes and is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17 of the United States Code) or any other restrictions in the Map Collection materials.

Note that the written permission of the copyright owners and/or other rights holders (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.


Mansfield (Sabine Cross-Roads, Pleasant Grove )

Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor, CSA Banks had a Corps available, the Confederates had two strong divisions. Union casualties were about double the Confederate's 1,000 men. By this time, Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Bank's Red River Expedition had advanced about 150 miles up Red River. Maj. Gen. Richard Taylor, without any instructions from his commander, Kirby Smith, decided that it was time to try and stem this Union drive he could not abide the Yankees taking another step forward. He was also on strategic ground: a few miles more advance and the Union troops would be at Sabine Cross-Roads, from which they could advance in most directions. Taylor had to stop them before they got to the crossroads, because he wasn't strong enough to chase them if they spread out. He established a defensive position just below Mansfield, in front of Sabine Cross-Roads. On April 8, Banks' men approached, driving Confederate cavalry before them. For the rest of the morning, the Federals probed the Rebel lines. There was little weight behind the probes because Banks had left the cavalry almost unsupported, and the infantry had trouble getting around the cavalry's wagons on the narrow road. In late afternoon, Taylor, though outnumbered, decided to attack. His men made a determined assault on both flanks, rolling up one and then another of Banks' divisions. Finally, about three miles from the original contact, a third Union division met Taylor's attack at 6:00 pm and halted it after more than an hour's fighting. That night, Taylor unsuccessfully attempted to turn Banks' right flank. Banks withdrew.


COMPANY F

James E. Walker served as a private in Company F of the 22nd Texas Volunteer Infantry, CSA. Company F was organized on March 10, 1862 in Polk County, Texas by Rev. J. A. Scruggs. The unit became part of Walker's Texas Division.

The following were elected officers of Company F: John Guynes, captain George S. Shotwell, first lieutenant John R. Oates, second lieutenant Henry Wesley Vinson, third lieutenant and, J. A. Scruggs, chaplain.

The 22nd Texas Volunteer Infantry participated in the following battles:

**Young's Point, Louisiana (June 7, 1863)
**operations against the advance of the Federal Army under Gen. Banks from Franklin, Louisiana (March 14-26, 1864)
**Natchitoches, Louisiana (March 31, 1864)
** Wilson's Farm, Louisiana (April 7, 1864)
**Sabine Cross Roads, Mansfield, Louisiana (April 8, 1864)
**Pleasant Hill, Louisiana (April 9, 1864)
**operations against Gen. Steele from Little Rock to Camden, Arkansas, including engagements at Marks' Mills, Arkansas (April 15, 1864) and,
**Jenkins Ferry, Arkansas (April 30, 1864).

James E. Walker was killed in the Battle of Jenkins Ferry, Arkansas. The location of the Battle of Jenkins Ferry was a thickly-timbered bottom. The ground was covered with water, from ankle to knee deep. During the battle visibility was poor, owing to hard rain, dense fog and clouds of smoke which hung in the thick woods.

The following is a Union-biased account of the Battle of Jenkins Ferry:

"On the 28th of April [1864, General] Steele abandoned Camden, crossed the Washita, and, continually skirmishing with the enemy's cavalry, proceeded to the Sabine. By this retreat he had just escaped disaster. [General] Kirby Smith, having thrust back General Banks, was now prepared to strike Steele. As it was, Smith assailed the rear of the retreating column as the latter was crossing the Sabine at Jenkins Ferry. A portion of the army was already across the river, and thus the brunt of the attack fell upon the two rear brigades until re-enforcements were brought up by General Rice. The enemy succeeded finally in turning the left, but the line was restored, and by noon the attack was repulsed, and the army crossed the bridge. No artillery could be used on account of the nature of the ground. The Federal loss was 700 killed and wounded. That of the enemy was estimated as over three times that number."

[quoted from Pictorial History of the Civil War, p. 593, by Alfred H. Guernsey and Henry M. Alden (1866, The Fairfax Press reprint)]]

As mentioned, the battle ended with Union forces retreating across the Sabine River. The dead were buried by Confederate forces. One member of Walker's Texas Division recalled the burials:

"Soon after the battle ended, a detail of men were employed in burying the dead. Armed with shovel, pickaxe, and spade, they proceeded along the battle-ground to complete this mournful task, which the enemy were unable to accomplish. The ground was thickly strewn with the ghastly and mangled forms. The effluvium from the swollen, festering forms was too horrible for human endurance. No conception of the imagination, no power of human language, could do justice to such a horrible scene."

[quoted from The Campaigns of Walker's Texas Division, p.254, by Joseph Blasingame (1875, Lange, Little & Co. reprint)]

In July of 1864 Walker's Texas Division neared the Mississippi River. There is some disagreement as to whether the Division was ever ordered to cross the Mississippi River, some saying that an attempted crossing failed while others saying that a crossing was neither ordered nor attempted.

There is general agreement that some of the men in Walker's Texas Division deserted in order to avoid an anticipated river crossing but there is disagreement as to the scope of the desertions. One soldier wrote that some few of the troops deserted, in order to escape crossing the river, but the mass of the troops were ready to embark at a moment's warning.

These desertions led to the execution of Captain John Guynes, commander of Co. F, 22nd Texas Volunteer Infantry. A fellow soldier wrote:

"On the evening of the 16th [of October, 1864], we witnessed the melancholy performance of shooting Captain John Guynes, Company F, 22d Texas Infantry. He was accused of encouraging his men to desert, when we were expected to cross the Mississippi River. He was a man of about fifty years old, and very much admired by his men, and well liked by the officers of his brigade. Every effort was made to have him reprieved, but all without avail."

[quoted from The Campaigns of Walker's Texas Division, pp. 279-80, by Joseph Blasingame (1875, Lange, Little & Co. reprint)]

Following the execution, Company F's leaders were George S. Shotwell, captain, John R. Oates, first lieutenant, Henry Wesley Vinson, second lieutenant, and William Bailey Shotwell third lieutenant. The 22nd Texas Infantry returned to Texas in March of 1865 and was disbanded at Hempstead, Texas on May 5, 1865.

The following men served in Company F:

Allison, John
Austin, S. A.
Avants, Jacob
Baird, J. C.
Bartlett, Brit
Berry, T. A.
Beverly, Richard
Bingham, M. V.
Bowlin, William
Brock, Ben
Brock, Beverett
Brock, Green M.
Brock, Henry
Brock, James L.
Brock, William
Brown, J. M.
Brown, J. S.
Brown, William
Burns, William H.
Burns, Zach
Butler, John K.
Butler, Robert
Cain, Elijah
Cain, Unknown
Calvert, George
Calvert, Joshua
Cannon, Jobe J.
Chamliss, William
Collins, Newt.
Collins, W. H.
Courville, J. B.
Cummings, Henry
Davis, C. C.
Davis, W. J.
Dewalt, Lucian
Dunnam, A. J.
Elkins, James
Flowers, E. B.
Garner, F. T.
Garner, James
Gassiott, S. E.
Gaylord, Robert
Green, John
Griffin, Byrd
Guynes, John
Hamilton, Arthur
Hamilton, S. A.
Hamilton, William M.
Hanna, James
Hanna, William A.
Harper, James
Harvey, Z. T.
Haynes, I. F.
Hendrix, George W.
Hickman, Asa
Hickman, James
Hickman, M. T.
Hicks, Ben
Hill, James E.
Hinson, J. R.
Hinson, W. M.
Holder, William A.
Johnson, B. F.
Jones, Joe
Ketchum, Joe
Ketim, Unknown
Kinard, D.
Lot, Calvin
Lott, Absalom
Lowe, Alex
Mann, A.
Manry, D. T.
Mccormick, John
Mccormick, Sam
Mclemore, John
Moore, George A.
Morris, Joe
Moulds, Lem
Nelson, Henry
Oates, A. J.
Oates, John R.
Overstreet, C.
Parker, Ashley
Parker, Logan
Parker, M. S.
Parker, P.
Pelt, Durant
Perry, J. E.
Pitts, M. C.
Poe, John
Poe, W. L.
Pounds, E. E.
Ray, T. J.
Ritter, Levi
Roden, Basil
Roden, M. P.
Roe, Elias
Roe, Joel A.
Roe, John
Roe, Sam
Rowe, Hilliary
Scarborough, A. B.
Scarborough, James
Scarborough, Theo.
Scruggs, J. A.
Shotwell, George S.
Shotwell, J. H.
Shotwell, W. B.
Sikes, William A.
Simmons, Charles
Simmons, T. F.
Simmons, Tom
Smith, J. W.
Smith, William W. Buck
Standley, Daniel
Summers, Caley
Taylor, John B.
Templeton, A. J.
Thompson, George
Thornton, Frank
Thornton, Joe
Turner, James
Usher, Robert
Varner, William F.
Vinson, George
Vinson, Henry W.
Waldrep, John
Walker, H. H.
Walker, J. E.
Walker, John
Wallace, Byron
Walters, Elisha
Walters, James
Walters, John W.
Walters, William
Warr, G. W.
Williams, Allen
Williams, H. W.
Williams, I. A.
Williams, Robert
Williams, Tom
Wills, W. W.
Wolfe, Henry
Wolfe, James

Click here to search for Civil War records.

Click here for information about Polk County, Texas genealogy (Polk County Connections--by Beverly Evins).


Battle of Sabine Crossroads or Mansfield, 8 April 1864 - History

Since I have been off work for the past few days owing to amateur thespian activities I thought I would use some of the time profitably (just to prove to Tony Cane that I can engage in list related business in my own time as well as that of Data Sciences' !)

To this end I have drawn up a list of Fire and Fury scenarios that have been published as opposed to ones hanging around on web pages or (in my case) ring binders. I know the list is incomplete, Mail me personally, then I can update the list with any new stuff and post it here when there's enough additions to make it worthwhile. I know, for instance, that there are other scenarios in the Zouave as I have seen them in the index, but I don't have their full details.

Alan Saunders
[email protected] Scenarios are listed by the date of the battle. Magazines and books are abbreviated as follows: WI - Wargames Illustrated, MW - Miniature Wargames, BACW - Battles of the American Civil War Vol 1 (Glory Enough For All) by Daniel Jackson, BSB - Bayonets, Shells and Balls ! by Potomac Publications

Historical Scenarios First Bull Run (First Manassas) 21st July 1861 Great Eastern Battles p6-9 This also appeared in the Courier (when ?) WI 69 (June 1993) p17-21 A small scenario pretty much just covering Henry House Hill. BACW p33-35 (Similar to the one in Great Eastern Battles ) http://pease1.sr.unh.edu/FnF/scenarios/Bullrun/

Wilson's Creek 10th August 1861 http://www.btinternet.com/

Fort Donelson 12th-15th February 1862 WI 68 (May 1993) p29-32 Covers all four days of the attack in a mini campaign. The Zouave Vol. VII No. 2 Summer 1993 p3-8 The same scenario as the above.

Shiloh 6th April 1862 Great Western Battles p5-9

Pea Ridge May 7, 1862 BACW p69-72

Seven Pines (Fair Oaks) 31st May-1st June 1862 Great Eastern Battles p10-15 Two scenarios the first day and both days.

Secessionsville 16th June 1862 WI 107 (August 1996) p12-15 A somewhat flawed regimental level scenario.

Beaver Dam Creek 26th June 1862 WI 70 (June 1993) p21-22 A very small scenario

Gaines Mill - 27th June 1862 Great Eastern Battles p16-19 BSB p1-3

Frayser's Farm (Glendale) 30th June 1862 Great Eastern Battles p20-24 Two scenarios historical attack and planned attack.

Cedar Mountain (Cedar Run) 9th August 1862 Great Eastern Battles p25-27 The Zouave Vol VII No 4 Winter 1993 p16-18

Second Bull Run (Second Manassas) 29th-30th August 1862 Great Eastern Battles p28-35 Two scenarios first day and second day BSB p7-9 The attack on the railway cutting, 1st day

South Mountain 14th September 1862 http://www.tip.net.au/

Antietam (Sharpsburg) 17th September 1862 Great Eastern Battles p 36-47 Three scenarios the Northern battle, the Southern battle and the whole thing. WI 71 (July 1993) p 16-19 Covers the action involving I and XII Corps

Iuka 19th September 1862 The Zouave Vol VII No 1 Spring 1993 p3-5 Covers the battle on the 19th. WI p21-22 This scenario covers a hypothetical action on 20 September 1862

Corinth 3rd-4th October 1862 Great Western Battles p10-13 Plays 2 day battle as one scenario

Prairie Grove 7th December 1862 The Zouave Vol X No 1 Spring 1996 p15-20 http://www.btinternet.com/

Stones River 31st December 1862 Great Western Battles p14-18

Chancellorsville 3rd-4th May 1863 Battlefields Vol. 1 No. 1 July 1995 p5-10 A mini campaign covering the actions of the Union VI Corps. Includes Marye's Heights, Salem Church and Bank's Ford. BSB p10-12 The attack on XI Corps

Champion Hill 16th May 1863 Great Western Battles p19-23 - Includes "What If" scenario assuming Pemberson brought additional troops from Vicksburg.

Gettysburg 1st-3rd July 1863 Fire and Fury rules p50-65 Five scenarios two first day, two second day and Pickett's charge.

Low Dutch Road 3rd July 1863 The Zouave Vol IX No 3 Autumn 1995 p5-6 The cavalry battle at Gettysburg

Chickamauga 19th-20th September 1863 Great Western Battles p24-30 - Two scenarios, day one & day two

Sabine Crossroads (Mansfield) 8th April 1864 The Zouave Vol IX No 4 Winter 1995 p18-23

Pleasant Hill 9th April 1864 http://www.n-link.com/

The Wilderness 5th May 1864 MW 136 p34-37 Two scenarios the Orange Plank Road and the Orange Turnpike. BSB p13-16 Covers two days of the battle.

Drewry's Bluff 16th May 1864 BSB p17-19

Lynchburg 18th June 1864 WI 102 (March 1997) p36-38 Based on a Johnny Reb scenario. Very small.

Monocacy 9th July 1864 The Zouave Vol X No. 2 Summer 1996 p7-9 http://www.hrkropp.com/monocracy.html

Atlanta 22nd July 1864 Great Western Battles p31-34

Cedar Creek 19th August 1864 The Zouave Vol. IX No. 2 Summer 1995 p12-16 BSB p23-25

Third Winchester 19th September 1864 BSB p20-22

Spring Hill 29th November 1864 WI 65 (February 1993) p35-36 Based on a Johnny Reb scenario. Steve Burt has some corrections for this scenario.

Bentonville 19th March 1865 BSB p28-30 http://www.btinternet.com/

White Oak RoaD 31st March 1865 BSB p26-27

Hypothetical / Non-ACW Scenarios

ACW mini-campaign MW 55 by Paul Stevenson, set in 1865. A Union force of 3 cavalry units had to accomplish 3 successively harder missions against unknown Confederate forces.


Battle of Pleasant Hill (April 9, 1864)

By the spring of 1864, Confederate Louisiana had shriveled to the northwestern area of the state. The capital had moved to Opelousas in 1862 and then to Shreveport in the spring of 1863. At the urging of Union Army Chief-of-Staff Henry Halleck, President Abraham Lincoln approved an offensive against the remaining Confederate forces in Louisiana in the spring of 1864. Named the Red River Campaign, Halleck's plan consisted of a three-pronged assault.

  1. Major General Nathaniel P. Banks would march twenty thousand troops from the area around New Orleans across southern Louisiana and occupy Alexandria, Louisiana near the center of the state, before moving on to Shreveport.
  2. Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter would ascend the Red River and join Banks at Alexandria with over thirty warships and an accompanying supply fleet. A land force of ten thousand soldiers, commanded by Brigadier-General Andrew Jackson Smith and detached from William T. Sherman's Army of the Tennessee, would protect Dixon's flotilla.
  3. After Banks and Porter joined forces and continued upriver toward Shreveport, Major General Frederick Steele would lead another ten thousand Union soldiers out of Little Rock, Arkansas and approach Shreveport from the north or east.

The campaign began on March 12, as Porter's fleet entered the mouth of the Red River from the Mississippi River. Events went well for the Federals initially. On March 14, Smith's soldiers overran Fort DeRussy and captured a Rebel garrison of approximately three hundred men. On the next day, Porter and Smith moved upriver and occupied Alexandria unopposed. Banks was behind schedule, and the forward elements of his army did not reach Alexandria until March 23. Banks himself did not arrive until the next day. At last united, the combined Federal forces moved upriver to Grand Ecore.

On April 6, Banks chose to leave the Red River and the protection of Porter's fleet to travel up an inland road toward Shreveport. As the Union cavalry, led by Brigadier-General Albert L. Lee, approached Sabine Crossroads on April 8, they encountered approximately fourteen thousand Rebels, commanded by Major General Richard Taylor. Throughout the morning, Lee probed the Confederate lines, while Taylor hoped for a Union assault. When Lee did not attack, Taylor's men advanced. The Battle of Mansfield (also called the Battle of Sabine Crossroads) was an astonishing Confederate victory that sent the Yankees reeling back down the road. After inflicting heavy casualties on the Federals and capturing vast stores of supplies, Taylor called off the assault at nightfall to rest his men and to prepare for battle the next day.

During the night, Banks ordered his army to fall back nearly fourteen miles and to regroup at the village of Pleasant Hill. Taylor pursued the next day, hoping to destroy the Union army. After marching to Pleasant Hill, Taylor rested his men before engaging the Federals. At approximately 5 p.m., Taylor attacked the Union center as he simultaneously tried to flank both ends of the Federal line. The flanking movement on the Union left succeeded, but the right held. What Taylor did not know was that Banks had many infantrymen at his disposal who were not engaged on the previous day. Union counterattacks gradually regained what had been lost in the early stages of the battle. Four hours of bloody fighting resulted in little more than high casualties for both sides.

Tactically the Battle of Pleasant Hill was a Union victory because the Federals repulsed the Confederate attack and because the Northerners inflicted nearly twice as many casualties on the Rebels than they suffered. Estimated casualties totaled roughly 1,300 men for the Union and 1,600 soldiers for the Confederacy. Nonetheless, the battle was a strategic success for Taylor, because Banks lost his nerve, abandoned his plan to capture Shreveport, and began a full-fledged retreat down the Red River and back to southern Louisiana.

Ohio units that participated in the Battle of Pleasant Hill included:

Infantry units:

16 th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

56 th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

83 rd Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

96 th Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry

Artillery units:

2 nd Ohio Independent Battery of Ohio Volunteer Artillery

Sensing an opportunity to destroy the retreating Union army, Taylor requested reinforcements from his commanding officer, General Kirby Smith, along with permission to pursue the fleeing Yankees. Smith, however, had other concerns. Rather than sending reinforcements, Smith reassigned approximately one-half of Taylor's army to Major General John George Walker, with orders to check Major General Frederick Steele's Federal army, which was moving south toward Shreveport from Arkansas. Denied of his opportunity to defeat a large Union army, Taylor was relegated to harassing Banks for the remainder of the campaign. Smith's decision created everlasting rancor between the two Confederate generals.


Facebook

Waterproof, Jan. 29, 1864
Franklinton, Feb. 1, 1864
Brashear City (now called Morgan City), Feb. 3, 1864
Franklinton, Feb. 3, 1864
Columbia, Feb. 4, 1864
Brashear City, Feb. 6, 1864
Vidalia, Feb. 7, 1864
Donaldsonville, Feb. 8, 1864
New River, Feb. 9, 1864
Madisonville, Feb. 11, 1864
Grosse Tete, Feb. 19, 1864
Waterproof, Feb. 23, 1864
Harrisonburg, March 1, 1864
Ouachita River, March 1, 1864
Jackson, March 3, 1864
Baton Rouge, March, 3-8, 1864
Harrisonburg, March 4, 1864
Ouachita River, March 4, 1864
Cypress Creek, March 8, 1864
Red River Campaign, March 10-May 22, 1864
Fort De Russy, March 14, 1864
Marksville Prairie, March 15, 1864
Black Bayou, March 19, 1864
Rapides Bayou, March 20, 1864
Henderson's Hill, March 21, 1864
Goodrich's Landing, March 24, 1864
Campti, March 26, 1864
Monett's Ferry, March 29, 1864
Cloutierville, March 29, 1864
Cloutierville, March 30, 1864
Monett's Ferry, March 30, 1864
Natchitoches, March 31, 1864
Pearl River Expedition, April 1, 1864
Crump's Hill, April 2, 1864
Grosse Tete Bayou, April 2, 1864
Grand Ecore, April 3, 1864
Campti, April 4, 1864
Natchitoches, April 5, 1864
Pleasant Hill, April 7, 1864
Port Hudson, April 7, 1864
Wilson's Plantation, April 7, 1864
De Paul Bayou, April 8, 1864
Mansfield, April 8, 1864
Pleasant Grove, April 8, 1864
Sabine Crossroads, April 8, 1864
Pleasant Hill, April 9, 1864
Grand Ecore, April 10, 1864
Pearl River Expedition, April 10, 1864
Grand Ecore, April 11, 1864
Fort Bisland, April 12, 1864
Blair's Landing, April 12, 1864
Pleasant Hill Landing, April 12, 1864
Pleasant Hill Landing, April 13, 1864
Blair's Landing, April 13, 1864
Baton Rouge, April 15, 1864
Bayou Saline, April 14, 1864
Grand Ecore, April 16, 1864
Natchitoches, April 20, 1864
Waterproof, April 20, 1864
Natchitoches, April 21, 1864
Tunica Bend, April 21, 1864
Cloutierville, April 22, 1864
Cane River Crossing, April 23, 1864
Monett's Ferry, April 23, 1864
Cloutierville, April 24, 1864
Pineville, April 24, 1864
Cotile Landing, April 25, 1864
Deloach's Bluff, April 26, 1864
Berwick, April 26, 1864
Cane River, April 26, 1864
McNutt's Hill, April 26, 1864
Rapides Bayou Bridge, April 26, 1864
Red River, April 26, 1864
Red River, April 27, 1864
Cane River, April 27, 1864
Grand Ecore, April 29, 1864
Ashton, May 1, 1864
Berwick, May 1, 1864
Ashwood Landing, May 1-4, 1864
Governor Moore's Plantation, May 1, 1864
Trinity, May 1, 1864
Bayou Pierre, May 2, 1864
Well's Plantation, May 2, 1864
Wilson's Landing, May 2, 1864
Baton Rouge, May 3, 1864
Bayou Pierre, May 3, 1864
Olive Branch Bayou, May 3, 1864
Redwood Bayou, May 3, 1864
Trinity, May 4, 1864
Governor Moore's Plantation, May 4, 1864
Dunn's Bayou, May 5, 1864
Graham's Plantation, May 5, 1864
Natchitoches, May 5, 1864
Bayou Lamourie, May 6, 1864
Boyce's Plantation, May 6, 1864
Napoleonville, May 6, 1864
Well's Plantation, May 6, 1864
Bayou Boeuf, May 7, 1864
Bayou Lamourie, May 7, 1864
Robert Bayou, May 8, 1864
Caledonia, May 10, 1864
Clinton, May 11, 1864
Bayou Lamourie, May 12, 1864
Lecompte, May 12, 1864
Alexandria, May 13, 1864
Wilson's Landing, May 14, 1864
Avoyelles Prairie, May 15, 1864
Marksville Prairie, May 15, 1864
Mount Pleasant Landing, May 15, 1864
Mansura, May 16, 1864
Belle Prairie, May 16, 1864
Smith's Plantation, May 16, 1864
Yellow Bayou, May 17, 1864
De Glaize Bayou, May 17, 1864
Moreauville, May 17, 1864
Old Oaks, May 17, 1864
De Glaize Bayou, May 18, 1864
Old Oaks, May 18, 1864
Yellow Bayou, May 18, 1864
Morganza, May 24, 1864
Lake Providence, May 27, 1864
Pest House, May 28, 1864
Port Hudson, May 28, 1864
Fordoche Bayou Road, May 29, 1864
Morganza, May 30, 1864
Atchafalaya River, May 30, 1864
Livonia, May 31, 1864
Morganza, June 4, 1864
Atchafalaya River, June 5, 1864
Simsport, June 8, 1864
Lake Providence, June 9-24, 1864
Como Landing, June 15, 1864
Ratliff's Landing, June 15, 1864
Magnolia Landing, June 15-16, 1864
Como Landing, June 16, 1864
Newport Crossroads, June 17, 1864
Grosse Tete Bayou, June 19, 1864
Point Pleasant, June 25, 1864
Davis' Bend, June 29, 1864
Baton Rouge, July 3, 1864
Cross Bayou, July 4, 1864
Simsport, July 5, 1864
Simsport, July 7, 1864
Clinton, July 17, 1864
Clinton, July 18, 1864
Concordia, July 22, 1864
Davison's Ford, July 17, 1864
Davison's Ford, July 18, 1864
Atchafalaya, July 21, 1864
Vidalia, July 22, 1864
Amite River, July 25, 1864
Baton Rouge, July 25, 1864
Benton's Ferry, July 25, 1864
Baton Rouge, July 29, 1864
Donaldsonville, July 31, 1864
Morgan's Ferry Road, July 28, 1864
Morganza, July 28, 1864
Highland Stockade, July 29, 1864
Napoleonville, July 29, 1864
Tensas Bayou, July 30, 1864
Orange Grove, July 31, 1864
Pattersonvlle, Aug. 2, 1864
Gillespie's Plantation, Aug. 4, 1864
Concordia Bayou, Aug. 5, 1864
Olive Branch, Aug. 5, 1864
Gillespie's Plantation, Aug. 6, 1864
Indian Village, Aug. 6, 1864
Plaquemine, Aug. 6, 1864
Morganza, Aug. 10, 1864
Morganza, Aug. 12, 1864
Clinton, Aug. 23, 1864
Bullitt's Bayou, Aug. 24, 1864
Atchafalaya River, Aug. 25, 1864
Comite River, Aug. 25, 1864
Morgan's Ferry, Aug. 25, 1864
Olive Branch, Aug. 25, 1864
Port Hudson, Aug. 29, 1864
Tensas Bayou, Aug. 26, 1864
Goodrich's Landing, Aug. 28, 1864
Macon Bayou, Aug. 28-31, 1864
Clinton, Aug. 29, 1864
Natchez Bayou, Aug. 30, 1864
Goodrich's Landing, Aug. 31, 1864
Gentilly's Plantation, Sept. 1, 1864
Natchez Bayou, Sept. 2, 1864
Donaldsonville, Sept. 4, 1864
Atchafalaya River, Sept. 17, 1864
Bayou Sara, Sept. 6-7, 1864
Fausse Pointe Lake, Sept. 7, 1864
Grand Lake, Sept. 7, 1864
Grand River, Sept. 7, 1864
Pigeon Bayou, Sept. 7, 1864
Labadieville, Sept. 8, 1864
Pearl River, Sept. 9, 1864
Fausse Pointe Lake, Sept. 11, 1864
Hodge's Plantation, Sept. 11, 1864
Grand Lake, Sept. 11, 1864
Grand River, Sept. 11, 1864
Pigeon Bayou, Sept. 11, 1864
Pearl River, Sept. 12, 1864
Fausse River, Sept. 13, 1864
Bayou Maringouin, Sept. 13-16, 1864
Bullitt's Bayou, Sept. 14, 1864
Rosedale, Sept. 15, 1864
Morganza, Sept. 16, 1864
Williamsport, Sept. 16, 1864
Fausse River, Sept. 17, 1864
Morgan's Ferry, Sept. 20, 1864
Morganza, Sept. 25, 1864
Pigeon Bayou, Sept. 26, 1864
Grand River, Sept. 26, 1864
Sicily Island, Sept. 26, 1864
Waterproof, Sept. 26, 1864
Pigeon Bayou, Sept. 30, 1864
Grand River, Sept. 30, 1864
Sicily Island, Sept. 30, 1864
Waterproof, Sept. 30, 1864
Eastern Louisiana, Oct. 2, 1864
Southwest Mississippl & East Louisiana, Oct. 2, 1864
New River, Oct. 2, 1864
Amite River, Oct. 2-8, 1864
Bayou Manchac, Oct. 2-8, 1864
Bayou Sara, Oct. 3-6, 1864
Atchafalaya, Oct. 5, 1864
Camp Moore, Oct. 5, 1864
Greensburg, Oct. 5, 1864
Clinton, Oct. 5, 1864
Jackson, Oct. 5, 1864
Alexander's Creek, Oct. 5, 1864
Osyka, Oct. 5, 1864
Saint Charles Court House, Oct. 5, 1864
Saint Francisville, Oct. 5, 1864
Thompson's Creek, Oct. 5, 1864
New River, Oct. 8, 1864
Saint Joseph, Oct. 8, 1864
Clinton, Oct. 9, 1864
Greensburg, Oct. 9, 1864
Camp Moore, Oct. 9, 1864
Osyka, Oct. 9, 1864
Eastern Louisiana, Oct. 11, 1864
Southwest Mississippi & East Louisiana, Oct. 11, 1864
Bayou Liddell, Oct. 15, 1864
Morganza, Oct. 16, 1864
Waterloo, Oct. 20, 1864
Belle River, Oct. 22-24, 1864
York Plantation, Oct. 26, 1864
Vidalia, Oct. 26-27, 1864
York Plantation, Oct. 27, 1864
Macon Bayou, Nov. 6-8, 1864
Clinton, Nov. 15, 1864
Portage Bayou, Nov. 17, 1864
Fausse Pointe Lake, Nov. 18, 1864
Portage Bayou, Nov. 19, 1864
Grand Caillou Bayou, Nov. 19, 1864
Morganza, Nov. 23, 1864
Raccourci, Nov. 25, 1864
Williamsport, Nov. 25, 1864
Grand Caillou Bayou, Nov. 27, 1864
Morganza, Dec. 4, 1864
Amite River, Dec. 12, 1864
Morgan's Ferry, Dec. 13, 1864
Hermitage Plantation, Dec. 14, 1864
Morgan's Ferry, Dec. 14, 1864
Morganza, Dec. 14, 1864
Atchafalaya River, Dec. 16-19, 1864
Clinton, Dec. 23, 1864
Clinton, Dec. 24, 1864

Source: Gen. Andrew B. Booth, "Records of Louisiana Confederate Soldiers and Louisiana Confederate Commands," published by the State of Louisiana, 1920.