Klooster van Lokrum

Klooster van Lokrum

Slegs 'n bootrit van tien minute van Dubrovnik in Kroasië af, is die pragtige Lokrum -eiland, die tuiste van pragtige natuurlewe - die belangrikste inwoners is poue en hase - 'n Franse fort en 'n Benediktynse klooster en abdij.

Die eiland Lokrum het 'n ryk geskiedenis en word vermoedelik sedert die prehistoriese tyd bewoon. Volgens die legende het Richard die Leeuhart in 1192 hier skipbreuk gely terwyl hy van die kruistogte teruggekeer het en belowe om 'n kerk daar te bou as hy gered word. Uiteindelik is die kerk in Dubrovnik gebou.

Die eerste vermelding van Lokrum se klooster is in 1023, hoewel sommige rekords die monnike daar al vanaf 915 nC plaas. Die Lokrum-klooster het op 'n stadium die hele eiland besit, terwyl die abdij tot in die middel van die 15de eeu as hospitaal en aalmoese gedien het.

Besoekers aan die Lokrum -kloosterkompleks kan vandag die oorblyfsels van die basiliek van die 12/13de eeu en die klooster en kloostertuin van die 15/16de eeu sien, asook die somerhuis en tuine van Maximilian van Habsburg uit die 19de eeu.


Lokrum klooster - Geskiedenis

& quot Elkeen wat Lokrum beweer vir sy eie persoonlike plesier, sal verdoem word! & quot



Die legende hou verband met die stigting van die Benediktynse klooster op die eiland Lokrum. Volgens hierdie legende het 'n groot brand in Dubrovnik iewers ontstaan ​​rondom die jaar 1023. Die inwoners van Dubrovnik het 'n gelofte aan die heilige Benedictus afgelê dat hulle 'n klooster in sy naam sou bou as die stad gespaar sou word. Die vuur is onmiddellik geblus, en die dankbare burgers van Dubrovnik bou toe 'n Benediktynse klooster en kerk op Lokrum, wat hulle aan die Heilige Maagd Maria opgedra het.

In werklikheid bly die feit dat die Benediktynse klooster in 1023 gestig is, want daar bestaan ​​werklik afskrifte van die oorspronklike dokumente uit die 13de eeu. Verder bly die feit dat in 1023, en presies op die dag van St. Benedictus, die grootste deel van Dubrovnik deur vuur verbrand is, aangesien dit meestal uit hout gebou was. Sommige dring selfs daarop aan dat die aartsbiskop se paleis ook vernietig is.

Die oprigting van die klooster en die skenking van die grond op Lokrum is besluit deur die aartsbiskop Vital van Dubrovnik en die preses, die latynse term vir die hoof van die stad Dubrovnik, Lampridija, saam met al die aristokrasie. Die Benediktynse stigters was die monnik Petrus van die Maria -klooster in Tremit naby Puglia, en die priester Leo van Dubrovnik, wat op hierdie tydstip die geloftes van 'n Benediktynse monnik afgelê het. 'N Direkte skakel is gevestig met die Benediktynse setel in Monte Cassino, onmiddellik na die vestiging van die klooster.

Die Benediktyne het ook teen die einde van die 11de of die begin van die 12de eeu 'n klooster en kerk in Ro žat in Rijeka Dubrova & egraveka gehad. Desideria (1058-1087), die abt van die Benediktynse klooster in Monte Cassino, beveel die vervaardiging van die kerkdeure vir die klooster in 1066. Die deurposte was bedek met silwer plate wat die name van al die kerke wat tot die klooster behoort, uitgebeeld het. Later het die abt Oderizia II (1121-1126) nog sestien gedenkplate bygevoeg met die name van nuwe kerke, wat ook die St Mary's Church in Ro žat bevat.

Die Benediktyne het die klooster gedurende die 12de eeu verlaat. Die afstammelinge van graaf Savin in Dubrovnik het hiervan voordeel getrek en die klooster met sy hele eiendom besit. Die Lokrum -monnike het skerp protes aangeteken teen hierdie stap, aangesien Savin se erflating aangedui het dat die klooster aan die monnike sou behoort as daar geen Benedictines van Monte Cassino in die streekklooster in Ro žat was nie. Op grond hiervan het die konsul van Dubrovnik op 09 April 1198 'n besluit geneem, waardeur die klooster met sy kerk en eiendom in Ro žat die eiendom van die Benediktynse klooster op Lokrum geword het. Die legaat van die pous, Ivan, wat die kurator van die Apostoliese opvolging was, het almal wat dit sou teëstaan ​​met 'n vloek bedreig.

Van 1295 tot 1321 het die Benediktyne egter geleidelik Ro žat laat vaar en heeltemal na Lokrum verhuis. In die Dubrovnik -streek was daar nog 'n manlike Benediktynsklooster, die & quotSt. Andrew van die oop see & quot (in pelago). In die 12de eeu het hulle die hele eiland Mljet met sy klooster en die kerk van St Mary besit. Die noemenswaardige kultuurwerkers in die Benediktynse orde, die digters Mavra Vetranovi ć en Ignjat Đurdevi ć, asook die historikus Mavra Orbin moet genoem word.

Die legende van die Lokrum -vloek het ontstaan ​​toe 'n Franse leër -generaal die sluiting van die klooster en die uitsetting van die Benediktyne beveel het. Die aristokratiese families van Dubrovnik, Gozze, Pozza en Sorgo, is gekies om hierdie bevele aan die monnike oor te dra.

Volgens die legende was die monnike ontsteld oor die bevel van die Franse generaal en het hulle alles in hul vermoë gedoen om te bly waar hulle eeue lank gewoon het. Toe alles misluk, het hulle op 'n nag na die Kerk van Maria gegaan om 'n laaste mis vir God op die eiland te bedien. Die monnike het hul mantels met kappies aangetrek en die eiland omseil in 'n lang en plegtige optog met een lêer. Simbolies, as 'n vloek, draai hulle hul aangesteekte kerse onderstebo na die aarde toe, sodat die vlam die was lek, wat 'n gesmelte spoor agterlaat.

Hulle het drie keer op die eiland rondgegaan, wat die hele nag geduur het en die vreeslike en harde woorde van die vloek plegtig gesing het:

"Elkeen wat Lokrum beweer vir sy eie persoonlike plesier, sal verdoem word!"

Teen dagbreek het hulle doodmoeg 'n boot aangepak en die eiland verlaat en nooit een keer teruggekyk nie. En hulle het nooit weer teruggekeer nie.

Die legende sê dat die vloek wat op die eiland gelê is, gou in werking begin tree het. Een van die drie aristokrate in Dubrovnik het deur 'n venster gespring, die ander verdrink in die see op pad na Lokrum, en 'n bediende het die derde doodgemaak.

Kaptein Toma & scaronevic het die eienaar van die eiland geword na die val van die Republiek. Hy was 'n uiters welgestelde man, maar hy word skielik bankrot nadat hy die eiland gekoop het, wat hom genoop het om Lokrum te verkoop. Dit is verkoop aan die aartshertog Maximilian, die jonger broer van die Oostenrykse keiser Francis Joseph I.

Maximilian ontdek Lokrum toevallig in 1859 toe die skip & quotTriton & quot, na 'n ontploffing, voor Lokrum sink. As vlootbevelvoerder van die Oostenryk-Hongaarse monargie moes hy die dooie seemanne eer. By hierdie geleentheid het Maximilian vir die eerste keer sy voet op die eiland gesit. Hy het die antieke Benediktynse klooster uit die 11de eeu gesien wat tydens die aardbewing van 1667 beskadig is. Na die stormwind van Schonbrunn was hy onder die indruk van die stilte van die dik aromatiese woud. Hy het besluit om die eiland aan te skaf en dit reeds gedurende die eerste nag wat hy in 'n monniksel van die ou klooster deurgebring het, in sy somerhuis te verander. Hy voeg by 'n belvedere en plaas sy voorletters oral, selfs op slotte en sleutels, om sy eienaarskap van Lokrum te beklemtoon.

Hy het vanielje- en Indiese vyebome geplant. Hier lees hy verse van Heine hardop, terwyl sy Belgiese vrou, prinses Charlotte, sykussings borduur. So naby, maar tog so ver van Europa en hofskandale, het hulle gedink dat hulle die gelukkigste egpaar op aarde is.

Hy het geen idee gehad dat sy optrede slegs die vloek uitlok wat teen die persoonlike eienaarskap van Lokrum gerig is nie. Maximilian, as die eienaar van 'n paradys, het dit geniet om paadjies deur die woude van denne, baai, palm, sipres, aloja, oleander, lemoen, suurlemoen, lelies en rose te merk, oral op die eiland en tot op sy hoogtepunt, na die vesting & quotFort Royal & quot gebou deur Marmont in 1806, toe sy troepe in Dubrovnik binnegekom het. Hy vestig kolonies kanaries, papegaaie en poue op die eiland.

As sy kyk na al hierdie bedwelmende en ontroerende skoonheid, skryf Charlotte briewe aan haar neefs en vriende oor die geluk wat sy en Maximilian geniet het, nadat sy ure lank in die nag klavier gespeel het.


Daarna het die plig, of waarskynlik die Benediktynse vloek, hom na Mexiko geneem, waar hy in 1864 as keiser gekies is. Na slegs drie jaar is hy deur die soldate van die rebelse generaal Juarez gevange geneem. Hy is op 19 Junie 1867 in Quereteri geskiet.

Die eiland is daarna te koop aan die Dubrovnik County aangebied. Volgens die legende sal dit nie eers vir die klein bedrag van 20 000 silwer muntstukke gekoop word nie. 'N Rukkie later is dit deur Dujmovic gekoop van Poljica, afkomstig van 'n gesin wat eens die titel & quotconte de Polisa & quot van Venesië ontvang het. Hy het ook 'n vinnige en volledige finansiële ramp beleef. Die eiland is toe gekoop deur die advokaat dr Jakopovic uit Boedapest, wat bekend was vir die bestuur van sommige van die sake van die keiser Francis Joseph I. Maar kort nadat hy die eiland gekoop het, is ontdek dat hy hom onwettig toegewys het die titel van Doctor in Regswetenskappe, en dat hy eintlik 'n kapper was! Die ondersoek, wat 'n groot skandaal in die Weense en Boedapest -samelewings veroorsaak het, het aan die lig gebring dat hy hierdie titel van 'n dooie soldaat aangeneem het na die rewolusie in 1848. Sy besittings is nie gekonfiskeer nie, danksy die keiser se ingryping, in 'n poging om sy eie te verminder persoonlike skaamte, maar hy is moreel totaal verwoes. Uit die samelewing waaraan hy gewoond was, is hy kort daarna dood, ontevrede en skaam.

Sy neef, 'n jong Hussar -offisier, het die eiland geërf. Reeds op die eerste dag van sy aankoms het 'n baie sterk wind sy boot tussen Dubrovnik en die eiland omgeslaan, en hy het verdrink. Die Habsburg's verskyn toe weer as die eienaars. Rudolf, die troonopvolger en die enigste seun van die keiser Francis Joseph I, en die keiserin Elisabeth van Beiere, het Lokrum liefgehad. Hy het sy vrou, Stefanie, na Lokrum genooi. Hulle het 'n rukkie daar gebly en eksotiese plante by die park van die eiland gevoeg. Rudolf het egter gou verlief geraak op die pragtige minnares Maria Vecer. Saam het hulle in die Mayerling -paleis die opspraakwekkende dubbele selfmoord gepleeg, wat nooit heeltemal verduidelik is nie.

Die keiserin Elisabeth (1837-1898), aangevuur deur verhale oor die vloek, besluit dat die koninklike familie van hierdie eiland ontslae moet raak. Voordat sy na Korfu vertrek, het sy dit aan die Benediktyne aangebied, in die hoop dat die vloek daardeur opgehef sou word. Hulle het egter getrou gebly aan die belofte van hul broers dat hulle nooit weer na hierdie eiland sou terugkeer nie en het die aanbod van die koninklike hof van die hand gewys. Die familie van die keiser, behep met die vrees om nog 'n lid te verloor, nadat hy reeds twee verloor het, het sy geld aan die Dominikane van Dubrovnik gegee sodat hulle die eiland as die nuwe eienaars kon koop, op voorwaarde dat enige van die Habsburgers weer kon koop die eiland wanneer en as hulle dit wou.

En so is daar werklik 'n femme fatale gevind om dit te doen. Op die veiling wat aangekondig is vir die verkoop van Lokrum, verskyn die biskop Josip Juraj Strossmayer met 'n aanbod van 30 000 forinths deur 'n tussenganger, Mihovil Pavlinovic. 'N Telegram het egter beveel dat die veiling gestaak word. Die aanname dat enigiemand uit die keiser se huishouding Lokrum wou koop, was waar. Dit was die kleindogter van Francis Joseph I, prinses Elizabeth Windischgratz, wat die dogter was van Rudolph, die troonopvolger. Sy het hom oorreed om Lokrum te koop, wat hy op 01 Oktober 1879 gedoen het. Vyf jaar later, op 27 Mei 1888, het hy die eiland onder sy naam geregistreer. Kort nadat haar ouma, die keiserin Elisabeth, in 1898 van Korfu na Genève teruggekeer het, is sy vermoor deur die Italiaanse anargis Lucceni, in 'n geval van 'n verkeerde identiteit.

En. die einde van die Habsburg's is bekend. Die oudste seun van die aartshertog Francis Ferdinand wat op 18 Junie 1914 in Sarajevo vermoor is, het as landboukundige geëindig: die prinses Windischgratz het in 'n nagklub in Praag skote afgevuur op 'n danser wat die meesteres van haar man was, en is daarna onterf deur haar koninklike ouers. Uiteindelik, in 1918, na presies 700 jaar, het die Habsburgers ook hul kroon verloor.

Maar dit is nie die einde nie. Bogenoemde vorm slegs 'n deel van die verhaal wat die Lokrum-vloek verbind tot histories bekende persone. Bygeloof het Lokrum egter ook omring. Dit het die legende van die Lokrum -vloek uitgebrei met ontelbare verhale en verhale wat deur die metafisika gekleur is tot so 'n mate dat die histories ware gebeure, wat deur die eeue verder deur bygeloof verdraai en verdraai is, gelei het tot 'n sekere onverklaarbaarheid wat bekend staan ​​as - die raaisel van Lokrum.

Die bygeloof het so wydverspreid geraak dat niemand vir baie lank op Lokrum kon woon nie. Die paleisbediendes sou nie snags die paleistuine binnegaan nie, want demone sou die koppe van hul geliefdes in 'n donker erotiese woede afsny en hulle harte aan hul rokke vaswerk. Stylvolle aristokrate, wat verandering wou soek, wou graag met hul manlike diensknegte meng, sodat hulle hierdie legende baie noukeurig volgehou het. Onder sy beskerming kon hulle snags vrylik in die tuin van liefde vergader.

Fantasie het ook 'n aantal geheimsinnige verhale rondom die Lokrum -grotte gevleg, waar die see tydens storms woed. Die weerklank daarvan weerklink as 'n harde slag van die aarde op die voorblad van 'n kis. Volgens ou dokumente in die Dubrovnik -argief is misdadigers gedurende die Middeleeue uit die steil Lokrum -kranse in die see gegooi, andersins bekend vir sy wrede strawwe. 'N Bekende legende beskryf hoe die skip van die Engelse koning, Richard the Lion-hearted, tydens 'n hewige storm op die Lokrum-kranse gewerp is. Volgens die legende het die Bosniese koning, Tvrtko, ook 'n heiligdom te midde van die mure van die Benediktynse klooster gevind. Maar Lokrum weet ook hoe hy barmhartig moet wees teenoor die ongelukkiges. In 1859 ontplof die Oostenrykse skip & quotTriton & quot; in die Lokrum -kanaal. Slegs een oorlewende het oorgebly ná die tragedie - 'n gevangene wat in die ingewande van die oorlogskip opgesluit was weens misdaad. Die warrelwind van die hewige ontploffing het die ongelukkige ellende met oorblyfsels van die ketting heeltemal ongedeerd op die wal verdryf, terwyl die res van die bemanning omgekom het. Die Oostenrykse admiraliteit het die ondersoek van hierdie ramp aan 'n bevelvoerder van die keiserlike vloot - Maximilian, toevertrou. Hy het verlief geraak op Lokrum, dit gekoop en so die wiel van geluk begin wat hom tot so 'n tragiese einde gelei het. Tydens sy verblyf op Lokrum saam met sy vrou Charlotte het die verliefde Maximilian 'n hart gegraveer met die eerste letters van sy en Charlotte se naam in 'n groot eik dateer uit die 14de eeu, langs die paleis. Volgens die romantiese legende het hy daardeur vyandigheid opgedoen, aangesien dit 'n historiese eik was, waaronder die senaat van Dubrovnik gereeld ontmoet het. 'N Storm verskyn voordat hy na die oewer van Lokrum terugkeer. Weerlig het hierdie eikeboom getref en die gegraveerde monogramme het verdwyn en net die hart gelaat. Dit word beskou as 'n teken van 'n dreigende ramp.

Na die dood van Maximilian besoek Charlotte Lokrum in die geselskap van 'n graaf - haar bewonderaar. Toe sy die eiland nader, kon sy skaars die dood vermy, want haar seiljag het onverklaarbaar omgeslaan en vinnig gesink. Koraaljagters het haar gered. Volgens die legende, dieselfde wat haar vervloek het terwyl Maximilian nog gelewe het. Volgens die legende het sy hierdie ongeluk beleef omdat sy 'n halssnoer gedra het van die koraal uit die dieptes naby Lokrum. Volgens oorlewering het die arme koraaljagters eeue lank die gevaarlike handel van hul vaders gevolg in die hoop dat hulle uiteindelik op 'n geheime onderwater grot met 'n rif met pragtige koraal sou afkom en sodoende ryk sou word. Na 'n lang tyd het hulle hierdie rif werklik op 'n dag gevind, maar dit bevat slegs een koraal. Teleurgesteld vervloek hulle die aristokraat wat dit sou dra.

Die nuwe eienaar van Lokrum het Rudolf geword, die troonopvolger. Hy het sy wittebrood hier saam met sy Stefanie deurgebring. Die verhaal gaan dat Mount Srd geruk het toe die jong paartjie aan die kus van die eiland klim. Daar word gesê dat hierdie klein aardbewing 'n waarskuwing was vir die ongeluk wat by Mayerling sou volg.

Koningin Elisabeth, vrou van die keiser Francis Joseph I, het die eiland eens besoek. Weens bygeloof het sy egter geweier om daar te oornag. Die aartshertog Francis Ferdinand en sy vrou Sophia was van plan om die somer van 1914 op die eiland deur te bring, maar is deur die koeëls van 'n sluipmoordenaar in Sarajevo verhinder.

Vandag is Lokrum 'n rustige uitstapplek vir toeriste, en al hierdie legendes het moontlik bygedra tot die standvastigheid van die burgers van die antieke Republiek om hul eie leuse - beroemd en vry - te hou.

Bron: http://www.dubrovnik-online.com Uit: & quotDubrovnik - tussen geskiedenis en legende & quot
Skrywer: Dr Marko Margaritoni

Die boek "Dubrovnik - tussen geskiedenis en legende" met nog baie meer boeiende en interessante legendes en verhale, is tans in Engels en Kroaties beskikbaar en kan bestel word deur self die skrywer te kontak.


Lokrum -eiland

Natuurliefhebbers, die meerderheid besoekers, wil 'n verfrissende duik in die somer hê om af te koel. En Lokrum bied die perfekte geleentheid.

Gereelde varkafwykings is beskikbaar vanaf die hawe in die ou stad van Dubrovnik, die reis duur 15 minute.

Die naam Lokrum kom waarskynlik van die Latynse woord "acrumen" wat "bitter vrugte" beteken. Suurlemoene en lemoene floreer vandag nog op Lokrum.

Die see het die rand van die eiland bepaal. Tydens die meer hewige storms stuur rukwinde golwe wat met groot impak op die kranse van die oostelike en suidelike dele van Lokrum val. Erosin het ook gelei tot Lokrum se klein natuurwonder - die Dooie See - 'n dam wat gevorm is deur eeue storms en die spesifieke vorming van die eiland se rotsagtige kuslyn. Die seegolwe stroom oor die strand en stort in 'n diep, rotsagtige grot wat met ondergrondse kanale met die meer verbind is.

Die geskiedenis

Die eiland is die eerste keer genoem in 1023. in 'n petisie van die stad se landdros en aartsbiskop Vital in Dubrovnik aan Benedictine Petar waarin 'n klooster op Lokrum opgerig word. In die 11de eeu is 'n Benediktynse klooster gestig, en die stad Dubrovnik het die hele eiland aan die klooster gegee sodat dit homself kon onderhou.

Dit is nie toevallig dat die klooster gebou is op die deel van Lokrum wat na die oop see kyk nie. Lokrum is so geleë dat dit 'n belangrike strategiese punt is om Dubrovnik en sy hawe te beskerm. Daar was 'n wagtoring op die klooster, en dit was die monnike se plig om Dubrovnik, met 'n rooksein of 'n vuurtjie, te waarsku oor bote wat uit dreigende rigtings verskyn tydens tye van oorlog of epidemie.

Koning Richard die Leeuhart

Die legendariese Engelse koning Richard die Leeuhart het ná die derde kruistog by Lokrum verbygegaan, en die mense van Dubrovnik het hom genooi om hul stad te besoek. Dit was 1192. Dit lyk asof die koning probleme ondervind het met sy vloot tydens die reis, sy skepe was byna verlore in die Ioniese See tydens 'n geweldige storm - en Richard Lionhearted het gesweer dat as hy dit oorleef, 'n kerk sou bou in die eerste plek dat hy voet aan land gesit. Dit was op die eiland Lokrum. Die slim mense van Dubrovnik het toestemming gevra om Richard se fondse, wat bedoel is vir die bou van die Lokrum -kerk, te gebruik om 'n katedraal in hul stad te bou, met die belofte dat hulle sy eed sou nakom en sou sien dat 'n kerk op Lokrum op eie koste gebou sou word. En so was dit. Die mense van Dubrovnik het die belofte nagekom en die Kerk van die geseënde Maagd op Lokrum gebou.

Die vloek van die eiland Lokrum

Na die verwoestende aardbewing in 1667. Die Benediktyne was 'n groeiende las vir die Republiek, daarom vra die mense van Dubrovnik die pous se toestemming om Lokrum te verkoop en verduidelik dat die Republiek nie meer geld het om sulke instellings te ondersteun nie. Aan die begin van die 18de eeu, van 1800 tot 1803. verkoop die Dubrovnik -regering Lokrum aan private kopers.

In 1806. Franse soldate het die stad binnegekom, en dieselfde jaar, op Glavica, die hoogste heuwel op Lokrum, is Fort Royal gebou. Frans Marshall Marmont beëindig die Republiek van Dubrovnik in 1808. Dit was die einde van die Republiek van Dubrovnik.

Gedurende die daaropvolgende jare het die eiland gereeld van eienaarskap verander, maar was meestal die eiendom van die Oostenrykse Habsburg -familie. Maximillian Habsburg, toekomstige keiser van Mexiko, het die eiland die eerste keer besoek as gevolg van 'n tragiese ongeluk, toe 'n ontploffing Triton, die Oostenrykse oorlogsman waarop hy was, vernietig het. 'N Kruis is as 'n gedenkteken op die noordelike deel van Lokrum opgehef.

Maximillianus het onmiddellik na die aankoop van die eiland 'n somerhuis begin bou op die terrein van die voormalige Benediktynse klooster. Tydens die konstruksie is baie kulturele en historiese oorblyfsels vernietig, en die binnekant van die bestaande klooster is heeltemal verander.

Spesiale reservaat van bosplantegroei

Lokrum was eeue lank feitlik onaangeraak. Kenners het die voorkoms daarvan beplan, wat u tydens elke stap van u wandeling op die eiland kan sien. Moeder natuur het altyd hier die hoogste geheers. Die enigste ingrypings is die roetes, en soms 'n heining of bome. Vandag is Lokrum 'n baie gewilde toeristebestemming vir besoeke aan Dubrovnik, en 'n spesiale reservaat van bosplantegroei onder beskerming van UNESCO. Daarom is dit nie toegelaat om die natuurlike en kulturele goedere op die eiland in gevaar te stel nie. Honde word nie op die eiland toegelaat nie.

Die hele kus van die eiland Lokrum kan as 'n strand beskou word; dit is net belangrik waar u die see kan nader as gevolg van die rotsagtige formasie. Vanweë die natuurlike skuiling is daar in die suidoostelike deel van die eiland 'n naakstrand. As u nie van FKK hou nie, beveel ons aan dat u 'n dag by die Dooie See deurbring.


3 Antwoorde 3

In beginsel was hulle nie veronderstel om hul bevel te verlaat nie, omdat hulle lewenslank 'n gelofte afgelê het. In die praktyk het sommige wel vertrek, en sommige is daarna weer toegelaat. Die tydperk wat hier gedek word, is egter baie lank, en verskillende bestellings - en individue binne bevele - was waarskynlik soms meer, soms minder geneig om mense toe te laat. Gevolglik het sommige net weggehardloop. Kortom, dit is 'n bietjie ingewikkeld.

Wanneer die proeftydperk verby is, laat hulle in gehoorsaamheid ontvang word, en belowe om hierdie lewe altyd te onderhou en altyd te heers en, volgens die bevel van die heer pous, sal dit hulle absoluut verbied word om die bevel te verlaat.

Beginners kan egter weggaan. Hierdie volgende bron oor Augustiniërs maak dit ook duidelik:

Aan die einde van die proeftydperk, die beginner is na die hoofstuk gebring en gevra of hy wil weggaan en gaan sy eie weg of bied homself aan God en die orde.

Vir Karmeliete was dieselfde 'reël' van toepassing:

Nadat hy eers bely het, bly 'n broer onderhewig aan die lewensorde.

bind die monnik in liggaam en gees vir die res van sy lewe aan die gemeenskap van sy beroep, waar hy onder 'n reël sowel as 'n abt dien.

Benediktyne was dus, anders as byvoorbeeld Fransiskane, nie net gebonde aan die orde nie, maar aan 'n spesifieke klooster.

Ten spyte van hierdie geloftes, was daar egter gevalle waar monnike en nonne toegelaat is om te vertrek, gedwing is om te vertrek of weg te hardloop. Die skrywer (of skrywers) van die 6de eeu Regula Magistri (Reël van die Meester) was nie so naïef om te glo dat sommige rekrute nie sou wou weggaan nie:

. in die reël lees ons dat die ou klere van die nuwe lid "in die onderkamer geplaas moet word om bewaar te word, sodat as die duiwel hom te eniger tyd instem om uit die klooster te gaan - mag dit nie gebeur nie - dan kan hy die klere van die klooster uittrek

Heropname was moontlik, selfs nadat u meer as een keer vertrek het. Op "Of broers wat die klooster verlaat, weer ontvang moet word"

'N Broer wat uit sy eie skuld uitgaan of uit die klooster verdryf word, as hy wil terugkeer, belowe eers elke regstelling vir die fout. as hy weer vertrek, sal hy tot die derde keer ontvang word. Die wete dat hierna elke geleentheid vir terugkeer vir hom geweier word.

Een so 'n geval is in Ouville in Normandië aangeteken:

In 1249 te Ouville, 'n huis van Augustynse kanonne, beveel Eudes die voorafgaande om 'n aparte plek in die huis voor te berei vir John Gallië, wat hom dikwels aan die bevel onttrek het. Hy mag nie op vrye voet in die klooster wees nie, niemand mag met hom praat sonder toestemming van die voorafgaande nie, en 'n boek moet alleen aan hom gegee word "sodat hy sy ure kan sing". Dit staan ​​hom vry om die huis heeltemal te verlaat as hy wil, maar as hy dit doen, moet hy 'permanent uit die bevel geskors word'.

Waldebert pas vir nonne 'n hoofstuk van die Benediktynse reël aan waarin die skrywer 'n meer ontspanne omhulsel voorstel soos dit op monnike geld. Benedictus stel die monnik in staat om tot drie geleenthede terug te keer na die gemeenskap as hy “deur sy eie bose optrede van die klooster afwyk”. Nadat hy weer toegelaat is, sou die monnik sy foute regstel, waarna hy teruggekeer het na die gemeenskap in die laagste rang.

Die oortreding van reëls was 'n moontlike manier om gedwing te word om te vertrek, maar dit kan ook terugskiet en tot gevangenisstraf lei. Byvoorbeeld, onder die Karmeliete in die 13de eeu,

Onvermydelik was nie alle rekrute gereed om te hou nie, maar bly enige afwyking van die reël was onderhewig aan harde dissipline. Reeds in 1227 het Gregorius IX die voorafgaande toegelaat om afvalliges (weglopers) uit die bevel te hanteer en teen 1269 is die vorige generaal gemagtig om skei die afvalliges en die ongehoorsames uit die tronk en sit hulle in die tronk.

Met verloop van tyd is dit egter duidelik dat verskillende standaarde toegepas is en dat dit baie van die abt of abdis afhang. 'N Mens sou eenvoudig kon vra, soos in die geval van die verhaal van hierdie monnik wat deur pous Gregorius die Grote in sy biografie van Sint Benedictus vertel is:

'N Monnik wat' onstabiel van gees 'geword het, het Benedictus voortdurend gevra om die klooster te verlaat en so 'n oorlas gemaak dat Benedictus hom' woedend beveel het om te vertrek '

Dit was duidelik dat dit soms nie maklik was om uit te kom met die goedkeuring van 'n hoër gesag nie. Een non, Joan of Leeds, het haar eie dood opgeval. In 1318 skryf die aartsbiskop van York, William Melton, in 'n brief dat Joan,

"Met die hulp van talle van haar medepligtiges, het kwaaddoeners, met onbedagsaamheid van boosheid, 'n dummy gemaak in die vorm van haar liggaam om die toegewyde gelowiges te mislei, en sy het geen skaamte gehad om in 'n heilige ruimte onder die godsdienstige daardie plek."

Selfs vir koninklikes kan die aflegging van die geloftes ernstige sanksies tot gevolg hê. By die dood van Offa, die koning van Mercia, het Eadberht III Præn van Kent 'n opstand in 796 nC gelei teen die beheer van Mercian, wat blykbaar sy geloftes in die proses laat vaar het. Eadberht beweer anders, maar pous Leo III erken

Eadberht se vroeëre ordening en gevolglike onbevoegdheid vir die koningskap. Die kerk het geen ander alternatief gehad as om hom te veroordeel, te ekskommunikeer en te verwerp nie, soos pous Leo dit stel, 'met inagneming van die veiligheid van sy siel'

Een opsie vir lewenslange geloftes vir mans en vroue van die 13de tot die 16de eeu was om eerder Beguines (vroue) en Beghards (mans) te wees. Hulle

. het in semi-monastiese gemeenskappe gewoon, maar het nie formele godsdienstige geloftes afgelê nie. alhoewel hulle beloof het om nie te trou nie & kwotas solank hulle as Beguines leef, & quot om een ​​van die vroeë reëls aan te haal, was hulle te eniger tyd vry om te vertrek.

Monnike en nonne kon ook die keuse kry om te gaan of gedwing te word wanneer groter gebeure na vore kom. 'N Klassieke voorbeeld is die ontbinding van die kloosters in Engeland, toe die toewyding van die oorgrote meerderheid monnike en nonne duidelik geword het:

Nunnies was veral kwesbaar omdat die wiele van die ontbinding begin draai, omdat die kleinste en armste huise eers geteiken is. In 1536 is 'n wet aangeneem om die "mindere kloosters", gedefinieer as huise met 'n jaarlikse inkomste onder £ 200, te "onderdruk" (dit wil sê in die hande van die koning). Gegewe die keuse om die kloosterlewe te verlaat of na 'n ander huis oorgeplaas te word, het die meeste nonne laasgenoemde gekies: uit 'n totaal van ongeveer 900 vroue het slegs 100 gekies om hul geloftes in 1536-1537 te verloën.

Uiteindelik is die meeste van hierdie groter huise egter ook gesluit, sodat duisende monnike en nonne uit gedwing is.

Sommige Sack Friars was ook onderworpe aan magte buite hul beheer, wat oorleef het deur te bedel. Die bevel tot verbod van sommige bevele vir mendikante is geformaliseer by die Tweede Raad van Lyon in 1274. Otto, die rektor -generaal, het aan sy lede geskryf om aan hulle te sê dat, volgens grondwet 23,

. hulle kon nou die bevel verlaat: diegene wat wil, moet 'doen wat in hul eie oë goed lyk', 'n direkte weerspreking van die normale bepaling wat gewone godsdienstiges sonder huiwering aan die wil van die meerdere moet onderwerp.

& quotBesluit om te vertrek & quot was altyd 'n opsie om oorweeg.

En 'n mens sou dit natuurlik kon doen. Net doen dit. Maar dit lyk asof die vraag meer gaan oor die struikelblokke en koste wat daarmee gepaard kan gaan?

Soos natuurlik ook in die tronk besluit om te vertrek. Kan sy nie?

Dit is 'n ongelooflike groot tydsbestek om te ontleed en geen duidelike geografiese grens nie en geen duidelike onderskeid vir watter geloof of selfs die orde dit ontleed moet word nie.

Gewoonlik word van monnike en nonne verwag om hul geloftes te hou en te bly. Dit is op verskillende moeilikheidsgraad vir diegene wat op 'n jong of relatief ouer ouderdom aansluit. Of dit nou vrywillig was of deur een of ander druk. Veral vir diegene wat op 'n baie jong ouderdom aangesluit het, sou dit onmoontlik wees om terug te keer na die lewe wat hulle geleef het voordat hulle aangesluit het? Maar maatskaplike konvensies is 'n kwessie van voortdurende onderhandelinge en uitkomste word nie gewaarborg nie. Daar is baie uitsonderings op die reëls.

Die duidelikste voorbeeld om na te kyk, blyk Martin Luther te wees.

Daar was basies drie opsies:

  • vra vir toestemming
  • hardloop weg
  • word geskors (nie altyd vrywillig nie, maar moontlik)

Luther het byvoorbeeld 'n brief geskryf wat bloot toestemming gevra het om dit te doen.

Daarom besluit hy om die voorbeeld van sy broers te volg. Die keurvorst is op 'n oggend baie verras deur die sleutels van die klooster van Luther te ontvang, vergesel van 'n brief waarin hy sy wens uitspreek om die klooster te verlaat - die rok en naam van een monnik opzij te leggen en doktor Luther genoem te worden. In antwoord hierop het die keurvorst 'n stuk swart lap vir hom gestuur en vir hom gesê dat hy dit moontlik sou kon maak, maar dat hy nie die klooster moes verlaat nie.

- Elizabeth Jane Whately: The story of Martin Luther, 1862. (gBooks)

Nadat sy besluit en appèl geweier is, weet ons dat hy nie 'n monnik was nie. En ons weet dat sy toekomstige vrou ook 'n non was. Wat het gebeur?

Die verset van hertog George teen Luther se aanval op monastisisme is ingelig deur sy uitgesproke geregtigheidsgevoel. Hy het die geloftes van monnike en nonne as regsbindende ede beskou met verreikende gevolge, soos die verlies van alle sekulêre wetlike regte. Bedeling kon slegs deur die pous toegestaan ​​word. Deur hul kloosters te verlaat, oortree Luther se volgelinge die kerklike en die sekulêre wet. Dit is nie verbasend dat diegene wat kloosters verlaat, van kriminele opset beskuldig is nie. George exploited this theme, claiming that runaway monks and nuns always revealed themselves to be whores and scoundrels. The duke considered those who broke their vows to be dishonorable, and he consistently refused to acknowledge their legal rights. This was so in the case of a succession in Pirna10 as well as in the attestation of a former prior from the Kőnigstein monastery. George held the witness’s testimony to be worthless because it was known “how much to trust or believe the handwritten testimony of a man who has violated his vow and abandoned his habit and order.” This legal approach to religious vows was particularly evident in his conflict with Luther. By the start of 1523, George had added “apostate runaway monk” to his list of accusations against Luther.

— Christoph Volkmar: "Catholic Reform in the Age of Luther. Duke George of Saxony and the Church, 1488-1525", Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions, Volume: 209, Brill: Leiden, Boston, 2017.

After this period, the whole frame of ecclesiastical laws to apply as well as the connecting binds between profane and clerical spheres changes quite much. (Cf. — Anne Jacobson Schutte: "By Force and Fear: Taking and Breaking Monastic Vows in Early Modern Europe", Cornell University Press, 2011.)

One conspicuous example from earlier Catholic Europe, illustrates most of the obstacles and outcomes to expect:

Reading Hrabanus’ strong response to Gottschalk’s demands to leave, […]

As has been argued by earlier scholars, the Liber seems to have been Hrabanus’ riposte to the synod’s decision to award Gottschalk his freedom, since, though it does not mention Gottschalk by name, it concerns a particular monk who wanted to leave the monastery and who was supported by Saxon “notables” (primates). […]

Few options existed for early ninth-century monks wanting to leave the monastic life after taking their vows. There were anonymous runaway oblates and monks, who fled their cloisters without leave, but little is known about what they did thereafter.
Fulda itself had its fair share of runaways in the early ninth century. Such cases are important to this investigation because they show how Gottschalk sought to obtain his freedom through the proper episcopal channels in order to avoid jeopardizing his chances for a career outside Fulda.

Hrabanus also wrote that to disparage a part (species) was to mock the whole (genus). New Testament authors helped him shape his argument, including: (Mt 5, 19) “He who leaves out one of the least of these mandates, and teaches men so, will be called the least in the kingdom of heaven,” which comes from the Sermon on the Mount (Jac 2, 10) “He who offends in one thing, is made answerable for all” and other similar quotations. Hrabanus claimed that to blaspheme child oblation led to excommunication and Hell, and the only way to save oneself was through penitence worthy of one’s error. He condemned Gottschalk’s “doctrines” as new and wicked, arguing that instead of the backing of biblical and patristic authorities they were influenced by deceiving spirits of error with demonic teachings.

Whether Gottschalk won Ebbo’s favor again or not with his letter, like all the lesser traitors of 830, his sentence would have been commuted in 831. At that time Louis ordered the release of those forcibly cloistered, allowing them to recover their lost properties and to leave the monastery if they desired.

— Matthew Bryan Gillis: "Heresy and Dissent in the Carolingian Empire The Case of Gottschalk of Orbais", Oxford University Press: Oxford, New York, 2017.

That such conditions didn't apply equally across time and location and organizations is evident when we look at other examples. Like Symeon?

The father of Symeon the Theologian, as we have seen, was extremely distressed about Symeon's plan to take monastic vows […]
Even after Symeon had entered the Stuodios monastery, his family tried to persuade him to leave. In this case, not only did his father want the son as a support in his declining years, but the family hoped that he would have a successful secular career in Constantinople.

— Alice-Mary Talbot: "The Byzantine Family and the Monastery", Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 1990, Vol. 44 (1990), pp. 119-129.

Clearly showing that life wasn't always turning bad for those leaving a Christian monastery even if the rest of society didn't change confession and power bases.
However, this very person did leave indeed, but not really due to his own volition:

In 1009 Symeon was sent into exile near Paloukiton, a small village near Chrysopolis on the Asiatic shore of the Bosphorus. According to one account, he was left by church authorities alone and without food, in the middle of winter.

Another Monk called Simeon went directly from being Monk to King of the Bulgars, not be heresy but by simple heritage appointment, again demonstrating that any societal conventions are a matter of constant negotiations:

Around 888, Simeon returned to Bulgaria and settled at the newly established royal monastery of Preslav […] Meanwhile, Vladimir had succeeded Boris, who had retreated to a monastery, as ruler of Bulgaria. Vladimir attempted to reintroduce paganism in the empire and possibly signed an anti-Byzantine pact with Arnulf of Carinthia, forcing Boris to re-enter political life. Boris had Vladimir imprisoned and blinded, and then appointed Simeon as the new ruler.


Praktika

There are no houses or hotels on Lokrum but you will surely never go hungry with the wide assortment of restaurants, cafes, sandwich shops and bars. There are no grocery stores however which makes it wise to assemble any picnic in Dubrovnik. The visitor center at the port sells a useful booklet with a map in which all sights are explained. There's a network of paths crisscrossing the island and destinations are well-signposted. Beachgoers should either bring plastic swim shoes for navigating the island's rocky beaches or buy a pair upon arrival.


Mystic Story about Lokrum and Palmizana Arboretum

Guest blog from Dagmar Meneghello, who was recently on Lokrum for Earth Week.

Charismatic Maximilian, emperor of Mexico, who was shot in 1867. only 35 years old, after three years of reign, is credited for the creation of Croatian and world's most exotic parks.

Il Castello di Miramare next to Trieste, the Island Lokrum with his exotic garden in front of Dubrovnik, Castillo De Chapultepec in Ciudad de Mexico, La Casa Borda and the Misterious La Casa Del Olvido in Cuernavaca in Mexico, Palmizana near Hvar are precious World Heritage. What we might have not known is- all these exotic magnific gardens were created by credit and by influence of the most charismatic figure of the world’s global historic scene, the archduke Maximilian of Habsburg. He was born in 1832 in the majestic castle of Schoenbrunn in Vienna. Unfortunately, he was born as the second son, as the younger brother of the future Emperor, Franz Joseph. Fate has destined him to a lead a life in shadow, though he was taller, handsomer, more attractive, and more fun than his kingly brother. Through the courts of the Austro-Hungarians they were whispering that in Maximilian there was French blood, perilous blood of Napoleon Bonaparte, that he in fact was the fruit of a forbidden love of the archduchess Sophia with the prince of Reichstadt- Napoleon II., the son of Napoleon Bonaparte and his second, Austrian wife Maria Louise, a cowardly egg in the great Habsburg monarchy. His supposed father, the male heir of Napoleon Bonaparte, was in exile in Vienna, born in 1811 and dead already in 1832. Hence, not even 21 years old. They said that he was ill, but who knows. Maybe he was poisoned, maybe killed, because Europe has still not recuperated from the bloody conquering of the French corporal, later a Tsar, his father. But castles keep their secrets. The possibility that a rival French blood was flowing through the veins of his younger brother disturbed Franz Joseph, who was not really an adored emperor, so he kept Maximilian as far as he could from the court in Vienna. He gave him titles and assignments and took them away without notice. Franz Joseph appointed him as governor in Italy and later Admiral of the Habsburg fleet so he could, on July 27th 1857, marry the single daughter of the Belgian king Leopold, Charlotte, who has not yet turned 17 years and was one of the wealthiest and prettiest princesses in Europe.

With her dowry, the groom, who was 25 years old, finish to built the castle of his dreams from white stone on a cliff near Trieste , surrounded by the sea and gave the name – Miramare. He planted there a lot of exotic trees and blosooms. However in these areas are strong bora wind and not enough warm in winter time, and the garden was not so magnificient as he liked.
1959. Maximilian as Austrian Admiral sailed to Dubrovnik. He came to give respects to the dead sailors who were killed by the explosion on the ship Triton. He saw Dubrovnik island Lokrum, sleep one night in this beauty and fell in love: magical Island, Mediterranean warm climate, magnificent old monastery, which is intended to convert to the palace.. He inserted all his enthusiasm in its decoration and the construction of the palace as well as the creation of the botanical garden.

Lokrum was for him a piece of territory that challenged him with its beauty of nature and depth of time: and besides that every island has the girth of an empire.

The Miramare is a work ”of a cultivated and decisive client, who was not just satisfied by foggy denotations, but entered into the details of the organization of ground plans, into the shaping of volumes, into the minutia of the equipment of interiors, and especially, who entered into the details of those architectural elements that had to suggest the character, ”status” of the object, his desired historical reminiscence”. (dr. Željka Čorak). The Miramar library is enormous, overfilled with rare books, travelogues, scientific papers, it was there that Maximilian spent most of his time. His spouse would paint and play music. There he would write his travelogues, his scientific annotations, his poetry and prose. His connection to the sea was most important above all. Maximilian took good care that the sea was visible from all the windows. The rooms in the castle were characterized by the sea: The Hall of the Roses of Wind, The Hall of Seagulls. His ”naval” working room, his bedroom, were all shaped like cabins on a frigate.

“Such a transposal of space from a ‘floating’ into a ‘static’ context stems from an exceeding faith in the power of metaphor. It is sufficient to say ‘like’ so that something is ‘indeed’. Maximilian’s whim can be compared to, in harmless continuity, Marie Antoinette’s village, but he still pushes the limit of play and comes to the verge where the convention of reality starts to sway. The other fact that needs to be noted is that no authentic glass in the castle Miramar is white, it does not let natural light through. All of them have a slight breath of yellow or even purple color- the color of dawn or dusk. That again is a deviation of the realistic convention of time passing. Not only that one can choose and stop space but one can also choose and stop time

Dawn and dusk, however, are moments of that dubious relationship between lightness and darkness, when one does not know in which direction it will go. These favored moments of fantasy, they are in a symbolic resistance to the natural laws at the castle Miramare, enjoying their whole-day reign.”

Lokrum was for him love, freedom, and the dream home.

In the cool shade of palms, bougainvilleas and giant fern, as well as an enormous number of other trees and plants…Birds always singing, the local and inhabited ones. Hummingbirds, nightingales, peacocks, pheasants. numerous fountains, ponds, groves. And everywhere - where the eye can see – the offing of endless blue sea

The Vatican and the French offer Maximilian Mexican crown, and he and his wife have accepted it with enthusiasm. They gone in an unknown country in which the war was fought and started the Mexican Revolution. Helped by American soldiers Mexicans won and Maksimilijan was shot..

He himself remained a big mystery. Smart, virtuous in estimates, subtle- and then- the decision to leave for Mexico. Was he that desperate- a pompous ostrich with its head in the sand over which there was the thudding of guns?

When he saw that his Mexican adventure was turning into a fatal farce, he could have abdicated, he could have run away or sail away on his frigate Novara alive and well. Live luxuriously as an ex-emperor, of which there were quite a few at that time ”but he decided just when he was arriving to Veracruz, to return. In his mind, in his own heart Maximilian of Habsburg was a brave knight, the Emperor of Mexico,” wrote the novelist Sara Jorge Stephenson who at that time lived in Mexico.

Was he just listening to his wife and mother’s stories of honor and duty? Or did he himself create history, that one thing that would remain long after he is gone, the same way as when he painstakingly built the Miramare for future visitors, who would based on what they see judge the one who left it for them.

“Yo soy Mexicano” – I am Mexican. "Mexicans, may my blood be the last to be spilled for the welfare of the country and if it should be necessary that its sons should still shed theirs, may it flow for its good, but never by treason. Long live independence! Long live Mexico!" - "Que me sangre sea la ultima que se derrame en sacrificio a la patriay si fuese necessario algunos de sus hijos, sea para el bien de la nacion, y nunca en traicion de ella." There are also other versions of his last words before the shooting, but these have been said immediately after that tragic event by the Mexican dr. Reyes, who witnessed the execution so they seem most plausible. In that morning, so long, long ago, on the day of his death, in front of 3000 soldiers, a young emperor uttered his last proud words of love for the country he never understood and which rejected him.

The construction of the palace on Lokrum is stopping, failed big plans. Today ruins. Only the garden under the warm Mediterranean sun grew and flourished.

Lokrum has all the ingredients to become a world Mecca. A charismatic figure like the Mexican emperor, a beautiful castle, an overgrown park and- its curse.

The legend of the curse of the Benedictines enunciated by the monks when they were displaced from their island for all the future owners and pleasure seekers of this divine scenery, the arrival of the ones with good or bad karma, real gifts or the Danaos’ ones, was terrible.

“Let anyone be cursed whosoever disembarks on Lokrum for his own pleasure.”

Because of an order of a French general, the members of the aristocratic family Gozza, Pozza and Sorgo had to close down the Benedictine monastery on Lokrum, which was there since 1023 and chased away the Benedictines and forbid them to ever return. The monks heard the order, served their last mass at the church of Saint Mary, began a night procession with burning candles that they turned toward the ground. The wax dripped onto the ground whilst they repeated their horrible curse walking around the interior of the island.

Legend has it that their curse soon came to fruition. One of the three Dubrovnik aristocrats jumped out of the window, the other disappeared in the sea while the third was murdered at the hand of his servant. Captain Tomašević became the owner of Lokrum but soon he went bankrupt and sold the island to an enthusiast and dreamer, the archduke Maximilian, who saw his second home there.

After his death , Lokrum was offered on the market but for a long time there were no interested buyers. The new buyer, the count of Polis, Dujmović from Poljica, quickly succumbed to a complete financial ruin. And so it went until the unfortunate Rudolph, the only son of king Franz Joseph, who spent romantic evenings with his wife Stephanie, enjoying its beauty but his heart was drawn towards the gorgeous Maria Večera. Soon the world was shocked by the sensational news of the suicide of the two lovers in Mayerling, a tragedy that has never been completely unveiled.

It is said that the Queen Elizabeth, the popular Sissi, hearing of the curse, was intent on returning the island back to the Benedictines. She came to Lokrum when she was returning from Corfu. The Benedictines rejected her offer. As she was keen not to lose any more family members, she lost two already, she gave it to the city of Dubrovnik under the condition that anyone of the Austrian royal family could get it returned once they desired it.

Elizabeth, the princess of Windischgratz, wanted it. Both the Elizabeth had the same unfortunate fate. Sissi was killed accidentally by the Italian anarchist Luigi Luccheni , the princess Windischgratz shot at a dancer, the lover of her husband in a nightclub in Prague. The Habsburgs lost their throne after 700 years.

And so on, we could account numerous stories that happened on and around Lokrum. Tragic love stories, fatal events among the servants, unexplained disappearances- it all completed the mystery of this island, which always anew kept attracting with its specificity and beauty. A curse even stronger than the- Pharaon’s. Dr. Marko Margaritoni wrote of the Lokrum and Dubrovnik secrets in his interesting book ”Dubrovnik- between history and legend”.

Maximilian brought another park to Croatia, that- although scientifically disorderly, because of its particularity, grandeur and beauty became a big Mecca for global nomads: the Palmižana garden of the Meneghello family on Saint Clement, the largest islet of the Hvar archipelago. Foreigners dub it among the prettiest of the World.

The idea of its creation was born on Lokrum in Maximilian’s park, its planting began over more than a hundred years ago. The old owners, the family Meneghello, began to green the rocky ground of their property with plantations of rosemary, olives, grapes and aromatics around 1800. But it was not until their heir, botanist Eugen Meneghello, born in 1876, who served in Dubrovnik, skillfully designed a park on the large property of more than three million square meters. Those were expert drawings, as it is suitable for a professor of project design and a professor of natural science, a lover of botany.

The site around the ”Palmižana castle”, in fact a simple one-story, elegant, stone-clad with purple mortar family summerhouse, built somewhere before 1820, was meant to be an exotic garden with flowers, cactuses, succulents, palms. On the more fertile parts it was intended to serve for the cultivation of grapevine, olives while the fields, meadows and sunnier parts served for lavender and aromatics. In love with Maximilian’s garden Eugen Meneghello / as a young professor of botany started , a huge work and sacrifice - and done it. His students brought to him rare plants from all over the world , he imported exotic plants from Padova , the oldest botanical garden in the Europa…

In 1906 the professor started to plant one new, in these parts an unknown plant, tourism. He had an enormous wish for many other people to enjoy these spectacular gardens. “From the foundation of his guesthouse he kept a Book of Guests from which it is clear that from the beginning Palmižana enjoyed the visit of very demanding travelers, mostly well-educated globetrotters, for whom it was not difficult to recognize that the countryside on Palmižana was not a fight against nature but a balance with it, that long walks with the professor were not calisthenics but real botanical actions, that fishing was the return to a lost civilization of ancient Greece and that hunting grey partridges and pheasants was conducted by Meneghello in the exact fashion as the chivalry from the middle ages. ” (Slobodan Properov Novak)

A rifle enclosed in silver, like the sword, the family inherited from their ancestor Pierre Jerome Gaugiran, a pharmacist of Napoleon Bonaparte, who came to Hvar in 1807 and stayed there, and who passed upon the Meneghelllo family the until then unkown art of fractional distillation, so they soon opened a factory refining aromatic plants.

In 1859 the Habsburg archduke probably sailed along the Adriatic and used the calm bays of the Paklinski archipelago and dropped anchor there. Although the edifice Palmižana Castle was charted on the maps of the Austrian Lloyd, which were inscribed by Guiseppe Rieger in 1851, Maximilian probably did not know that at the same time on that island one Hvar-Venetian family produced more than half of the needs for aromatic plans and herbal essences for the Habsburg Empire.

On August 20th 1838 a ship connection was established between Trieste and Kotor. The largest shipping company employed an artist from Trieste to chart all ports and harbours, islands and the coast for the needs of the passengers- so the ” Panorama della costa e delle isole di Dalmazia nei viaggi dei piroscafi del Lloyd Austriaco Trieste 1850.” was created, which, although it was a small folded over booklet, when opened was ten meters long.

At that time the Meneghello family was wealthy, owners of a factory of aromatic plants that was the oldest and largest in south Europe on Saint Clement, ”Quintessenza”, the first pharmacy on Hvar, olive groves and numerous possessions all over the island of Hvar- they were the sole heirs of the Bervaldi family and two thirds of the Saint Clement island. They raised their children in Dubrovnik and Hvar, educated them in Vienna and Padova as professors, notaries and pharmacists. Imbued by all the good ideas of the XIX century and strong cultural centers from around, professor Eugen wanted to repeat Maximilian’s garden on his estate. Palmižana began to flourishing, blossoming…

His dreams were bluntly interrupted. In 1947 the Communist rule seized most of his estate, petty, communist, new local power-lords destroyed the arduously raised garden on an islet without water. As a member of a family who worked and inherited this estate for centuries, as a follower of tradition, he was considered an enemy of the totalitarian regime, he was chased into death, hung.

His and his family’s cultural and scientific work, with which they indebted their community, were thrown into oblivion- everything remained solely in the hearts of his successors. They, although depleted, with continuous efforts try to regain their property, rescue the little that was left, enrich and preserve this high-grade garden. In constant fear, under constant siege. Charisma, tragedy, the Palmižana garden of memories and the garden of oblivion. Magical gardens of buried hopes and always newly awoken aspirations, garden of love.

His namesake grandson Eugen Toto makes a great new part of arboretum - Toto’s, full of different kinds of palm trees and other new exotic plants. Because of this , just several times, and this year too, was declared a Saint Clement, Palmizana for the most beautiful Adriatic island, and the second for the beauty in Europe, after the Greek island Amorgos / Huffington Post/.

Our story of two manificient gardens and two big enthusiasts of Mediterranean and exotic vegetation, both passionate botanists, both followers of a tradition and both of a tragic end- chased into death, murdered- is a longing gasp to revitalize their work in our region.

”Maybe one day they will institute how the impulses of remembering and forgetting rhythmically equate history. In this game of antithesis and thesis the nineteenth century is a realistic victim of the twentieth century. Because the only thing that the 20th century worked on with its full effort and all its willpower was to forget. The forgetting of former systems of sacraments, former meanings, former values.”

Many names of founding gardeners in Croatia have been imprinted into the wind as they disappeared as their gardens. Sometimes their souls blink at night like a silent whirr of a bat’s wing. But that happens less and less. Today, in the XXI century we turn our sight only forward. And those bats, since they can only survive in an unpolluted environment, are less and less. The soul of the deceased professor Eugen Meneghello wanders around the Palmižana garden. Does the professor’s soul wander calm and at peace because the garden has survived, blossomed, grew bigger under the care of his descendants. Or is it unhappy and in panic what will happen to his closest that followed him in love and what life they will lead and what end will they have in this time we living..

Regarding Earth Day in Dubrovnik is being held event “ 7 days of Lokrum” with numerous sponsorships of those who love him. In program participated Dagmar Meneghello, "custodian" of Palmižana tradition.


Die geskiedenis “The Monastery” In 1843, in his last public speech, President John Quincy Adams (77 yrs. old) opened the new Observatory on the property now occupied by The Monastery. To coincide with this, the neighborhood received the new name ‘Mt. Adams’ (previously Mt. Ida) to honor the president. However, by 1873, the telescope had to be moved to escape the excessive pollution coming up from the city. It was at this time, The Holy Cross Monastery & Chapel were built on the property. Ironically, after suffering from pollution a century and a half ago, the property is now focused upon having a positive impact on the environment by achieving environmentally friendly LEED certification in 2015. According to USGBC, “LEED-certified buildings save resources and have a positive impact on the health of occupants while promoting renewable, clean energy”.

Die uitdaging

It was, essentially, in ruins.

In the mid-1970’s the Passionists Monks decided to consolidate their operations to Chicago. They sold The Monastery and Church to a developer who in turn sold it to a second. Neither was able to find an appropriate reuse. Then in 1982 Towne Properties acquired the property, and made The Monastery its corporate headquarters. But the chapel was a different story. Being on the National Register of Historic Structures, redevelopment of the church was filled with challenges and every plan fell to the wayside. The chapel remained vacant for decades and the once grand structure slowly faded. Weather took its toll on the roof and leaks wreaked havoc on the wide plank hardwood floors, the ceiling, plaster walls and the paint. Inside, except for an occasional art exhibit, the building sat quietly abandoned.


Lokrum Monastery - History


Benedictine by Fra Angelico

A monastery was a building, or buildings, where people lived and worshiped, devoting their time and life to God. The people who lived in the monastery were called monks. The monastery was self contained, meaning everything the monks needed was provided by the monastery community. They made their own clothes and grew their own food. They had no need for the outside world. This way they could be somewhat isolated and could focus on God. There were monasteries spread throughout Europe during the Middle Ages.

Why were they important?

The monks in the monasteries were some of the only people in the Middle Ages who knew how to read and write. They provided education to the rest of the world. The monks also wrote books and recorded events. If it wasn't for these books, we would know very little about what happened during the Middle Ages.


A Monastery by FDV

The Monks Helped People

Although the monks were focused on God and the monastery, they still played an important part in the community. Monasteries were a place where travelers could stay during the Middle Ages as there were very few inns during that time. They also helped to feed the poor, take care of the sick, and provided education to boys in the local community.

Daily Life in the Monastery

The majority of the monk's day in the Middle Ages was spent praying, worshiping in church, reading the Bible, and meditating. The rest of the day was spent working hard on chores around the Monastery. The monks would have different jobs depending on their talents and interests. Some worked the land farming food for the other monks to eat. Others washed the clothes, cooked the food, or did repairs around the monastery. Some monks were scribes and would spend their day copying manuscripts and making books.

Jobs at the Monastery

  • Abbot - The Abbot was the head of the monastery or abbey.
  • Prior - The monk that was second in charge. Sort of the deputy to the abbot.
  • Lector - The monk in charge of reading the lessons in church.
  • Cantor - Leader of the monk's choir.
  • Sacrist - The monk in charge of the books.

Monks generally took vows when they entered the order. A part of this vow was that they were dedicating their life to the monastery and the order of monks they were entering. They were to give up worldly goods and devote their lives to God and discipline. They also took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.


Lokrum – The Cursed Island

Lokrum is a small island off the city of Dubrovnik. It is a beautiful little paradise with a restaurant, botanical garden, walking routs and beaches (including a nudist beach). It would be a perfect place for a private mansion or a hotel, yet you will not find those on Lokrum. Hoekom? The history of Lokrum can not be told without its legend. And Lokrum’s legend includes a curse…

Somewhere around the year 1023, there was a big fire in Dubrovnik. The people prayed to Saint Benedict, vowing to build a monastery in his name if he spared the city. The fire was soon extinguished and the people build a Benedictine monastery and a church on Lokrum, which they dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary.

The legend of the Lokrum curse started when a French army general ordered the closure of the monastery and the expulsion of the Benedictines. Three aristocratic families from Dubrovnik were chosen to convey these orders to the monks. The monks tried to prevent this, but they failed.

After the last mass on the island, the monks donned their hooded cloaks and walked around Lokrum in a long, single-file procession. Symbolically, they turned their lighted candles upside-down towards the earth, so that the flame licked the wax, which left a melted trail.

They went around the island this way three times, ceremoniously chanting the terrible and harsh words of the curse: “Whosoever claims Lokrum for his own personal pleasure shall be damned!” At dawn, dead-tired, they embarked on a boat and left the island, never looking back. Hulle het nooit teruggekeer nie.

The legend says the curse soon started to do its work. The heads of those three aristocratic families died: one drowned, one was killed by a servant and one jumped out of a window. Misfortune followed every new owner of the island for several centuries: aristocrats and monarchs went bankrupt, had shipwrecks, barely survived earthquakes or were killed.

So, today, Lokrum is a beautiful destination you will enjoy only during the day. When the night falls, you will need to look for accommodation in Dubrovnik and enjoy the island simply by looking at it across the sea.


Lokrum Monastery - History

Grave goods at the Dubrovnik Museum indicate that Lokrum was inhabited since prehistoric times. A fragment of an ancient gravestone and four interlaced relief fragments, built into the south-west part of the former Benedictine monastery, were preserved. Certain records state that Lokrum was settled by the Benedictine monks around 915 A.D.

THE MONASTERY COMPLEX was first mentioned in 1023 as the first of many Benedictine monasteries on the territory of the Dubrovnik Republic. The entire island was owned by the monastery, while the abbey served also as a hospital and an almshouse until the mid-15 th century.

The Roman Curia granted the mitre in 1149 to the Lokrum Abbot and ever since then the monastery’s abbots, after the archbishop, are considered the first prelates of the Dubrovnik Church.

The night before the monks left, they gathered in their hoods, lit their candles, turned them upside down, and with their heads bowed, whispering prayers and murmuring songs, slowly walked around their ancient holding, mourning their loss and saying goodbye to their beautiful home.

The legend, of course, adds drama to such a goodbye.

The dark and mysterious line of monks in the end cursed the future owners of the island under the flickering light of candles. The legend, to which certain deaths and accidents that happened to local sellers and owners were associated, would have faded away if not for the tragedies which befell the family of the Austrian emperor and the Croatian king Francis Joseph I, whose family members owned Lokrum.

The execution of the emperor’s brother, Archduke Maximilian, in Mexico, the assassination of his wife Elisabeth at Lake Geneva and the suicide of his son and heir Rudolph in Mayerling violently and forever impressed the legend in collective memory and enshrouded the island in dark shadows.

The ruins of the monastery complex are divided into three parts. The most ancient are the remains of the three-nave and triconch Romanesque-Gothic basilica (12 th and 13 th century), the east and west monastery wing with its tower and a destroyed cloister.

In the 15 th and 16 th century, a new monastery in the Gothic-Renaissance style was constructed to the south of the old Romanesque one. The west and north wings of that monastery collapsed during the devastating earthquake of 1667, and only two wings with the cloister were preserved.

Over the cloister door a timeless and ever meaningful message is inscribed:

CONCORDIA.RES.PARUAE.CRESCUNT DISCORDIA.MAXIMAE.DILABUNTUR
(“Harmony makes small things grow, lack of it makes great things decay. ”)

At the beginning of the 1860s, in the south-east corner of the new monastery’s courtyard the summer villa of Maximilian I, the Emperor of Mexico, was constructed.

Built according to the owner’s wishes, where the south section of the east wing of the Romanesque-Gothic monastery used to stand, with a guardhouse, the summer villa is a blend of neo-Romanesque, neo-Gothic and neo-Renaissance elements which reflect the historic architecture of Maximilian’s time.

Die WOODSMAN’S LODGE was also erected in Portoč during that period and in the same style.

After the island’s function changed, the existing cisterns couldn’t provide enough water for the summer villa and the cultivated area. A LARGE WATER RESERVOIR en die CHARLOTTE’S WELL were constructed, while the SMALL WATER RESERVOIR is older and was built when the French ruled the island and the FORT ROYAL was erected.

Immediately after taking Dubrovnik in 1806, the French army started the construction of a fort on Lokrum due to the strategic importance of the island. The fort was erected on the hill Glavice (97 m) as a spacious battery with walls, ramparts and ditches. The Fort Royal was also used by the Austrian army which extensively added to it during the 1830s.

The circular fort consists of an antemural with towers and the main circular fortification, later called the Tower of Maximilian, although Maximilian I didn’t have anything to do with the construction.

The LAZARET complex was erected between 1534 and 1557 at the order of the Senate of the Dubrovnik Republic for protection against infectious diseases. The Lazaret had a square plan and double walls. The main gate (today walled up) was located in the north wall and above it the building inscription was engraved in 1557. The Lazaret also had premises for traders, sailors and passengers.

The Lazaret was never completed since the Republic gave up on the construction at the end of the 16 th century for strategic reasons. Since the fortified Lazaret could have served as a base for the invaders, the Republic started erecting the new lazaret at Ploče, near the town. A part of the Lazaret was torn down at the Senate’s order in 1647 and its stones were used to fortify the town walls. But the overgrown walls of the Lokrum Lazaret continued to fuel the locals’ imagination and a story was born.

A man noticed a beautiful plot of land on Lokrum and wanted to buy it. He negotiated with the Republic, with the monks, with everyone to whom it could have belonged. Nothing seemed to help, it was not for sale. His last resort was to use a cunning plan. The man asked the owner to sell him as much land as he could cover with cowhide. They made a deal. The man took the largest cowhide he could find, sharpened his blade and cut the hide as thin as he could. He made a belt and wrapped it around the stakes he had rammed in the ground around the plot. Then he called the owner and showed him his work. The owner could only recognize his defeat and sell what was fenced in by the belt.

The TRITON’S CROSS above Skalica Bay was erected in the memory of the sailors of the Austrian Navy ship Triton, which had anchored in front of Lokrum, who died on May 9, 1859 in a huge explosion. Out of the whole crew only ten men survived, and stories told in villages and in the town mostly focused on the rescue of the punished and chained sailor, whom some held responsible for the accident itself.

The tragedy brought to Dubrovnik and Lokrum the emperor’s brother, Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Habsburg, a wanderer, poet and a lover of nature, and the Navy’s commander at the time. Where the investigation led to is not certain, but Maximilian engraved the names of dead sailors on the cross erected in their memory. Moved by the event and the wonders he witnessed because of it, the archduke bought the island he fell in love with at first sight.

The old Lokrum harbor, SKALICA, can probably be found in another sea tale. This, perhaps the oldest story about Lokrum, is full of royal brilliance, crusading adventures and the dangers of stormy seas. The protagonist’s name: Richard the Lion Heart.

THE LEGEND OF RICHARD’S SHIPWRECK

On his return from the Crusade in 1192 the king of England sailed the Mediterranean waters in November, a stormy and dark month, on a Venetian ship.

The stories say that, exhausted by the strong winds and big waves, the king could only put his faith in the Heavens and vow to build two churches devoted to Mary the Blessed Virgin: one on the land he reaches first and the other in his homeland.

The interweaving of legend – possibly imagined by the Lokrum Benedictine monks – and history reveals Lokrum as the island which gave shelter to Richard’s ship, probably in the relatively safe anchorage in today’s Skalica, with a view of Dubrovnik.

According to Dubrovnik annals, when the locals noticed the anchored ship, a delegation was sent to greet the king and take him to Dubrovnik, where he was given gifts and where he could rest. And then, since just at that time they happened to plan the construction of a new cathedral, they managed to convince him to give his votive offering to the cathedral – the Republic will fulfill his vow by building a church on Lokrum. Soon after, Richard sailed to his destiny on a Dubrovnik ship.


Kyk die video: Экскурсия в Албанию из Будвыавгуст 2017г