10 Julie 2014 Dag 172 van die sesde jaar - Geskiedenis

10 Julie 2014 Dag 172 van die sesde jaar - Geskiedenis

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President Barack Obama gesels met Kinsey Button by die Magnolia Cafe in Austin, Texas, 10 Julie 2014.

09:50 DIE PRESIDENT woon 'n DNC -rondetafel by
Privaat woning, Austin, Texas
Geslote pers

12:15 lewer die PRESIDENT opmerkings
Die Paramount Theatre, Austin, Texas
Geplaas vir televisiekameras en oop vir stilfotograwe en korrespondente

14:25 vertrek die PRESIDENT uit Austin
Austin-Bergstrom Internasionale Lughawe
Oop vir vooraf gekrediteerde media

EDT

17:00 Oproep tyd in die stad

18:15 arriveer die PRESIDENT Joint Base Andrews

Dekking buite-die-stad-reispoel


18:30 arriveer die PRESIDENT by die Withuis

South Lawn


Historiese gebeure op 18 Julie

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1290 beveel koning Edward I om die Jode uit Engeland te verdryf, hierdie bevel sal 350 jaar van krag bly

Kanonisering

1323 Pous Johannes XXII verklaar teoloog Thomas Aquinas tot 'n heilige in Avignon

    Die biskop van Florence seën die eerste grondsteen vir die nuwe kampaniel (klokkentoring) van die katedraal van Florence, ontwerp deur die gesag van die kunstenaar Giotto di Bondone Pous se gesag wat in Engeland nietig verklaar word Willem van Oranje erken as onderkoning van Holland/Friesland/Utrecht Spaanse troepe beset Mantua -20] Slag in Warskou: die Sweedse koning Charles X Gustav verslaan John II Casimir en neem Warskou in beslag

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1696 Tsar Peter I se vloot beset Azov by die monding van Donrivier

    Besluit beveel dat alle Jode uit die Slag van Brussel by Banja Luka verdryf word: Turkse weermag klop Oostenrykers se eerste halfbladsy-advertensie word gepubliseer (NY Weekly Journal) Lemuel Haynes, ontsnap uit slawehouer in Framingham, Massachusetts Society of the Dutch Literary forms Boston Gazette publiseer & quotLiberty Song & quot, Amerika se eerste patriotiese lied

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1864 Amerikaanse president Abraham Lincoln vra 500 000 vrywilligers vir militêre diens

    Pous Pius IX en die Eerste Vatikaanraad kondig amptelik die konsep van pouslike onfeilbaarheid aan. -5, 6-1, 9-7 Louisville Tony Mullane is eerste om regs dan links te wees Eerste menslike toets van 'n entstof teen cholera Oekraïense bakterioloog Waldemar Huffkine stel sy lewe in gevaar deur dit op homself te toets Australiese Harry Graham behaal 107 tydens krieketdebuut Australië v Engeland, Lord's Wimbledon Women's Tennis: Lottie Dod klop Blanche Bingley-Hillyard 6-8, 6-1, 6-4 vir haar 3de agtereenvolgende en 5de algehele Wimbledon-enkelspeltitel Amerikaanse Ope Gholf vir mans, Shinnecock Hills: die Amerikaanse Scot James Foulis wen met 3 houe voor die Engelsman Horace Rawlins George Giffen is 1ste om 1000/100 dubbel te voltooi, in die 30ste toets krieket Indiër gebore KS Ranjitsinhji 'n onoorwonne 154 op toets krieketdebuut vir Engeland in die 2de toets teen Australië op Old Trafford Cap Anson is die eerste om 3,000 treffers te behaal.

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1914 Gandhi verlaat Suid -Afrika nadat hy suksesvolle veldtogte vir passiewe verset gelei het

    Tweede Slag van Isonzo begin en eindig met meer as 80 000 slagoffers. Boston Braves begin van die laaste plek af om na die Wêreldreeks se Eerste Wêreldoorlog kampioene te word: Amerikaanse en Franse magte begin met Aisne-Marne-aanval

Bofbal Rekord

1921 behaal Babe Ruth 139 tuislopies en word die alledaagse tuisloper in Major League Baseball, neem die titel van Roger Connor

    Black Sox-verhoor begin in Chicago. Babe Ruth het 'n tuisrekord van 575 voet in New York Yankees se sege van 10-1 oor die Tigers in Navin Field in Detroit, British House of Lords aanvaar nuwe egskeidingswet. KPD wys Rote Frontkampferbund op teen Nazi

Histories Publikasie

1925 publiseer Adolf Hitler Mein Kampf (oorspronklike titel was die pakkende & quot Four and a Half Years (of Struggle) Against Lies, Stupidity and Cowardice & quot)

    Die Suid -Afrikaanse skrywer en joernalis, Herman Charles Bosman, skiet en vermoor sy stiefbroer David Russell tydens 'n twis twintigste Tour de France wat deur Lucien Buysse van België gewen is

Gebeurtenis van Rente

    SHO-sokkerspan vorm in Old Beijerland 1ste skip met lugversorging (Mariposa), wat België, Luxemburg en Nederland onderteken het, onderteken Ouchy-konvensie, 'n doeane-verdrag tussen die VSA en Kanada 'n verdrag om St Lawrence Seaway te ontwikkel

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1936 Spaanse burgeroorlog: generaal Francisco Franco reik manifes uit en lei 'n opstand in die Spaanse leër in Marokko

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1936 Charles & quotLucky & quot Luciano word 30 tot 50 jaar tronkstraf opgelê

Oeps, verkeerde manier!

1938 Douglas & quotWrong Way & quot; Corrigan arriveer in Ierland na 'n vlug van 28 uur, vermoedelik dat NY na Kalifornië vlieg

Presidensiële Konvensie

1940 Demokratiese Konvensie benoem FDR vir 'n 3de termyn

    SS verdrink 40 Jode in Dvina-rivier, Wit-Rusland 1ste wettige perdewedren in New Jersey in 50 jaar Garden State Park-baan, maak die toetsvlug van die Duitse Messerschmitt Me-262 oop met slegs sy straalmotore vir die eerste keer Britse aanval op Catania, Sicily Giants en Phillies strand rekord 30 baserunners, NY wen, 10-6 7:45 Operation Goodwood: Britse aanval oos van Caen Allies se lugaanvalle by Vaires, Parys Arne Andersson hardloop wêreldrekord 1 myl (4: 01,6) RAF Mosquitos val Keulen en Berlynse Britse lugaanval in op die Duitse konvooi SW van Helgoland beset die Britse troepe Bourquebus -heuwels, die Normandiese Poolse troepe onder generaal Anders beset Ancona Italië Amerikaanse troepemars na St Lo Britte neem beslag op & quotExodus 1947 & quot skip van Joodse immigrante na Palestina

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1947 onderteken koning George VI die Indian Independence Act

    Amerikaanse president Harry Truman onderteken presidensiële opvolgingswet Tigers sluit Yanks met 2-0 af, eindig 19 wedstrydreeks VS begin administrasie van Trust Territory of Pacific Islands & quotMarinka & quot open in Winter Garden Theatre NYC vir 168 optredes Pat Seerey van Chicago White Sox slaan 4 HRs in 'n 11 beurtwedstryd Uruguay aanvaar sy grondwet

Bokstitel Veg

1951 Jersey Joe Walcott op 37 word die oudste wat die swaargewigkampioen gewen het

    KWGN TV-kanaal 2 in Denver, Colorado (IND) begin met die uitsaai van kaarte wat met 8-1 verloor teen Phillies, begin in die 5de staan, hulle verbeur die eerste elektriese krag van atoomenergie wat kommersieel verkoop word, 280 mm reën in Martinstown, Dorset (Britse rekord) Erno Gero volg Matyas Rákosi op as partyleier van die 6de Britse Rykspele en Statebondspele in Hongarye, Wallis, William 'Bill' Wright word die eerste Afro -Amerikaner wat 'n groot gholftoernooi wen (US Amateur Public Links Championships)

Film Premier

1959 "The Nun's Story" gebaseer op die roman deur Kathryn Hulme, met die hoofrol van Audrey Hepburn in Los Angeles

    46ste Tour de France gewen deur Federico Bahamontes van Spanje 1ste VN-troepe bereik die NL-stemme van die Kongo-bofbal om by te voeg tot Houston en NY se premier, premier Kishi van Japan, bedank kommissaris Ford Frick bepaal dat Babe Ruth se rekord van 60 HR in 154 wedstryde in 1927 gebreek moet word. in 1ste 154 van 162 wedstryde

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1962, die tweeling van Minnesota, Bob Allison en Harmon Killebrew, het in die eerste herberg 'n grand slams geslaan en Harmon Killebrew verbind in 'n klubrekord, 11 lopies, 1ste beurt

    Mislukte militêre staatsgreep in Sirië Die Spesiale Komitee oor apartheid van die Verenigde Nasies stel sy tweede tussentydse verslag bekend waarin hy dring op internasionale sanksies teen Suid-Afrika, veral die verskaffing van wapens, ammunisie en petroleumras-oproer in Harlem (NYC) se onluste wat na Bedford-Stuyvesant (Brooklyn) versprei het Zond 3 van stapel gestuur om deur die maan te vlieg, betree sonbaan Carl Sagan word 1 biljoen sekondes oud Gemini 10 lanseer John Young en Michael Collins Silver bereik rekord $ 1,87 per ons in NY

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1968 Die Intel Corporation word gestig in Santa Clara, Kalifornië

Ooreenkoms van Rente

1969 Joe Namath stem in om die belang in Bachelors 3 te verkoop, om in NFL te bly

    'Boy Boy' sluit in Ambassador Theatre NYC nadat 119 optredes Arthur Brown gearresteer is omdat hy op die verhoog in Palemo gestroop het Sicilië Ron Hunt word vir 'n rekord 119ste keer deur 'n toonhoogte getref, WJCL TV -kanaal 22 in Savannah, GA (ABC) begin uitsaai

Bofbal Rekord

1970 Willie Mays word die 10de bofbalspeler wat 3 000 treffers behaal

    58ste Tour de France: Eddy Merckx van België wen derde agtereenvolgende Tour -klassifikasie, asook punte en kombinasie -kategorieë 200 000 woon die Mt Pocono -rockfees in Penns by

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1972 Egiptiese president Anwar Sadat gooi 20 000 Russiese militêre assistente weg

    Mike Procter 8-73 met driekuns, plus 51 en 102, Gloucs v Essex Die 100ste Britse soldaat wat in Noord-Ierland sterf & quottroubles & quot word deur 'n sluipskutter in Belfast geskiet

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1972 Leier van die Britse Arbeidersparty Harold Wilson hou vergaderings met verteenwoordigers van die Ierse Republikeinse Weermag

    Die VSA voer 'n kerntoets uit op die Nevada -toetsterrein Die wêreld se hoogste struktuur, 'n Poolse radiomas van 646 meter, 'n voltooide jurie kan nie besluit oor die verhoor van Dave Forbes van Boston Bruins (1ste atleet aangekla vir oormatige geweld tydens speel) & quotSomething's Afoot & quot sluit in Lyceum Theatre NYC nadat 61 optredes Stockhausens & quotSirius & quot première in NYC Thiokol voer 2 minute lank af met die ruimtetuig se SRB by Brigham, Ut Nadia Comăneci word die eerste gimnas in die geskiedenis van die Olimpiese Spele wat 'n perfekte telling van 10 (totaal 7) behaal tydens die 63de Tour de France van Montreal, gewen deur Lucien Van Impe van België Hugh Leonard se première & quot

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1980 - Billy Joel se & quot; Glass Houses & quot; album boaan Amerikaanse kaarte, met & quotIts Still Rock 'n 'Roll to Me & quot

    Mislukte aanval op die voormalige premier van Iran, Bakhtiar, in Neuilly, die federale hof in Frankryk, maak die Wet op selektiewe dienste ongeldig, aangesien dit nie die vroue insluit wat Quett Masire geïnstalleer het as president van Botswana Rohini 1, 1ste Indiese satelliet, wat in 'n wentelbaan gelanseer word nie. Edward Gierek

Britse gholf Maak oop

1982 Britse Ope Mans Gholf, Royal Troon: Amerikaner Tom Watson wen sy 4de Ope Kampioenskap, 1 hou voor Peter Oosterhuis en Nick Price

Presidensiële Konvensie

1984 Walter Mondale wen die presidensiële benoeming van die Demokratiese Party in San Francisco

    21 mense word gedood en 19 word beseer tydens 'n bloedbad in 'n McDonalds -restaurant in San Ysidro, Kalifornië. Dit eindig met die skietery van sy oortreder, James Oliver Huberty, USSR voer ondergrondse kerntoets uit, MLB Kansas City Royals kondig aan dat bestuurder Dick Howser (50) 'n breingewas Videobande vrygestel wat wys dat Titanic se gesinkte oorskot Molly Yard verkies is tot nuwe president van die National Organization for Women

Bofbal Rekord

1987 NY Yanks Don Mattingly bind rekord van HR's in 8 nadele

    British Open Men's Golf, Royal Lytham & St. Annes: Spanjaard Seve Ballesteros wen sy 3de Ope -titel met 2 houe van Nick Price van Zimbabwe Abu Nidal -terroriste maak 9 dood op cruiseskip City of Poros Skiet begin op Bond -film & quotLicense to Kill & quot 48 cm reënval in Rockport, West Virginia (staatrekord), Florida Marlins se logo onthul

Ontmoeting van belang

1991 Mike Tyson ontmoet mej. Black America -deelnemers

    Sharon Belden, van Florida (25), gekroon as Mej. Wêreld VSA. Die tien slagoffers van die La Cantuta -slagting verdwyn van hul universiteit in Lima, Peru British Open Men's Golf, Royal St George's GC: Australiër Greg Norman vuur laaste ronde 64 (–6) af na wen sy 2de Ope -titel, 2 houe voor die Engelsman Nick Faldo

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1993 Afgaanse president Ishaq Khan en premier Nawaz Sharif bedank

    Liberaal-Demokratiese Party verloor Japan se parlementêre verkiesing Bomaanval op Joodse sentrum AMIA in Buenos Aires, 86 sterf komeet Skoenmaker-Levy se grootste botsing met Jupiter laat swart kol 12 000 km dwarsoor die hof handhaaf NBA-salarisbeperking en konsepregte Crayola kondig die bekendstelling van geurkryte aan Houston Astros gelykop-rekord van NL, agter met 10-0, klop Cards met 15-12. NY Jets teken die Amerikaanse voetbal doelwagter Tony Miola as plekskopper

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1994 'Kiss From a Rose' vrygestel deur Seal (Grammy Record en Song of the Year)

Histories Publikasie

1995 & quotDreams from My Father & quot, 'n memoir deur Barack Obama word uitgegee deur Times Books

    Storms veroorsaak ernstige oorstromings op die Saguenayrivier, wat begin met een van die duurste natuurrampe in Québec Paul Lawrie wen sy enigste groot titel met 3 houe in 'n totaal van 4 putjies, Jean van de Velde en Justin Leonard herstel van 10 houe agter na die 3de ronde vir die grootste terugkeer in die geskiedenis van die groot kampioenskap. David Cone van Yankees word die 15de kruik om 'n perfekte wedstryd te speel (6-0 teen Montreal)

Gebeurtenis van Rente

2004 Britse Ope Gholf vir mans, Royal Troon: Amerikaner Todd Hamilton wen sy enigste groot titel en verslaan Ernie Els van Suid-Afrika in 2002 met 'n hou in 'n 4-putjie-uitspeelwedstryd


Historiese gebeure op 21 Julie

    Aardbewing op Kreta gevolg deur tsunami rondom die oostelike Middellandse See vernietig na bewering Alexandrië, die Rooms -Katolieke keiser, Lodewyk III, gevang, keiser Otto II, gee aan graaf Leopold I, Oos -Beiere

Oorwinning in Slag

1403 Slag van Shrewsbury: leër onder leiding van die Lancastriaanse koning van Engeland, verslaan Henry IV 'n rebelleër onder leiding van Henry & quot; Harry Hotspur & quot; Percy van Northumberland en eindig sodoende die Percy -uitdaging op die troon. Ook die eerste geveg Engelse boogskutters het mekaar op Engelse bodem geveg.

    Pous Paul III begin met inkwisisie teen Protestante (Sactum Officium) Die eerste landing van Franse troepe op die kus van die Isle of Wight tydens die Franse invalslag by Jemmingen: Alva se troepe verslaan Nederlandse rebellie Mechelen gee oor aan Hertog van Parma Eerste betrokkenheid tussen die Engelse vloot en die Spaanse Armada by die Eddystone Rocks Spaanse ontdekkingsreisiger Álvaro de Mendaña is die eerste Europeër wat die Marquesas -eiland in Oos -Polinesië ontdek het

Gebeurtenis van Rente

1669 John Locke se Grondwet van die Engelse kolonie Carolina word goedgekeur


8. Die Wilmington -opstand (1898)

Noord -Carolina was lankal 'n broeiplek van rasse -onrus. In 1898, slegs 35 jaar nadat swartes stemreg gekry het, het baie van die blankes in die omgewing hulle openlik gehaat en nie hul woorde versigtig gekies toe hulle dit uitdruk nie. Die Republikeinse Party was tweeledig, maar die Demokratiese Party het 'n veldtog van 1898 uitgevoer om die blanke oppergesag te herwin. Die Demokrate het weer beheer oor die staatswetgewer gekry, en 'n paar blankes in Wilmington het 'n groep van 25 gevorm wat geëis het dat Alexander Manly, 'n eienaar van 'n swart koerant, gedwing moet word om te stop en te vertrek. Manly het geweier, waarna Alfred Waddell, 'n wit oppergesagter en kongreslid wat pas ongesetel was, 'n groep van 2 000 gewapende wit Spaans-Amerikaanse oorlogsveterane georganiseer het wat na die koerantkantoor opgeruk het. Hulle het die druktoerusting vernietig en die gebou tot op die grond afgebrand.

Waddell was van plan om die groep te ontbind, aangesien die werk gedoen is en Manly weggekruip het. Maar die skare het vinnig anargisties geword en swartes oral in die stad begin jag en aanval. Geweld duur etlike dae voort. Die ramings van sterftes wissel van ses tot 100, almal swartes, met die wye reeks as gevolg van die onvolledige rekords van die hospitale. Baie swartes het uit die stad gevlug en in die moerasse weggekruip, terwyl ander die gebied permanent verlaat het. Waddell is daarna as burgemeester gekies, hoofsaaklik as gevolg van 'n staatsgreep.


Amazon Prime Day 2021

Amazon Prime Day Beauty Deals 2021 Live: honderde van elektriese toestelle en kultusprodukte onder £ 10

Ek het Levi's jeans gekry vir 30% afslag en 'n Hugo Boss horlosie vir 60% afslag (en ander modieuse aanbiedings)

Psst: dit is die enigste Fitbit Prime Day -aanbiedings wat die moeite werd is, met tot 43% afslag op die oomblik

Video's waarvan jy dalk hou:

Edith Cavell, wat op 49 -jarige ouderdom skuldig bevind is aan verraad, ter dood veroordeel en deur 'n vuurpeloton geskiet is, is in haar leeftyd swaar gestraf. Die verpleegster het die Rooi Kruis -hospitaal by wie sy gewerk het, gebruik om die lewens van soldate aan beide kante van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog te red, sonder enige diskriminasie, asook om meer as 200 geallieerde soldate uit België te smokkel, en gesê: 'Ek kan nie ophou nie' terwyl daar lewens is om te red ’.


Bespreking

Moord is die ernstigste uitkoms van geweld teen vroue. Bevindinge uit hierdie studie van vrouemoorde uit NVDRS gedurende 2003 en ndash2014 dui aan dat jong vroue, veral rasse/etniese minderheidsvroue, buite verhouding geraak is. Oor alle rasse/etniese groepe vroue was meer as die helfte van die vroulike moorde waaroor die omstandighede bekend was, IPV-verwant, met ongeveer 90% van hierdie vroue vermoor deur hul huidige of voormalige intieme maat.

Strategieë om IPV-verwante moorde te voorkom, wissel van die beskerming van vroue teen onmiddellike skade en ingryping in die huidige IPV, tot die ontwikkeling en implementering van programme en beleide om te voorkom dat IPV voorkom (5). Evalueringsrisiko -evaluerings van IPV wat deur eerste responders gedoen is, het 'n hoë sensitiwiteit getoon in die identifisering van slagoffers wat die risiko loop vir toekomstige geweld en moord (6). Hierdie assesserings kan gebruik word om onmiddellike veiligheidsbeplanning te vergemaklik en om vroue met ander dienste te verbind, soos krisisintervensie en berading, behuising, mediese en regsvoorspraak en toegang tot ander gemeenskapsbronne (6). Staatswette wat toegang tot vuurwapens beperk vir persone onder 'n verbodsbepaling van huishoudelike geweld, kan dien as 'n ander voorkomende maatreël wat verband hou met 'n verminderde risiko vir moord op intieme vennote en moord op 'n vuurwapen (7). Ongeveer een uit elke 10 slagoffers van IPV-verwante moord het in die voorafgaande maand een of ander vorm van geweld beleef, wat moontlik ingryping kon bied. Omstandersprogramme, soos Green Dot, en para leer deelnemers hoe om situasies of gedrag te herken wat gewelddadig kan raak en veilig en effektief kan ingryp om die waarskynlikheid van aanranding te verminder (8). In die gesondheidsorg beveel die Task Force vir voorkomende dienste aan dat vroue in die vrugbare ouderdom vir IPV getoets word en dat vroue wat positief vir intervensiedienste kyk, verwys word. ** Ongeveer 15% van die vroulike moordslagoffers van reproduktiewe ouderdom (18 en 44 jaar) was swanger of postpartum, wat al dan nie hoër is as die ramings in die algemene Amerikaanse vroulike bevolking, wat verdere ondersoek verg.

Ongeveer 40% van die nie-Spaanse swart, AI/AN en Spaanse vroulike manslagslagoffers was 18 en 29 jaar oud. Argumente en jaloesie was algemene oorsake van IPV-verwante moorde. Die onderrig van veilige en gesonde verhoudingsvaardighede is 'n belangrike primêre voorkomingstrategie met bewys van doeltreffendheid om IPV te verminder deur jongmense te help om emosies en verhoudingskonflikte te bestuur en hul probleemoplossings- en kommunikasievaardighede te verbeter (5). Die voorkoming van IPV vereis ook die aanspreek van faktore op gemeenskaps- en stelselvlak wat die risiko verhoog vir IPV-woonbuurte met 'n hoë wanorde, nadeel en armoede, en 'n lae sosiale kohesie word geassosieer met 'n verhoogde risiko van IPV (5) en onderliggende gesondheidsongelykhede wat veroorsaak word deur hindernisse in taal, aardrykskunde en kulturele bekendheid, kan bydra tot moorde, veral onder rasse/etniese minderheidsvroue (9).

Die bevindings in hierdie verslag is onderhewig aan ten minste vyf beperkings. Eerstens is NVDRS -data beskikbaar in 'n beperkte aantal state en is dit dus nie nasionaal verteenwoordigend nie. Tweedens kan ras/etnisiteit -data op sterftesertifikate verkeerdelik geklassifiseer word, veral vir Hispanics, A/PI en AI/AN (10). Derdens, die vroulike moordslagoffers in hierdie datas was meer geneig om nooit getroud of ongetroud te wees nie en het minder geneig om op universiteit te gaan as die algemene Amerikaanse vroulike bevolking en dolk en dolk, hoewel dit waarskynlik toegeskryf kan word aan die relatief jonger ouderdomsverdeling van moordslagoffers in die algemeen, en sekte en sekte dit verg verdere ondersoek. Vierdens, nie alle manslaggevalle bevat gedetailleerde inligting oor verdagte in hierdie ontleding nie, 85,3% van die gevalle bevat inligting oor die verdagte. Laastens is inligting oor manlike gevolglike slagoffers van IPV-verwante moord (dit wil sê ander sterftes wat verband hou met IPV, insluitend manlike slagoffers wat nie die intieme vennoot was nie) nie by hierdie analise ingesluit nie. Daarom word die volle omvang van IPV-verwante moorde waarby vroue betrokke is, nie vasgelê nie.

Die rasse/etniese verskille in vroulike manslag beklemtoon die belangrikheid van die fokus op voorkomings- en intervensiepogings op bevolkings met 'n onproportioneel hoë risiko. Om geweld aan te spreek, verg 'n geïntegreerde reaksie wat die invloed van groter gemeenskaps- en maatskaplike faktore in ag neem wat die kans groter maak dat geweld plaasvind.

Erkennings

Linda Dahlberg, PhD, Keming Yuan, MS, Afdeling geweldvoorkoming, Nasionale Sentrum vir Voorkoming en Beheer van Beserings, CDC.


Hoe General Motors werklik gered is: die onvertelde ware verhaal van die belangrikste bankrotskap in die Amerikaanse geskiedenis

Nota van die redakteur: Baie mense-insluitend president Obama-het hul rol in die sukses van die omkeerplan wat deur die regering gesteun is, uitbasuin, wat General Motors, die belangrikste industriële onderneming in die geskiedenis van die Verenigde State, gered het.

Maar op die vyfde herdenking van die krisis bied Forbes 'n eksklusiewe, ongekende blik op wat werklik gebeur het tydens GM se donkerste dae, hoe 'n klein groepie buitestaanders en ommeswaaikundiges in Detroit byeengekom en 'n radikale plan uitgedink het wat uiteindelik die grondslag gelê het vir die redding van die onderneming.

Skrywer Jay Alix, een van die mees gerespekteerde deskundiges oor korporatiewe bankrotskap in Amerika, was die argitek van die plan, en nou onthul hy vir die eerste keer hoe General Motors werklik gered is.

Deur Jay Alix

Die nuus was maande lank verskriklik, 'n klop van opwarmingsberigte oor wat vroeër Amerika se grootste en invloedrykste onderneming was: General Motors. By die dood se deur of reeds in die begraafplaas was Bear Stearns, Lehman Brothers, Merrill Lynch, AIG en Citibank. Die stemming was apokalipties.

Met motorverkope in 'n vrye val as gevolg van die ergste ekonomiese afswaai sedert die Groot Depressie, het GM miljarde verloor en kontant opraak. Teen die tyd dat die onderneming sy boeke op 2008 gesluit het, sou dit 'n verbysterende $ 30,9 miljard wees. Rick Wagoner, uitvoerende hoof, het die motorafvaardiging in Washington gelei om finansiering van die regering te soek om die bedryf te red en GM uit bankrotskap te hou.

Vyf jaar later, ná 'n ongekende staatsbeleggingsbelegging, floreer GM en die tesourie beplan om sy oorblywende belang in die komende maande te verkoop. Met talle artikels en boeke wat nou geskryf is oor die herstrukturering en ommekeer van GM-om nie eens te praat van drie jaar se uitbasuin deur die Obama-administrasie wat die eer vir die sukses van die ommekeer aanvaar nie-is die mees verrassende aspek van die heersende verhaal die kern van hoe die herstrukturering werklik plaasgevind het, binne GM, moet nog volledig vertel word.

In die gewilde weergawe van die omkeerverhaal van die onderneming, toe GM in 2009 tot likwidasie te voorskyn gekom het, het 'n SWAT-span wat deur Obama aangestel is, onder leiding van finansier Steven Rattner, ingegryp en 'n radikale plan uitgedink: Deur 'n nuwe gebruik van die bankrotskode sou hulle red die maatskappy deur sy waardevolle bates te skei en op te los, terwyl Washington miljarde belastingbetalersfondse voorsien het om seker te maak dat die onderneming lewensvatbaar is.

Die ware GM -omkeerverhaal, wat 'n belangrike rol speel in die motorbedryf en die ekonomie, is in stryd met die een wat gepubliseer is. Trouens, die plan wat deur die regering ontwikkel, geïmplementeer en daarna gefinansier is, is binne GM bedink, lank voordat president Obama sy amp beklee het. In die volgende ontvou die binnekant van hierdie historiese hoofstuk in Amerikaanse sake en lê die belangrikste feite bloot.

GM se buitengewone ommekeer begin lank voordat Wagoner na Washington is op soek na 'n groot lening om GM aan die lewe te hou. My betrokkenheid by die verhaal het begin in GM se donkerste dae, vyf jaar gelede op Sondag, 23 November 2008, toe ek Wagoner die oggend by sy huis besoek het, met 'n nuwe plan om General Motors te red.

As 'n konsultant met kundigheid in herstrukturering en ommeswaai, het ek oor die jare 'n halfdosyn opdragte by GM voltooi. Ek het in 1992 saam met Wagoner gewerk toe hy finansiële hoof geword het. Ek is gevra om vir twee jaar as uitvoerende hoof van GM se National Car Rental in te gaan, die eerste keer dat GM 'n buitestaander gewerf het om 'n ommekeer in een van sy filiale te lei.

Teen 2008 het ek meer as 20 jaar ervaring met die motorbedryf en byna 30 jaar se werk aan ommeswaai. Maar die afgelope agt jaar het ek teruggekeer van die besigheid en my firma, AlixPartners, om na my dogters om te sien na die dood van my vrou. Ek was in wese 'afgetree'. Maar GM se omvattende krisis en my vriendskap met Wagoner sou my uit die weg ruim.

Vroeg op daardie November -Sondag bel ek Wagoner by sy huis in 'n voorstad in Detroit. Ek het gevra om hom dadelik te sien en verduidelik dat ek 'n nuwe idee het wat die onderneming kan red.

Drie uur later stap ek deur sy voordeur en na sy gesinskamer. Ek het geweet Wagoner het geglo GM kan nie 'n bankrotskap oorleef nie. Studies het getoon dat verbruikersvertroue in duie stort. Niemand sou 'n motor koop by 'n bankrotskap nie. Wat ek egter van die ekonomiese krisis en GM se vinnig verslegende likiditeitsposisie geweet het, het my vertel dat die maatskappy geen ander keuse gehad het as om voor te berei op 'n bankrotskap nie.

Tog stem ek saam met Wagoner. Vir 'n wêreldwye onderneming so groot en kompleks soos GM, sou 'n 'normale' bankrotskap die sake van die onderneming jare lank bind, wat kliënte sou verdryf, wat tot 'n onstuimige likwidasie kon lei. Dit het met ander maatskappye 'n fraksie van GM se grootte gebeur. Dit sou die einde van GM beteken.

'Ek dink nie die onderneming sal 'n bankrotskap oorleef nie,' het hy vir my gesê. 'En niemand het my 'n plan gewys wat dit moontlik maak om 'n bankrotskap te oorleef nie.'

"Bankrotskap kan onvermydelik wees, Rick. Maar dit hoef nie bankrot te wees nie," het ek gesê. "Ek dink ons ​​kan 'n unieke strategie skep waarmee GM bankrotskap kan oorleef."

Om seker te wees, my idee, wat op 'n paar bladsye geskets is, was uitlokkend. Ek het geweet toe ek dit aan Wagoner uitstuur dat dit wenkbroue kan laat lig, indien nie reguit beswaar nie, van ander wat meen dat hul planne veiliger sou wees.

Kortom, ek het voorgestel dat GM in twee baie aparte dele verdeel het voordat ek dit ingedien het: 'NewCo', 'n nuwe onderneming met 'n skoon balansstaat, met die beste handelsmerke en bedrywighede van GM en 'OldCo', die oorblywende GM met die meeste skuld. Al die operasionele herstrukturering om die nuwe onderneming winsgewend te maak, sou ook plaasvind voordat 'n bankrotskap ingedien word, sodat GM binne enkele dae bankrot kan gaan-nie maande of jare nie, met skuldeisers en ander litigante wat baklei oor die karkas terwyl die inkomstelyn neerstort. .

Op soek na befondsing van die regering of enige bron, gebruik ons ​​die artikel 363 van die Bankruptcy Code, wat 'n onderneming in staat stel om bates te verkoop onder 'n verkoop wat deur die hof goedgekeur is. Gewoonlik word 363 gebruik om spesifieke bates te verkoop, van 'n stoel en 'n lessenaar na 'n fabriek of afdeling, maar nie die hele selfstandige onderneming nie. Ingevolge hierdie strategie kan GM die uitstel van 'n plan van herorganisasie en 'n openbaarmakingsverklaring uitstel, wat maande in beslag kan neem en 'n stormloop van geskille kan veroorsaak, terwyl markaandeel en ondernemingswaarde wegbloei.

Wagoner luister, daag elke aanname uit. Nadat hy dit met raadslede bespreek het, het Rick my gevra om na GM te kom en aan die plan te werk, een van die verskillende alternatiewe wat GM sou oorweeg. Ek het vrywillig aangebied om GM op 'n pro bono -basis te help. Maar wat ek nooit kon verwag nie, was hoe diep en sterk die opposisie teen my plan uiteindelik sou wees.

Op Dinsdag, Op 2 Desember het ek om 07:00 by GM se Detroit -hoofkwartier ingetrek nadat die meeste bestuurders van die onderneming reeds vir werk opgedaag het. Ek het 'n klein hokkie en 'n konferensiekamer op die 38ste verdieping gekry, 'n ruim, maar leë plek met GM se korporatiewe raadsaal en 'n opbergkas vir besoekende bestuurders en raadslede.

Elke dag was ek die enigste persoon wat uit die hysbak op 38, een verdieping, van waar Wagoner en sy span gewerk het, geklim het. Dit was onheilspellend en stil, die hoofmuur was bedek met groot olieverfskilderye van GM se vorige voorsitters. Ek loop daagliks verby die vergulde rame, voel die volle gewig van hul blik, herinner my aan die geskiedenis en glorie van die verlede van wat die magtigste onderneming op aarde was.

Ek het 18 uur per dag deurgegaan deur die getalle in GM se dokumente te ondersoek, en ek het in meer detail begin werk aan die buitelyne van die plan en 'n paar aannames gemaak oor watter bates na NewCo oorgedra moet word en wat in OldCo sal bly, wat ek Motors Liquidation genoem het. Daar was duisende belangrike vrae wat met die bestuur gevra moes word en beantwoord moes word: Watter handelsmerke en fabrieke sal bestaan? Watter een sou die onderneming moes prysgee? Wat sou die eindspelstrategie wees? Wat sou die ondernemingswaarde van NewCo wees? Die likwidasiewaarde van OldCo?

Wagoner en COO Fritz Henderson het drie alternatiewe planne ontwikkel. Eerstens het hulle gehoop om bankrotskap heeltemal te vermy, en geglo dat die regering genoeg geld sou verskaf om GM deur die krisis te bring. Minstens twee kabinetslede in die Bush -administrasie en ander het Rick en raadslede die versekering gegee dat regeringshulp sou kom.

Tweedens was 'n 'voorafverpakte' bankrotskapsplan wat deur die algemene advokaat Robert Osborne saam met Harvey R. Miller, die dekaan van die bankrotbank en senior vennoot by Weil, Gotshal & amp Manges, ontwikkel is. Ingevolge hierdie plan sou GM 'n herorganisasie in samewerking met sy verbandkrediteure voorberei wat in werking sou tree sodra die onderneming in 'n hoofstuk 11 -bankrotskap sou beland. Die doel van 'n sogenaamde voorverpakking is om die bankrotskapproses te verkort en te vereenvoudig.

Miller het groot respek afgedwing in bankrotskringe en in die GM -raadsaal, en met goeie rede. Op 75-jarige ouderdom was Miller die enigste prokureur in die land wat soveel gesogte bankrotskappe suksesvol hanteer het. Miller was reeds in die middel van die grootste korporatiewe likwidasie ooit, by Lehman Brothers.

En die derde was die NewCo -plan, gebaseer op jare se ondervinding by AlixPartners, waar ons die afgelope 15 jaar 'n groot rol gespeel het in 50 van die 180 grootste bankrotskappe van meer as $ 1 miljard. GM het ook Martin Bienenstock, leier van herstrukturering en korporatiewe bestuur van Dewey & LeBoeuf, behou om ook die NewCo -plan te help ontwikkel.

Binne en buite GM het die druk toegeneem. Elke dag het die onderneming meer geld verloor en nader aan die opbrengs van kontant. In Washington het verskeie prominente politici begin vra dat Wagoner bedank. Op 7 Desember het senator Chris Dodd, die demokraat in Connecticut, aan Face the Nation se Bob Schieffer gesê dat Wagoner moet voortgaan.

Die volgende dag het ek Wagoner gaan sien om aanmoediging en advies te bied. Dit is nie ongewoon dat 'n uitvoerende hoof sy werk verloor as sy onderneming tot bankrotskap gedwing word en 'n groot herstrukturering plaasvind nie. Ek het dit al baie keer gesien afspeel en geleer dat die baas nooit moet bedank sonder om eers die dinge in werking te stel wat die organisasie sal help om te oorleef nie. Ek wou Rick se vasberadenheid versterk en ons almal gefokus hou op die eindspel.

Van my kant af is Wagoner deur baie politici en die media onregverdig behandel. Since taking over as CEO in 2000, working closely with Fritz and vice chairman Bob Lutz, Rick orchestrated large, dramatic changes at the company. They closed GM's quality, productivity and fuel-economy gaps with the world's best automakers, winning numerous car and truck awards. They built a highly profitable business in China, the world's biggest potential car market. They reduced the company's workforce by 143,000 employees, to 243,000. They reached a historic agreement with the UAW that cut in half hourly pay for new employees and significantly scaled back the traditional retiree benefit packages that had been crippling the company, while also funding over $100 billion in unfunded retiree obligations. And he was able to accomplish all these changes without causing massive disruptions among GM's dealers or major strikes with the unions.

Ultimately, those structural changes positioned the company not only to survive but also to bring about the extraordinary turnaround. But now, with the economy and the company in free fall, all of that hard work seemed to be forgotten.

It was late in the day on Dec. 8, around 5:30 p.m., when I walked into Wagoner's office.

"Rick, do not resign or even offer to resign," I told him. "Later you may have to fall on your sword to get the funding deal done with the government, but don't do it until we get the three things we need. If you're going to be killed on the battlefield, we need to make it worth it."

"And what is that exactly?" he pressed me.

"We have to get government funding of $40 billion to $50 billion. Plus, we need an agreement with the government and GM's board to do the NewCo plan. And we must put a qualified successor in place. It must be Fritz and not some government guy. It's going to be painful for you, but you've got to stay on the horse until we get all three."

Wagoner was already there. He had no intention of resigning and was determined to complete his mission. I gave him a bear hug, letting him know he had my full support.

When we gathered for a telephonic board meeting on Dec. 15, the mood was urgent, the tension high. Only two weeks after arriving at GM I was about to present the plan to the board of directors in a conference room outside Wagoner's office. Also on the phone were the company's lawyers and investment bankers.

A Spiderphone was in the middle of the table for what would be a historic meeting of the board. Only three days earlier the Senate had abandoned negotiations to provide funding for the auto industry. Suddenly a free-fall bankruptcy within days loomed large. Consideration of the NewCo plan, now refined with the help of chief financial officer Ray Young and other senior finance staffers, took on greater urgency as we were just two weeks away from running out of cash.

"I know the company has many lawyers and bankers working on other approaches," I said. "I know many of the people doing the work, and I've worked with many of them over the years. But I have an alternative strategy for the board's consideration. I suspect there might be some controversy over it, but I believe this could be lifesaving for General Motors."

After carefully laying out the details and time sequence of the NewCo plan, I drew to a close.

"Well," one director asked over the phone system, "I want to hear what Harvey Miller has to say about this. Is there a precedent for this, Mr. Miller?"

Miller's deep baritone voice filled the room, pointing out that the idea was unorthodox and lacked precedence.

Other attorneys chimed in, claiming the plan oversimplified the situation and there would be major problems with it. Yet another added that this would not be viewed well by the court and doubted any judge would allow it. Collectively, they characterized it as a long shot, discouraging the directors from thinking the plan could ever succeed.

Hearing all the disapproving words amplified from speakers in the ceiling, I felt ambushed by general counsel Osborne, who was strongly advocating for a prepackaged bankruptcy strategy, which he believed was the only way to go. Unbeknownst to me he had previously proposed the idea to GM's board, naively believing GM could complete a prepack bankruptcy in 30 days.

GM's most senior leaders had been working with me on the NewCo plan around the clock. I felt strongly this alternative approach could succeed, and I knew that any other type of Chapter 11 strategy would kill vehicle sales and lead to the demise of GM. Now it seemed as if the NewCo plan could be dead on arrival.

"If the attorneys feel this is a waste of time and corporate resources, I don't know why we would pursue this," stated another director.

A chilling silence descended upon the room, broken by Kent Kresa, the former CEO of Northrop Grumman and a GM board member since 2003.

"I understand this has some risk attached to it, but we're in a very risky state right now," he said. "And I understand it may even be unusual and unprecedented. But it's certainly creative, and quite frankly, it's the most innovative idea we've heard so far that has real potential in it. I think it deserves further consideration and development."

Rick then addressed another lawyer on the call, Martin Bienenstock.

"Well, I've actually studied the problem, too, and there's a way for this to work," said Bienenstock. "Almost all bankruptcies are unique and the Code does allow for the transfer of assets. I can't imagine a judge taking on this problem and not wanting to solve it. We've done a preliminary analysis, and it's not as crazy as it sounds. It's unique and compelling."

"Okay, we've heard both sides of it," Rick said after others spoke, smartly bringing the debate to a reasonable close. "I suggest we continue working to develop both the prepack plan and the NewCo option, while seeking the funding to avoid Chapter 11 if at all possible."

The meeting adjourned without a vote. I left the room disappointed to hear Osborne's legal chorus so dead set against NewCo and surprised their remarks had stopped all real discussion of the plan. But I also was relieved the plan was not completely dead, at least not yet.

Over the next weeks I worked closely with Bienenstock, assistant general counsel Mike Millikin, Al Koch of AlixPartners and GM senior vice president John Smith on the NewCo plan. We huddled dozens of times with Wagoner and Henderson to work out which brands GM would ultimately have to give up (Hummer, Saturn, Saab and Pontiac) and which ones it would keep (Chevrolet, Cadillac, GMC and Buick). Informed debate and deep analysis of structural costs led to decisions about projects, factories, brands and countries.

On Sunday afternoon, Mar. 29, Wagoner called me. It was a call I had hoped would never come--but here it was.

"Jay," he said, "I wanted to give you a heads-up. The Administration wants me to step aside. The President is going to hold a press conference tomorrow morning."

Wagoner told me Henderson would be named CEO.

"What about the bankruptcy?" Ek het gevra.

"They're enamored with the 363 NewCo plan. They seem bound and determined to make us file Chapter 11 and do NewCo. . This is really tough," he said.

"I'm so sorry," I said, pausing, "but . you got the money. They're doing the NewCo plan, and Fritz is your successor. . You've succeeded. You got the three things."

Rick responded with resigned acknowledgment, then said, "Please help Fritz in any way you can," before hanging up.

Rick's personal sacrifice was not in vain. Months of hard work had paid off. The assets and liabilities had been selected. The NewCo legal entities and $45 billion tax-loss strategy had been developed. The strategy I pitched to Wagoner in his living room four and a half months earlier was the plan chosen by Team Auto in a meeting on Apr. 3, 2009 in Washington. Treasury agreed to fully fund NewCo with equity, and thus it became the chosen path to save the company.

By late April NewCo implementation was well under way. The bankruptcy filing would occur in New York within weeks. My partner, Al Koch of AlixPartners, would become the chief restructuring officer running OldCo, now officially named Motors Liquidation, Inc. In my notes, I jotted: "My work is finished . impact from this day forward will be negligible. . Treasury's in control. Time to get back to my girls."

On June 1, 2009 General Motors filed for bankruptcy in New York, with $82 billion in assets and $173 billion in liabilities. It was the largest industrial bankruptcy in history. Harvey Miller and his team masterfully defended and guided the NewCo plan through the bankruptcy court, successfully making it their own. New GM exited bankruptcy protection on July 10, 2009--in a mere 40 days, as designed. Fritz called and thanked me.

There would be many other twists and turns to GM's narrative, but the company got its fresh start using the NewCo plan, and the industry was saved with government funding from both Presidents Bush and Obama. In March 2009 President Obama cited a "failure of leadership" as his reason for forcing out Wagoner. In fact, it was Wagoner's exercise of leadership through years of wrenching change and then simultaneously seeking government funding while developing three restructuring plans that put GM in position to survive the worst economic collapse since the Great Depression and complete its turnaround, which, ironically, became a key campaign issue in the reelection of Barack Obama in 2012.


The General Assembly, in its resolution A/RES/65/271 of 7 April 2011, declared 12 April as the International Day of Human Space Flight “to celebrate each year at the international level the beginning of the space era for mankind, reaffirming the important contribution of space science and technology in achieving sustainable development goals and increasing the well-being of States and peoples, as well as ensuring the realization of their aspiration to maintain outer space for peaceful purposes.”

12 April 1961 was the date of the first human space flight, carried out by Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet citizen. This historic event opened the way for space exploration for the benefit of all humanity.

The General Assembly expressed its deep conviction of the common interest of mankind in promoting and expanding the exploration and use of outer space, as the province of all mankind, for peaceful purposes and in continuing efforts to extend to all States the benefits derived there from.

The Voyager Golden Record: A reminder that we are all connected

The Voyager Golden Record shot into space in 1977 with a message from humanity to the cosmos – and decades later, it stands as a reminder that we are all connected. The United Nations displays a replica of the Golden Record at its Headquarters, and shares a deep connection to the process of creating it. A NASA committee asked the UN to provide materials to include on the playlist, and the first words on the Record itself are those of the then-UN Secretary-General expressing hope for peace and friendship with whoever discovers and plays it. Bill Nye “The Science Guy,” CEO of the Planetary Society, walks viewers through how to decipher the Golden Record, its significance today, and how reverence for the universe can inspire action for our planet. This aligns with the ongoing work of the United Nations to promote international cooperation in the peaceful use and exploration of space. The Director of the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs, Simonetta Di Pippo, explains the significance of the Golden Record in our world now. “The undertaking of the Voyager project reminds us of who we are, where we came from, and that we should treat each other with care.”

Agtergrond

On 4 October 1957 the first human-made Earth satellite Sputnik I was launched into outer space, thus opening the way for space exploration. On 12 April 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth, opening a new chapter of human endeavour in outer space.

The Declaration further recalls “the amazing history of human presence in outer space and the remarkable achievements since the first human spaceflight, in particular Valentina Tereshkova becoming the first woman to orbit the Earth on 16 June 1963, Neil Armstrong becoming the first human to set foot upon the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969, and the docking of the Apollo and Soyuz spacecrafts on 17 July 1975, being the first international human mission in space, and recall that for the past decade humanity has maintained a multinational permanent human presence in outer space aboard the International Space Station.”

UN and Space

From the very beginning of the Space Age, the United Nations recognized that outer space added a new dimension to humanity's existence. The United Nations family strives continuously to utilize the unique benefits of outer space for the betterment of all humankind.

Recognizing the common interest of humankind in outer space and seeking to answer questions on how outer space can help benefit the people's of Earth, the General Asssembly adopted its first resolution related to outer space, resolution 1348 (XIII) entitled "Question of the Peaceful Use of Outer Space".

Today, the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) is the United Nations office responsible for promoting international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space. UNOOSA serves as the secretariat for the General Assembly's only committee dealing exclusively with international cooperation in the peaceful uses of outer space: the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space(COPUOS).

UNOOSA is also responsible for implementing the Secretary-General's responsibilities under international space law and maintaining the United Nations Register of Objects Launched into Outer Space.

Our Planet Earth

In an awestruck manner, seventeen astronauts and cosmonauts from ten countries describe their perceptions of Earth as seen from space. Watch the documentary produced in July 1990.


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Episode 95 Trayvon Martin tragedy John Edwards denies prostitute claims Kim Kardashian gets flour bombed Whitney Houston's autopsy revealed Third graders having oral sex 00:32:00 Maccorley Mathieu no Trayvon Martin,John Edwards,Kim Kardashian,Whitney Houston,Third graders having oral sex Trayvon Martin tragedy John Edwards denies prostitute claims Kim Kardashian gets flour bombed Whitney Houston's autopsy revealed Third graders having oral


What are the leading causes of death in the US?

Around 74% of all deaths in the United States occur as a result of 10 causes. Over the past 5 years, the main causes of death in the U.S. have remained fairly consistent.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there were 2,813,503 registered deaths in the United States in 2017.

The age-adjusted death rate, which accounts for the aging population, is 731.9 deaths per 100,000 people in the U.S. This is an increase of 0.4% over 2016’s death rate.

However, the CDC advise that using age-adjusted rates is inaccurate for ranking causes of death.

All figures and percentages provided here come from the most recent data from the CDC, collected in 2017.

In this article, we expand on each of the leading causes of death and provide links to more detailed information on each condition. We also rank the causes according to the number of deaths per condition and their percentage share of the overall registered death count in the U.S.

Share on Pinterest Many of the top 10 causes of death are preventable through lifestyle changes and regular checkups.

Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. This is the case in the U.S. and worldwide. More than half of all people who die due to heart disease are men.

Medical professionals use the term heart disease to describe several conditions. Many of these conditions relate to the buildup of plaque in the walls of the arteries.

As the plaque develops, the arteries narrow. This makes it difficult for blood to flow around the body and increases the risk of heart attack or stroke. It can also give rise to angina, arrythmias, and heart failure.

To reduce the risk of dying from heart disease, a person can protect their heart health by adopting a healthful diet and getting regular exercise.

Being able to recognize the symptoms of a heart attack can also help people get prompt medical treatment and potentially save their lives.

Cancer occurs when cells do not die at the normal point in their life cycle. If a person’s body cannot control the spread of these cells, they can interfere with essential, life-sustaining systems and possibly lead to death.

Everyone has some degree of risk, but for most cancers, the risk will increase with age. Some people have a higher or lower risk due to differences in exposure to carcinogens, such as from smoking or exposure to chemical pollutants. Genetic factors also play a strong role in cancer’s development.

Race and sex also play a role in a person’s risk of developing cancer, depending on the type. That said, lung cancer causes more deaths than any other cancer in both men and women.

However, researchers are always taking steps to advance cancer treatment. In fact, the death rate from all cancers in the U.S. has dropped by 26% since 1991.

Estimated cancer-related deaths for 2019

The American Cancer Society estimate how many people will die from certain types of cancer in 2019.

According to them, the leading causes of death from cancer for males will be:

  • Lung and bronchus cancer: 76,650 deaths
  • Prostate cancer: 31,620 deaths
  • Colorectal cancer: 27,640 deaths

The leading causes of death from cancer for females will be:

  • Lung and bronchus cancer: 66,020 deaths
  • Breast cancer: 41,760 deaths
  • Colorectal cancer: 23,380 deaths

Accidents, or unintentional injuries, are the 4th leading cause of death in the U.S. overall, and the leading cause of death for those aged 1–44.

Possible prevention measures

Accidents are unintentional and usually unavoidable. However, there are many ways to reduce the risk of accidental injury and death.

Some key components of accident prevention include focusing on road and workplace safety, such as using a seatbelt and never driving or operating heavy machinery while under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

Chronic lower respiratory disease refers to a group of lung conditions that block the airflow and cause breathing-related issues. These diseases include:

Smoking drastically increases a person’s risk of developing these conditions.

Cerebrovascular diseases develop due to problems with the blood vessels that supply the brain.

Four of the most common cerebrovascular diseases are:

Every year, more than 795,000 people in the U.S. have a stroke. The risk of stroke varies with race, ethnicity, and age.

The highest death rates from stroke in the U.S. occur in the Southeast.

Dementia refers to a group of conditions that cause a decline in cognitive function. This affects a person’s ability to perform everyday activities.

Damage to the nerve cells in the brain causes dementia. As a result of the damage, neurons can no longer function normally and may die. This, in turn, can lead to changes in memory, behavior, and the ability to think clearly.

Alzheimer’s disease is just one type of dementia. Another type, called vascular dementia, can cause similar symptoms but instead results from changes to blood flow to the brain.

For people with Alzheimer’s disease, neuron damage and death eventually impair their ability to perform essential actions, such as walking and swallowing.

People in the final stages of this condition may not be able to leave their bed and may require around the clock care. Alzheimer’s is ultimately fatal.

In the U.S., an estimated 5.8 million people currently have Alzheimer’s disease, according to the Alzheimer’s Association. This figure may rise to 14 million people by 2050 as life expectancy continues to increase.

Alzheimer’s is also the only cause of death in the top 10 that medical experts cannot cure, prevent, or slow down.

Diabetes is a condition wherein the body can no longer control blood glucose, which leads to dangerously high levels of blood glucose. This is called hyperglycemia.

Persistent hyperglycemia can damage the body’s tissues, including those in the nerves, blood vessels, and eyes.

The body converts most of the food people eat into glucose, a simple sugar, which it can then use for energy. The pancreas, an organ near the stomach, makes a hormone called insulin to move glucose from the bloodstream into the cells.

There are two main types of diabetes: type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

The bodies of people with type 1 diabetes do not produce insulin at all, so these people need to supplement their supply. The bodies of people with type 2 diabetes cannot use insulin effectively.

However, it is possible to control the risk of type 2 diabetes with careful dietary management and regular exercise.

Diabetes can cause serious health complications, including heart disease, blindness, kidney failure, and the need for amputation of the lower extremities.

Influenza, or flu, is a highly contagious viral infection. It is one of the most severe illnesses of the winter season.

Flu spreads easily from person to person, usually when someone who carries the virus coughs or sneezes.

A person can have the flu more than once, as many different strains of the virus can cause infection. They may belong to one of three different influenza families: A, B or C.

Type A viruses tend to affect adults more severely , while type B viruses most often cause health problems in children. Type C viruses are fairly uncommon.

Pneumonia, a serious condition that causes inflammation of the lungs, can cause complications in people who have the flu.

Pneumonia causes the air sacs in the lungs to fill with pus and other fluids, preventing oxygen from reaching the bloodstream. If there is too little oxygen in the blood, the body’s cells cannot function. This can be fatal.

Nephritis, nephrotic syndrome, and nephrosis are all conditions that affect the kidneys.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) causes kidney damage. Damaged kidneys cannot filter blood as well as healthy kidneys. As a result of this, waste from the blood remains in the body and may lead to other health problems.

Around 30 million people in the U.S. may have CKD to some degree. Being over 60 years old increases the risk of CKD, as does having a family history of it. High blood pressure and diabetes are most likely to cause the CKD.

CKD develops in stages, and it does not usually cause symptoms until its most advanced stage. So, undergoing regular screenings can help reduce a person’s risk of dying from kidney disease.

When a person dies by suicide, they may have lived with a mental health condition — such as depression, anxiety, or bipolar disorder — for a long time.

However, not all people who attempt suicide or die by it have these conditions.

Suicide is the second-leading cause of death among people aged 10-34 years.

Establishing a strong support network, taking appropriate medications, and seeking therapy may help reduce the risk of suicide.

How do I bring down my overall risk of death?

Lifestyle habits will most likely have the greatest impact on a person’s risk of developing some of these conditions.

Eating healthful foods in optimal proportions, sleeping and exercising regularly, drinking in moderation, avoiding tobacco products and other drugs, and building healthy and positive relationships will all work to improve a person’s quality of life and reduce their risk of premature death.

Also, establishing an ongoing relationship with a doctor and undergoing regular screenings for conditions that run in the family can aid prompt treatment if these conditions do develop.

Vincent J. Tavella, MPH Answers represent the opinions of our medical experts. All content is strictly informational and should not be considered medical advice.


10 Great American Achievements

On July 16, 1969, Apollo 11 blasted off from Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This spacecraft would take 3 American astronauts to the Moon, landing 2 on its surface and return all 3 safely to Earth, less than a decade after the first manned space flight. The US and Americans have achieved many great things, and here we list 10 of them. Not all significant inventions or achievements are necessarily for humanitarian purposes, some of them are for war. Some, like DDT and the polio vaccines saved millions of lives. We list 10 that we think you will find interesting, and invite you to let us know what other American accomplishments we should have listed. ( America bashers beware! This list is by definition US-centric.)

Dieper grawe

10. The Internet, circa 1985.

Although no official opening date exists, the Internet was an American concept actually put forth by the US Government in the 1960’s, interlinking thousands of public and private computer and communication systems, going into effect in the mid-1980’s. During the first few years, almost all Internet use was by government and academic users, with the 1990’s seeing enormous expansion in use by businesses and private individuals. About 100 times more people use the Internet today than in 1995 and well over 90% of US classrooms have Internet access. Al Gore did not invent the Internet, nor did he say he did, but he and others were advocates that made it happen. Thanks, Al. Here are 10 Other ways the Internet has changed our lives.

9. Cell Phones, 1973.

First shown to the world in 1973 by American television and radio manufacturer, Motorola, the cell phone has become a world wide device that makes communications in most civilized places oh so easy. It is hard to even remember what teenagers did before this invention.

8. Machine Guns, 1862, 1884.

Dr. Gatling invented his hand cranked multi-barrel gun in time for limited use during the Civil War, and his guns were still in service until 1911. Hiram Maxim, born in Maine, immigrated to England at age 41 and perfected his automatic machine gun, the first modern such weapon, which was used from then until the 1950’s. The Maxim Gun is the basis for other machine guns that have followed.

7. Panama Canal, 1914.

A project that dwarfed the problems in building the Suez Canal (or any other canal), the US accomplished what the French could not, and provided easy access between the Atlantic and Pacific. Facing incredible engineering obstacles and especially disease, this US achievement accommodates close to 15,000 ships passing through per year and is approaching its millionth customer. The canal and canal zone were turned over to Panama on December 31, 1999. Modifications to accommodate much larger ships are being undertaken at this time.

6. Modern Submarine, 1900.

Invented by John Holland, an Irish-American who sold his idea to the US Navy, which commissioned their first submarine, the USS Holland in 1900. Other attempts at undersea craft go back a few hundred years, including the US Skilpad en die CSS Hunley , but these were limited range hand powered craft. In the 19th Century attempts were made at producing steam powered subs, but no practical model appeared until Holland invented a sub that ran on a gasoline internal combustion engine on the surface and on powerful electric batteries and motors under water. Unfortunately, Holland was allowed to sell his designs to other countries and the US Navy failed at a big chance to have a monopoly on modern submarines.

5. Trans-Oceanic Cable Communication, 1858.

American Cyrus West Field masterminded the massive project of laying a telegraph cable from North America to Europe, producing the first trans-Atlantic electronic communication, featuring a message between Queen Victoria (United Kingdom) and President Buchanan (US). An improved version was completed in 1866, and later telephone and other electronic data transmission cables were laid across other oceans as well as the Atlantic. Before this project, communication from Europe to North America took 10 days by boat, but with the cable it would take only a few minutes.

4. First Nuclear Reactor, 1942.

Built in Chicago as part of the Manhattan -projek , Chicago Pile-1 became the first man-made nuclear reactor with a controllable self-sustaining nuclear reaction. This led to the production of nuclear electricity producing plants, a potential source of energy for human-kind without burning fossil fuels, if only we could design and supervise enough safety measures into such plants. ( Let wel: Scientists from other countries contributed to this project, but there is a reason it was done in the US, where money, safety, and freedom made it possible.)

3. Model T Ford, 1908.

Built from 1908 to 1927 this was not the first practical car, but it was the first mass produced practical car that normaal people could afford, costing as low as $260. At one point in the 1920’s, almost half the cars in the world were Model T Fords, truly the car that put the masses behind the steering wheel. 15 million were built.

2. First in Flight, 1903.

Many inventors around the world were working on controlled, powered, manned flight projects, but the Wright brothers from Ohio were the first to make it reality. Unfortunately, they also invented the airplane crash fatality.

1. Men on the Moon, 1969.

The US moon landing in 1969 and subsequent lunar forays made the US not only the eerste to the moon, but also the enigste country ever to accomplish a manned moon landing. The Apollo program also provided some really neat photography.

Vraag aan studente (en intekenare): What other American accomplishments should we have listed? Please let us know in the comments section below this article.

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The featured image in this article, a photograph by James L. Long of the Apollo 11 liftoff, was originally posted to Flickr by State Library and Archives of Florida at https://flickr.com/photos/[email protected]/8678167050. It was reviewed on 23 August 2016 by FlickreviewR and was confirmed to be licensed under the terms of the No known copyright restrictions. This work is from the Florida Memory Project hosted at the State Archive of Florida, and is released to the publieke domein in the United States under the terms of Section 257.35(6), Florida Statutes.

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Majoor Dan is 'n afgetrede veteraan van die United States Marine Corps. Hy het tydens die Koue Oorlog gedien en het na baie lande oor die hele wêreld gereis. Voor sy militêre diens studeer hy aan die Cleveland State University, met 'n hoofvak sosiologie. Na sy diensplig het hy as polisieman gewerk en uiteindelik die rang van kaptein gekry voor sy aftrede.


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