Wat was die gemiddelde persentasie belasting in Europa gedurende die Middeleeue?

Wat was die gemiddelde persentasie belasting in Europa gedurende die Middeleeue?

Ek het baie geleer oor die tipe belasting wat in die Middeleeue bestaan, maar kon nie 'n bron vind wat spesifiek dui nie persentasies (afgesien van die tiende, maar ek weet nie hoe deeglik dit geïmplementeer is nie). Ek wil graag enige inligting hê, ongeag of dit plaaslik of beperk is in tyd of omvang.


In die Middeleeue (en selfs in die moderne tyd) was belasting baie onreëlmatig en wissel dit van plek tot plek. In baie gevalle was 'n 'belasting' eintlik net 'n roof. Byvoorbeeld, in Engeland sedert Domesday was die mees alomteenwoordige 'belasting' wat die 'haardbelasting' genoem is. Die manier waarop dit oorspronklik gewerk het, is dat Normandiese soldate van dorp tot dorp gegaan het en elke huis of kothuis met 'n skoorsteen (en dus 'n haard) besoek het. Hulle sou inbars en die huis plunder van enige ooglopende waardevolle items. Dit was die "belasting".

Teen die tyd van Edward III, wat 1327 tot 1377 regeer het (50 jaar, 'n baie lang regering), was die haardbelasting gestandaardiseer op 2 sjielings per haard. Dit sou 'n tiende van 'n troy pond wees. As ons goud op 16: 1 bereken en vir sterling aanpas, sou dit 0,0675 onse goud of $ 84 dollar per haard per jaar wees.

'N Belasting soos hierdie was egter net die begin. In die praktyk was daar letterlik honderde belasting op alles waaroor die heersers kon dink. Die meeste van hierdie belasting was teen edeles (skending) of teen handelaars (murasie, plaveisel, pontage, stallasie). Tolgeld en tariewe was ook algemeen. Dit sou byvoorbeeld geld kos om enige soort vervoer te doen; steek 'n rivier oor, steek 'n brug oor, kom 'n stad binne, land 'n skip. Dit sou moeilik wees om hierdie belasting op 'n konsekwente manier by te voeg.


Huursoldate – Gedurende die Middeleeue

Professionele soldate (of matrose) wat geveg het vir betaling of plundery, nie vir enige nasionale of godsdienstige saak nie, of omdat hulle dienspligtiges was. Daar is huursoldate gevind by die vesting van vestings of op die slagveld, byna net so lank as wat mense oorlog gevoer het: hulle het saam met die Romeinse legioene as hulpe opgetrek en teen hulle geveg Song -keisers het huursoldate in China in verre garnisoene ontplooi en dit in veldleërs uit die 12de eeu gebruik hulle het die groot trans-Sahara handelsroetes bewaak vir die Afrikaanse slawe-ryke van Mali en Songhay wat hulle vir die Kruisvaarderstate van die Heilige Land geveg het, sowel as teen hulle in verskeie Moslem-leërs. Die Asteekse Ryk is in bloed opgebou deur 'n meedoënlose volk wat as sytrosoldate begin het in die betaalde diens van 'n meer gevorderde en ryker stadstaat, Tepaneca, in die Sentraalvallei van Mexiko. In dele van die Middeleeuse Europa het die oorspronklikheid verseker dat baie jongmanne hulle noodgedwonge moes wapen om geld te verdien. Dit het die nodige magte opgelewer om uiteindelik die groot golwe van invalle oor ongeveer 600 jaar deur Vikings, Mongole, Arabiere en ander oorlogsugtige plunderaars te verslaan. 'N Groeiende aantal krygers wat deur 'n hele samelewing gestruktureer is, maar met 'n nuut stygende bevolking, word dan gestuur om die kruistogte te beveg, terwyl ander huursoldate gaan neem en steeds nader aan die oorlogskis by die huis veg.

Die ineenstorting van die monetêre ekonomie in Wes-Europa na die val van Rome het net twee gebiede gelaat waar goudmuntstukke nog in die 10de eeu gebruik is: Suid-Italië en Suid-Spanje (al-Andalus). Gereed goud lok huursoldate na oorloë in daardie streke, terwyl aasdiere dooie vlees nader. Die Bisantynse Ryk was ook in staat om munte te betaal vir militêre spesialiste en geharde veterane, saam met die Moslem -state wat dit etlike eeue lank gekant en beveg het. Die opkoms van huursoldate in Wes -Europa in die 11de eeu as 'n geldekonomie hervat, het die sosiale orde versteur en met woede en ontsteltenis deur die geestelikes en diensadelligheid ontvang. Vroeë vorme van monetêre diens behels nie noodwendig vaste lone nie. Dit het geldgeld en skatte ingesluit. Maar teen die einde van die 13de eeu was betaalde militêre diens die norm in Europa. Dit het beteken dat plaaslike bande op baie plekke gevorm word en 'n gepaardgaande gevoel van 'vreemdheid' aan soldate met 'n lang diens. Huursoldate is gewaardeer vir hul militêre kundigheid, maar is nou gevrees en word steeds meer geminag vanweë hul vermeende morele onverskilligheid teenoor die oorsake waarvoor hulle veg. Ex-huursoldate (routiers, Free Companies) was in die 12de eeu alledaags in Frankryk en 'n sosiale en ekonomiese plaag waar hulle ook al beweeg het tydens die Honderdjarige Oorlog (1337-1453). Hulle belangrikste wapen was die kruisboog, op land en op see. In die kombuisoorloë van die Middellandse See het baie Genoese, Pisan- en Venesiaanse kruisboogmanne as spesialis -boogskutters gehuur. 'N Groot deel van die Reconquista in Spanje is aangevuur deur die impuls van die huursoldaat en die gepaardgaande noodsaaklikheid vir leërs om van die land af te leef. Die harde metodes en wrede gesindhede wat die Iberiërs geleer het tydens die geveg teen die Moors, is toe toegepas in die Amerikas deur kwasi-huursoldate-veroweraars. Huursoldate-"condottieri" of buitelandse "kontrakteurs"-speel ook 'n groot rol in die oorloë van die stadstate van die Italiaanse Renaissance.

Franse "gen d ’armes" en Switserse pikemen en halberdiers veg vir Lorraine in Nancy (1477). Aan die begin van die 15de eeu het Switserse maatskappye met amptelike goedkeuring van die kanton gehuur of as vrye groepe wat hul amptenare verkies het en na Italië gegaan het om as condottieri te veg. Met die einde van die oorloë van die Switserse Konfederasie teen Frankryk en Bourgondië, het Switserse gelukkige soldate 'n kompanjie gestig wat bekend staan ​​as "das torechte Leben" (ongeveer "die gekke lewe") en veg vir die betaling onder 'n banier met 'n stadse idioot en n vark. Binne vier jaar na Nancy is ongeveer 6 000 Switsers deur Louis XI gehuur. In 1497 het Charles VIII ("The Affable") van Frankryk 100 Switserse halberdiers as sy persoonlike lyfwag ("Garde de Cent Suisses") verloof. In beide vorme het die Switsers in die 16de eeu die grootste huursoldaat van Europa geword. 'Pas d ’argent, pas de Suisses' ('geen geld, geen Switserse' nie) was 'n balans wat deur baie soewereine en generaals weerspieël is. Huursoldate van alle plaaslike oorsprong het die leërs van Karel V, en dié van sy seun, Filips II, sowel as hul vyande gevul tydens die godsdiensoorloë van die 16de en 17de eeu. Teen daardie tyd was Switserse huursoldate wat nog steeds snoeke gebruik het (en baie wel) grootliks in diens om die artillerie of loopgrawe of voorrade te bewaak. Op dieselfde manier is Duitse Landsknechte teen die laat 16de eeu nog steeds as skoktroepe vir die geveg aangestel, maar hulle word as ongedissiplineerd beskou en heeltemal nutteloos in 'n beleg.

In Pole in die 15de eeu was die meeste huursoldate Boheemse wat onder die vlag van St George geveg het, wat 'n rooi kruis op 'n wit agtergrond gehad het. Toe Boheemse eenhede aan weerskante van 'n slagveld bevind, het hulle gewoonlik ooreengekom dat die een kant 'n wit kruis op 'n rooi agtergrond sou aanneem, terwyl hul landgenote aan die ander kant die standaard rooi-op-wit-vlag van St. In die veldtogte van die Pools-Pruisiese en Teutoniese ridders van die middel van die 15de eeu was die broeders te min om al hul eie Duitse, Engelse, Skotte en Ierse huursoldate te doen om hul leërs in te vul. Tydens die "Oorlog van die stede" (1454-1466) was Duitse huursoldate van kritieke belang vir die oorwinning van die Teutoniese ridders in Chojnice (18 September 1454). Toe die orde opraak, het Boheemse te huur soldate wat die sleutelfesting en die Teutoniese hoofstad Marienburg vir die Ridders gehad het, dit aan 'n beleërende Poolse leër verkoop en vertrek, goed betaal en ongedeerd deur selfs 'n tekengeveg.

Die sosiale en ekonomiese ontwrigtings wat veroorsaak is deur belydeniswoedheid tydens die Dertigjarige Oorlog (1618-1648) het baie mans tot die wapenberoep gedwing, veral as hulle van die randmense van Europa of grenslande soos Skotland, Ierland of die Balkan, waar oorloë van inval en teenaanvalle endemies was. Toe 'n 'Sweedse' weermag Frankfurt-aan-die-Oder aangerand het, het 'n Skotse Brigade die aanval uitgevoer teen 'n verdedigende 'keiserlike' weermag wat geheel en al bestaan ​​uit Iere onder kolonel Walter Butler. Trouens, die grootste deel van die Europese leërs in die eerste helfte van die 17de eeu bestaan ​​uit huursoldate wat weinig etniese, klas- of godsdienstige lojaliteit te danke het aan die redes waarvoor hulle geveg het. Dit was omdat konings en groot kapteins sulke manne minder as skuld betaal het, waaruit soldate hul eie kos, wapens, klere en skuiling sou kry. In sommige leërs word selfs van muskiete verwag om hul eie swart poeier te koop, sodat hulle natuurlik 'n afsku het om dit aan gevegte te bestee. Selfs hierdie primitiewe stelsel was onderhewig aan groot mishandeling en korrupsie, aangesien kwartiermeesters en kolonels betaalstate afgeskaal het, troepe hulself blootgestel het aan minimale gevaar en kapteins hul taktiese vaardighede gebruik het om te ontsnap eerder as om gevegte te wen. Een gevolg was dat die leërs geneig was om voortdurend te manoeuvreer, vyandelike gebied op te eet eerder as om gevegte te soek. Die teenwoordigheid van die huursoldaat op die slagveld het dus gelei tot minder gevegte, maar baie langer oorloë, toestande wat die beste belang van militêre professionele persone in langdurige maar ook versigtige en relatief nie-sanguinêre diens bevredig het. Gedurende die Dertigjarige ’ -oorlog was baie topoffisiere huursoldate, veral aan die Habsburgse kant onder Wallenstein. Nie almal was Katolieke nie-Wallenstein self was 'n agnostiese mistikus. Hulle kom uit Skotland, Engeland, Ierland, die Switserse kantons en die talle oorstromings en strydende Duitse state. In 1500 bevat die meeste Europese leërs ongeveer 'n derde huursoldaat. Kort nadat Gustavus Adolphus in die Dertigjarige Oorlog ingegryp het, 130 jaar later, het sy "Sweedse leër", deur middel van ongevalle en nuwe werwing, 80 persent buitelandse huursoldate toegedraai om 'n kern van Sweedse veterane.

Een van die belangrikste gevolge van 'n groot aantal vaardige, hoogs mobiele en heeltemal ontroue huursoldate, gekombineer met die dodelikheid van die kanonne en vuurwapens wat hulle gebruik, was om so 'n selfrespekende soewerein te bedreig dat dit noodsaaklik geword het om 'n staande leër te stig beskerm die dinastie en koninkryk. Die antwoord op die anargie, terreur en vernietiging wat veroorsaak is deur 'Free Companies' van swaar gewapende en hawelose mans regoor Europa, het dus die koningswet geword. Dit is toe toegepas deur soldate in koninklike diens wat geklee was in die koning se kleure, gereeld betaal is en die hele jaar deur beskut was in kaserne, wat stalle gehad het vir hul bergings, tydskrifte vol skote en poeier, en nasionale gieterye en kleinwapenbedrywe. militêre behoeftes te voorsien. Kortom, die antwoord op huursoldaatanargie was die moderne staat.

Voorgestelde leeswerk: S. Brown, "The Mercenary and his Master", History, 74 (1989) K. A. Fowler, Medieval Mercenaries, Vol. 1 (2001) M. E. Mallett, Mercenaries and Their Masters (1974) J. F. Verbruggen, The Art of Warfare in Western Europe during the Middle Ages (1977) David Worthington, Scots in Habsburg Service, 1618-1648 (2004).


Wat was die gemiddelde persentasie belasting in Europa gedurende die Middeleeue? - Geskiedenis

Vanuit 'n vroulike oogpunt was huwelik en bevalling 'n belangrike aspek in die lewe van 'n Middeleeuse meisie of vrou. Die risiko's verbonde aan bevalling was destyds redelik hoog as gevolg van 'n aantal faktore: gesondheid van die ouderdom en siekte by geboorte en komplikasies.

Vir baie edelgebore of koninklike vroue kon en kon die huwelik dikwels op 'n jong ouderdom plaasvind. Daar is baie gevalle of baie jong meisies wat verloof en getroud is onder die ouderdom van 10 jaar. Dit beteken nie noodwendig dat die huwelik voltrek is nie. Daar was egter 'n persepsie dat sy, nadat 'n meisie begin het, as 'n huwelik beskou word. En so kon die mannetjie sy almagtige strewe na 'n erfgenaam begin.

So, gewoonlik, wanneer het 'n jong Middeleeuse meisie die pad begin na “womanhood ”:

Nou was huwelike met edele en koninklike vroue gewoonlik vir politieke en dinastiese oorweging. Dus, op watter ouderdom het 'n jong adellike vrou getrou.

Dit is meer algemeen dat 'n jong vrou vroeg getroud was, maar eers haar eerste kind gehad het toe sy baie ouer was. Daar word ooreengekom dat die algemeenste ouderdom vir 'n jong vrou wat haar eerste kind gebaar het, vanaf 16 jaar oud is.

Die volgende voorbeelde is egter uitsonderings:

Maar wat van jong vroue wat nie edel of koninklik was nie - op watter ouderdom het hulle getrou en kinders gehad?

Die konsensus is dat jong vroue van middel- of lae status getroud is en op 'n baie later ouderdom geboorte geskenk het om 'n aantal redes:

Dus, die algemeenste ouderdom vir 'n jong vrou met 'n middel- of lae status om te trou, was vanaf die ouderdom van 22 jaar. Ons kan dus tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat hierdie jong vrou haar eerste kind sou baar het voor sy 25 jaar oud was.

33 opmerkings:

Die verklaring wat u gemaak het oor meisies wat dikwels verloof en getroud was voor die ouderdom van 10 jaar, kan u asseblief die verwysing (s) vir hierdie verklaring aan my stuur? Ek probeer 'n geskil besleg met 'n chauvanistiese vriend van 'n vriend wat glo dat niemand met 'n meisie sou trou waarmee hy nie dadelik sou kon gesels nie. Hy weet dat huwelike 'n alliansie is, maar weier om te glo dat kinderhuwelike 'n algemene gebruik was.

Hey, ek het gewonder of u aan die einde van hierdie stuk vir my 'n verwysing na u verklaring kan gee. Die een oor vroue wat nie trou voordat hulle c.22 was nie. Ek probeer 'n opstel skryf oor vroeë Middeleeuse vroulike lewensiklusse, en dit sal my help om te argumenteer teen hierdie historikus wat van mening is dat dit onrealisties is om te verwag dat Middeleeuse vroue tot na hul laat tienerjare gewag het. Dankie!

Dit kan die moeite werd wees om te sê dat die ouderdom van puberteit die afgelope paar honderd jaar afgeneem het. Ongeveer tweehonderd jaar gelede het die meeste meisies hul eerste menstruasie op die ouderdom van 15-18 jaar gekry, terwyl meisies deesdae hulle s'n kry wanneer hulle ongeveer 13 jaar oud is. Dit kan verklaar hoekom hulle hul eerste kind gekry het & quotso laat & quot.

Ek het u inskrywings oor Toxic Words geniet - sulke goeie gedagtes en 'n wonderlike herinnering om na die woorde wat ek gebruik te kyk - om positief en vriendelik te wees en om woorde op te bou eerder as om af te breek. :)

Wat die idee betref dat Middeleeuse boervroue eers op 22-jarige ouderdom trou, geld dit slegs vir die grootste deel van Noordwes-Europa van ongeveer 1350-1800. Peter Laslett se boek The World We Have Lost bevat 'n duisend huweliksertifikate wat van 1619 tot 1660 in Canterbury uitgereik is, volgens die dokumente was ongeveer 85 persent van die Engelse bruide in hierdie tydperk minstens negentien jaar oud toe hulle getroud was en slegs een uit elke 'n duisend was dertien (of jonger). Die mees algemene ouderdomme by huwelike vir vroue was 22 jaar, vir mans 24 jaar was die mediaan ouderdomme 22,75 vir vroue, 25,5 vir mans die gemiddelde ouderdomme by die eerste huwelik was 24 jaar vir vroue en 27,75 jaar vir mans. Middellandse See en Oos-Europa, plus Finland, Ierland en 'n groot deel van Skotland het meer gelyk aan nie-Europese samelewings waar feitlik alle vroue op twintigjarige ouderdom getroud is.

Wat van die huwelik onder die gewone en arm mense in die Middeleeue?

Dit lyk asof u op die hoër klasse fokus

Bekroonde boek oor Petrus die Grote toon dat gewone vroue ongeveer 12 begin het omdat die vrou 16 kinders moes hê, omdat 'n groot aantal kinders was omdat slegs een uit elke vier tot in die geskiedenis gegroei het. Alle antieke kulture en primitiewe stamme waaroor ek gelees het, begin omstreeks 12 of vroeër as gevolg van die groot aantal kinders wat nodig was (12 tot 16 uit bronne, afhangende van die omstandighede op daardie tydstip) Die meeste gewone mense het nie in die middel van die ouderdom getrou nie wet (saam intrek) was die reël tot later.
Dit beteken nie dat ons dieselfde moet doen nie, maar ons moet die drang onthou om verlief te raak/ seks te hê met almal wat puberteit bereik het, begrawe in die instinkte wat nodig is vir 'n meer primitiewe tyd.

Ek het 'n opregte vraag. die rede hoekom ek op hierdie webwerf gekom het, was om uit te vind wanneer meisies uit die middeleeue hul menstruasie kry. Sien ek is vertel dat dierhormone ons siklusse en selfs ons gewig beïnvloed. maar dan sou dit nie 'n probleem wees nie. Ek vra dus: is daar dokumentasie oor so 'n probleem?

Anoniem stel belang in die gemiddelde ouderdom van puberteit- geen statistieke voor die 1800's nie, maar daarna baie goeie bewyse. Wiki het 'n opsomming hier: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puberty#Historical_shift

Die veronderstelde rede vir die verskil is 'n verandering in dieet (meer proteïene), beter voeding in die algemeen (meer kos, minder periodes van aanvang, ens.

Hier is die lys van BS -mites oor die Middeleeue:
1. & quothulle is getroud sodra die vrou menstruasie sou kry & quot. VERKEERDE. Ryk mense het. U sal geskok wees om te weet hoe groot sosiale konstruksie dit vandag is en hoe invloedryk Hollywood is. maar ryk mense trou so gou as moontlik om die meeste kinders te kry. En hulle het huwelike gereël voordat hulle ook puberteit bereik het. Verskeie beskawings het op verskillende ouderdomme getrou. Middeleeue het gemiddeld 'n eerste huweliksouderdom tot 20's gehad, afhangende van die omstandighede. In sommige dorpe het vroue tot in die dertigerjare die eerste huwelike aangegaan.

2. & quotwomen het gemiddeld 15 kinders gehad en die helfte van die kinders sou in die eerste paar jaar sterf & quot. VERKEERDE. Gemiddeld het 5-7 kinders gemiddeld, en slegs 1-2 sterf as kind. Voorbehoedmetodes het op enige ouderdom bestaan, en mense het op dieselfde manier verskillende maniere gehad om swangerskap te vermy.

3. "Die bevolking kan nie ontplof nie, want slegs 1/4 van die kinders sou puberteit bereik as gevolg van siektes om te begin voortplant, gewoonlik net om hul ouers te vervang." VERKEERDE. Die bevolking het nie ontplof nie, alhoewel meer as twee kinders van elke geslag sou oorleef, maar 'n ekstra aantal manlike kinders/jong volwassenes sou dood of vermink word as gevolg van moeilike lewens-/werksomstandighede. U dink miskien dat dit nie van die manlike bevolking afhang nie, want u kan die vrou as 'n knelpunt sien, maar u is verkeerd, lees nommer 3.

3. & quotDaar was geen vroue om vir jong mans te trou nie, omdat heersers hul harems gehad het & quot. VERKEERDE. Gegewe die af en toe harems onder die rykste mense, sou 'n aansienlike aantal vroue ongetroud bly, of weduwee, omdat vroue in elke ouderdomsgroep swaar as mans was. Die belangrikste probleem vir die Middeleeuse bevolking was nie die aantal vroue nie, maar hulpbronne (kos en water) en behuising. Baie clans in Europa het bruidskat vereis. Clans met manlike lede het dikwels tot die gevolgtrekking gekom dat die bruid nie genoeg bruidskat gee nie, en daarom sal sy haar nie kies nie. Die sukses van die samelewing was dus afhanklik van mans in die beperkte hulpbronne, veral as gevolg van oorloë en konstante tekort aan manlike bevolking.

Dit was belangrik om te weet hoeveel vroue dit moet bepaal, bepaal die toekomstige groei van die samelewing. VERKEERDE. Daar is 'n rede waarom die bevolking oor die algemeen slegs mans sal tel, en dit is nie bloot as gevolg van die weermag nie. In werklikheid was die verpligte konsep vir boere destyds byna nutteloos. Die aantal manlike kleinboere was belangrik vanweë die werkvermoë om voedsel te produseer en oor die algemeen goed te bou. Ons gaan terug na die eerste plek, die bevolkingsgroei was afhanklik van ander dinge, 'n knelpunt was om kos en behuising te verskaf, en beskerm dan die gebied.

5. & quotVroue het geen werk gedoen nie, hulle het tuis gesit terwyl hul mans werk toe gegaan het & quot. VERKEERDE. Hierdie era begin met die industrialisering van samelewings. Sommige samelewings het nog steeds nie hierdie fase deurgemaak nie. Voor industrialisasie het ons 'n feodale era gehad, die oorgrote meerderheid van die Europese bevolking het op dieselfde plek gebly. Marco Polo is 'n uitsondering, net soos ander handelaars en af ​​en toe soldate. Die meeste mense was verplig om op hul eienaar se eiendom te bly. En beide mans en vroue het huishoudelike take, plaaswerke of privaat besighede uitgevoer. Geldeenheid vir die meeste bevolking was natuurlike hulpbronne. Belasting is oor die algemeen ook op hierdie manier betaal. As gevolg van fisiese en biologiese verskille, is werk dienooreenkomstig gedifferensieer.

6. & quot Die belangrikste taak vir 'n vrou was om te kook & quot. VERKEERDE. Nie die kookkuns wat jy dwaas is nie. Weet u hoekom hulle nie die mikrogolfoond of die yskas uitgevind het voor die lam toestelle wat u in museums sien nie? Omdat naaldwerk en breiwerk baie winsgewende werk was en daar verskeie kunswerke daarmee gedoen is. Aristokrasie het hul dogters gereeld geleer hoe om te naai en te brei met verskillende tegnieke en materiale, net as hulle arm word. Brei en naaldwerk kan jou meer verdien as wat 'n smid kan verdien, en selfs mans het dus sulke beroepe. Maar 'n gemiddelde vrou het gewoonlik nie duur materiaal nie; sy maak gewoonlik klere vir haarself en die hele gesin. Daar was verskeie vroue in die huis wat klere gemaak het. Probeer om 'n hemp, 'n broek of 'n trui te maak, en dan sal u sien dat dit 'n voltydse werk vir enige Middeleeuse vrou is.

7. & quot Vroue sterf oor die algemeen as gevolg van oormatige bevalling & quot. VERKEERDE. Eerste swangerskap was oor die algemeen die gevaarlikste swangerskap en ander swangerskappe het minder as 1% kans om te sterf. Gegewe die wydverspreide siektes en ongesonde lewensomstandighede, sal swangerskap in die gebied van die huidige griep van die seisoen oorweeg word. Trouens, seisoenale griepepidemie in die Middeleeue sou baie meer sterftes veroorsaak as swangerskappe in die komende jare. Sterf weens bevalling was meer algemeen onder koninklikes as gevolg van genetiese siektes EN oormatige bevalling. Ander vroue borsvoed hul kinders self, wat die kans op swangerskap oor die algemeen verminder, die gaping tussen swangerskappe vergroot om ma se liggaam tyd te gee om te herstel en 'n groot invloed op die aantal babas in die wêreld wat gebore word.

8. & quotMense was besig om jonk te sterf, gemiddeld in hul 20's & quot. VERKEERDE. Dit bevat die aantal mense wat sou sterf in hul kinderjare, oorloë, siektes, swangerskap, lewens- en werksomstandighede of bloot as gevolg van algemene mishandeling, dit was 'n era van wreedheid en slawerny -instellings was wêreldwyd baie teenwoordig. Maar mense wat hierdie swaarkry sou omseil, kan maklik verby hul 50's leef, gemiddeld tot in hul 60's.

9. 'Aborsie en voorbehoeding het tot die moderne era nie bestaan ​​nie'. VERKEERDE. Ons het eenvoudig baie meer betroubare metodes vir voorbehoeding en aborsie, selfs in ons ou geskiedenis. Dit is net dat dit onverskilligheid sou veroorsaak of dat dit afgekeur sou word, afhangende van historiese omstandighede. Sogenaamde heksejag bestaan ​​meestal uit die jaag van mense wat 'n heksery gemaak het om ongebore kinders dood te maak of die volwassene te vergiftig. Vanweë opspraakwekkende paar honderde mees omstrede beproewings, het die moderne samelewing egter besluit om 'n alternatiewe weergawe te gee van hoe die Middeleeue geglo het dat hulle miljoene besemvliegende hekse tydens die inquisisie doodgemaak het.

10. & quot Mense het geglo dat die aarde plat was totdat Columbus Amerika ontdek het en die Spaanse kerk hom probeer keer het & quot. VERKEERDE. Nie net dat die kerk sy reis gefinansier het nie, maar Columbus het geweet dat die aarde rond is. Net soos baie samelewings voor hom. Hy het amper misluk omdat hy die afstand verkeerd bereken het, of eerder dat hy die kaarte en berekeninge wat deur Arabiere en Romeine gedoen is, verkeerd verstaan ​​het. Daar word ook geglo dat Romeine Amerika waarskynlik voor Vikings ontdek het en dat sommige setlaars selfs voor hulle gekom het.

Ek het die middeleeuse en Tudor -tydperke bestudeer, en dit was baie algemeen dat 'n meisie baie jonk was toe sy getroud was, sodat hulle sou wag totdat sy ouer was en erfgename en hopelik seuns vir haar man se familie kon produseer. Gedurende hierdie tyd was dit baie algemeen dat die jong man of seuntjie 'n meesteres gehad het. en ja, boere vir die gewone mense het gewoonlik gewag om te trou tot in die laat tienerjare of vroeë volwassenheid om te trou en kinders te hê.

Ek het die Middeleeue sowel as Tudor bestudeer, en meisies is so jonk getroud met 'n man wat twee keer so oud was as 'n paar jaar ouer. die huwelik sou egter nie voltrek word totdat sy die ouderdom bereik het toe sy hom 'n erfgenaam kon gee nie. gedurende hierdie tyd was dit baie algemeen dat 'n man 'n meesteres aanneem. Die gewone mense is getroud tydens hul laat tienerjare of tydens die vroeë volwasse kappie, waarskynlik omdat hulle nie so haastig sou wees om kinders te hê as mense met titels nie.

Aan Anoniem 8 Junie 2013: Dankie dat u die Akkurate inligting geplaas het. Ek is so moeg om te sien dat verkeerde inligting versprei word in 'n poging om 'n aantrekkingskrag vir minderjariges te verskoon (en jy sal verbaas wees hoe gereeld dit gebeur).

Ek lees tans & quotA Time Travellers Guide to Medieval England & quot. Dit sê dat meisies omstreeks 12 jaar getroud was, maar dat hulle nie saam gewoon het tot die ouderdom van 14. Na verwagting sou hulle 6 kinders op 25-jarige ouderdom hê. 21 word as middeljarige beskou. Mense het selde ouer as 40 gelewe.

Ek het op 'n sterk verwysde manier meer as een bron, 'n Pulitzer -pryswennerboek & quot; Peter die Grote, sy lewe en wêreld & quot; deur Robert K Massie getoon, wat die behoefte aan 'n gemiddelde van 16 toon en die ouderdom van seksuele aktiwiteit dek, waarmee die meeste boere nie amptelik getrou het nie veelvuldige verwysings. Die Romeinse sensusrekords is met twaalfjarige ouderdom nie betwisbaar nie, en die gesondheidstoestande het later versleg. Elke bewering dat dit hoër was by die Galliërs, gebaseer op 'n verklaring van 'n Romeinse persoon, ignoreer hoe min die Romeine van die Galliërs geweet het en veronderstel 'n baie beter baba -oorlewingsyfer.
Die konsensusouderdom van Maria, die moeder van Jesus, is ongeveer 14, wat beteken dat sy ongeveer 12 tot 14 was toe sy swanger geword het.

Ek onthou dat ek verskeie bronne gelees het oor die mense wat betrokke was by die verhoging van die ouderdom nadat die sterftesyfer van kinders afgeneem het. Waarom hierdie behoefte om die geskiedenis te herskryf met swak artikels wat die afgelope paar eeue al die mense onder die bus gegooi het wat die pogings aangewend het om die ouderdom te verhoog nadat sanitasie en medisyne verbeter het.

Ja, verskaf asseblief verwysings en bewyse.
@Kai, miskien moet u u vriend daaraan herinner dat mense destyds op 'n ander manier oor die lewe gedink het, en dat daar moontlik bygelowige, relige, sosiale of selfs fisiese redes was om te trou, maar wag om dit tot later te voltooi. Miskien het baie mense gedink dat om te jonk kinders te kry, die vrou sou doodmaak (en miskien was hulle reg), of miskien het menstruasie op 'n later ouderdom plaasgevind. In elk geval, daar is baie verskillende redes en goeie dinge oor die huwelik behalwe seks, en ons kan nie redeneer dat mense nie sou kon wag net omdat dit so is nie.

Jammer, maar Joodse meisies was gewoonlik omstreeks 15-17 getroud, so dit is 'n leuen. https://books.google.com/books?id=ctZXwDmc4MwC&pg=PA54&dq=age+of++roman+girls+at+marriage&hl=af&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjfwLSGmorQAhUJ6YMK20p_%20s%%%%%%%%=== %20at%20marriage & ampf = false
Daar word ook gesê dat daar twee jaar verloop het sedert die besoek van die engel, so dit maak Mary ongeveer 14-16 jaar toe sy swanger raak.

Ek het ook daaroor gelees. Ek bedoel, die meeste meisies ovuleer nie op hulle nie
tydperk. Feitlik is dit 'n paar jaar na puberteit.
https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/context-and-variation/interrogating-claims-about-natural-sexual-behavior-more-on-deep-thinking-hebephile/

Ek het vergeet om dit saam met my relpy te plaas. https://wikiislam.net/wiki/Responses_to_Apologetics_-_Muhammad_and_Aisha#Mary_married_90-year-old_Joseph_when_she_was_only_12.2C_so_Joseph_was_a_pedophile_too

Dit sou onmoontlik wees. Hoekom? Want soos ek al gesê het, ovuleer die meeste meisies nie tydens hul eerste menstruasie nie. Dit gebeur tot 'n paar jaar later (Funfacts: Minder as 10% van die meisies begin hul menstruasie voor 11. Feit#2: 14 en 12 was die ouderdom van menarche). Sommige meisies kan swanger raak voor hul menstruasie, maar as hulle te jonk geboorte skenk (soos jonger as 15, 16 ot 17. Idk), veroorsaak dit dat hulle nie meer kinders hoef te baar nie. Ek is nie seker of mense uit die oudheid en die middeleeue weet dat geboorte op 12,13 en 14 onvrugbaarheid kan veroorsaak nie. Gelukkig vind seks meestal plaas 'n paar jaar na puberteit.

Dankie. U opmerking behoort nommer een te wees.

'N Ander ding is dat moeders jonger as 14 jaar baie skaars is. Ek lees dit uit tienermoederskap oor kruiskulturele perspektief.

'N Ander ding is dat moeders jonger as 14 jaar baie skaars is. Ek lees dit uit tienermoederskap oor kruiskulturele perspektief. Sal u my ook die boeke wys wat so iets beweer? Dankie en jammer vir die dubbelpos.

Ek is jammer, maar ek is ouer as 12 (meer as 14), nie onder nie. Ek kon geen bron kry wat beweer dat stamvroue 12 en jonger geboorte gegee het nie. Ek het wel so iets gevind & gt
https://books.google.com/books?id=89N78kYLFNQC&pg=PA226&dq=the+age+of+first+childbirth+among+tribes&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwimuuvIyYDXAhXi24MKHdHxDgM%6Page=%20p> 20kindgeboorte%20amonder%20tribes & ampf = vals en hierdie https://books.google.com/books?id=FySTvgsdkM0C&pg=PA175&dq=the+age+of+first+childbirth+among+tribes&hl=af&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEWK9IQCATIXYPCIXXPTXXPQAJXXPQAJXXPQAJXXPIQXIQXXPQXIQXXXpQQXXpQQXXpQQXXpQQXpQQXpQQXpf = die%20age%20of%20first%20childbirth%20amnog%20tribes & ampf = false en hierdie https://books.google.com/books?id=NFaCmMUNe7gC&pg=PA40&dq=the+age+of+first+childbirth+among+tribes&hl= en & ampsa = X & ampved = 0ahUKEwj9ptCzzIDXAhUsxYMKHVATCPIQ6AEIHTAA#v = onepage & ampq = the%20age%20of%20first%20childbirth%20aman%20tribes & ampf = false

Jammer, maar u moet die bronne weer lees. Dit het nie gesê dat Maria 12-14 was toe sy swanger geword het nie, maar dat sy 14-16 was.
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08504a.htm

Jammer, maar puberteit is 'n fase wat 'n paar jaar neem om af te handel. Hoekom dink bronne sal sê dat meisies ongeveer x of y of z puberteit voltooi? Omdat puberteit 'n stadige oorgang is. Die meeste meisies ovuleer ook nie tot 1-3 jaar na die eerste menstruasie nie. Dit neem ongeveer 2-5 jaar voordat 'n meisie se voortplantingsorgane na die eerste periode volwasse word.

Isabelle van Aragon, koningin van Duitsland 1315-1330 sou slegs 11 wees toe sy haar eerste kind gehad het as Wikipedia korrek is: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isabella_of_Aragon,_Queen_of_Germany

Puberteit eindig ongeveer 25 jaar oud, maar daar is verslae van vroue wat nie eers puberteit voltooi het nie, fase 5, 25 jaar oud omdat hulle uit die laer klas kom en tydens hul jeug onvoldoende voedingstowwe het.

Deesdae is die gemiddelde ouderdom vir 'n meisie se eerste periode ongeveer 12.

'N Man is moontlik nie gewillig selibaat nie, maar wag dalk om die huwelik te voltooi. Dit beteken nie dat hy seks gehad het met ander vroue terwyl hy gewag het nie. Owerspel kom oor die eeue heen gereeld voor.


Hoe het die Middeleeuse Europese stede begin ontwikkel?

Vergelyk dit met woon in die dorpe, burgers in stede gedurende die Middeleeue het meer regte en geniet status van Freeman. Daarom het boere in die meeste gevalle probeer om van die platteland na die stede te ontsnap. Om die ontsnapping van kleinboere uit die dorpe te vermy, begin sommige feodale here in die XIII eeu die kleinboere van belasting onthef, wat hulle meer regte gee. Aan die einde van die Middeleeue het meer as negentig persent van die mense in dorpe gewoon, maar daar was uitsonderings soos in Noord -Italië. Die tipiese middeleeuse stad was 'n kommersiële sentrum sonder landbou as die belangrikste ekonomiese tak. Each city had a fort in which sits Count and these cities represents administrative center of the local area. If in the city enthronement bishop, city got status of the religious center. Craftsman’s in the cities had to give their lords one part of the final products. During the early middle ages in Europe, Asian people starting to enter into European territory and in IX century Arabians started to control Mediterranean coasts. In the second half of the XI century Normans occupied Sicily but Italian cities with their fleet managed to liberate Sardinia and Corsica. In this period, European cities having little trade connection to the Eastern trade centers.

On the important trade routes or important river crossing were held festivals in which craftsmen brought goods and sold it. During the time, some craftsman’s build home near the place of trade. Some craftsmen’s fled from villages or they managed to purchased freedom from the feudal lords and after that they had dwelt. The settlements inhabited by craftsman’s and merchants, enjoyed Freeman status in society and these settlements marked as mercatum (market). To protect themselves from attack craftsman’s and traders build the walls and so from XI century settlements started to grow into the large trade centers. Citizens were most often had to redeem rights from the lords. First, they purchased the right to judicial authorities so cities received judicial self-government. Then they asked for participation in city management like organization of the guard in city or building water supply. Finally, citizens were looked for self-management of domestic and foreign policy and on that way cities were transformed into so-called city-states (like the “polis” in Ancient Greece). Some cities had partial autonomy. Over time, the city elders had realized that the cities were more profitable than villages so they converted villages into town. They did it because they sold the civil rights in so-called “new cities”. This process was not the same in all medieval Europe. For example, residents of cities of Western Europe were personally free because they earn the rights during the period of Roman Empire.

Many of the settlements in Western Europe also starting to grow around the castles. During the construction of medieval cities, special attention was focused to safety. Residents built more and more walls. In order to make strong defense around the city walls, authorities have ordered digging trench filled with water, so people walked across the drawbridge to enter the city. The walls of the towers were especially thick. In the Middle Ages, cities mostly fell in to the hands of attackers due to lack of food and long siege. The city gates were built narrow (for pedestrians and horsemen) and wide (for carts). Typical medieval city had two gates (or more) because if attackers break through one gate, defenders could simply escape through the other. Every town had at least one secret gate. Cities have had their patron saint, like Republic of San Marco (Venetian Republic). Above the western gate was usually placed a statue of the patron saint and on the eastern part of the city was placed a fresco. Around the city there was a suburb and that could be subsequently surrounded by walls. Each city had to have at least one square in which there are the most important institutions and cathedral. The houses were built of wood and later of stone. Because of the cramped space inside the city walls houses were built narrow and high. London had about 120 churches and Rome even a few hundred. Medieval town at night was in dark, so city authorities for safety measures organized the guards who carried the lighted torch. If the city was located on the coast, authorities took care if there onboard armed persons and whether the ship comes from areas that were infected with a disease. Independent cities had its own mint. The small town had several hundred inhabitants, medium-sized town had several thousand inhabitants and the largest cities have had several tens of thousands of residents. Largest cities of Western Europe were: London, Paris, Milan, Venice and Naples.

Georg Braun, map of Venice in his “Civitates orbis terrarum“

City took care of feeding its citizens and cereals are generally the base diet. The supply is carried out from its own district. In Middle Ages, there was an often shortage of grain. However, some states have prohibited the export of grain while others seeking special permission for export. With permission (lawn), it was possible to export only a certain amount of grain. The city residents also could buy only a certain amount of grain every week. In addition to wheat, the most important products to eat or drink was oil, cheese and wine. The lowest class in cities was habitator (latin) or habitant which they usually worked as carriers or they were servants. Senior middle class was civis or citizen and the highest class was nobilis or nobles. Nobles were manager over the city. Oil was made out of olives but more often it is used pork fat. The most common disease in the cities was the plague. Terrifying epidemic of plague was the one that broke out in Europe in mid-fourteenth century. Disease was transferred from China over Italian merchants. Plague is transmitted by touching. Plague has been known as the Black Death because the disease causing a change of the skin color. The largest epidemics have covered the cities and that is why many cities brought some hygiene regulations (Eg. cattle are pushed out of the city, the authorities hire doctors, began cleaning streets, …). The rulers had their own doctors and cities were able to borrow doctor. In order to protect themselves from disease city authorities build quarantine outside the walls, so all suspicious passengers had to spend a certain amount of time in quarantine before entering in the city and the first hospitals formed in monasteries.


Women in the Middle Ages

Vroue in die Middeleeue moes amptelik ondergeskik wees aan 'n man, hetsy hul vader, eggenoot of ander familielid. Widows, who were often allowed some control over their own lives, were still restricted legally. Three main activities performed by peasant men and women were planting food, keeping livestock, and making textiles, as depicted in Psalters from southern Germany and England. Women of different classes performed different activities. Rich urban women could be merchants like their husbands or even became money lenders, and middle-class women worked in the textile, inn-keeping, shop-keeping, and brewing industries. Townswomen, like peasant women, were responsible for the household and could also engage in trade. Poorer women often peddled and huckstered food and other merchandise in the market places or worked in richer households as domestic servants, day laborers, or laundresses.

There is evidence that women performed not only housekeeping responsibilities like cooking and cleaning, but even other household activities like grinding, brewing, butchering, and spinning produced items like flour, ale, meat, cheese, and textiles for direct consumption and for sale. An anonymous 15th-century English ballad described activities performed by English peasant women, like housekeeping, making foodstuffs and textiles, and childcare.

Peasant household. An image of a peasant household, including a woman preparing cheese.

Noblewomen were responsible for running a household and could occasionally be expected to handle estates in the absence of male relatives, but they were usually restricted from participation in military or government affairs. The only role open to women in the church was that of a nun, as they were unable to become priests.


Life in a Medieval Town

The medieval town was a busy and vibrant place, which had strict regulations to control trade and industry, and law and order.

During the Middle Ages, between sixty and eighty percent of Europe’s population are believed to have lived in the countryside, making their living from the land. But although more people lived in rural areas, those who lived in the town enjoyed a variety of amenities and access to foodstuffs and goods which were not available to those whose homes were in the countryside.

In the high Middle Ages, at the beginning of the eleventh century, urban life in Europe increased, in part due to more trading opportunities within each country, and increased overseas trade. In just 200 years in England, London’s population rose from around 25,000 in 1100 to 100,000 in 1300. All these people had to be fed and housed, and whilst the streets became more crowded with housing, London also expanded its boundaries to accommodate the growing population.

Trade in the Medieval Town

Although the medieval town contained a small percentage of a country’s population, towns benefited from the buying power of those in the countryside, who travelled into town on market or fair days, to buy provisions for the coming weeks. And without the influx of goods from outside the town, many traders, particularly those who sold fresh good such as milk and meat would have been unable to make a living.

In England, the textile trade was responsible for the growth and prosperity of many of the country’s major towns. Centres such as Lincoln, Stamford and York became famous for the quality of their textiles, and in the case of these three towns, easy access to navigable rivers and seas meant that goods could be shipped in and out at a relatively low cost, keeping prices down.

Artisans could join a craft guild, and enjoy extra privileges, such as the right to trade at market, to exclude outsiders from selling their goods within town and to limit the number of practitioners of a specific trade within the town.

The Privileges Enjoyed by the Inhabitants of Medieval Towns

The main privilege of living in a town was rights of freedom, which were exclusively for those within the boundaries of the town in question. These varied from town to town, and from country to country, but were extensively quoted in law courts, when disputes arose. Anyone who lived in a town had free access to markets and fairs, for which outsiders would pay a toll on entry to the settlement.

Other privileges could include the right to a specific plot of land, which could not be usurped by anyone else, and an organised watch-system which protected the town at night and prevented the entry of strangers during curfew.

Despite these advantages, life in the medieval town could be crowded, noisy and even dangerous large numbers of people living in cramped conditions, which would be dismissed as unhygienic nowadays, meant that disease was rife. Life in the medieval town was not for everyone, and there were many who preferred to live a simpler life in the countryside, visiting the town only to purchase goods.


Serfs

Interesting facts and information about life and the lives of men and women who were the serfs in the
Medieval period of the Middle Ages

Definition of Serfs
Medieval Serfs were peasants who worked his lord's land and paid him certain dues in return for the use of land, the possession (not the ownership) of which was heritable. The dues were usually in the form of labor on the lord's land. Medieval Serfs were expected to work for approximately 3 days each week on the lord's land. A serf was one bound to work on a certain estate, and thus attached to the soil, and sold with it into the service of whoever purchases the land.

Daily Life of a Serf
The daily life of a serf was hard. The Medieval serfs did not receive their land as a free gift for the use of it they owed certain duties to their master. These took chiefly the form of personal services. Medieval Serfs had to labor on the lord's domain for two or three days each week, and at specially busy seasons, such as ploughing and harvesting, Serfs had to do do extra work. The daily life of a serf was dictated by the requirements of the lord of the manor. At least half his time was usually demanded by the lord. Serfs also had to make certain payments, either in money or more often in grain, honey, eggs, or other produce. When Serfs ground the wheat he was obliged to use the lord's mill, and pay the customary charge. In theory the lord could tax his serfs as heavily and make them work as hard as he pleased, but the fear of losing his tenants doubtless in most cases prevented him from imposing too great burdens on the daily life of the serf.

The Serfs Common Use of Non-arable Land
Besides the serfs holding of farm land, which in England averaged about thirty acres, each peasant had certain rights over the non-arable land of the manor. He could cut a limited amount of hay from the meadow. He could turn so many farm animals such as cattle, geese and swine on the waste. Serfs also enjoyed the privilege of taking so much wood from the forest for fuel and building purposes. A serfs's holding, which also included a house in the village, thus formed a complete outfit.

Medieval Serfs Clothing
The Medieval clothing of serfs in the Middle Ages was basic and practical. Typical clothing or dress consisted of:

  • A blouse of cloth or skin fastened by a leather belt round the waist
  • An overcoat or mantle of thick woollen material, which fell from his shoulders to half-way down his legs
  • Shoes or large boots
  • Short woollen trousers,
  • From his belt there hung a sheath for his knife
  • They generally went bareheaded, but in cold weather or in rain he wore a woollen hat
  • Gloves were only worn for their practical clothing value and were padded for use in tasks such as hedging

Origin of the Serfs and Serfdom
Serfdom developed during the later centuries of the Roman Empire and in the early Middle Ages. Most serfs seem to have been the successors, of Roman slaves, whose condition had gradually improved. Serfs were also recruited from the ranks of freemen who, because of the desire to gain the protection of a lord, became subject to him.

The Oppression of Serfs
Serfdom represented a stage between slavery and freedom and therefore the oppression of the serf. A slave belonged to his master he was bought and sold like other chattels. A Medieval Serf had a higher position, for he could not be sold apart from the land nor could his holding be taken from him. They were fixed to the soil. On the other hand a serf ranked lower than a freeman, because he could not change his abode, nor marry outside the manor, nor bequeath his goods, without the permission of his lord.

The Emancipation of the Serfs
Serfdom was destined to be a transitory condition. The emancipation of the Medieval serfs occurred over many years. The most important events which led to the emancipation of the Medieval serf in the England of the Middle Ages was the Black Death which was followed by the Peasants revolt. The Black Death claimed nearly a third of the English population. With fewer people the value of laborers increased which led to the Peasants Revolt. By the close of medieval times of the Middle Ages, the serfs in most parts of western Europe had secured their freedom form the shackles of serfdom.

Serfs
Each section of this Middle Ages website addresses all topics and provides interesting facts and information about these great people and events in bygone Medieval times. Die werfkaart bevat volledige inligting oor al die inligting en feite oor die fassinerende onderwerp van die Middeleeue!

Serfs

  • Medieval Serfs and Peasants
  • Definition of a Serf in the Middle Ages
  • Daily Life of Serfs
  • Medieval Serf Clothing and Daily Life
  • Origin of Serfs and Serfdom
  • The Oppression of the Serf
  • The Emancipation of the Serf
  • Life for Middle Ages Men and Women

The Medieval Practices That Reshaped Europe’s Fish

More than 700 years ago, demand for sturgeon, salmon, and other fish was so high that kings had to start regulating fishing.

In the year 1289, King Philip IV of France was worried about fish. “Each and every watershed of our realm,” he proclaimed, “large and small, yields nothing due to the evil of fishers.” Environmental change, expanding cities, and overfishing had sent aquatic populations into a tailspin. Because they were scarce, the fish, King Philip noted, “are much more costly than they used to be, which results in no moderate loss to the rich and poor of our realm.” This state of affairs could not stand. The king promulgated the country’s first fisheries ordinance.

In medieval Europe, an era stretching from about A.D. 500 to 1500, fish was a prestigious food. Chefs experimented with ways to disguise beef as fish: At least half a dozen cookbooks of the era include recipes for turning veal into imitation sturgeon for wealthy lords and ladies. Sturgeon was so rare in England and France that it was reserved for the monarchs, and the Cistercians, a Catholic religious order that used sign language to communicate, referred to it using the sign for fish and then the sign for pride.

People of all social classes, though, ate freshwater fish—trout, whitefish, pike, eel, lamprey, and shads. This taste started to have consequences. Today, fish populations around the world are rapidly declining a millennium ago, Europeans faced similar challenges. Overfishing resulted in local extinctions, and popular food fish had to be domesticated through aquaculture. The population pressures created by humans may have even changed the size of fish.

Human appetites and needs are indisputably transforming ecosystems and wildlife in the modern world. But the more clues archaeologists uncover from the European past, the more they understand how dramatically these same influences have been shaping fish populations for hundreds of years.

Richard Hoffmann, an environmental historian, has been studying the complex interplay between humans and the aquatic environment for most of his career. He’s read a medico-dietary analysis of the Catholic saint Hildegard that names 37 fish taxa he’s found tax records for the price of fish and he’s reviewed zooarchaeological analyses on the rise and fall of fish populations across Europe. All these details help him reconstruct which fish were on the menu for different social classes, how big those fish grew, and when they disappeared.

Asking those questions often means confronting myths. “Some people think everyone in the past was rapacious,” Hoffmann says. “You also get the opposite myths of hyper-abundance.” One false tale that originated in the 17th century alleged that salmon and sturgeon were so abundant during the Middle Ages that servants had contracts stipulating they wouldn’t be served those fish more than a few times a week.

The reality is more complicated. In Europe, aquatic animals have been traded at least since the days of the Roman Empire. But it was during the early Middle Ages, with the arrival of widespread Christianity, that the animals became a popular source of protein. That’s partially due to the roughly 130 days a year when the faithful were exhorted not to eat meat, because fish didn’t count in that category.

At the same time, expanding agrarian populations were cutting down forests to create fields and diverting rivers to fill defensive moats around castles and towns, Hoffmann writes in one paper. From the ninth century A.D. to the 11th, the number of grain mills built along rivers in England exploded from about 200 to 5,624. Species that came into fresh water to spawn, such as salmon and sturgeon, began declining. New regulations, such as King Philip’s, were put into place to manage fish populations. A Scottish statute from 1214 required all dams to include an opening for fish and barrier nets to be lifted every Saturday, for instance. Soon highly sophisticated aquaculture ponds stocked with carp also provided regular access to fish for the landed elite.

This decline in freshwater populations coincided with a sudden, commercial-scale boom in sea fishing, which began around A.D . 1000 and is known as the “fish event horizon.” In one study, archaeologists collected cod bones in London from 95 Roman, medieval, and postmedieval sites. The number of bones jumped circa the year 1000, and isotopic sampling showed that in the following centuries, fish came from farther and farther away, indicating long-distance trade. In the southern English town of Southampton, the remains of marine species (such as cod) began to outnumber freshwater species (such as eel) by 1030.

That “fish event horizon” could have been caused by a number of forces. It came at a time of population growth, urbanism, new ship technology, and increased trade, says the archaeologist James Barrett, from the University of Cambridge. But, he adds, “I’ve argued consistently that this must also be about human impacts on freshwater and migratory fishes. The degree of vulnerability of fishes depends on how bounded the ecosystem they occupy is.”

In other words, because their habitat was smaller, freshwater fish were more likely to respond to human pressures sooner. When the reliable stocks of freshwater fish began dwindling, hungry Europeans turned to the much larger oceans. And while those populations had larger ranges, humans still had an impact.

In a recent paper for the Journal of Fish Biology comparing archaeological records and modern trawling surveys, Barrett notes that cod from the North Sea in the 11th and 12th centuries measured more than 31 inches in length. For fans of McDonald’s Filet-O-Fish sandwich (made with pollack, not cod), a 31-inch fish would sprawl across nine buns lined up side by side. By the 13th century, the average was somewhere between 20 and 31.5 inches (about five buns’ worth) today, the average is six to 12 inches. On the smaller end, the fish might just poke over the edges of a single bun.

Analyzing fish remains is incredibly labor-intensive. Around Britain alone, there are something like 350 species each fish has more than 50 vertebrae. Unlike the mostly connected skull bones of mammals, fish skulls are an assemblage of dozens of loose bones. Because of the sheer amount of labor involved, zooarchaeological work on fish in Europe didn’t really find its footing until the 1970s, Barrett says. And before the labor-intensive practice of sieving sites with fine mesh began, researchers would turn up the remains of only large fish.

Since the 1970s, the field has seen an explosion of new technology. Now, by looking at varying levels of nitrogen and carbon preserved in fish bones, scientists can tell where the fish lived (and were likely caught) based on what they ate. A newer method, zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry, or ZooMS, uses collagen—the structural protein in bone—to identify the species based on an existing library of collagen fingerprints.

“You can potentially tell what species a bone is from about 10 milligrams of bone,” says David Orton, a zooarchaeologist at the University of York. For comparison, a teaspoon holds about three grams of flour, or 3,000 milligrams. One of his doctoral students will try to use ZooMS to distinguish the bones of two extremely closely related species. Trout live exclusively in fresh water, whereas salmon come to fresh water only to spawn, so distinguishing the two species could reveal more about medieval fishing practices.

At times, medieval fishery managers actually succeeded in course correcting. In the medieval Salzburg Alps, fishers paid the local archbishop 27,000 whitefish and 18 trout a year for the right to catch and sell even more of those fish within one generation, whitefish populations collapsed, and the pike that were brought in to replace them ate nearly all the trout. The community decided to forbid fishing for three years, then set regulations for a limited season in a restricted area. “The rules were changed, there was proper enforcement, and it was restored and operated for hundreds more years,” Hoffmann says. But for all the efforts of King Philip and like-minded monarchs, sturgeon remains critically endangered across Europe.


Sansa’s Plight, and Ours

So, in essence, rape was considered a prosecutable crime in the Middle Ages, but in a very limited fashion. Like with so many things, unless you had a powerful family and not yet married, the woman was either considered to have been partially (or wholly) responsible, it was not considered a serious crime or, if she were married, no crime at all.

So, where does that leave poor Sansa—and by extension all medieval women? Would all go to their wedding beds with the expectation of being raped—or that their consent was an optional accessory rather than required? Obviously, that depends. People in every age have conformed to or pushed against the norms of their day, and historical records (e.g. court records, etc.) privilege when things go wrong. But considering the prevailing winds at the time, for a woman to discover they were being married to a partner who treated them with respect and kindness might have been more of a pleasant surprise than an expected outcome.

I am reminded of the song “Matchmaker” from Vioolspeler op die dak, where three young women express their hopes and fears about being married off by their father:

Chava, I found him.
Won’t you be a lucky bride!
He’s handsome, he’s tall,
That is from side to side.

But he’s a nice man, a good catch, right?
Reg.

You heard he has a temper.
He’ll beat you every night,
But only when he’s sober,
So you’re alright.

Did you think you’d get a prince?
Well I do the best I can.
With no dowry, no money, no family background
Be glad you got a man!

But on the other hand, this raises a conundrum: to what degree does culture shape people, or do people shape culture? I find it difficult to accept that just because jurists or clerics said that marital rape was fine, (and aristocratic systems practically encouraged it) and that some poets encouraged the rape of peasants, that it means that all, or even most, men were rapists. It does mean those already inclined to be violent and sociopathic—like the Ramsays of the medieval world—would get away with it (and perhaps even be encouraged). Many might be persuadable, in the same way that warrior-groups (whether gangs or armies) often encouraged violent behavior among their members. But it does not mean that kindness and empathy ceased to exist, and that there were not people who did not “fit in” with the prevailing winds of their society.

Not all medieval men were Ramsay Bolton—though it seems as though their society encouraged them to behave more like Ramsay than like Tyrion. Many of the social norms described above are abhorrent. But it is important not to ignore medieval men’s basic humanity when trying to recuperate the basic humanity of medieval women.

And let’s not get too smug when reveling in the supposed barbarity of our medieval forebears. Marital rape was only criminalized in all 50 states in the USA in 1993—and only as a result of the concerted effort of feminists for nearly 150 years. Though figures vary, at a conservative estimate one in six women in the USA today have either been raped or are the victim of an attempted rape. En die ryk en kragtig steeds often get away with it. Vroue are still abducted and raped into marriage. Yes, rape culture in the medieval west was horrifying, but if the ideas explored above—that women are “asking for it,” or secretly “want it,” that women who are raped are considered “damaged goods,” or that husbands have “the right” to their wives’ bodies—if you’ve never heard those ideas, then you haven’t been paying enough attention. We still have a long way yet to go.

Click Here to donate to RAINN (Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network) the largest anti-sexual violence organization in the US. They do good work.


THE TRUTH ABOUT TAXES: Here's How High Today's Rates Really Are

Obviously, no one likes paying higher taxes, and everyone likes paying lower taxes. But we live in the real world, not fantasy-land. And in the real world, sometimes people have to do things they would prefer not to do--like pay taxes.

But the disagreement on this issue, as well as the facts surrounding it, is intense.

Democrats, to the extent they care about the budget deficit, want to raise taxes, which they say are too low--especially on rich people.

Republicans, meanwhile, generally say that taxes are far too high and that the budget deficit should be addressed with spending cuts. To get the economy back on track, Republicans argue, you need to give Americans an incentive to work hard--by letting them keep more of what they earn. Republicans also argue that raising taxes would clobber an already fragile economy.

Are taxes too high? Or are they too low?

Do high tax rates on "rich people" create a lazy population in which no one has an incentive to work hard?

And what about the Republican mantra that cutting taxes is always good for the economy, while raising taxes is always bad?

Thanks to the Tax Foundation and other sources, we've analyzed tax rates over the past century, along with government revenue and spending over the same period.

This analysis revealed a lot of surprising conclusions, including the following:


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