Slag van Suessula, 343

Slag van Suessula, 343

Slag van Suessula, 343

Die slag van Suessula (343 v.C.) was die laaste groot botsing tydens die Eerste Samnietoorlog (343-341 v.C.), en was 'n groot Romeinse oorwinning. Nadat Samniete 'n nederlaag op die berg Gaurus en Saticula gely het, het hulle daarin geslaag om 'n derde leër op te rig, wat volgens Livy 'die hele vegsterkte van die land' bevat, en waarskynlik die oorlewendes van die vorige twee gevegte ingesluit het.

Hierdie leër het na Campania gegaan, waar dit Capua bedreig het. Boodskappers uit die stad bereik die kamp van die Romeinse konsul Valerius Corvus, wat waarskynlik nog op die berg Gaurus gevestig was, suidwaarts.

Toe hy Suessula bereik na 'n gedwonge opmars, bou Valerius 'n baie kleiner kamp as wat normaal was, met voordeel van die gebrek aan bagasie en kampvolgers, nog steeds terug op die berg Gaurus. Toe die Samniete die Romeinse kamp sien, het hulle geglo dat hulle slegs 'n klein leër in die gesig staar. Hulle bevelvoerders het daarin geslaag om te keer dat hulle 'n voortdurende aanval op die Romeinse kamp begin, en die twee partye het in 'n kort tydperk van onaktiwiteit gevestig.

Teen hierdie tyd het die Samniete gevaarlik gebrek aan voorraad, en omdat hulle geglo het dat hulle slegs 'n swak Romeinse mag in die gesig staar, het hulle groot soekende partye gestuur om kos te vind. Valerius het hiervan gebruik gemaak om 'n aanval op die Samnite -kamp te begin en dit in die eerste gejaag vasgelê. Livy skryf dat meer Samniete in hul tente doodgemaak is as op die mure.

Volgens Livy kon Valerius na hierdie sukses sy kavallerie gebruik om die Samnite -voedselpartye teen sy infanterie te dwing, terwyl hy groot slagoffers veroorsaak het. Hy teken ook die vang van 40 000 skilde aan, hoewel hy erken dat meer skilde gevang is as wat Samniete doodgemaak het. Na alle waarskynlikheid het die meeste van die Samnitiese leër eintlik oor die grens ontsnap, want as Livy se slagoffers geglo het, het die Samniete die oorgrote meerderheid van hul sterk mans in die drie gevegte van die Eerste Samnietoorlog verloor, en dit is duidelik uit latere gebeure dat dit nie die geval was nie.

Dit lyk asof die nederlaag op Suessula enige entoesiasme vir die oorlog in Samnium uit die weg geruim het. In die daaropvolgende jaar, toe die Romeine deur 'n muitery afgelei is, word geen Samniet -aanvalle aangeteken nie, en in 341, toe 'n nuwe Romeinse leër Samnium binnegeval het, is hulle begroet deur 'n vredesgesant, wat die oorlog beëindig het.

Romeinse verowerings: Italië, Ross Cowan. 'N Kykie na die Romeinse verowering van die Italiaanse skiereiland, die reeks oorloë waarin Rome verander het van 'n klein stadstaat in Sentraal -Italië tot 'n mag wat op die punt was om die antieke Mediterreense wêreld te verower. Die gebrek aan kontemporêre bronne maak dit 'n moeilike tyd om oor te skryf, maar Cowan het 'n oortuigende vertelling opgelewer sonder om die kompleksiteit te ignoreer.

[lees volledige resensie]


Slag van Suessula

Die Slag van Suessula was die derde en laaste geveg tussen die Samniete en die Romeinse Republiek in 343 vC, [nota 1] die eerste jaar van die Eerste Samnietoorlog. Volgens die Augustaanse historikus Livy [1] het die Samniete hulle leër by Suessula, aan die oostelike rand van Kampanië, versamel. Die Romeinse konsul Marcus Valerius Corvus het sy leër met gedwonge optogte na Suessula geneem. Toe die Samniete hulle leër na voedsel moes versprei, het Valerius die geleentheid aangegryp om die Samnite -kamp te vang en dan die Samnite -voerders te verower. Moderne historici glo dat die besonderhede van die geveg heeltemal uitgevind is deur Livy en sy annalistiese bronne, en die historisiteit van die geveg is ook bevraagteken.


Inhou

Volgens Livy begin die eerste samnitiske krig, omdat samnitterne angreb Sidicini, en stamme der bor nord for Campania. Die Campani, gelei deur die staat Capua, het 'n boodskap gestuur om hulp by Sidicini te kry, maar ons kan ook in Samnites kampeer. Samnitterne invaderede then Campania og vandt en ander slag op sletten naby Capua. U kan ook die volgende aanbiedings vir ons gebruik in die boek aanbied. Romerne, for trods for at had had en traktat with samnitterne, went with on at help and erklærede krig mod samnitterne.

De to romerske konsuler for 343, Marcus Valerius Corvus og Aulus Cornelius Cossus, marcherede each their hære mod samnitterne. Valerius voorte ham in Campania og Cornelius hans ind i Samnium. I Campania vandt Valerius die eerste romerske sejr mod samnitterne i slaget ved Gaurus-bjerget nær Cumae, mens Cornelius i slaget ved Saticula forvandlede en amper katastrofe tot en ander romersk sejr takket være Publius Decius Muss heltemod.


Maak die Halo Oneindige Gratis-speel-multiplayer die deur oop vir Battle Royale?

Kan Halo Infinite multiplayer wat gratis kan speel, met seisoenale opdaterings, 'n voorloper wees vir die implementering van 'n battle royale-modus in die spel?

Foto: Xbox Game Studios

Dit was 'n lang, moeisame reis Halo Oneindig. Die spel, wat eers op die E3 2018 aangekondig is, het 'n reeks vertragings, berigte van drama agter die skerms en baie kritiek beleef nadat dit in Julie verlede jaar onthul is. Op die verhoog op E3 ​​2021 het 343 Industries iets om te bewys: is Halo Oneindig werklik die toekoms van die geliefde shooter -reeks of 'n misstap vir die ateljee?

Tydens die Xbox- en Bethesda -konferensie het 343 nie net daarvan weerhou om nog 'n speeldemonstrasie te wys nie, maar het verkies om nie 'n vrystellingsdatum vir die spel aan te kondig nie. 'N Kort filmtrailer wat die storie van die veldtog en 'n sissie -spoel bekend stel wat die multiplayer -komponent beklemtoon, was die omvang van 343 se tyd op die verhoog. Op die oomblik, Halo Oneindig word nog steeds as 'n “Holiday 2020 ” -speletjie bestempel.

Of dit genoeg sal wees om die persepsie te verander Halo Oneindig daar moet nog 'n moeilike opvolger gesien word, maar een ding wat aanhangers sekerlik sal prikkel, is die onthulling dat die multiplayer-speletjie gratis vir alle Xbox- en rekenaargebruikers kan speel, met cross-play en cross-progressie moontlik tussen die platforms. Dit maak maklik Halo Oneindig‘s multiplayer die mees toeganklike in die franchise se geskiedenis, en dit kan 'n perfekte sprong op die punt wees vir nuwe spelers wat nog steeds op die heining is.

Die multiplayer kry seisoenale opdaterings, waarvan die eerste 'Heroes van reikwydte' genoem word. Elke seisoenale afname bring nuwe kaarte, modusse en aanpassingsopsies na die spel, insluitend die Yoroi Spartan pantser wat in die sleepwa hieronder verskyn:

Advertensie -inhoud gaan voort onder

'N Mengsel van oud en nuut is voor en sentraal in die sissende spoel. Ons sien nuwe weergawes van die Assault Rifle, Battle Rifle, Needler en ander sowel as die klassieke Warthog- en Ghost -voertuie op 'n paar nuwe kaarte, insluitend een wat net soos lyk Halo 3‘s klassieke Valhalla. Groot spanstryd, iemand? As ons van klassieke wedstrydtipes praat, blyk dit ook dat Slayer, Capture the Flag en Oddball verantwoordelik is.

Maar wat van nuwe modusse? As daar een#multiplayer -modus is Halo aanhangers het sedertdien gepraat Halo Oneindig Die eerste keer aangekondig is, is dit Battle Royale. Sedert 2018 het die meeste van Halo‘s grootste mededingers in die AAA -skietruimte, insluitend Call of Duty en Slagveld, het hul weergawes van die gewildste tipe PvP-oorlewingswedstryd bekendgestel. So sal Halo voorbeeld volg? Ons kan net bespiegel.

Die feit dat Halo Oneindig‘s multiplayer gaan gratis speel, laat beslis die deur oop vir die Battle Royale-sakemodel, waarmee spelers gratis die modus kan speel, terwyl hulle ook aanlok om nuwe velle, bykomstighede, kaarte en operateurs te koop hul ervaring personaliseer. Seisoenale opdaterings is ook deurslaggewend vir 'n battle royale, en voeg nuwe modusse, gebeurtenisse in die spel, uitdagings en skoonheidsmiddels by tot wat andersins eintlik 'n Groundhog Day-'n soortgelyke ervaring waar u maande lank oor en oor op dieselfde kaart speel en sterf.

Kortom, die infrastruktuur vir die implementering van 'n battle royale -modus in die spel is beslis daar, om nog maar te praat van dit Halo toe 'n franchise meer as 'n dekade lank geëksperimenteer het met multi-span PvP-wedstrydtipes voordat battle royale selfs iets was. Die reeks bevat ook al lank Big Team Battle, 'n wedstrydtipe met 'n groter aantal spelers as u gewone Deathmatch -formaat.

Kan 343 die geskiedenis in iets op 'n baie groter skaal vertaal, en die moderne ontwerp wat bygevoeg word, voeg by, terwyl dit ook behou Halo uniek (soos die bomenslike vermoëns van die Spartane)? A Halo Die Battle Royale -modus kan in elk geval jonger spelers lok waarmee hulle grootgeword het Fortnite en Call of Duty: Warzone om die sci-fi shooter te probeer, wat, laat ons dit maar sien, nie meer in sy goue era is nie.

Maar deur die jare het 343 gesê dat dit nie belangstel nie. 'N Maand daarna Halo Oneindig is eers onthul, Halo Die franchise -skrywer Jeff Easterling het berugte dat Battle Royale na die spel kom, afgeskiet en gesê: 'Ek sal jou nou vertel: die enigste BR waarin ons belangstel, is Battle Rifle. ” Halo Frank O ’Connor, direkteur van die franchise -ontwikkeling, het in 2019 weer herhaal dat die spel nie in 'n Battle Royale -modus sou begin nie.


Militêre konflikte soortgelyk aan of soos Samnite Wars

Die Eerste, Tweede en Derde Samnietoorloë (343–341 v.C., 326–304 v.C. en 298–290 v.C.) is gevoer tussen die Romeinse Republiek en die Samniete, wat op ’n stuk van die Apennynberge suid van Rome en noord gewoon het van die Lucaniërs. Wikipedia

Die derde en laaste geveg tussen die Samniete en die Romeinse Republiek in 343 vC, die eerste jaar van die Eerste Samnietoorlog. Volgens die Augustaanse historikus Livy het die Samniete hul leër byeengebring by Suessula, aan die oostelike rand van Kampanië. Wikipedia

Die eerste slag van die Eerste Samnietoorlog en ook die eerste geveg tussen die Romeinse Republiek en die Samniete. Beskryf deur die Romeinse historikus Livy as deel van boek sewe van sy geskiedenis van Rome, Ab Urbe Condita, waar hy vertel hoe die Romeinse konsul Marcus Valerius Corvus 'n harde geveg teen die Samniete op die berg Gaurus, naby Cumae, in Kampanië gewen het. Wikipedia

Oorlog gevoer deur Pyrrhus, die koning van Epirus. Gevra deur die mense van die Griekse stad Tarentum in Suid -Italië om hulle te help in hul oorlog met die Romeinse Republiek. Wikipedia

Van 91 tot 87 vC tussen die Romeinse Republiek en ander stede en stamme in Italië wat tot dusver eeue lank bondgenote (socii) van Rome was. Die Italiaanse bondgenote wou Romeinse burgerskap hê, nie net vir die status en invloed wat daarmee gepaard gegaan het nie, maar ook vir die stemreg in die Romeinse Republiek. Wikipedia

Die eerste geveg van die Derde Samnietoorlog. In die geveg verslaan die Samniete, bygestaan ​​deur die Galliërs, die Romeine, onder bevel van Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus. Wikipedia

In 293 vC tussen die Romeinse Republiek en die Samniete geveg. Die Romeine, onder leiding van die konsul Lucius Papirius Cursor, was oorwinnaars. Wikipedia

Geveg op 277 vC tussen 'n Romeinse en 'n Samnitiese leër tydens die Pirrhic War. Die Samnitiese volk het 'n bondgenootskap met koning Pyrrhus van Epirus teen die Romeinse Republiek gehad om die onafhanklikheid wat hulle tydens die Romeinse Samnietoorloë verloor het, te herwin, maar toe Pyrrhus Italië in 278 vC na Sicilië verlaat het, moes Pyrrhus en#x27 Italiaanse bondgenote teen die Romeine verdedig op hul eie. Wikipedia

Die beslissende stryd van die Derde Samnietoorlog, wat in 295 vC naby Sentinum geveg is, waarin die Romeine 'n formidabele koalisie van Samniete, Etruske en Umbriërs en Senone -Galliërs kon oorkom. Die Romeine het 'n beslissende oorwinning behaal wat die stamkoalisie (die Etruske, Umbriërs en Senones uit die oorlog onttrek het) verbreek het en die weg gebaan het vir die volledige oorwinning van die Romeine oor die Samniete. Wikipedia

Taktiese eenheid van die Romeinse Republiek aangeneem tydens die Samnietoorloë (343–290 vC). Ook die naam van die militêre tekens wat deur so 'n eenheid gedra word. Wikipedia

Konflik tussen die Romeinse Republiek en sy bure, die Latynse volke van antieke Italië. Dit het geëindig met die ontbinding van die Latynse Liga en die inkorporering van sy gebied in die Romeinse invloedsfeer, met die Latyns wat gedeeltelike regte en verskillende vlakke van burgerskap verkry het. Wikipedia

Die geveg het in 315 vC tydens die Tweede Samnietoorlog plaasgevind, teen die Romeinse Republiek en die Samniete, wat die Romeine verslaan het. In 315 vC verkies die Romeine Lucius Papirius Cursor en Quintus Publilius Philo as konsuls. Wikipedia

Die tweede van drie gevegte wat deur die Romeinse historikus Livy beskryf is, in boek sewe van sy geskiedenis van Rome, Ab Urbe Condita, wat in die eerste jaar van die Eerste Samnietoorlog plaasgevind het. Hy stap van Saticula af toe hy amper deur 'n Samnitiese leër in 'n bergpas vasgekeer was. Wikipedia

Die tweede van drie oorloë tussen Carthago en Rome, die twee hoofmagte van die westelike Middellandse See in die 3de eeu vC. Sewentien jaar lank sukkel die twee state vir oppergesag, hoofsaaklik in Italië en Iberië, maar ook op die eilande Sicilië en Sardinië en, teen die einde van die oorlog, in Noord -Afrika. Na geweldige materiële en menslike verliese aan beide kante, is die Kartagers verslaan. Wikipedia

Slag geveg c. 387 vC tussen die Senones - 'n Galliese stam onder leiding van Brennus wat Noord -Italië binnegeval het - en die Romeinse Republiek. Het geveg by die samevloeiing van die Tiber- en Allia -riviere, 11 Romeinse myl noord van Rome. Wikipedia

In 225 vC geveg tussen die Romeinse Republiek en 'n groep Galliërs wat in Italië gewoon het. Die Galliërs het die Romeine verslaan, maar later dieselfde jaar het 'n beslissende geveg by Telamon die teenoorgestelde resultaat gehad. Wikipedia

Beslissende gebeurtenis van die Tweede Samnietoorlog. Blote historiese formaliteit: daar was geen gevegte nie en daar was geen slagoffers nie. Wikipedia

Antieke kursiewe mense wat in Samnium gewoon het. Toegeskryf aan verraad wat deur sommige van sy burgers gepleeg is. Wikipedia

Die Romeinse uitbreiding in Italië dek 'n reeks konflikte waarin Rome gegroei het van 'n klein Italiaanse stadstaat tot die heerser van die Italiaanse skiereiland. Die Romeinse tradisie skryf die eerste oorlog teen die Sabines aan die Romeinse konings toe en die eerste verowerings rondom die Albanheuwels en tot by die kus van Latium. Wikipedia

In 305 vC tussen die Romeine en die Samniete geveg. Die Romeine is gelei deur twee konsuls, Tiberius Minucius Augurinus en Lucius Postumius Megellus. Wikipedia

Die era van klassieke Romeinse beskawing, gelei deur die Romeinse volk, begin met die omverwerping van die Romeinse Koninkryk, tradisioneel gedateer tot 509 vC, en eindig in 27 vC met die totstandkoming van die Romeinse Ryk. Gedurende hierdie tydperk het die beheer van Rome uitgebrei vanaf die onmiddellike omgewing van die stad tot hegemonie oor die hele Mediterreense wêreld. Wikipedia

In 325 vC geveg tydens die Tweede Samnietoorlog tussen die Romeinse Republiek, gelei deur die magister equitum, Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus en die Samniete naby Imbrinium, 'n stad in Samnium. Hy is aangestel as diktator met die doel om die oorlog teen die Samniete voort te sit nadat die konsul Lucius Furius Camillus dieselfde jaar siek geword het. Wikipedia

Antieke kursiewe mense. Volsciese migrasie na die suide van Latium het gelei tot konflik met die ou inwoners van die streek, die Latyne onder leiding van Rome, die dominante stadstaat van die streek. Wikipedia

Belangrike slag van die Derde Samnietoorlog, geveg in 297 vC naby Città di Castello (langs Perugia, in wat nou Sentraal -Italië is), waarin die Romeine 'n vasberade Samnitiese leër oorwin het. Die resultaat sou lei tot die beslissende Slag van Sentinum, wat Rome die oorheersing van Sentraal -Italië verleen het. Wikipedia

Tydlyn van die Italiaanse geskiedenis, bestaande uit belangrike regs- en territoriale veranderings en politieke gebeure in Italië en sy voorgangerstate, waaronder Antieke Rome en Prehistoriese Italië. Die datum van die prehistoriese era is ongeveer. Wikipedia

Die socii (in Engels) of foederati (in Engels) was konfederate van Rome en vorm saam met die Romeinse burgers (Cives) en die Latini een van die drie wettige denominasies in Romeinse Italië (Italia). Deel (die Latyns). Wikipedia

Romeinse konsul in die jare 312 vC, 308 vC, 297 vC en 295 vC. Hy was 'n lid van 'n gesin wat bekend was omdat hy hulself opgeoffer het op die slagveld vir Rome. Konsul in 312 vC saam met Marcus Valerius Corvus verkies. Wikipedia

Die verdrae tussen Rome en Kartago is die vier verdrae tussen die twee state wat tussen 509 vC en 279 vC onderteken is. Die verdrae het die verloop van die geskiedenis in die Middellandse See beïnvloed en is belangrik vir die verstaan ​​van die verhouding tussen die twee belangrikste stede in die streek gedurende daardie era. Hulle onthul veranderinge in hoe Rome homself waarneem en hoe Kartago Rome waarneem, en die verskille tussen die persepsie van die stede en die werklike kenmerke daarvan. Wikipedia

Belangrike stadium in Romeinse uitbreiding op die Italiaanse skiereiland. Die Samniete was 'n groep heuwelstamme wat die sentrale Apennyne beset het. Wikipedia

Samniet -generaal wat in die Tweede Samnitiese Oorlog teen die Romeine geveg het. Verslaan en gevange geneem in 305 vC, tydens die Slag van Bovianum. Wikipedia

Ovius en Novius Calavius ​​(albei oorlede in 314 v.C.), broers, was die seuns van Ofilius Calavius, 'n Kampaanse edelman tydens die Tweede Samnietoorlog (326-304 v.C.). Opstand teen die Romeine, maar toe hulle 'n sameswering ontdek en stappe geneem het om te keer dat hul plan in vervulling gaan, het hulle weggedoen eerder as om in hegtenis geneem te word. Wikipedia


Slag van Suessula, 343 - Geskiedenis

Hierdie wyse metode om die verskillende vakgemeenskappe te behandel, het die Latynse stede nader aan Rome vasgemaak en was die begin van 'n belangrike beleid, wat meer volledig uitgevoer is in die daaropvolgende organisasie van Italië en die Middellandse See.


SELEKSIES OM TE LEES
Arnold, Hist., Ch. 29, 'Die Groot Latynse Oorlog' (2). 1
How en Leigh, Ch. 13, 'Onderwerping van Latium' (1).
Liddell, Ch. 20, 'Groot Latynse Oorlog' (1).
Ihne, Hist., Bk. III., Hfst. 6, 'Groot oorlog met die Latyne' (2).
Mommsen, Vol. I., Bk. II., Hfst. 5, 'Onderwerping van die Latyns' (2).

KAART VAN LATIUM EN KAMPANIA na die Latynse verowering, die vind van die belangrikste dorpe en onderskeid tussen (a) dorpe volledig ingelyf, (b) dorpe gedeeltelik opgeneem, (c) vak bondgenote, (d) Latynse kolonies, en (e) Romeinse kolonies. — How and Leigh, p. 103, ook kaart tussen bl. 402 en 403 (1) Shuckburgh, kaarte op bl. 30 en 128 (1) Liddell, p. 193 (1) Pelham, pp. 81, 82 (1).


Belangrikste sleutelwoorde van die onderstaande artikel: Rome, BC, Romeine, sak, 390, Ancient, Battle, Allia, nederlaag, gevegte, rivier, Galliërs.

SLEUTEL ONDERWERPE
Slag van die Allia -rivier (390 vC) - Galliërs verslaan die Romeine en ontslaan Rome daarna. [1] In 105 vC is die Romeine verslaan tydens die Slag van Arausio en was dit die duurste wat Rome gely het sedert die Slag van Cannae. [2] Nadat die Cimbri die Romeine per ongeluk vergoeding verleen het deur na Iberia te plunder, het Rome die geleentheid gekry om die Cimbri en Teutons sorgvuldig voor te berei op en suksesvol te ontmoet in die Slag van Aquae Sextiae (102 vC) en die Slag van Vercellae ( 101 v.C.), waar albei stamme feitlik vernietig is, wat die bedreiging beëindig het. [2] Slag van Mylae - 'n Romeinse vlootmag onder C. Duillius verslaan die Kartago -vloot en gee Rome beheer oor die westelike Middellandse See. [1] Toe die Romeinse leër 'n oortuigende oorwinning oor hierdie gesamentlike magte behaal, moes dit duidelik geword het dat min Romeinse oorheersing van Italië kon verhinder en in die Slag van Populonia (282 v.C.) het Rome die laaste spore van Etruskiese mag in die streek vernietig. [2] Die interne onrus bereik sy ernstigste stadium in die twee burgeroorloë of optogte na Rome deur die konsul Lucius Cornelius Sulla aan die begin van 82 vC. In die Slag om die Colline -poort, by die deur van die stad Rome, het 'n Romeinse leër onder Sulla 'n leër van die Romeinse senaat en sy Samnite -bondgenote verslaan. [2]

Rome het die Latyne in die Slag van Vesuvius en weer in die Slag van Trifanum getref, waarna die Latynse stede hulle moes onderwerp aan die Romeinse bewind. [2] Ondanks die verlies van 'n groot leër byna tot die man van Varus se beroemde nederlaag in die hande van die Germaanse leier Arminius in die Slag van die Teutoburg -woud in 9 nC, het Rome herstel en sy uitbreiding voortgesit tot en met die grense van die bekende wêreld. [2] In 451 nC het hy 'n gekombineerde leër, insluitend sy voormalige vyand, die Visigote, onder leiding van die Huns in die Slag van die Catalaunian Plains gelei, en hulle so sterk geslaan dat hoewel hulle later Concordia, Altinum, Mediolanum, Ticinum en Patavium afgedank het, hulle het nooit weer Rome direk bedreig nie. [2]

Van sy oorsprong as 'n stadstaat op die skiereiland Italië in die 8ste eeu v.C. tot die opkoms daarvan as 'n ryk wat 'n groot deel van Suid-Europa, Wes-Europa, die Nabye Ooste en Noord-Afrika dek tot die val in die 5de eeu na Christus, die politieke Die geskiedenis van antieke Rome was nou verweef met sy militêre geskiedenis. [2] Antieke Rome: Van die vroegste tye af tot 476 n.C. (Hersiene red.). [2]

Slag van Lilybaeum - Eerste vlootbotsing tussen die vloote van Kartago en Rome tydens die Tweede Puniese Oorlog. [1] Vroeë suksesse, insluitend die afstoting van die Eerste Belegging van Jerusalem en die Slag van Beth-Horon, het net groter aandag van Rome getrek en keiser Nero het generaal Vespasianus aangestel om die opstand te vernietig. [2] Pompeius het aanvanklik vir Rome en die senaat verseker dat hy die keiser in die geveg kan verslaan as hy na Rome sou marsjeer. [2] Slag van Colline -poort - Sulla verslaan Samniete wat verbonde was aan die gewilde party in Rome in die beslissende stryd van die burgeroorlog. [1] Die Sassanids was beslis nie deur die vorige gevegte met Rome gekuier nie en in 253 nC dring die Sassanids onder Shapur I verskeie kere diep in op die Romeinse gebied, verslaan 'n Romeinse mag in die Slag van Barbalissos en verower en plunder Antiochia in 252 AD na die beleg van Antiochia. [2] Aangesien die Alpe 'n natuurlike versperring in die noorde vorm, en Rome nie te gretig was om die hewige Galliërs weer in die geveg te ontmoet nie, draai die stad se blik op Sicilië en die eilande van die Middellandse See, 'n beleid wat dit sou bring direkte konflik met sy voormalige bondgenoot Kartago. [2] Die uitgebreide veldtog in die buiteland deur Rome, en die beloning van soldate met plundering uit die veldtogte, het daartoe gelei dat soldate steeds meer getrou was aan hul bevelvoerders as aan die staat, en die bereidheid om hul generaals te volg in die stryd teen die staat. [2]

Die Eerste Samnietoorlog tussen 343 vC en 341 vC wat gevolg het op die wydverspreide Samniet -invalle in Rome se gebied was 'n relatief kort aangeleentheid: die Romeine het die Samniete verslaan in beide die Slag van Mount Gaurus in 342 vC en die Slag van Suessula in 341 vC, maar was gedwing om hulle aan die oorlog te onttrek voordat hulle die konflik verder kon voortsit weens die opstand van verskeie van hul Latynse bondgenote in die Latynse Oorlog. [2] Dit was oor die algemeen die lot van selfs die grootste van Rome se vyande, soos Pyrrhus en Hannibal, om die geveg te wen, maar die oorlog te verloor. [2]

In 121 vC het Rome in aanraking gekom met die Keltiese stamme van die Allobroges en die Arverni, wat hulle albei met gemak verslaan het in die Eerste Slag van Avignon naby die Rhone -rivier en die Tweede Slag van Avignon, dieselfde jaar. [2] Na die Eerste Puniese Oorlog was vlootgevegte minder belangrik as landgevegte vir die militêre geskiedenis van Rome vanweë die omvang van die periferie en die onbetwiste oorheersing van die Middellandse See. [2] Rome het 'n vlootoorlog geneem "soos 'n baksteen tot water" en die eerste paar seegevegte van die Eerste Puniese Oorlog, soos die Slag van die Lipari -eilande, was katastrofale rampe vir Rome, soos wat redelik verwag kon word van 'n stad wat geen werklike vorige ervaring van vlootoorlogvoering nie. [2]

Hierdie oorloë, wat in 264 vC begin, was waarskynlik die grootste konflikte van die antieke wêreld tot nog toe en het gesien hoe Rome die magtigste staat van die Wes -Middellandse See geword het, met gebied in Sicilië, Noord -Afrika, Iberië en met die einde van die Masedoniese oorloë (wat gelyktydig met die Puniese oorloë) ook Griekeland. [2]

Antieke Romeinse oorloë en gevegte Tydlyn Tydlyn Beskrywing: Nadat die Italiaanse skiereiland ongeveer 270 vC verower is, het antieke Rome 'n ryk gebou wat gesentreer was aan die Middellandse See. [3] Die belangrikste gevegte in antieke Rome was nie net vir eer nie, dit was die sleutel tot die voortbestaan ​​van die samelewing as geheel. [4] Lysreëls Stem vir die interessantste gevegte uit antieke Rome. [4] Uitgespeel deur honderde mans, het spottende gevegte die gehore in antieke Rome met groot drama en bloedige skouspel opgewonde gemaak. [5]

Die Galliërs verslaan die Romeine tydens die slag van die Allia in 387 vC, en hulle ontslaan Rome. [3] Die Slag van Cynoscephalae is in 197 vC in Thessalië gevoer tussen die Romeinse leër, onder leiding van Titus Quinctius Flamininus, en die Antigonid -dinastie van Masedonië, onder leiding van Philip V. Alexander die Grote na Rome. [6] Oorwinning in die geveg bring nuwe gebied, verkry rykdom en hulpbronne, oorreed vyande om vrede aan te kla en stuur 'n duidelike boodskap dat Rome haar grense sal verdedig, dat sy 'n onversadigbare dors na uitbreiding het en onweerlegbare bewys lewer van hoe formidabel 'n vegmasjien wat die Romeine op die slagveld kon aanbied. [7] Groot suksesse in die geveg kon behaal word, maar so ook kon nederlae Rome tot sy grondslag ruk, aangesien bekwame teenstanders Rome se wenstrategieë in hul eie voordeel begin gebruik het. [7] Rome verslaan 'n Kartago -leër in die slag van Metaurus. [7] Die laaste en beslissende stryd van die Tweede Puniese Oorlog, het effektief 'n einde gemaak aan Hannibal se bevel oor Kartago -magte en ook die kans van Kartago om Rome aansienlik teë te staan. [8] Rome wen 'n landgeveg suid van Tunis tydens die Eerste Puniese Oorlog. [7]

Die Derde Serviele Oorlog was beduidend vir die breër geskiedenis van antieke Rome, meestal in die uitwerking daarvan op die loopbane van Pompeius en Crassus. [6] Hy het True History in die oorspronklike Grieks opgetel om die taal onder die knie te kry. (Terwyl Latyn die volksmond van antieke Rome was, was Grieks die taal wat die geleerde elite gebruik het.) [9] Tydens sy tyd was Caesar se naumachia waarskynlik die mees komplekse gebeurtenis wat in antieke Rome gehou is. [5]

Nog 'n groot stryd in Rome word aangeteken in 248 nC, toe keiser Marcus Julius Philippus (soms bekend as Filippus die Arabier vanweë sy Siriese erfenis) die duisendste herdenking van die stigting van Rome met 'n naumachia gevier het. [5] Kartago Oorsig van die opkoms en ondergang van Kartago, met 'n gedetailleerde bespreking van Hannibal se oorwinnings teen Rome, insluitend die Slag van Cannae, en sy latere nederlaag in die Slag van Zama. [8] Saam met die latere Slag van Pydna word hierdie nederlaag dikwels bewys dat die Masedoniese falanks, voorheen die doeltreffendste gevegseenheid in die antieke wêreld, nou verouderd was, hoewel die falanks in werklikheid die legioene kon dwing terug en het hulself met swaarde vasgehou totdat twintig manipulasies op hulle rug geval het (as gevolg van die swak Masedoniese flanke en die Romeinse olifante wat die wanordelike Masedoniese linkerflank gelei het). [6] Slag van Munda, (45 v.C.), konflik wat die ou Romeinse burgeroorlog tussen die magte van Pompeius die Grote en dié van Julius Caesar beëindig het. [10] Engels: Hierdie kategorie is vir veldslae en veldtogte waarin die ou Romeine geveg het: Cannae, Adrianopel, Pharsalus, Metaurus, ens. Hierdie kategorie bevat ook seegevegte soos die slag van Actium. [11]

Ontwerp van die begin af Ancient Battle: Rome bied 'n unieke wargaming -ervaring op iPhone en iPad. [12]

Kartago verslaan Rome tydens 'n vlootgeveg by Drepanum tydens die Eerste Puniese Oorlog. [7] Rome wen 'n vlootgeveg teen Kartago by Sulcis tydens die Eerste Puniese Oorlog. [7]


Die besonderhede wat historici weet oor gevegte in antieke Rome, kom meestal uit sekondêre bronne soos Polybius en Appian vir die Puniese oorloë, of meer selde 'n primêre verslag soos Caesar 's De Bello Gallico. [13] Wat was die grootste geveg, volgens die aantal deelnemers, waaraan antieke Rome deelgeneem het? Tel nie beleërings op nie. [14]


Dit kan 2 000 jaar oue spore wees van 'n geveg met Rome. [15] Die versterkings en toerusting was deurslaggewend vir 'n oorwinnende stryd teen Rome. [16]

Antieke tekste suggereer dat een van die eerste prominente Romeine wat 'n villa langs die baai bewoon het, Scipio Africanus die Ouere was, 'n gevierde generaal wat in 184 vC na sy kuslandgoed teruggetrek het. En toe die Romeinse vloot die seerowers wat die kus van Italië geteister het, stuur, en terwyl rykdom opgehoop het in Rome na sy verowerings in die Ooste, het die hoë samelewing begin belê in huise aan die water. [17] Die eerste naumachia by die Colosseum het 3000 vegters gehad en het 'n ou stryd tussen Athene en Syrakuse herhaal. [18] Hier is 'n lys van enkele van die ergste nederlae in die geveg wat die ou Romeine gely het, chronologies gelys van die meer legendariese verlede tot die beter gedokumenteerde nederlae tydens die Romeinse Ryk. [19]

Roman Battles Lux is 'n uitbreidingspakket vir Lux Delux met 10 oorloë van Antieke Rome. [20] Besoek die onderstaande afdelings vir meer inligting oor die weermag van Antieke Rome, insluitend Republikeinse en Keiserlike legioene, veldslae, die Romeinse vloot en die Praetorian Guard. [21]


'N Ander seestryd in die Colosseum is in 89 nC uitgevoer deur Domitianus, wat die laaste naumachia in Rome was. [18] Lucan, gee verslag van die Romeinse burgeroorlog van 49-45 vC. Op hierdie punt in die epos, ondanks die publiek wat 'n einde aan die oorlog vra, gaan die geveg voort wanneer Caesar die Rubicon kruis en sy troepe byeenkom om na Rome te marsjeer. [22] Die Romeine, so lank as wat hulle kon omdraai en 'n front aan alle kante aan die vyand voorhou, het uitgehou, maar terwyl die buitenste geledere aanhou val en die res geleidelik ingedruk en omring is, is hulle uiteindelik almal doodgemaak waar hulle het gestaan, onder wie Marcus en Gnaeus, die konsuls van die voorafgaande jaar, wat hulself in die geveg gedra het soos dapper manne wat Rome werd was. [13]

Hoe om 'n slaaf in antieke Rome te hou, 170 vC "Die totale wynkwessie per man vir 'n jaar behoort ongeveer twee-en-veertig liter te wees:" advies om slawe in antieke Rome aan te hou. [23] Die Colosseum was nie die enigste amfiteater in antieke Rome nie; daar was verskeie versprei oor die hele ryk. [24] Sê wat u wil oor geweld in Amerikaanse voetbal, maar die Colosseum van antieke Rome was moontlik die mees barbaarse sportplek in die geskiedenis van die mens. [25]


Vanuit ons 21ste eeuse perspektief moet die ergste militêre nederlae van antieke Rome diegene insluit wat die pad en vordering van die magtige Romeinse Ryk verander het. [19]

Op YouTube kan ek uiters gedetailleerde video's van antieke Romeinse gevegte kyk wat wys wat elke afdeling van die weermag gedoen het en op watter tydstip. [13] Ander noemenswaardige antieke gevegte was Plataea (479 v.C.), Leuctra (371 v.C.), Chaeronea (338 v.C.), Gaugamela (331 v.C.), Asculum (279 v.C.), Carrhae (53 v.C.), Pharsalus (48 v.C.), Philippi (42 vC) en die Teutoburg -woud (9 nC). [26] Antieke verslae oor gevegte is, afhangende van die afstand van die gebeurtenis self (in ruimte en tyd), mengsels van verskillende dele ⟺ktuele ' rekeninge (van bevelvoerders en soldate eintlik tydens die geveg), en mitologisering/literêre konstrukte. [13]

Die slag van Cannae (216 nC) was Hannibal se grootste oorwinning en Rome se ergste nederlaag. [27]

In die volgende paar jaar het hulle hul vyande in Rome verslaan en die oorlewendes na Griekeland gejaag, waar hulle hulle in twee van die bloedigste gevegte in die Romeinse geskiedenis afgehandel het. [28] Dit sou slegs vir Rome 'n beperkte sukses wees, en die Donau -rivier bly vir sy duur die grens van die Ryk. 3de eeu: 4de eeu: Gotiese oorlog (376-382): Die Gotiese oorlog is die naam wat gegee is aan 'n reeks Gotiese gevegte en plundering van die Oos-Romeinse Ryk op die Balkan tussen ongeveer 376/377 en 382. [29]

Eerste Marian-Sullan Burgeroorlog (88-87 vC) Sulla se eerste burgeroorlog was een van 'n reeks burgeroorloë in antieke Rome, tussen Gaius Marius en Sulla, tussen 88 en 87 vC. Tweede Mithridatiese Oorlog (83-82 vC) Die Tweede Mithridatiese Oorlog (83-82 vC) was een van drie Mithridatiese oorloë wat tussen Pontus en die Romeinse Republiek geveg is. [29] That is not the case and The Roman Empire and the Silk Routes by Raoul McLaughlin describes the ways in which ancient Rome and China traded goods over the ancient Silk Routes. [30]

The war was a much smaller engagement than the two previous punic wars and primarily consisted of a single action, the Battle of Carthage, but resulted in the complete destruction of the city of Carthage, the annexation of all remaining Carthaginian territory by Rome, and the death or enslavement of the entire Carthaginian population. [29] In the preface to Battles of the Greek & Roman Worlds, author John Drogo Montagu states that its purpose is to bring "together in one volume the ancient literature about the battles of the Greek and Roman worlds from the start of recorded history to the end of the Roman Republic." [31]

United Nations of Roma Victrix (UNRV) represents the all encompassing power of Rome in the ancient world. [21]

Fearing the Spartans would take increasing control of the region, the Romans drew on help from allies to prosecute the Roman-Spartan War, defeating a Spartan army at the Battle of Gythium in 195 BC. They also fought their former allies the Aetolian League in the Aetolian War, against the Istrians in the Istrian War, against the Illyrians in the Illyrian War, and against Achaia in the Achaean War. [2] The opening action of the Cimbrian War, the Battle of Noreia in 112 BC, ended in defeat and near disaster for the Romans. [2] December, Battle of Magnesia - (near Smyrna) Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio and his brother Scipio Africanus Major defeat Antiochus III the Great in the decisive victory of the war. [1]

In 52 BC, following the Siege of Avaricum and a string of inconclusive battles, Caesar defeated a union of Gauls led by Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia, completing the Roman conquest of Transalpine Gaul. [2] The second consular army duly defeated the Macedonians at the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC and the Macedonians, lacking the reserve of the Romans and with King Perseus captured, duly capitulated, ending the Third Macedonian War. [2] The army that faced the Romans at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC included Samnites, Gauls, Etruscans and Umbrians. [2] In 243 AD, Emperor Gordian III's army retook the Roman cities of Hatra, Nisibis and Carrhae from the Sassanids after defeating the Sassanids at the Battle of Resaena but what happened next is unclear: Persian sources claim that Gordian was defeated and killed in the Battle of Misikhe but Roman sources mention this battle only as an insignificant setback and suggest that Gordian died elsewhere. [2] In 85 AD, the Dacians had swarmed over the Danube and pillaged Moesia and initially defeated an army the Emperor Domitian sent against them, but the Romans were victorious in the Battle of Tapae in AD 88 and a truce was drawn up. [2] Despite Macrinus having his position ratified by the Roman senate, the troops of Varius Avitus declared him to be emperor instead, and the two met in battle at the Battle of Antioch in 218 AD, in which Macrinus was defeated. [2] In the same year the Goths inflicted a crushing defeat on the Eastern Empire at the Battle of Adrianople, in which the Eastern Emperor Valens was massacred along with tens of thousands of Roman troops. [2] Civil War - 366 - Battle of Thyatira - The army of the Roman emperor Valens defeats the usurper Procopius. [1] After initial successes, he marched his army deep into the desert but here his army was cut off deep in enemy territory, surrounded and slaughtered at the Battle of Carrhae in "the greatest Roman defeat since Hannibal" in which Crassus himself perished. [2] After training more sailors and inventing a grappling engine known as a Corvus, a Roman naval force under C. Duillius was able to roundly defeat a Carthaginian fleet at the Battle of Mylae. [2] Battle of the Lipari Islands - A Roman naval force is defeated by the Carthaginians. [1]

The Romans were defeated at the Battle of Suthul but fared better at the Battle of the Muthul and finally defeated Jugurtha at the Battle of Thala, the Battle of Mulucha, and the Battle of Cirta (104 BC). [2] Following two major military expeditions to Iberia, the Romans finally crushed Carthaginian control of the peninsula in 206 BC, at the Battle of Ilipa, and the peninsula became a Roman province known as Hispania. [2] Battle of Mutina (193 BC) - Roman victory over the Boii, decisively ending the Boian threat. [1] The fortunes of the two sides fluctuated throughout its course: the Samnites seized Neapolis in the Capture of Neapolis in 327 BC, which the Romans then re-captured before losing at the Battle of the Caudine Forks and the Battle of Lautulae. [2] The Romans then proved victorious at the Battle of Bovianum and the tide turned strongly against the Samnites from 314 BC onwards, leading them to sue for peace with progressively less generous terms. [2]

Despite defeats such as the Battle of Fucine Lake, Roman troops defeated the Italian militias in decisive engagements, notably the Battle of Asculum. [2] Battle of Ebro River - In a surprise attack, Romans defeat and capture the Carthaginian fleet in Hispania. [1] Battle of Cissa - Romans defeat Carthaginians near Tarraco and gain control of the territory north of the Ebro River. [1]

Battle of Cape Ecnomus - A Carthaginian fleet under Hamilcar and Hanno is defeated in an attempt to stop a Roman invasion of Africa by Marcus Atilius Regulus. [1] During a term as praetor in Iberia, Pompey's contemporary Julius Caesar of the Roman Julii clan defeated the Calaici and Lusitani in battle. [2] In 46 BC Caesar lost perhaps as much as a third of his army when his former commander Titus Labienus, who had defected to the Pompeians several years earlier, defeated him at the Battle of Ruspina. [2] As early as 53 BC, the Roman general Crassus had invaded Parthia, but he was killed and his army was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae. [2] In the subsequent First Mithridatic War, the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla forced Mithridates out of Greece proper after the Battle of Chaeronea and later Battle of Orchomenus but then had to return to Italy to answer the internal threat posed by his rival Marius consequently, Mithridates VI was defeated but not destroyed. [2] The arrival of the Roman Stilicho and his army forced Alaric to lift his siege and move his army towards Hasta (modern Asti) in western Italy, where Stilicho attacked it at the Battle of Pollentia, capturing Alaric's camp. [2] Perseus initially had greater military success against the Romans than his father, winning the Battle of Callicinus against a Roman consular army. [2] Battle of the Silarus - Hannibal destroys the army of the Roman praetor M. Centenius Penula. [1] Battle of the Ticinus - Hannibal defeats the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder in a cavalry fight. [1] Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal defeats the Romans under Tiberius Sempronius Longus with the use of an ambush. [1]

After Caesar's preliminary low-scale invasions of Britain, the Romans invaded in force in 43 AD, forcing their way inland through several battles against British tribes, including the Battle of the Medway, the Battle of the Thames, the Battle of Caer Caradoc and the Battle of Mona. [2] Following a general uprising in which the Britons sacked Colchester, St Albans and London, the Romans suppressed the rebellion in the Battle of Watling Street and went on to push as far north as central Scotland in the Battle of Mons Graupius. [2] Septimius Severus and Pescennius Niger, both rebel generals declared to be emperors by the troops they commanded, clashed for the first time in 193 AD at the Battle of Cyzicus, in which Niger was defeated. [2] Albinus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in Britain and, crossing over to Gaul, defeated Severus' general Virius Lupus in battle, before being in turn defeated and killed in the Battle of Lugdunum by Severus himself. [2] Gordian III's fate is not certain, although he may have been murdered by his own successor, Philip the Arab, who ruled for only a few years before the army again raised a general, Decius, by their proclamation to emperor, who then defeated Philip in the Battle of Verona. [2] In the Battle of Forum Gallorum Antony, besieging Caesar's assassin Decimus Brutus in Mutina, defeated the forces of the consul Pansa, who was killed, but Antony was then immediately defeated by the army of the other consul, Hirtius. [2] Pompey was decisively defeated in the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC despite outnumbering Caesar's forces two to one. [2] Pompey initially defeated Caesar at the Battle of Dyrrachium in 48 BC but failed to follow up on the victory. [2] Caesar defeated the Helvetii in 58 BC at the Battle of the Arar and Battle of Bibracte, the Belgic confederacy known as the Belgae at the Battle of the Axona, the Nervii in 57 BC at the Battle of the Sabis, the Aquitani, Treviri, Tencteri, Aedui and Eburones in unknown battles, and the Veneti in 56 BC. In 55 and 54 BC he made two expeditions to Britain. [2]

In 203 BC at the Battle of Bagbrades the invading Roman army under Scipio Africanus Major defeated the Carthaginian army of Hasdrubal Gisco and Syphax and Hannibal was recalled to Africa. [2] In the Battle of the Aous Roman forces under Titus Quinctius Flamininus defeated the Macedonians, and in a second larger battle under the same opposing commanders in 197 BC, in the Battle of Cynoscephalae, Flamininus again beat the Macedonians decisively. [2] Battle of the Lupia River (11 BC) - Roman forces under Augustus's stepson Drusus win a victory in Germany. [1] Battle of the Asio River - Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius defeats a Popular army under Gaius Carrinas. [1] Battle of the Siler River - Marcus Crassus defeats the army of Spartacus. [1]

War with Visigoths - 436 - Battle of Narbonne - Flavius Aetius again defeats the Visigoths led by Theodoric. [1] Battle of Campania - Slave Revolt led by Spartacus defeat a Roman army. [1] These forces drove out the Roman garrisons near the Rhine and defeated a Roman army at the Battle of Castra Vetera, after which many Roman troops along the Rhine and in Gaul defected to the Batavian cause. [2] In 260 AD at the Battle of Edessa the Sassanids defeated the Roman army and captured the Roman Emperor Valerian. [2] The lone exception to this rule was Gallienus, emperor from 260 to 268 AD, who confronted a remarkable array of usurpers, most of whom he defeated in pitched battle. [2] The army was mostly spared further infighting until around 273 AD, when Aurelian defeated the Gallic usurper Tetricus in the Battle of Chalons. [2] They defeated Aurelian at the Battle of Placentia in 271 AD but were beaten back for a short time after they lost the battles of Fano and Pavia later that year. [2] They were beaten again in 298 AD at the battles of Lingones and Vindonissa but fifty years later they were resurgent again, making incursions in 356 AD at the Battle of Reims, in 357 AD at the Battle of Strasbourg, in 367 AD at the Battle of Solicinium and in 378 AD at Battle of Argentovaria. [2]

It took two further defeats at the Battle of Nicaea later that year and the Battle of Issus the following year, for Niger to be destroyed. [2] Battle of Ilipa - Scipio again decisively defeats the remaining Carthaginian forces in Hispania. [1] Battle of the Axona (Aisne) - Caesar defeats the forces of the Belgae under King Galba of Suessiones. [1] Caesar defeated the combined forces of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompey the Younger at the Battle of Munda in Iberia. [2] Caesar first directed his attention to the Pompeian stronghold of Iberia but following campaigning by Caesar in the Siege of Massilia and Battle of Ilerda he decided to attack Pompey in Greece. [2] Constantine's son Constantius II inherited his father's rule and later defeated the usurper Magnentius in first the Battle of Mursa Major and then the Battle of Mons Seleucus. [2] At the famous Battle of Zama Scipio decisively defeated - perhaps even "annihilated" - Hannibal's army in North Africa, ending the Second Punic War. [2] Together with Lucius Antonius, Mark Antony's wife Fulvia raised an army in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian but she was defeated by Octavian at the Battle of Perugia. [2] Despite being defeated in Iberia in the Battle of Baecula, Hasdrubal managed to break through into Italy only to be defeated decisively by Gaius Claudius Nero and Marcus Livius Salinator on the Metaurus River. [2] Overcoming several mutinies in the armies along the Rhine, Germanicus defeated the Germanic tribes of Arminius in a series of battles culminating in the Battle of the Weser River. [2] Battle of the Weser River (16) - Legions under Germanicus defeat German tribes of Arminius. [1] Battle of Turin - Constantine I defeats forces loyal to Maxentius. [1] Just as he had been raised by the army, Maximinus was also brought down by them and despite winning the Battle of Carthage against the senate's newly proclaimed Gordian II, he too was murdered when it appeared to his forces as though he would not be able to best the next senatorial candidate for the throne, Gordian III. [2] In 436 AD he led a Hunnic army against the Visigoths at the Battle of Arles, and again in 436 AD at the Battle of Narbonne. [2] From 314 AD onwards, Constantine defeated Licinius in the Battle of Cibalae, then the Battle of Mardia, and then again at the Battle of Adrianople, the Battle of the Hellespont and the Battle of Chrysopolis. [2] Xanthippus managed to cut off the Roman army from its base by re-establishing Carthaginian naval supremacy and then defeated and captured Regulus at the Battle of Tunis. [2] Battle of the Port of Carthage - Roman forces under Lucius Hostilius Mancinus are defeated by the Carthaginians. [1] Battle of the Eurymedon - Roman forces under Lucius Aemilius Regillus defeat a Seleucid fleet commanded by Hannibal, fighting his last battle. [1] July - Battle of Bibracte - Caesar again defeats the Helvetians, this time decisively. [1] Most of the battles are not recorded, due primarily to the turmoil of the time, until Diocletian, a usurper himself, defeated Carinus at the Battle of the Margus and become emperor. [2] Successive emperors Valens and Theodosius I also defeated usurpers in, respectively, the Battle of Thyatira, and the battles of the Save and the Frigidus. [2] Civil War - 388 - Battle of the Save - Emperor Theodosius I defeats the usurper Magnus Maximus. [1] Civil War - 394 - Battle of the Frigidus - Theodosius I defeats and kills the usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. [1] Civil War - 432 - Battle of Ravenna - Bonifacius defeats rival Roman general Flavius Aetius, but is mortally wounded in the process. [1] Battle of the Guadalquivir - Roman army under Gaius Lucius Marcius Séptimus defeats a Carthaginian army under Hannón at Guadalquivir. [1] Battle of Campania II - a Roman army under Marcus Crassus defeat Spartacus's army of slaves. [1] In 275 BC, Pyrrhus again met the Roman army at the Battle of Beneventum. [2] In 42 BC Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fought the indecisive Battle of Philippi with Caesar's assassins Marcus Brutus and Cassius. [2] The Jugurthine War of 111-104 BC was fought between Rome and Jugurtha of Numidia and constituted the final Roman pacification of Northern Africa, after which Rome largely ceased expansion on the continent after reaching natural barriers of desert and mountain. [2]

Motivated by his diplomatic obligations to Tarentum, and a personal desire for military accomplishment, Pyrrhus landed a Greek army of some 25,000 men and a contingent of war elephants on Italian soil in 280 BC, where his forces were joined by some Greek colonists and a portion of the Samnites who revolted against Roman control, taking up arms against Rome for the fourth time in seventy years. [2] Unable to defeat Hannibal himself on Italian soil, and with Hannibal savaging the Italian countryside but unwilling or unable to destroy Rome itself, the Romans boldly sent an army to Africa with the intention of threatening the Carthaginian capital. [2] The first non-apocryphal Roman wars were wars of both expansion and defence, aimed at protecting Rome itself from neighbouring cities and nations and establishing its territory in the region. [2] Although the Roman historian Livy (59 BC- 17 AD) lists a series of seven kings of early Rome in his work Ab urbe condita, from its establishment through its earliest years, the first four kings ( Romulus, Numa, Tullus Hostilius and Ancus Marcius ) may be apocryphal. [2] Memories of the sack of Rome by Celtic tribes from Gaul in 390/387 BC, had been made into a legendary account that was taught to each generation of Roman youth, were still prominent despite their historical distance. [2] After the defeat of the Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III the Great in the Roman-Syrian War (Treaty of Apamea, 188 BC) in the eastern sea, Rome emerged as the dominant Mediterranean power and the most powerful city in the classical world. [2] In 91 BC the Social War broke out between Rome and its former allies in Italy, collectively known as the Socii, over the grievance that they shared the risk of Rome's military campaigns, but not its rewards. [2] The Cimbrian War (113-101 BC) was a far more serious affair than the earlier clashes of 121 BC. The Germanic tribes of the Cimbri and the Teutons or Teutones migrated from northern Europe into Rome's northern territories, where they clashed with Rome and her allies. [2] Rome was therefore forced to contend by around 340 BC against both Samnite incursions into their territory and, simultaneously, in a bitter war against their former allies. [2] Again in 508 BC Tarquin persuaded the king of Clusium, Lars Porsenna, to wage war on Rome, resulting in a siege of Rome and afterwards a peace treaty. [2] By the spring of 49 BC, when Caesar crossed the Rubicon river with his invading forces and swept down the Italian peninsula towards Rome, Pompey ordered the abandonment of Rome. [2] By the beginning of the 3rd century, Rome had established itself in 282 BC as a major power on the Italian Peninsula, but had not yet come into conflict with the dominant military powers in the Mediterranean at the time: Carthage and the Greek kingdoms. [2] Desiring to prevent Philip from aiding Carthage in Italy and elsewhere, Rome sought out land allies in Greece to fight a proxy war against Macedon on its behalf and found partners in the Aetolian League of Greek city-states, the Illyrians to the north of Macedon and the kingdom of Pergamon and the city-state of Rhodes, which lay across the Aegean from Macedon. [2] The new war in Sicily against Carthage, a great naval power, forced Rome to quickly build a fleet and train sailors. [2] The willingness of both Rome and Carthage to become embroiled on the soil of a third party may indicate a willingness to test each other's power without wishing to enter a full war of annihilation certainly there was considerable disagreement within Rome about whether to prosecute the war at all. [2]

Judea was already a troubled region with bitter violence among several competing Jewish sects and a long history of rebellion The Jews' anger turned on Rome following robberies from their temples and Roman insensitivity- Tacitus says disgust and repulsion - towards their religion. [2] Rome discovered the agreement when Philip's emissaries, along with emissaries from Hannibal, were captured by a Roman fleet. [2] After swiftly recovering from the sack of Rome, the Romans immediately resumed their expansion within Italy. [2] The Samnites were a people just as martial and as rich as the Romans and had the objective of their own to secure more lands in the fertile Italian plains on which Rome itself lay. [2]

Although the crisis of the 3rd century was not the absolute beginning of Rome's decline, it nevertheless did impose a severe strain on the empire as Romans waged war on one another as they had not done since the last days of the Republic. [2] Throughout the Parthian wars, tribal groups along the Rhine and Danube took advantage of Rome's preoccupation with the eastern frontier (and the plague that the Romans suffered from after bringing it back from the east) and launched a series of incursions into Roman territories, including the Marcomannic Wars. [2] Perhaps due to Rome's lenient treatment of their defeated foe, the Latins submitted largely amicably to Roman rule for the next 200 years. [2] In 224 AD, the Parthian Empire was crushed not by the Romans but by the rebellious Persian vassal king Ardashir I, who revolted, leading to the establishment of Sassanid Empire of Persia, which replaced Parthia as Rome's major rival in the East. [2] Gaul never regained its Celtic identity, never attempted another nationalist rebellion, and remained loyal to Rome until the fall of the Western Empire in 476 AD. However, although Gaul itself was to thereafter remain loyal, cracks were appearing in the political unity of Rome's governing figures- partly over concerns over the loyalty of Caesar's Gallic troops to his person rather than the state - that were soon to drive Rome into a lengthy series of civil wars. [2] Rome still controlled only a very limited area and the affairs of Rome were minor even to those in Italy and Rome's affairs were only just coming to the attention of the Greeks, the dominant cultural force at the time. [2] Pompey fled again, this time to Egypt, where he was murdered in an attempt to ingratiate the country with Caesar and avoid a war with Rome. [2] For a maritime power, the loss of their access to the Mediterranean stung financially and psychologically, and the Carthaginians again sued for peace, during which negotiations, Rome battled the Ligures tribe in the Ligurian War and the Insubres in the Gallic War. [2] The terms of peace that Rome proposed were so heavy that negotiations failed, and in response, the Carthaginians hired Xanthippus of Carthage, a mercenary from the martial Greek city-state of Sparta, to reorganise and lead their army. [2] Macedon began to encroach on territory claimed by several other Greek city states in 200 BC and these pleaded for help from their newfound ally Rome. [2] Over the years, Rome had expanded along the southern Iberian coast until in 211 BC it captured the city of Saguntum. [2] The First Punic War began in 264 BC when settlements on Sicily began to appeal to the two powers between which they lay- Rome and Carthage- in order to solve internal conflicts. [2] A treaty was drawn up between Rome and Macedon at Phoenice in 205 BC which promised Rome a small indemnity, formally ending the First Macedonian War. [2] The Fourth Macedonian War, fought from 150 BC to 148 BC, was the final war between Rome and Macedon and began when Andriscus usurped the Macedonian throne. [2]

Traditionally, Romulus, after founding the city, fortified the Palatine Hill, and shortly thereafter, Rome was " equal to any of the surrounding cities in her prowess in war ". [2] Continuing distrust led to the renewal of hostilities in the Second Punic War when Hannibal Barca, a member of the Barcid family of Carthaginian nobility, attacked Saguntum, a city with diplomatic ties to Rome. [2] The Punic empire of the Carthaginian Barcid family consisted of territories in Iberia, many of which Rome gained control of during the Punic Wars. [2]

The first is the territorial expansionist campaign, normally begun as a counter-offensive, in which each victory brought subjugation of large areas of territory and allowed Rome to grow from a small town to a population of 55 million in the early empire when expansion was halted. [2] Rome first began to make war outside the Italian peninsula during the Punic wars against Carthage, a former Phoenician colony that had established on the north coast of Africa and developed into a powerful state. [2] The Cimbrian War was the first time since the Second Punic War that Italia and Rome itself had been seriously threatened, and caused great fear in Rome. [2]

To this end he stirred up popular nightmares of the first sack of Rome by the Gauls and the more recent spectre of the Cimbri and Teutones. [2]

Battle of Ancyra - Gnaeus Manlius Vulso and Attalus II defeat the Galatian Gauls again before Ancyra, in what was an almost identical repeat of the Battle of Mount Olympus. [1] Battle of Verona - Stilicho defeats Alaric, who withdraws from Italy. [1] Battle of the Metaurus - Hasdrubal is defeated and killed by Nero's Roman army. [1] Mithridates was finally defeated by Pompey in the night-time Battle of the Lycus. [2]

The core of the campaign history of the Roman military is an aggregate of different accounts of the Roman military's land battles, from its initial defense against and subsequent conquest of the city's hilltop neighbors on the Italian peninsula, to the ultimate struggle of the Western Roman Empire for its existence against invading Huns, Vandals and Germanic tribes. [2] The assembled warbands of the Alamanni frequently crossed the limes, attacking Germania Superior such that they were almost continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire, whilst Goths attacked across the Danube in battles such as the Battle of Beroa and Battle of Philippopolis in 250 AD and the Battle of Abrittus in 251 AD, and both Goths and Heruli ravaged the Aegean and, later, Greece, Thrace and Macedonia. [2] After early Sassanid successes including the Battle of Amida in 359 AD and the Siege of Pirisabora in 363 AD, Emperor Julian met Shapur in 363 AD in the Battle of Ctesiphon outside the walls of the Persian capital. [2]

After having won control of the seas, a Roman force landed on the African coast under Marcus Regulus, who was at first victorious, winning the Battle of Adys and forcing Carthage to sue for peace. [2] In the Battle of Carthage the city was stormed after a short siege and completely destroyed, its culture "almost totally extinguished". [2] Following an inconclusive battle near Antipolis, Vitellius' troops attacked the city of Placentia in the Assault of Placentia, but were repulsed by the Othonian garrison. [2] Several succeeding generals avoided battling usurpers for the throne by being murdered by their own troops before battle could commence. [2] Disputes soon broke out amongst the different tribes, rendering co-operation impossible Vespasian, having successfully ended the civil war, called upon Civilis to lay down his arms, and on his refusal his legions met him in force, defeating him in the Battle of Augusta Treverorum. [2] In just four years, a state without any real naval experience had managed to better a major regional maritime power in battle. [2] Battle of Lake Trasimene - In another ambush, Hannibal destroys the Roman army of Gaius Flaminius, who is killed. [1] Battle of Cannae - Hannibal destroys the main Roman army of Lucius Aemilius Paulus and Publius Terentius Varro in what is considered one of the great masterpieces of the tactical art. [1] Battle of Herdonia - Hannibal destroys the Roman army of the praetor Gnaeus Fulvius. [1] Further east, Trajan turned his attention to Dacia, an area north of Macedon and Greece and east of the Danube that had been on the Roman agenda since before the days of Caesar when they had beaten a Roman army at the Battle of Histria. [2]

Battle of Sacriporto - Fought between the Optimates under Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix and the Populares under Gaius Marius the Younger, Optimate victory. [1] Battle of Fidentia - Fought between the Optimates under Marcus Terentius Varro Lucullus and the Populares under Lucius Quincius, Optimate victory. [1] Battle of Faventia - Fought between the Optimates under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius and the Populares under Gaius Norbanus Balbus, Optimate victory. [1]

Battle of Grumentum - Roman general Gaius Claudius Nero fights an indecisive battle with Hannibal. [1] In the first battle on Italian soil at Ticinus in 218 BC Hannibal defeated the Romans under Scipio the Elder in a small cavalry fight. [2] The Romans raised a consular army under Quintus Caecilius Metellus, who swiftly defeated Andriscus at the Second battle of Pydna. [2] Viriathus' new coalition bested Roman armies at the Second Battle of Mount Venus in 144 BC and again at the failed Siege of Erisone. [2] Despite being defeated on African soil, the Romans with their newfound naval abilities, roundly beat the Carthaginians in naval battle again- largely through the tactical innovations of the Roman fleet - at the Battle of the Aegates Islands. [2] Second Battle of Capua - Hannibal is not able to break the Roman siege of the city. [1] Emperor Trajan recommenced hostilities against Dacia and, following an uncertain number of battles, defeated the Dacian general Decebalus in the Second Battle of Tapae in 101 AD. With Trajan's troops pressing towards the Dacian capital Sarmizegethusa, Decebalus once more sought terms. [2] Second Battle of Clusium - Pompei Magnus defeats a numerically superior Populares army under Gaius Carrinas and Gaius Marcius Censorinus. [1] Her death led to partial reconciliation between Octavian and Antony who went on to crush the army of Sextus Pompeius, the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate, in the naval Battle of Naulochus. [2] A Roman force under Manius Acilius Glabrio defeated Antiochus at the Battle of Thermopylae and forced him to evacuate Greece: the Romans then pursued the Seleucids beyond Greece, beating them again in naval battles at the Battle of the Eurymedon and Battle of Myonessus, and finally in a decisive engagement of the Battle of Magnesia. [2] The Lusitanians were initially successful, defeating a Roman army at the Battle of Tribola and going on to sack nearby Carpetania, and then besting a second Roman army at the First Battle of Mount Venus in 146 BC, again going on to sack another nearby city. [2]

Early in his reign Tarquinius Superbus, Rome's seventh and final king, called a meeting of the Latin leaders at which he persuaded them to renew their treaty with Rome and become her allies rather than her enemies, and it was agreed that the troops of the Latins would attend at a grove sacred to the goddess Ferentina on an appointed day to form a united military force with the troops of Rome. [2]

GEREKTEER GESELEKTEERDE BRONNE(36 source documents arranged by frequency of occurrence in the above report)


Free «Roman History: The Unification of Italy» Essay Paper

Etruscans and Samnites were the most dangerous neighbors of Rome. The first war against Samnites took place in Campania (B.C. 343-341). Two Roman armies were sent into the field, one &ndash to protect Campania, another to invade Samnium. The first victory of Rome took place at Mt. Gaurus then two united Roman armies defeated Samnites at Suessula. In such a way Romans gained control of Northern Campania. Rome decided to make a treaty with Samnites and to withdraw from war. They started preparation for conquest of Latium. Latium demanded from Romans to unite with them into one republic with both of them having equal rights. Romans refused, and Latins in alliance with Campanians started war against Romans in alliance with Samnium (B.C. 340-338). The later invaded Campania Tibur, Praeneste, Aricia, Lanuvium, Antium and Pedum were defeated in succession. Latin revolt came to an end. There was a danger of Latin towns&rsquo revolts, because towns were united in leagues. Romans adopted a policy of isolation that meant to destroy leagues for towns of Latium to be fully incorporated into Roman state their inhabitants were to gain either full Roman citizenship or imperfect citizenship (Latin right). Romans established Roman and Latin colonies, as well as Dependent Allies (Morey ch. X).

There was a question of supremacy in Central Italy between Rome and Samnium. Second Samnite War (B.C. 326-304) started after Samnites gave military support to Paleopolis. Romans invaded to withdraw troops, but Samnites refused. As a result of this, Romans declared war and siege of Paleapolis. Samnites gained their first victory at Caudine Forks (B.C. 321). Etruscans came to aid Samnites but were defeated at Lake Vadimonis. After that, chief city of Samnium, Bovianum, was captured and war came to the end. The Third Samnite War (B.C. 298-290) was fought between Rome and principal nations of Italy &ndash Samnites, Umbrians, Etruscans and Gauls. Attempt of Samnites to get control of Lucania led to declaration of war by Rome. Romans won in the battle of Sentinum (B.C. 295). After this event, Italian coalition dispersed. As a result of this war, Rome gained control of Central Italy and secured itself with establishment of the new colonies at Minturnae, Sinuessa and Venusia (Morey ch. XI).

The most important Greek city in Southern Italy was Tarentum. Romans declared war with Tarentum because, when Roman fleet that anchored in harbor of Tarentum was attacked and captured, Tarentum refused to give reparations. Tarentum appealed for help from Epirus king, Pyrrhus. At battle of Heraclea (B.C. 280) Roman army was defeated after coming into contact with Pyrrhus army&rsquos Macedonian phalanx. Pyrrhus suffered great losses and decided that Romans cannot be conquered by the forces he had. That is why he sent his minister Cineas with proposal of peace, to which Romans refused. Another battle won by Pyrrhus was fought at Asculum (B.C. 279). After battle of Beneventum (B.C. 275) Pyrrhus led remnants of his army back to Greece. Afterwards, Tarentum was besieged (B.C. 272) but allowed to retain its local government. Lucancians, Bruttians, Picenum, Umbria, Etrucia had fallen submitted to Rome (Morey ch. XII).

With every extension of territory, Rome extended its authority as a sovereign power. Roman population was subdivided into ruling body of citizens and subject body of people. Roman domain now included Latium, Northern Campania, Southern Etrucia, Sabine country, Picenum and part of Umbria. Inhabitants of its colonies were allowed to retain their rights of citizenship, were permitted to vote and make laws. Rome also incorporated into its territory some conquest towns under name &ldquomunicipia&rdquo. Every citizen between age of seventeen and forty-five was obliged to serve in Roman army. In case of war, four legions of soldiers were raised. Romans fought in a manner of Greek phalanx, in Solid Square, and encouraged their soldiers by rewards and honors (Morey ch. XIII).


Samnite Wars

By the mid-4th century BC, Italy was still divided between Latins, Greeks, Etruscans, and other civilizations, with the Oscan-speaking, semi-nomadic Samnites being one of the most powerful nations on the peninsula. The Samnites, who lived along the Apennine mountain range, were a tribal confederation consisting of the Hirpani, Caudini, Pentri, and Carricini, and the four, often-divided tribes made up the Samnite League. The League was normally governed by a central council made up of all four tribes led by a warchief, and, in 354 BC, the Roman Republic and the Samnites allied against a common enemy, the Volsci. However, relations quickly soured, as, just over a decade later, the Samnites attacked the Sidicini and Campanians who came to aid them.

First Samnite War and Latin War

Despite their alliance with the Samnites, Rome was unwilling to risk a rival power gaining hegemony over Campania's agriculturally-rich land, and Rome intervened on behalf of the coastal confederation, whose members submitted themselves to the Republic. In 343 BC, the Romans defeated the Samnites at Mons Gaurus, Saticula, and Suessula before the Romans could take advantage, however, Rome's Latin allies rose in rebellion in the "Latin War", forcing the Romans and Samnites to make peace and resume their alliance. The Campanians and Sidicini were motivated to join the anti-Roman uprising, and, in 340 BC, the Romans crushed the uprising at Mount Vesuvius it was not until 337 BC that the Latins were forced to submit to Roman authority. A hierarchy was created in which Rome's Latin subordinates no longer had military or diplomatic dealings with other powers, and the inhabitants of loyal cities such as Aricia and Lanuvium became Roman citizens, while the disloyal but crucial port city of Antium received the same perk, along with a Roman garrison.

Second Samnite War

However, hostilities between the Romans and the Samnite League resurfaced in 328 BC when a Roman colony was established at Fregellae on the Samnite side of the River Liris, and this, coupled with the expanding Roman presence in Campania, led to further deterioration of relations. In 326 BC, a pro-Roman faction in Neapolis expelled the Samnite garrison and handed over the city to Roman control. The war began with a Roman offensive into western Samnium, and Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus disobeyed orders by attacking a Samnite army and winning a great victory at Imbrinium. Roman pressure continued to build in the years after, and, in 321 BC, the Samnite council appointed the statesman Gaius Pontius as commander for the year. He decried any thought of surrender and proclaimed the just nature of the war on Rome. He and his army encamped at Caudium, where they awaited the arrival of a Roman consular army. In the ensuing Battle of Caudine Forks, the Samnites surrounded the Romans in a mountain pass and rained missiles on them until they agreed to surrender, and Pontius - ignoring his father's advice to massacre them - let them surrender and be paroled, taking 600 gelyk stel as hostages for good measure. A five-year-long break in hostilities followed this humiliation, and Rome's inflexible Greek phalanx was replaced by the manipular legion Rome used these years to rearm, train, and drill in the new style.

Roman troops invading Samnium

In 315 BC, Rome renewed the conflict, quickly capturing Saticula. The Romans were defeated at Lautulae, allowing for the Samnites to sack Roman lands. However, in 314 BC, the Romans crushed a Samnite army at Terracina, proving to be the tipping point. Luceria and the lands around it fell to the Romans shortly after, and Fregellae was recovered in 313 BC. In 312 BC, the Romans founded new colonies and built the Appian Way to facilitate military logistics. In 310 BC, the Etruscans briefly joined the war on the Samnite side, but they were defeated at Lake Vadimo, curtailing their war-making capacity. Rome then used its allies and road network to overpower Samnium, forcing the Samnites to make peace in 304 BC. The Romans tripled their territory during the war, and, from 302 to 298 BC, the Romans fought annual campaigns in Umbria and Etruria simultaneously to expand their borders. By this point, Roman empire-building in the Italian peninsula alarmed many of the independent peoples.

Third Samnite War

In 297 BC, the Samnites their southern frontier and invaded Lucania, laying waste to it and forcing the Lucanians to send panicked emissaries to Rome. The Roman Senate, seeking an opportunity to fight a just war and crush Samnite power, allied with the Lucanians and then demanded that the Samnites withdraw. When the Samnites withdrew, the Third Samnite War began. The legions undertook destructive campaigns in both Samnite and Etruscan territory, and, rather than be defeated piecemeal, the Samnite leader Gellius Egnatius marched into Etruria and joined forces with the Etruscan armies there. The united army was defeated in 297 BC, but Rome had more trouble with a united front. Egnatius formed a grand alliance of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians, and mercenary Senones against Roman expansion, and a Roman double-consular army invaded Umbria in 295 BC. This army faced the allied Samnite army at the Battle of Sentinum, during which the Romans won a hard-fought and costly victory they lost 8,700 men and their heroic consul, Publius Decius Mus, but the Samnites had lost 25,000 men, plus 8,000 prisoners. Meanwhile, 3,000 more Etruscans were slain in Etruria, and, while the Samnites and Gauls continued to resist Rome for another half-decade, Sentinum decided the fate of Italy. In 290 BC, the Third Samnite War ended, and the vast majority of central Italy fell under Roman control.


MOUNT GAURUS - 343 BC

Historiese agtergrond
The Samnites were attacking into Campania and the Campanians appealed to Rome for help. Negotiations between Rome and Samnium were rebuffed by the Samnites so Rome declared war. This would become the First Samnite war and would see conflict between these two nations on and off for 53 years until Rome was finally triumphant.
The Roman Consul Marcus Valerius Corvus took an army south and camped near Mount Gaurus West of Neapolis (Naples). He was met by a Samnite army of similar size and a long and determined struggle commenced between the two armies. Valerius finally ordered an all out assault by all his troops which eventually broke the enemy resolve and many of them were slaughtered in their rout before being saved by nightfall.
Further Roman victories at Saticula and Suessula would bring this first war to a close in 341 BC and result in the assimilation of Campania into the growing Roman empire. The peace terms would still allow the Samnites to attack the Sidinici and thus lead to the outbreak of the Latin War in 340 BC (see Battle of Veseris).
The stage is set. The battle lines are drawn and you are in command. Die res is geskiedenis.