Boeing B-17G geweerposisies

Boeing B-17G geweerposisies

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Frederick A. Johnsen. 'N Goed ondersoekde en geïllustreerde geskiedenis van die B-17, met 'n baie sterk gedeelte oor die gevegsrekord, 'n interessante hoofstuk oor die pogings om die vliegtuig te verbeter (insluitend 'n aantal voorstelle wat nie in produksie was nie) en 'n goeie keuse kleurfoto's van die vliegtuig. [sien meer]


Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

Terwyl die gekonsolideerde B-24 Liberator viermotorige swaar bomwerper meer oorlogsmonne laat val het en in groter getalle gebou is, het die Boeing B-17 'Flying Fortress' viermotorige 'swaar' 'n meer blywende herinnering aan die Amerikaanse militêre lugvaartgeskiedenis gelaat vir sy deel aan die Tweede Wêreldoorlog (1939-1945). Die vliegtuig was 'n primêre komponent van die beroemde Eight Air Force ("The Mighty Aighth"), aangesien dit tydens die optog na Berlyn deur bombardemente oor Europa oorgeneem het - troepe wat van vliegvelde oral in Engeland gelanseer is. Mettertyd het die lotgevalle van die oorlog die Geallieerdes begunstig namate die gebiede van die Derde Ryk begin krimp het - eers uit Italië en daarna uit Frankryk en die Lae Lande. Die bomwerper het naam gemaak as 'n werkpaardkomponent en was die onderwerp van baie oorlogsbande in die Verenigde State om die voortgesette steun van die oorlogspoging te help opdoen. Voor die einde sou die koninkryk van Italië, Duitsland en die Keiserryk van Japan ten volle verslaan word - elke nasie het ten minste geproe van wat die Boeing -produk kon bied. Baie van die toue het ná die oorlog met buitelandse spelers in diens gebly, terwyl baie meer na die afvalstapel gestuur is nadat hul vliegdae verby was, en min mense in operasionele toestand vandag.

Vir sy bydrae in die Groot Konflik was die B-17 verantwoordelik vir bykans 300,000 totale stryd teen vyandelike teikens en het hy verbysterende 640,000 ton bomme laat val. Dit het gehelp om die Amerikaanse bomwerpersleer te verfyn wat selfs voor die aanvang van die oorlog aandag nodig gehad het en het gelei tot die ontwikkeling van 'n ander klassieke platform met meerdere motors van die konflik-die Boeing B-29 "Superfortress" (elders op hierdie webwerf uiteengesit). By die aanvang van die Agtste Lugmagte se verbintenis in Europa, kon 'n paar honderd B-17's gesien word wat een bomwerpervlug uitmaak, maar voor die einde van die oorlog in 1945 word die vyand in die vergetelheid geruk deur wat duisende individue sou word bomwerpers wat golf-na-dodelike golf van formasionele vlieg uitmaak.

Boeing sou voor die einde van die ren 512 van die E-modelvorms (van sy fabriek in Seattle) bou, en hierdie variant was monumentaal vir die reeks, aangesien dit die eerste was om konsekwente operasionele diens te kry (insluitend blootstelling aan gevegte). Die belangrikheid daarvan vroeg kan nie onderskat word nie, aangesien die platform net so baie as 'n bomafleweringsstelsel gebruik is. In die vroeë deel van 1942 het 'n paar op Australiese grond begin staan ​​ter voorbereiding op Japannese invalle in en om die Australiese gebied regoor die Suid -Stille Oseaan. Teen die middelste deel van daardie jaar het die E-modelle in Engeland aangekom om ook die geallieerde bomwerperarm oor Europa te versterk.


Boeing B -17G geweerposisies - Geskiedenis

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    Die Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress en die Consolidated B-24 was die Verenigde State se twee standaard swaar bomwerpers tot die koms van die Boeing B-29 Superfortress in 1944. Die B-17 het in byna elke teater gedien van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog, maar dit is meestal gebruik deur die Amerikaanse Agtste Lugmag, gebaseer in die Verenigde Koninkryk, om Duitse teikens te bombardeer. Die eerste missies was in daglig om akkuraatheid te verbeter, maar hierdie strategie plus 'n gebrek aan voldoende vegvliegtuigdekking het baie vliegtuie en bemanningsverliese tot gevolg gehad. Die eerste bomaanval was by die RAF as Fortress Is, maar dit was skaars gereed vir oorlog. Namate verfyning vorder, tesame met beter vlieëniersopleiding en taktiek, het dit 'n formidabele wapen geword in die Geallieerde oorlog teen Duitsland.

    The Flying Fortress is ontwerp in reaksie op 'n USAAC-kompetisie, wat op 6 Augustus 1934 aangekondig is, om 'n moderne plaasvervanger vir die diverse tweemotorige Keystone-tweedekkerbomwerpers te vind en beter prestasie as die Martin B-10. Alhoewel die prestasie van die B-10 destyds as voldoende beskou is, was die Keystones ongeveer 185 km/h, baie onmanoeuvreerbaar, liggewapen en het slegs 'n beperkte bomlading. 1 Die vereiste was dat 'n bomotor met veelvuldige enjins vir kusverdediging gebruik moes word.

Spesifikasies wat benodig word was:

  • Reikafstand van minstens 620 km (1 020 myl).
  • Spoed van 322 tot 402 km/h.
  • Bomlading van 907 kg (2000 lb).

    'n Boeing -ontwerpteam het in Junie 1934 begin werk aan die Model 299 -prototipe en die bouwerk het in Augustus dieselfde jaar begin. Die belangrikste mededinger van die Model 299 was die Douglas DB-1, wat gebaseer was op die Douglas DC-2. Die derde deelnemer was die Martin 146.

    Die 299 sou op Boeing se koste gebou word en daar sou geen vergoeding wees as dit nie 'n kontrak sou behaal nie. Nadat Boeing nie 'n kontrak vir die vervaardiging van die Boeing B-9 kon wen nie, was die Model 299 'n waagstuk vir Boeing. 3

    Die B-17 (Model 299) was 'n kruising tussen die Boeing 247-passasiersvliegtuig en die eksperimentele XB-15 (Model 294). Die B-17-prototipe het dieselfde konstruksietegnieke as die Boeing 247 gebruik. Dit was 'n semi-monokokale aluminium-romp en die vlieënier en vlieënier het langs mekaar in 'n konvensionele kajuit gesit. Dit is aangedryf deur vier 750 pk Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornets. Die XB-15 was 'n groter weergawe van die B-17, maar dit is as eksperimenteel beskou.

    Die eerste vlug van die Model 299 was op 28 Julie 1935 en dit het byna onmiddellik rekords begin slaan. Op 20 Augustus 1935 het dit 'n ononderbroke vlug van Seattle na Wright Field in nege uur met 'n gemiddelde spoed van 373 km/h afgelê. 4 Na slegs 40 vliegure het die prototipe egter neergestort omdat die hysbak se sluis nog steeds ingeskakel was. As gevolg van die ongeluk kon dit nie 'n produksiekontrak behaal nie, en die konstruksie was beperk tot 13 YB-17's, in plaas van 'n verwagte bestelling van 60. Douglas het 'n bestelling ontvang vir 133 vliegtuie wat later as die B-18 Bolo aangewys is. 5 Die voorproduksie Y1B-17's is later B-17A's herontwerp, gevolg deur een Y1B-17A. Hierdie bevel is daarna gevolg deur nege en dertig B-17B's. Die B-17A's was toegerus met vyf masjiengewere van 0,30 kaliber of 0,50 kaliber en die enjins is verander na 850 pk Wright R-1820 Cyclones. 6

    Nog 'n rekordvlug was op 15 Februarie 1938. Ses vestings het uit Miami, Florida, vertrek vir 'n welwillendheids sending na Suid-Amerika. Hulle het binne 28 uur 5225 myl na Buenos Aires gevlieg, met slegs een stop in Lima, Peru. Die terugvlug was ewe indrukwekkend en alle vlieëniers het die Mackay -trofee ontvang.

    In Mei 1938, om die vermoëns van die B-17 te bewys, het drie vliegtuie van die 2de Bombardement Group die Italiaanse passasiersvaartuig Rex, 1,125 km van die see af, onderskep. Die Amerikaanse vloot was egter so ontstoke dat die USAAC tot 160 myl van die kus beperk was.

Isolasieiste was destyds baie in politieke beheer, dus was die finansiering nog steeds beperk vir die gewapende dienste. Om die beperkte beskikbare hulpbronne te beskerm, was die Amerikaanse vloot vasbeslote dat dit die eerste lyn van verdediging was en dat die B-17 steeds as 'n verdedigingswapen beskou is, nie as 'n strategiese wapen nie. Jare later sou generaal Hap Arnold kommentaar lewer oor die grens van 100 myl, sover ek weet. daardie opdrag is nog nooit herroep nie. 'N Regterlike advokaat kan moontlik vind dat elke B-17, B-24 of B-29 wat Duitsland of Japan gebombardeer het, dit in tegniese oortreding van 'n permanente bevel gedoen het.

    Destyds het die leerstelling van die Amerikaanse oorlogsdepartement nie toegelaat dat vliegtuie as aanvallende wapens geklassifiseer word nie. Daar is gedink dat daar nie 'n langafstand strategiese bomwerper nodig was nie. Dieselfde argument is ook in Duitsland gemaak. Die B-17's is as 'n te groot, ingewikkelde en duur vliegtuig beskou. 8 Ná die München -krisis op 29 September 1938 het dit egter duideliker geword dat Amerikaanse oorlogsbetrokkenheid onvermydelik was en dat die bevele toegeneem het. 9 Op 12 Januarie 1939 het president Roosevelt die kongres toegespreek en 'n krediet van $ 300 miljoen gevra om 3000 vliegtuie vir die Army Air Corps aan te skaf. 10

    Toe Hitler se magte Pole in September 1939 binnegeval het, was daar slegs dertien operasionele vliegvestings 11 en die Verenigde State was die enigste land met 'n strategiese bomwerper toe die oorlog begin het. 12


Die Boeing B-17C is inderhaas in diens van die RAF as Fortress Mk I, maar dit was nie gereed vir geveg nie. Die gewere het gevries tydens die vlug en die akkuraatheid van die bombardement was swak, en dit is uit diens geneem.

    In 1940 is agt-en-dertig B-17C's vervaardig waarvan twintig B-17C's as opleiers van Fort I by die RAF afgelewer is. Hulle is egter haastig in die stryd gewerp met 'n onvoldoende defensiewe bewapening. Die 0.50 kaliber masjiengewere het op groot hoogte gevries, daar was suurstofprobleme en die akkuraatheid van die bom was baie swak, en die meeste bomme het hul doelwitte ontbreek. Boeing het hierdie probleme met die B-17D reggestel en selfafsluitende tenks, ekstra bemanning van die bemanning, enjin-nacelle-kapdeksels bygevoeg en twee ekstra masjiengewere van 0,30 kaliber geïnstalleer. Die agtien oorblywende B-17C's is omgeskakel na B-17D's. Na die bombardement op Pearl Harbor is baie B-17's egter vernietig of verlore gegaan deur uitputting. Stille Oseaan -eenhede het gekla en dit het duidelik geword dat iets gedoen moes word. 13

    In September 1941 verskyn die B-17E 'big ass'-model met 'n uitgebreide wysiging. Die haaivinstert was weg. Dit is vervang met 'n groot rugvin wat net agter die radio -operateur se posisie gestyg het, wat 'n stewiger stert tot gevolg gehad het. Die sterker stert het handig te pas gekom toe een B-17F, die 'All American', sy stert geknip het na 'n botsing met 'n Messerschmitt Bf 109.
'N Vleuel en 'n gebed
    Saam met die nuwe stert het die E-modelle 'n dodelike steek van twee masjiengewere van 0,50 kaliber in die stert gehad om 'n vorige defensiewe blindekol te bedek. Die B-17E was ook toegerus met 'n afstandbeheerde buikskut wat nog twee 0.50's gehou het. Alle gewere is verander na 0.50s behalwe in die neus. 14 Die B-17E is verleng tot 22,5 m om die nuwe verdedigende stertposisie te akkommodeer. Die topsnelheid was 510 km/h (317 mph), dit kon 321 km/h (321 km/h) met meer as 1814 kg bomme ry, en die bemanning is van nege tot tien lede verhoog. Die ekstra toerusting het die vliegtuig sewe ton swaarder gemaak as die oorspronklike Model 299. 'n Totaal van 512 B-17E's is gebou.


Die Boeing B-17E was die 'big ass'-model.     Die Pearl Harbor-aanval van 7 Desember 1941 het die Verenigde State uiteindelik in die oorlog gebring en die produksie van die B-17 het vinnig toegeneem. Teen Julie 1942 begin die VSA die agtste lugmag in Brittanje, toegerus met B-17E's. Op 17 Augustus 1942 het agtien B-17's van die United States Army Air Force (USAAF) 'n bomaanval uitgevoer op die spoorweë in Rouen in Frankryk.

    Die vervaardiging van die B-17F is uitgevoer deur Boeing, Vega en Douglas, die BVD's soos hulle genoem is (dieselfde afkorting as die onderklereonderneming), maar nuwe aanpassings het hul tol in die lugsnelheid geëis. Daar was meer as vierhonderd wysigings op die B-17F. Die enigste opvallende verskil aan die buitekant was die vol plexiglas neus. Die B-17F, nou gewapen met elf 0.50-cal. gewere, kon slegs 291 mph (481 km/h) bereik en die landingsnelheid was tot 90 mph (144 km/h)! Diensplafon was 11.430 m (37.500 voet) en het 'n afstand van 4 634 km (880 myl). Dit het vyf en twintig en 'n half minute geneem om tot 6 096 m te klim. Die BVD-ondernemings het 3 400 B-17F's vervaardig.


Die B-17F-model kan onderskei word van die E en G deur die gebrek aan bobou wat die neuskoepel van plexiglas ondersteun.

    Op 27 Januarie 1943 het B-17's van die USAAF hul eerste aanvalle op Duitsland in die hawe van Wilhelmshaven gedoen. Die aanval is uitgevoer deur die 91ste, 303ste, 305ste en 306ste bomgroep. Aanvanklik was die slagoffers baie hoog omdat hulle gedurende dagligure aangeval het om groter akkuraatheid te verkry. Ook die korrekte formasie vlieg, om 'n groep vliegtuie in staat te stel om mekaar met kruisvuur te verdedig (die legendariese boksformasie) was nog nie geformuleer nie. Die B-17F het ook nie voldoende verdediging teen 'n kop-aan-kop aanval nie.

    By frontale aanvalle sou Luftwaffe-vegters in die rigting van die B-17 beweeg, begin met 'n effense duik en dan opkom en oor die onderbuik van die vliegtuig hark en hierdie maneuver herhaal teen bomwerpers wat agterop kom. Hierdie taktiek het die boonste rewolwer, middellyf en stertgewere as ondoeltreffend verwerp. 15

    In Maart 1943 is 'n mate van verligting verkry toe die P-47 Thunderbolt opdaag. Die P-47 kan die bomwerpers gedeeltelik na hul doelwitte begelei en weer ontmoet tydens die terugreis. Maar Messerschmitt Bf 109s en Focke-Wulf Fw 190s het op die bomwerpers gewag totdat hul begeleiers teruggedraai het.

    Op 19 Oktober 1943 tydens die tweede aanval op Schweinfurt het die Luftwaffe 60 neergeskiet en 138 van die 291 B-17's wat gestuur is, beskadig, met 'n verlies van 650 vlieëniers. En op 6 Maart 1944 tydens 'n aanval op Berlyn het 69 B-17's saam met 17 vegters verlore gegaan met 'n verlies van 701 man. Die Luftwaffe het egter 160 vliegtuie verloor. Ten spyte van sulke verliese vir die Agtste Lugmag, het nog nooit een missie teruggedraai nie. 16

    Teen September 1943 het die Flying Fortress sy finale vorm getoon tydens vuurkragtoetse op die XB-40, 'n aangepaste B-17F met die voordeel van 'n "kin" rewolwer. Die Bendix -rewolwer het twee gewere van 0,50 kaliber gehad, wat die bewapening tot dertien gewere verhoog het. Die XB-40 het geen bomme gedra nie, maar was swaar gewapen en het ekstra pantser vir die bemanning gehad. Dit was baie swaarder as die F -model en ook stadiger. Die idee was om die bomwerpers te begelei tydens aanvalle, maar nadat die bomwerpers hul vragte losgelaat het, kon die XB-40 nie die vorming behou nie en die bomgroepe sou moes vertraag. Die XB-40 is laat vaar, maar die Bendix kin-rewolwer is aangepas by die B-17G.

    Die B-17G is in groter getalle vervaardig as enige ander enkele model en meer B-17G's het verlore gegaan as enige ander model. Die duidelikste verskil was die installering van die Bendix -kintoring onder die neus. Met die rewolwer onder die neus, was die uitsig deur die plexiglas neus nou onbelemmerd vir die skutter. Die kin-rewolwer het ook geen nadelige uitwerking op die aërodinamika van die vliegtuig nie, en dit het uiteindelik die nodige beskerming gebied teen kop-aan-aanvalle. 'N Ander groot verandering was die installering van die Cheyenne -sterttoring. Die geweer het 'n groter vuurveld gehad en die ring-en-kraal-terrein is vervang deur 'n reflektorplek. Op die laat G -modelle was die middellyfskutvensters wankel sodat die skutters mekaar nie in die pad kon steek nie. Die geweer van die radio -operateur op die boonste luik is uitgeskakel omdat dit as gevolg van sy swak uitkykpunt as 'n lae waarde beskou is. Geleidelik word die produksie van die B-17 uitsluitlik aan Vega en Douglas in Kalifornië oorgelaat, terwyl Boeing dit makliker gemaak het om die B-17 te bou om plek te maak vir B-29 Superfortress-produksielyne. 17 In totaal was daar 8 680 B-17G's wat deur Boeing, Vega en Douglas gebou is om dit die grootste produksievariasie te maak. 18

    Toe die G-modelle verskyn, was dit ongeveer dieselfde tyd as toe die Noord-Amerikaanse P-51 Mustang op die toneel kom. Dit was 'n spelwisselaar toe Mustangs bomwerpers tot in Duitsland en terug kon begelei. Einde 1943 is P-51's gebruik om die Agtste Lugmagbomwerpers van die USAAF te begelei, wat die begin was van die geallieerde oorheersing van die lug oor Duitsland. Met oorweldigende getalle kon geallieerde vegters die Duitse Luftwaffe oorstroom, wat die nederlaag van Duitsland 'n uitgemaakte saak maak.


Die B-17G het nuwe vuurkrag bekendgestel in die vorm van die Bendix kin-rewolwer.

    Op 19 Julie 1943 het Amerikaanse B-17's en B-24 Liberators die eerste b ombing-aanval op Rome uitgevoer. Amerikaanse bemagtiging in Europa bereik sy hoogtepunt in Februarie 1945 met 'n aanval van 1 000 bomwerper op Berlyn, begelei deur 400 vegters, en die aanval op Dresden (saam met RAF Lancasters) wat 'n massiewe brandstorm veroorsaak het om die stad te beveg. Intussen het B-17's ook gehelp om die oorlog teen Japan te wen, hoewel middel-1944 die groter Boeing B-29 die groot strategiese bombardemente in die Stille Oseaan-teater begin oorneem het.

    Na die eerste Model 299 het die Air Corps 12 725 B-17-tipe vliegtuie aangeskaf, waarvan 'n paar saam met die Royal Air Force Coastal Command en die Amerikaanse vloot gedien het vir patrollie, lugredding, onderzeeër en ander pligte. Vragomskakelings van die B-17 staan ​​bekend as die XC-108.

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress-spesifikasies
Model: B-17E B-17F B-17G
Afmetings:
Vleuel span: 31,6 m (103 voet) 31,6 m (103 voet) 31,6 m (103 voet)
Lengte: 74 voet 1,5 in (22,5 m) 74 voet. 8,8 in (22,8 m) 22,6 m (74 voet)
Hoogte: 19 voet 2,4 in (5,9 m) 19 voet 2,4 in (5,9 m) 19 voet. 1 in (5,8 m)
Vleuelgebied: 132 vierkante meter 132 vierkante meter 132 vierkante meter
Gewigte:
Leeg: 15.095 kg (33.279 pond) 16.205 kg (35.728 lb) 16,391 kg (36,135 pond)
Laai: 18.261 kg (40.260 lb) 18.261 kg (40.260 lb) 54.000 lb (24.500 kg)
Maksimum opstyg: 22.101 kg (48.726 lb) 22.099 kg (48.720 lb) 65.700 lb (29.710 kg)
Optrede:
Maksimum spoed: 318 mph (511 km/h)
op 25.000 voet (7.625 m)
325 mph (523 km/h)
op 25.000 voet (7.625 m)
287 mph (462 km/h)
op 25.000 voet (7.625 m)
Vaarspoed: 160 mph (257 km/h) 160 mph (257 km/h) 183 mph (293 km/h)
Diensplafon: 30.000 voet (9.144 m) 30.000 voet (9.144 m) 35.800 voet (10.850 m)
Normale omvang: 3.219 myl (3.219 km) met 6000 lb (2.722 kg) b omb
laai @ 352 km/h @ 7,625 m
3.219 myl (3.219 km) met 6000 lb (2.722 kg) b omb
laai @ 352 km/h @ 7.625 m
3.219 myl (3.219 km) met 6000 lb (2.722 kg) b omb
laai @ 352 km/h @ 7,625 m
Kragsentrale: Vier 1200 pk (895 kW)
Wright R-1820-65 siklone
9 sil. lugverkoelde enkelry-radiale enjins met GE tipe B-2
turbo-aanjaers.
Vier 1200 pk (895 kW)
Wright R-1820-97 siklone
9 sil. lugverkoelde enkelry-radiale enjins met GE tipe B-2
turbo-aanjaers.
Vier 1200 pk (895 kW)
Wright R-1820-97 siklone
9 sil. lugverkoelde enkelry-radiale enjins met GE tipe B-22
turbo-aanjaers.
Bewapening: Elf 50-cal. masjiengewere plus 'n maksimum van 7 983 kg (17,600 lb) b o mbs. Normale b omb -las 724 kg (6000 lbs).
Die grootste tipe bom was 908 kg.
Dertien 50-cal. masjiengewere plus 'n maksimum van 7 983 kg (17,600 lb) b o mbs. Gewone b o mb vrag 624 lbs (2.724 kg).
Die grootste tipe bom was 908 kg.
Dertien 50-cal. masjiengewere plus 'n maksimum van 7 983 kg (17,600 lb) b o mbs. Normale b omb -las 724 kg (6000 lbs).
Die grootste tipe bom was 908 kg.

1. Michael J.H. Taylor en John W.R. Taylor, red. Ensiklopedie van vliegtuie. New York G.P. Putnam's Sons., 1978. 40.
2. Chris Chant. Van 1914 tot hede, die wêreld se grootste B&B. Edison, NJ Chartwell Books, Inc., 2005. 90.
3. David Mondey. 'N Beknopte gids vir Amerikaanse vliegtuie van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. New York Smithmark Publishers, 1996. 20.
4. Kenneth Munson. Bomwerpers tussen die oorloë, 1919-1939. New York: The MacMillan Company, 1970. 160.
5. Lloyd S. Jones. Amerikaanse bomwerpers. Fallbrook, Kalifornië: Aero Publishers, 1974. 51.
6. Kenneth Munson. Bomwerpers tussen die oorloë, 1939-1945. Londen: Blandford Press, 1969. 151.
7. John T. Correll. Die lugmag op die vooraand van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Air Force Magazine. Oktober 2007.
8. Page Shamburger en Joe Christy. Beheer oor die horison, 'n beeldgeskiedenis van lugvaart. New York: Castle Books, 1968. 291.
9. William Green. Beroemde B o -getalle van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. Garden City, New York Doubleday & Company, 1975. 48.
10. Franklin D. Roosevelt: Boodskap aan die kongres oor krediete vir nasionale verdediging. 12 Januarie 1939.
11. Benjamin D. Foulois en C.V. Glinster. From the Wrights to the Astronauts, The memoires of General General Benjamin D. Foulois New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1968. 232.
12. Herbert M. Mason, Jr. Die Amerikaanse lugmag, 'n onstuimige geskiedenis. New York: Mason Charter, 1976. 119.
13. Charles D. Thompson. Vliegtuie in profiel, Boeing B-17E & F-vliegvesting, volume 4. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1968. 3.
14. Enzo Angelucci, Paolo Matricardi en Pierluigi Pint. Volledige Book of World Combat Aircraft. Vercelli, Italië: White Star Publishers, 1988. 242.
15. Norman Fortier. 'N Aas van die agtste. New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 2003. 86.
15. Edward H. Sims. Amerikaanse as. New York: Ballatine Books, 1966. 18.
16. Howard Mingos, red.Die vliegtuigjaarboek vir 1945. New York: Lanciar Publishers, Inc. 1945. 227.
17. Roger A. Freeman. Vliegtuie in profiel, Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress, volume 9. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1971. 1.

©Larry Dwyer. Die Aviation History Online Museum. Alle regte voorbehou.
Geskep op 8 September 1996. Opgedateer op 28 November 2018.


Die Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress was hoofsaaklik in diens van die Amerikaanse weermag se lugmag (USAAF) in die daglig presiese strategiese bomaanval tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog teen Duitse industriële, burgerlike en militêre teikens. 1/12-53 1/20-41 1/27-15 2/4/13

Die legendariese Boeing B-17 vlieënde vesting van die Tweede Wêreldoorlog

BOEING B-17F FLYING FORTRESS (1941).

Die B-17 Flying Fortress is in 1934 ontwerp en het sy eerste vlug op 28,1935 gemaak, maar was eers in Maart 1940 gereed vir aflewering.

Deur 'n dodelike vrag bomme in die bevrore lug op te lig, het die B-17 Vliegvesting was die Verenigde State se swaar bomwerper tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog. B-17Dit word wêreldwyd bedien, maar hulle is miskien die bekendste vir hul agt strategiese bombardemente op die dag van die lugmag. Die 'forte', wat in noue vorm en met masjiengewere gewoel het, het deur storms van lugafweervuur ​​en swerms Duitse vegters gesukkel om hul doelwitte te bereik.

Die B-17 was stadiger as sy eweknie -bomwerper, die B-24 Bevryder. Dit het minder bomme gedra en kon nie tot by die B-24 vlieg nie. Tog, as gevolg van die B-17Met sy stewige en stewige ontwerp, het sy bemanning hul vliegtuie vertrou en geglo dat hul 'fort' hulle nie in die steek sou laat nie. B-17s daagliks na Engeland teruggekeer met hul neuse oopgeslaan, sterte gestamp en vlerke besaai met vlakkerskade. Dikwels raak hulle vas met een of twee enjins met 'n olievlek, terwyl die oorblywende enjins onder die spanning kreun. 12 731 Vliegvestings is gebou.

Dankie vir die maklike bou. Mooi ontwerp. Wil Die FG B-17 is 'n goeie ding van die eerste orde. Sou ek te ver wees om te sê dat FG hom posisioneer om die papiermodelondernemings in die ou wêreld 'n kans vir hul geld te gee? Lyk seker so van hierdie deel van die moeras af. Beste vermaaklikheidsgeld wat ek nog ooit bestee het

Baie dankie dat u hierdie model gepubliseer het. U tydsberekening is perfek. My buurvrou se pa was 'n navigator op 'n B-17 en hy het pas sy memoires gepubliseer:

'Return From Berlin - The Eye of a Navigator' deur Robert Grilley, University of Wisconsin Press. Ek sal hierdie model bou as 'n geskenk om hom te eer. Ek kan amper nie wag om by die huis te kom om die model af te laai en te begin bou nie. JimGausman

Whoooooaaa Chip. Ek wil beslis nie 'n groot kop vir jou gee nie, maar julle het 'n ander goeie taak op die 17de gedoen. My modem rook nog steeds van die aflaai.

Dankie vir nog 'n uitstekende model .. my makelaar bedank u ook, want ek sal binnekort 'n nuwe huis soek met genoeg ruimte vir hierdie dinge. Met die meeste waardering, Von Ric

Ek het pas die B-17 afgelaai !! Lyk pragtig. Dankie dat u hierdie skoonheid geskep het. Jou grootste aanhanger, Anthony Sanchez

Hier sien ek watter pos vandag ingekom het, en LOL, 'n groot koevert van Fiddlersgreen! Binne die wonderlike B-17! Chip en bende (al die pragtige assistente), julle weet regtig hoe om 'n fellah se gemoed op te lig. James Duckworth

Ek wil sê jou B-17 is verstommend! Dit sal hulle regtig verbaas oor my modelgroep! Ek hou baie van jou ou ontwerpe, maar as ek die werk van laat sien, verwonder ek my werklik oor die vaardigheid en vakmanskap wat by die ontwerp van jou modelle pas. . Hou aan met die briljante werk! Derek

Ek het die groen B-17 gekoop. Ek geniet dit. Ek het wel 'n klein foutjie gevind. Die enjins op 'n B-17 is 'n studebaker-geboude wright-sikloon, negesilinder, R-1820-97 wat 1200 pk ontwikkel. elk. Ek weet dit eintlik, want ek werk aan die & quotTEXAS RAIDERS & quot B-17g, Gulf Coast-vleuel, kaf kolonel Robert W. Oden (7/06)

Ek is 'n model vir RC -vliegtuie en het onlangs op jou vliegtuie afgekom en gedink dat hulle baie goeie planne vir 'n groter model sou maak. Veral die B-17 :) Ek het eers die PDF-lêer na 'n drukkery geneem en vir hulle gesê om dit met 376% op te blaas van wat ek gedink het, wat oorspronklik 'n 25,5 & quot-model was, wat dit 'n opgeblaasde 8'-model sou maak. Maar toe alles gesê is, het ek opgemerk dat dit te klein was en nie 8 '. Ek het toe die oorspronklike planne uitgedruk en opgemerk dat dit blykbaar nie op die skaal van 'n 25,5 & quot; vlerkspan nie, maar die van ongeveer 19 & quot of 20 & quot. As dit my probleme gee, is dit as ek dit na 'n drukkery neem om dit vir 'n groot model te laat opblaas, maar ek kan dit nie die regte skaal gee nie. Enige hulp sal baie waardeer word, Gary Jones

Keith Ferris .. Die kunstenaar wat die Smithsonian B-17 muurskildery geskilder het.


Baie pret om deel te wees van 'n model en 'n nuwe een te skep. OF, dele uit 'n klomp modelle en die skep van 'n monster ..

Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress en Pearl Harbor

Die B-17-vesting het deur ryp, vlok, vuur en vrees gevlieg om 'n gevegsrekord op te stel wat ten opsigte van pure moed en uithouvermoë van sy spanne nog nooit oortref is nie en selde geëwenaar is. Eers het die wonderlike olyfbrekende armadas teruggekeer en vol gate. Teen die einde van 1944 het die blink silwer fort die Luftwaffe amper verslaan.

Die groot vloot van die Amerikaanse 8ste lugmag bestaan ​​meestal uit Boeing B-17's. Dit het die lengte en breedte van Duitsland gevlieg en van 1942 tot 1945, met hul bombardement van fabrieke en ander doelwitte, die Europese oorlogsteater oorheers. Onder hul aanslag het selfs die sterk Luftwaffe van Goering verbrokkel in die grootste en bloedigste lugoorlog wat die wêreld nog ooit geken het. Maar in 1934, toe Amerikaanse bomwerpers op sy beste na militêr onbeduidende bestemmings soos Kanada, Mexiko of 'n paar verre Britse eilande vlieg, het niemand geglo dat daar konflik op so 'n skaal sou wees nie. Aangesien geld kort was in die ekonomiese depressie van die tyd, het mense gedink dat hulle die Martin -vliegtuigbomwerper kon inbring om hulle te help.

Maar toe die Amerikaanse weermag se lugkorps 'n versoek vir 'n nuwe meervoudige enjin-bomwerper aanvra, het 'n paar versiende ingenieurs by die Boeing Airplane Company besluit om 'multi-enjin' te interpreteer as dat dit nie twee enjins beteken nie (soos gewoonlik al voorheen gedoen is), maar vier. Hulle het dit weliswaar hoofsaaklik gedoen om meer hoogte oor die teiken te kry, maar dit het daartoe gelei dat die Boeing Model 299 aansienlik groter was as sy mededingers. Die ontwerp het op 18 Junie 1934 begin, en die prototipe het op 28 Julie 1935 'n baie suksesvolle eerste vlug in die hande van Les Tower op Boeing Field gemaak. slegs 'n aanneemlike doelwit) en dit was die aard van hierdie missie, eerder as swaar verdedigende bewapening, wat daartoe gelei het dat Boeing uiteindelik die naam Flying Fortress geregistreer het.

Boeing B-17 triomf en ramp:

Op 20 Augustus 1935 vlieg die indrukwekkende vliegtuig, ongeag die roerstrepe van die US Army Air Corps en burgerlike registrasie X13372, gemiddeld vinniger as die maksimum spoed van sy tweemotorige mededingers na Wright Field. Maar op die eerste amptelik waargenome vlug voordat die USAAC -evalueringsbeamptes, op 30 Oktober 1935, die groot bomwerper opstyg, heeltemal te steil klim, vasloop en in die grond duik en in 'n vuurbal bars. Die ongeluk is heeltemal veroorsaak deur iemand wat die eksterne slotte van die hysbakke verwyder het, en hoewel die onmiddellike wenner van die B-18 die Douglas B-18 moes wees, het die veel groter potensiaal van die groot Boeing-bomwerper tot 'n diens gelei. toetsorder vir 13, aangedui as Y113-17, geplaas op 17 Januarie 1936.

Dit het baie veranderings gehad, veral aan die landingsgestel, bewapening en die verskaffing van 930 pk Wright Cyclone-enjins in plaas van 750 pk Pratt en Whitney Hornets. In 1937 is die masjiene afgelewer by die 2de bombardementgroep op Langley Field, wat daarna byna 10 000 uur sonder ernstige probleme gevlieg het en meer as enige ander eenheid in die geskiedenis gedoen het om die probleme van langafstandbomaanvalle op te los, veral op groot hoogte. 'N 14de vliegtuig is gebou as die Y1B-17A met enjins met General Electric turbo-aanjaers, wat die spoed van 256 mph tot 311 mph verhoog het en die werkhoogte tot meer as 30.000 voet verhoog het.

Die resultate met die B-17 (soos die Y1B genoem is nadat die toetsperiode voltooi was) was so goed dat die USAAC nie net geveg het nie: vir groot produksiegetalle, in die tande van opposisie van die Amerikaanse vloot, maar ook met Boeing-samewerking. 'n volgende generasie bomwerper wat die B-29 geword het. Die woede van die Amerikaanse vloot was so intens dat die produksienommers afgeskaal moes word, en die produksieset van die eerste reeksmodel, die B-17B, tel slegs 39.

Dit het talle klein veranderings gehad, sowel as 'n herontwerpte neus en groter roer. Hulle was die eerste vliegtuie ter wêreld wat met turbo -enjins in diens getree het. Die B-17B het in 1939 diens gedoen en was die vinnigste, sowel as die hoogste vlieënier, ter wêreld. Die Amerikaanse weermag se lugkorps het teen hierdie tyd 'n groot program van stapel gestuur vir die vervolmaking van langafstand strategiese bombardemente, met behulp van die groot vuurkrag van 'n groot formasie om onderskep gevaarlik te maak. Vanweë die spoed en hoogte van die B-17 sou die teenstanders dit moeilik vind om by te hou en 'n byna stilstaande (relatief tot die bomwerpers) teiken wat deur honderde masjiene deur die vuur geblaas sou word. gewere.

Boeing en Wright Field het voortgegaan met die verbetering van die B-17 en in 1939 is 'n verdere 39 bestel onder die benaming B17C. Dit was baie swaarder en weeg 49.650 pond in vergelyking met ongeveer 43.000 pond vir 'n B-17, as gevolg van verhoogde wapenrusting, selfafsluitende tenks, swaarder verdedigende bewapening (met twee 0.5-in/12.7 mm-kanonne bo en in 'n nuwe ventrale ' bad ', twee 0,63-in/7,62 mm-kanonne in die neus en nuwe spoelpistoolposisies) en ekstra toerusting. Ten spyte van die groter gewig, het die aanpassing van 1,200-pk-enjins dit die vinnigste van alle weergawes gemaak, met 'n maksimum snelheid van 320 km / h. In die lente van 1941 is 'n bondel van 20 aan die POF toegeken, na 15 maande se onderhandelinge wat uiteindelik daartoe gelei het dat die vliegtuig in ruil vir volledige inligting oor hul gevegprestasie verskaf is.

(Dit was voor die Wet op Huurverhuring van 1940). As RAF Fortress Is het hulle 'n rampspoedige en wanbestuurde loopbaan gehad, wat hul getalle dramaties verminder het tot 'n handjievol (ongeveer nege)

Hier is 'n foto van u B17 -model wat herkleur is as my oom se vliegtuig. Ek het (behalwe vir die kleur) ook die ligte reggemaak, die middellyfgewere word nou verreken en die skroewe word kleiner gemaak. Die wanggewere moet verreken word, maar is nog nie. O, en ek het dit tot die helfte van jou skaal afgeskaal. The model drawing is of course yours if you like, it was drawn to take advantage of some silvered cardstock I had on hand.

You might remember that I had been wanting to try this model for years, and finally last summer bought a copy. Wishing you well in your endeavors to have fun with the business. Al Ansorg e 1/12

transferred to Coastal Command and the Middle East.

A false start:

While Britain had three different four-engine heavy bombers under development in 1940, it turned to the U.S. for more. As a result, 20 B-17Cs were refurbished and equipped at Boeing to R.A.F. vereistes. Initially, these were to be provided as trainers, but there was so much political pressure to use them in combat that they were rushed into service as a totally new and untried weapon, a high-altitude precision bomber. The turbo supercharger permitted operation at altitudes over 30,000 feet, nearly double what British bombers were then using and a supposed protection from enemy anti-aircraft fire and intercepting fighters. The American Norden bombsight was supposed to be capable of putting "a bomb in a pickle a greatly exaggerated claim. The Norden was good, but not that good. In any case, it was not use in the British operations with B-17C "Fortress I's". The Norden sight was a recent U.S. Navy development made available to the Army the Navy wouldn't accept the risk of having a Norden fall into enemy hands and refused to let the R.A.F. use it in 1941. The Army substituted its own somewhat less effective Sperry sight.

The first "Fortress I" mission was scheduled for three Squadron 90 planes to bomb Wilhelmshaven, 400 miles away, on July 8, 1941. American military personnel and civil technicians in support had doubts as to the success of the operation thirty thousand feet was 10,000 above the 20,000 that the U.S. Army felt was the optimum for the B-17 at the time. The mission was only moderately successful, with only one "Fortress" dropping bombs on the target, but all returned safely.

Major problems had been encountered from equipment freezing at high altitude. While the items had worked well at equivalent altitudes over American desert test centers, the more moist air over northern Europe provided an entirely different environment. A second raid was scheduled for July, and was intended to be a propaganda coup by putting three American-built bombers over Berlin, but an insurmountable storm front encountered en route forced the mission to abort. The following days saw ineffectual raids against the German cruisers "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisnau" at Brest and against Emden in Germany. The bombs missed their targets because of freezing difficulties. The first combat loss was over Norway on September 8. One other was reported missing in action later.

Further extensive internal improvements, a new electrical system and engine-cowl cooling gills, led to the B-17D, of which 42 were ordered in 1940. This was the latest model in service at the time of Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941) when 30 were destroyed on the ground at Hickham Field and at Clark Field, Philippines, the following day. But by this time Boeing had developed a visually different model which incorporated all the lessons learned in World War 2 in Europe. Called Boeing 2990, it entered US Army Air Force service in December 1941 as the B-17E. Its most striking change was the much larger tail, with a giant dorsal fin and long-span tailplane giving better control and stability at high altitude.

Armament was completely revised, with paired 0.5in (12.7-mm) guns in a powered turret behind the cockpit, in a ventral turret at the trailing edge, and in a new manual turret in the tail. Another pair of guns could be fired by hand from the roof of the radio compartment, and with a single hand-aimed gun at each waist position this made a total of 10 heavy machine guns, plus two 0.3-in (7.62-mm) guns aimed from the nose. Further improvements in armour and equipment all helped to increase gross weight to 54,000 lb, so cruising speed inevitably fell from 231 to only 210 mph. This was the first B-17 in large-scale production, and deliveries totaled 512 including 45 sent to the RAF as Fortress IIA.

On 30 May 1942 Boeing flew the first B-17F with many further changes which allowed gross weight to soar to 65,000 lb with a potential bomb load for short ranges of 20,800 lb, though on normal combat missions the load seldom exceeded 5,000 lb. The only obvious external change on the F-model was the more pointed nose molded in one piece of Plexiglas. This type went into production not only at Boeing but also in a great nationwide pool with assembly lines at Douglas (Long Beach) and Vega (a Lockheed subsidiary at Burbank). Boeing built 2,300 of this model, and Douglas and Vega added 605 and 500.

With the B-1 7E and B-1 7F the US 8th Air Force built up its early strength in England. The first combat mission was flown on 17 August 1942 by 12 B-17Es of the 97th Bomb Group against a marshalling yard near Rouen. This was the small beginning to the greatest strategic striking force ever created, which was to lead to a three-year campaign in the course of which 640,036 US tons of bombs were dropped on German targets and, at the cost of grievous losses, supremacy was eventually obtained even over the heart of Germany in daylight.

By far the most numerous model of B-17 was the last. The B-17G was the final result of bitterly won combat experience and among other changes it introduced a chin turret firing ahead with twin accurately aimed 0.5-in (12.7-mm) guns. Previously German fighters had brought down many B-17s with head-on attacks, but the B-17G, with the chin turret plus two more 0.5-in (12.7-mm) cheek guns (and possibly the dorsal turret) firing ahead was a tougher proposition. The B-17G had enclosed waist positions, much greater ammunition capacity and, like most B-17Fs, paddle-blade propellers to handle the greater weight and prevent too much deterioration in performance. Most B-17Gs had improved turbochargers which actually increased service ceiling to 35,000 ft, but these bombers were so heavy the cruising speed fell to 182 mph (293 km/h). This increased the time the gigantic formations were exposed to rocket and cannon attack by the German fighters conversely, of course, it lengthened the time the B-17 guns had to destroy those fighters.

Electronic Versions

Boeing built 4,035 B-17Gs. Douglas 2,395 and Vega 2,250, a total of 8,680. The total of all versions was 12,731, of which 12,677 were formally accepted by the USAAF. The B-17F was used by the RAF as the Fortress 11 and the B-17G as the Fortress 111, the main user being Coastal Command. Some were modified with a radar in place of the chin or ball turret, and for use against surfaced U-boats a 40-mm Vickers S gun was fitted in a nose mount. The B-1 7G was also the chief heavy carrier of special electronics for the RAF's No. 100 Group, Nos 214 and 223 Sqns being the pioneers of spoofing, decoy, jamming and intelligence missions with 19 distinct types of electronic or related device including the superpower emitters coded 'Jostle' and 'Piperack'. The only electronic device often carried by USAAF B-17s was the early H2X or Mickey Mouse radar used for bombing through cloud. This set's scanner was normally housed in a retractable radome under the nose or in place of the ball turret.


The ball turret, a retractable installation on the B-24 Liberator, was fixed on the B-17. Originally the B-17E had been fitted with a drum-type ventral turret aimed by a gunner in the fuselage, sighting via a periscope. This was soon replaced by the aptly named spherical ball-turret made by the Sperry company. The gunner had to climb into this and squat with his knees fully bent for perhaps five or six hours. A belly landing could flatten the ball-turret and its occupant, and there were many occasions when because of combat damage the turret doors jammed and a belly landing would have killed the ball-turret gunner. Normal procedure for a belly landing was to get the gunner out and then, using special tools, disconnect the whole turret from the aircraft and let it fall free. On one occasion a B-17 returned with severe combat damage and jammed landing gears, and near its home airfield it was found that the special tools were not on board. The executive officer of the station was notified by radio within minutes he had grabbed a set of tools and taken off. For more than two hours he circled in close formation with the stricken B-17 trying to pass the tools on the end of a cable. He succeeded.

In 1942 various special versions of B-17 were produced by Vega to serve as escort fighters. The first was the second Vega-built B-17F, which was rebuilt as an XB-40 with many armament changes including a second dorsal turret and a bomb bay full of ammunition. It was followed by 20 YB-40s with even heavier armament including quadruple gun mounts at nose and tail and a total of as many as 30 guns of up to 37- or 40-mm caliber! So heavy were these 'fighters' that they could not even keep formation with the B-17 bombers, and though they flew nine combat missions in 1943 they were judged unsuccessful.

In 1943 Boeing converted the ninth production B-17E to have liquid-cooled Allison engines of 1,425 hp each these naturally resulted in improved performance but it remained a one-off prototype (designated XB-38). Another unique machine was the plush XC-108 VIP transport which began life as a B-17E but was converted for General Douglas MacArthur, supreme commander in the Pacific, with a comfortable interior for 38 passengers. The XC-108A was a similar conversion but for cargo, with a large door on the left side. The YC-108 was a VIP conversion of a B-17F, and the XC-108B was a B-17F tanker which ferried fuel' over the hump' from India to China.

B - 17G

The B-17G was the most proliferate variant of the Flying Fortress, with 8,680 being built by the members of the B.V.D. pool - 4,035 by Boeing 2,395 by Douglas, and 2,250 by Lockheed Vega. Basically the B-17G was almost identical to the late B-17F. In fact, some of the early G models were re designated as Fs. The major distinguishing feature was the addition of the Bendix chin turret, although this feature was found on the last 86 Douglas-built B-17Fs. Many of the early Gs also retained the standard F model nose window configuration and armament. The bulged cheek windows were added beginning with the Douglas block-25, Vega block-35, and Boeing block-60 aircraft.

Various types of waist gun mounts and windows were used throughout the G series with the early G models retaining the side by side waist gun positions. However, beginning with the Boeing B-17G-50-BO, the waist gun positions were staggered so that the gunners would not interfere with each other during the heat of battle. The starboard waist gun position was moved forward three full fuselage frames. The .50 caliber machine guns were on K-6 gun mounts, and the window itself was now completely enclosed keeping the gunners warmer and more comfortable at combat altitudes. Finally, an all new tail turret design was developed by the United Air Lines Modification Center at Cheyenne, Wyoming. The new turret provided much greater gun elevation and included a completely redesigned gunners enclosure with much larger windows. The tail gunner now sighted through a reflector gun sight in place of using the ring and bead Enotype found on earlier B-17 tail gun installations. Known as the Cheyenne tail turret, it was installed on all B-17Gs beginning with the Douglas block-45, Vega block-55, and Boeing block-80.

The B-17G flew for the first time on 21 May 1943, with the first aircraft being delivered on 4 September 1943. On 29 July 1945, the last of the 8,680 B-17Gs rolled off the Vega assembly line. The British Royal Air Force received 85 Fortress Ills (B-17Gs), which were assigned to both Bomber Command and Coastal Command. Bomber Command's No. 100 Squadron used several highly modified Fortress Ills for night electronic warfare and pathfinder duties.

They had a large chin bubble that housed H2S Bombing Through Overcast (BTO) radar and were used as radar jamming aircraft to help defend the strike force against both German night fighters and anti- aircraft. This same BTO radar, sometimes referred to as 'Mickey Radar', was mounted in place of the ball turret on some Army Air Force B-17Gs. Coastal Command Fortress Ills had a search radar mounted in place of the ball turret and were used for anti-submarine patrol Duties.

Even the Luftwaffe used B-17Gs. Captured Fortresses were used by KG 200 for clandestine operations, transporting agents, dropping supplies behind allied lines, reconnaissance, and the training of fighter pilots in the weaknesses of the Flying Fortress.

The B-17G saw action in three wars after World War Two. The first mission of any type during the Korean War was flown by a SB-17G. The first missions flown over North Korea were flown by aerial mapping RB-17Gs flying from Clark Field, The Philippines. And Israel used three B-17Gs to conduct offensive bombing raids in the 1948 war. These raids were especially interesting since the planes had been delivered to Israel without bombsights or bomb racks. The Israeli crews sometimes dropped the ordnance manually. In the mid-1950s, a couple of all Black B-17Gs were used to drop agents into an obscure little country known as North Vietnam.

The early B-17G retained the nose window configuration of the early B-17F. All nose guns were deleted in favor of the new Bendix chin turret. Note the very unusual B-17F bombardier trainer in the background. (AFM)

Camouflage paint was discarded by Army Air Force in late 1943. The Vega-built block -25 B-17Gs were the first to roll off the assembly line in natural metal. Although combat crews were initially afraid of being singled out by Luftwaffe fighters, no significant increase in losses resulted from the natural me finish. Note the anti-g.lare panels on the inside of the engine nacelles. (AFM)

A strange wartime rebuild was the Aphrodite cruise missile conversion in which war-weary B-17Fs and B-17Gs were stripped of everything that could be removed and packed with 10 tons of Torpex, a British explosive with 50 per cent greater blasting power than Amatol. Under the project names 'Perilous' and 'Castor' many tests were made, the take-off being made by two pilots in an open cockpit who then baled out to leave the Fortress (official designation BQ17) under radio control from an accompanying aircraft such as a B-17 or PV-1. Though 11 combat launches were made on German targets the idea was judged rather too perilous after one BQ-7 had made a crater over 100 ft in diameter in England and another had broken radio link and orbited a British city before heading out to sea.

In 1944 British experience was used in converting B-17Gs into B-17H air/sea rescue aircraft with an airborne lifeboat and search radar post-war these were designated SB-17G. Other post-war variants included the CB-17 and VB-17 transports, TB-17 trainers, radio-guided QB-17 versions and DB-17 radio director aircraft. These soldiered on with the USAF after its formation in 1947, and also with various minor air forces. Many-others became civil airliners.

No history of the B-17 would be complete, however, without reference to its exciting cloak-and-dagger operations with I/KG 200, the clandestine Gruppe of the Luftwaffe whose story has only recently come into the open. The B-17, mainly the G model, was its most important captured type, used for numerous long-range missions under the cover designation Dornier Do 200. These machines carried out daring operations throughout Europe from Norway to Jordan and the Western Desert. They were not specifically intended to deceive the Allies, and wore German markings they were used just because they were better for the job than any German aircraft!

It is difficult to praise any Allied aircraft more highly. It is undoubtedly due to the B-17 that the Allies gained air supremacy in Europe towards the end of the war.

" I have been be playing around with Fiddler's Green's SB-17 lately. For those of you not familiar with this kit, it uses tabs and slots for the cockpit and upper crew area's attachment to the fuselage.
I have found that if I do not cut out the slots for the tabs completely, I get a more positive fit.
Instead of completely cutting open a slot, I cut first along the long edge that will be visible. Then I make the two shorter cuts at either end of the long one. Finally, I score the inner uncut edge and fold it down, away from the part's printed surface.

When I inserted the tab in the slot, the slot's folded inward area acts as a one way friction lock and holding the tab in place. Another, lessor feature of the small tab is that it also provides of a little more gluing surface."

"I pieced together the fuselage so that the splice is a larger panel under the top. And cut the two yellow, fold-up flaps to help in both gluing and disguising the separation line. In the photographs the white showing down in line is actually yellow."

These are photos of the B-17 on display at the Evergreen Air Museum, McMinnville, Oregon

Cockpit of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress. Bombardier's seat of the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

Specifications for the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

Crew: 10: Pilot, co-pilot, navigator,
bombardier/nose gunner,
flight engineer-top turret gunner,
radio operator, waist gunners (2),
ball turret gunner, tail gunner

Length: 74 ft 4 in
Wingspan: 103 ft 9 in
Height: 19 ft 1 in
Wing area: 1,420 ft²
Airfoil: NACA 0018 / NACA 0010
Aspect ratio: 7.57
Empty weight: 36,135 lb
Loaded weight: 54,000 lb
Max takeoff weight: 65,500 lb
Powerplant: 4× Wright R-1820-97 "Cyclone" turbosupercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp each


Optrede
Maximum speed: 287 mph
Cruise speed: 182 mph
Range: 2,000 mi with 6,000 lb bombload
Service ceiling: 35,600 ft
Rate of climb: 900 ft/min
Wing loading: 38.0 lb/ft²
Power/mass: 0.089 hp/lb


Bewapening
Guns: 13 × .50 cal M2 Browning machine guns in 4
turrets in dorsal, ventral, nose and tail, 2 in waist
positions, 2 beside cockpit and 1 in the lower dorsal
position


Bombs
Short range missions (<400 mi): 8,000 lb
Long range missions (&asymp800 mi): 4,500 lb
Overload : 17,600 lb


Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress

The Fortress was at first expected to meet a strike pilot specific issued by the U.s. Furnished energy Air Corps in 1934. The model, Boeing Model 299, first flew on July 28, 1935 and the first Y1b-17 of a creation appeal of thirteen was passed on to the Air Corps in March, 1937. In January, 1939 a test Y1b-17a fitted with turbo-supercharged engines was passed on to the Army Air Corps. Copying productive trials with this plane an appeal for 39 was set for this model under the task B-17b.

The B-17g was exhibited onto the Fortress creation line in July of 1943, and was sure to be conveyed in greater numbers than an alternate Fortress variety. The most speedily unmistakable improvement exhibited by the B-17g was the energy worked Bendix turret mounted in a jaw sort station underneath the nose. This turret was outfitted with two 0.50-inch programmed weapons. This stronghold had first been attempted in fight by the YB-40 and was found to be the principle achievable headway exhibited by the unsuccessful escort Fortress. A substitute improvement introduced by the G was having the waist weapons being for untouched encased behind windows rather than being mounted behind removable seals. This made the back fuselage to some degree less drafty. The cheek nose weapons displayed on the late B-17f were held, however were staggered so that the left gun was in the forward side window and the right weapon was in the inside side window, which turned around the positions used on the late Fs. The cheek weapon mounts swell to a degree outward into the airstream, which served to upgrade the forward viewpoint from the cheek gun positions. The forward jaw stronghold and the related cheek weapons were at first gone for on B-17f-115-BO 42-30631. At first, the Bendix turret was to be displayed on the Boeing creation line with F-135, however the movements were sufficient to help an alternate plan letter, and the F-135s became G-1.

The B-17g now had the defensive firepower of no short of what thirteen 0.50-inch programmed weapons: two jaw guns, two cheek weapons, two weapons in the dorsal turret, two guns in the ventral turret, two guns in the waist, two guns in the tail and one gun in the highest point of the radio executive's position. B-17gs were collected by every one of the three sections of the "B.v.d." era pool, with the Boeing packages stretching out from creation squares G-1 to G-110, the Douglas pieces set from -5 to -95, and the Lockheed-Vega pieces running from -1 to -110.

The B-17g entered organization with the Eighth and Fifteenth Air Forces in late 1943. Guise paint was deleted from era B-17gs starting in January of 1944. B-17gs were passed on in trademark metal finish the procedure of starting in (however not at the beginning) of era pieces G-35-BO (Boeing), G-20-VE (Lockheed-Vega), and G-35-DL (Douglas-Long Beach). The affirmed "Cheyenne" tail gun mounting conformities were joined in the B-17g-80-BO, -45-DL, -35-VE and subsequent bunches. These tail weapon mountings also had a reflector gunsight as opposed to the past ring and dab. With this station, these B-17gs were five inches shorter than the former variations. On later creation versions, it was found imperative to astound the waist gun positions so that the two substantial deadly implement masters would not get in each other's way. On the last creation bundles (B-17g-105 and -110-BO, B-17g-75 to -85-DL, and B-17g-85 to -110-VE), the radio compartment gun was not presented. The ammunition furthest reaches of the waist guns was extended to 600 rpg. Exactly when creation finished in 1945, a total of 4035 B-17gs had been produced by Boeing, 2395 by Douglas and 2250 by Lockheed-Vega. The last Boeing-fabricated B-17g was passed on April 13, 1945. B-17g-1-VE 42-38940 was redesignated XB-17g when doled out to test work. It was not a model.


[2.5] POSTWAR FORTRESSES / VARIANT SUMMARY

* After the end of World War II, most of the Fortresses were scrapped, but a good number continued to fly in various roles. The Israelis managed to get their hands on three unarmed B-17s and used them in the war of independence in 1948 machine-gun mounts were improvised, and an artillery sight was fitted into the nose. They performed a number of raids during that year, with whatever bombs the Israelis could scrape up. These were the last shots fired in anger by the Fortress.

A number of Fortresses were converted to military transports in the postwar period and designated "CB-17". Some of these were fitted luxuriously and used as VIP transports, under the designation "VB-17". Fortresses used for training were designated "TB-17", and those assigned to weather reconnaissance were designated "WB-17".

The US Navy PB-1W early-warning variant has already been mentioned, as has the B-17H / SB-17G air-sea rescue aircraft. The SB-17G served well into the 1950s. Brazil and Portugal both operated SB-17G variants in the postwar years Chile operated a few B-17Gs for search and rescue duties, while Dominica and Bolivia each had a handful of B-17Gs that were configured as bombers, but used for a variety of duties.

Although the BQ-7 flying bomb drone had been entirely unsuccessful, after the war Fortresses were modified as radio-controlled drones, with the designation "QB-17G". A number of other Fortresses were modified as manned "DB-17G" drone directors. The QB-17G was far more satisfactory than the BQ-7, and was used to collect atmospheric samples from the nuclear-bomb test at Eniwetok Atoll in July 1946, as well at later weapons tests into the early 1950s. The QB-17Gs also served as aerial targets through the 1950s, with the last of these drones shot down in 1959.

Echoing the experience of the Luftwaffe's KG 200 during the war, in the 1950s the CIA operated a number of unarmed black-painted B-17s over Indochina and, through the assistance of the Nationalist Chinese, mainland China. Little is known about their missions, but they were likely used for agent drops and intelligence-gathering.

Fortresses were also used for a variety of test programs, such as launch platforms for early missiles such as the "JB-2 Loon", which was a US-built V-1 "buzz bomb". Three B-17Gs were modified to be used as engine test platforms, with a piston or turboprop engine fitted into the nose the B-17's cyclones were retained. Engines tested included the Pratt & Whitney XT-34 turboprop, which provided 4,100 kW (5,500 SHP), and the Wright XT-35 turboprop, which provided 3,730 kW (5,000 SHP). These engines were powerful enough to keep the B-17 flying with all other engines shut down and their propellers feathered. The XT-34 was so big that the B-17's cockpit had to be relocated back on the fuselage to accommodate it.


* B-17s were also popular in purely civilian roles after the war. TWA operated one as an executive transport in the immediate postwar years, and many were modified as fire-bombers and pesticide sprayers. One fire-bomber was actually fitted with four Rolls-Royce Dart turboprops in place of the Cyclone radials in 1970, giving it an excess of power, though it had a short career before it was lost in a crash.

The increasing cost of spares and maintenance finally ended the service of the B-17 in these roles in the 1980s, but enough Fortresses survived to make them a reasonably common warbird. Many were restored to their armed configuration, and roughly a dozen are flying. These include the Confederate Air Force's SENTIMENTAL JOURNEY and TEXAS RAIDER, the Lone Star Air Museum's pristine THUNDERBIRD, the EAA's ALUMINUM OVERCAST, and others such as MISS ANGELA, SALLY B, CHUCKIE, NINE-O-NINE, FUDDY DUDDY, SHADY LADY, and MEMPHIS BELLE. While some of these aircraft have the names of famous Fortresses, very few of these survivors actually saw combat. Work continues on restoring more old Fortresses to their wartime glory.


* The following list gives B-17 production totals:

Fortresses passed on to Britain included:

Fortress conversions included:


History of the Boeing B-17G 'The Movie Memphis Belle'

We are thrilled to be welcoming ‘The Movie Memphis Belle’ B-17 to the 2019 Audi Stuart Air Show. Not only will you be able to tour this aircraft, but you will also be able to experience a once-in-a-lifetime opportunity to take a ride in it! Repo Man, Mike Kennedy of Discovery Channel’s Airplane Repo, will be flying Second-In-Command for the National Warplane Museum.

Learn more about this aircraft’s amazing history:

The B-17G "The Movie Memphis Belle" has had a long and interesting history since it came off the assembly line in 1944. 44-83546-A was delivered to the USAAF on 1/4/45 in Topeka, Kansas.

From 1945 to 1954 it served first as a CB-17G transporting cargo and troops. It later was redesignated as a VB-17G (VIP Transport) at Kodiak, Alaska, converted and assigned to Maj Gen Glenn O. Barcus, CO Fighter Command 5AF in Korea.

From October 1954 to 1959 it was stored at Davis-Monthan AFB in Tucson, AZ. On July 31, 1959 it was taken out of military service and registered to National Metals Company in Phoenix, Az as N3703G. From September 11, 1959 to 1967, it was registered to Edgar A. Neely/Fast-Way Air Service, Long Beach, CA. Converted to a fire tanker in July, 1960 and flown as #E75 (Later #E78).

From April 25, 1967 to 1982 it was registered to TBM Inc, Tulare, CA and flown as #E78 (Later #E68).

In September 1982 it was bought by David Tallichet/MARC (Military Aircraft Restoration Corp) in Chino, CA and was flown in camoflage as 23060/LN-T. It is still owned by the Tallichet family.

Dave Tallichet was a co-pilot for the 100th BG in WWII flying B-17F's. He loved the F model so much that in 1988-1989 he had the B-17 converted to an F model by removing the G model chin turret and replacing it with an F model nose. He also converted the G model "staggered" waist gun positions to the F model "back to back" positions of the F model. He also changed the larger G model Cheyenne tail gun postion to the smaller F model Stinger tail gun as well as modifications to the rudder.

In 1989, his niece Catheryn Wyler (daughter of William Wyler who did the original 1944 Memphis Belle documentary), came to uncle Dave to use the B-17 as the star of the 1990 movie "Memphis Belle" which she was a producer. It flew in the movie as Memphis Belle, 124485 arriving in Duxford, UK, June 20, 1989.

After the movie it returned to the US and continues to fly as the "Movie Memphis Belle". It was damaged in a taxi accident in Fayetteville, NC and repaired on November 3, 1995.

It was flown around the country to airshows and events by Dave Tallichet until his death October 31, 2007.

In 2013 it was loaned to the Liberty Foundation who operated the aircraft at airshows until 2017. It was then loaned to the National Warplane Museum/1941 Historic Aircraft Group in Genseo, NY who still operate it today.

Get your 2019 Audi Stuart Air Show tickets now at our special pre-order price. The B-17, “The Movie Memphis Belle” will be positioned for static tours after morning rides are complete.


A good technician knows a lot about the machine, the engines and the arming like in his vest pocket. He is for the complete technical equipment and therefore also responsible for the lives of all crew members in the machine. He also must be a good gunner.

The B-17 was developed as a well protected machine-gun platform. The performances of the gunners determine all the effectiveness of the B-17. Gunners must know the firing ranges of your weapons and her fast and for certain visors be able to. The gunners should master be and know of opposing machines in the reconnaissance, machine-guns work like yours. In addition, you must be able to take advantage of the visor facilities correctly. Good guners should be able to deal with all other positions in the machine.


The Evolution Of B-17 From A To G

In ten years from its first flight in 1935, 12,732 mighty B-17s were produced, and during its production years, B-17 went through several developments, and each stage was marked by an alphabetical from A to G. From all the features that it had, the most notable one was the Norden Bombsight, which was a gyroscopically stabilized telescopic sight connected to an electromechanical computer. The bombardier fed altitude, atmospheric conditions, airspeed, ground speed, and drift inputs to the computer, and during the bomb run, the computer-guided the autopilot to the precise release point.

The first B-17A was no different from the prototype YB-17 in terms of design except for some added enhancements added to the engines. An experimental quartet of General Electric turbo-superchargers was fitted to the engines, which worked perfectly and later became standard in the entire B-17 line.

But as the demand for the planes intensified, Boeing's engineers felt the need to enhance B-17's performance and firepower. To improve its performance at slower speeds, the B-17 was equipped with larger rudders and flaps. This version was christened as B-17B, and a total of 39 were inducted into service. B-17C retained the prevailing design, but alterations were made in its gun positions. The three bulged, oval-shaped gun blisters were replaced by two flush, oval-shaped gun windows, and a single gun gondola housing was added on the lower fuselage.

Though powerful enough, these models were still vulnerable to enemy attacks, particularly raiding fighters. So, a more offensive nature was needed at the same time bolstering its defensive capabilities. To meet the requirements, extensive modifications were done that took the shape of B-17E. The aircraft's fuselage was extended by 10ft to accommodate more gun positions, and to handle that, increased weight, vertical tailfin, rudder, and horizontal stabilizers were added.

The end part of the tail was redesigned as a gunner's position, followed by two manned electrically powered gun turrets, one behind the cockpit and another ball turret near the bomb bay. Each turret was equipped with a pair of '.50' caliber machine guns, and the aircraft could carry 4,000 pounds of bomb load.

The following variant was B-17F, but the most upgraded was the B-17G. It entered production in 1943 armed with no less than thirteen '.50' caliber machine guns. It was literally a bunch of machine guns flying on four engines with 8000 pounds of bomb load.


B-17 Yankee Lady

B-17, also called the Flying Fortress, was a U.S. heavy bomber used during World War II. The B-17 was designed by the Boeing Aircraft Company in response to a 1934 Army Air Corps specification that called for a four-engined bomber at a time when two engines were the norm.

Registration: 44-85829
Wingspan: 103&prime 9&Prime
Empty Weight: 36,135 lb
Gross Weight: 65.500 lbs
Max Speed: 287 mph

Cruise Speed: 160 mph
Powerpant: 4 × Wright R-1820-97 &ldquoCyclone&rdquo turbosupercharged radial engines, 1,200 hp
Range: 2,000 mi
Number Built: 12,731
Housed: Yankee Air Museum

Did you know: In the Pacific, the aircraft earned a deadly reputation with the Japanese, who dubbed them the &ldquofour engine fighters.&rdquo The Flying Fortress was also legendary for their ability to stay in the air after several damaging attacks.

(information credit: yankeeairmuseum.org)

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Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress Yankee Lady

The Boeing B-17G served with the U.S. Army&rsquos Air Force based in England during World War II. It is best remembered for its dangerous daylight-bombing missions over Germany. Defensive armament consisted of twelve .50 caliber machine guns, eight of which were mounted in pairs in the chin, top, ball, and Cheyenne tail turrets. A single gun was installed in both the left and right cheek positions located in the nose ahead of the cockpit. The left and right waist sections were permanently closed, which kept the interior warmer and eliminated the wind blasts. Early B-17s included a single radio compartment gun that projected out of the top which proved to be largely ineffective and was eliminated from later models.

Our aircraft is a Boeing B-17G-110-VE, USAAF serial number 44-85829. The aircraft was built by the Vega Division of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation at Burbank, California. It was delivered to the USAAF on July 16, 1945. It later made its way to Dallas, TX for modifications, and in September of 1945, was placed in storage at South Plains Field, TX along with other B-17s. Our aircraft did not see combat during World War II. As a late &ldquoG&rdquo model, the aircraft was delivered with a natural metal finish.

In 1946, it was one of the sixteen Flying Fortresses that were transferred to the U.S. Coast Guard where they were redesigned as PB-1Gs. &ldquoP&rdquo signified Patrol, &ldquoB&rdquo denoted the design by Boeing, &ldquo-1&rdquo for the first model type, and the &ldquoG&rdquo stood for Coast Guard. All of the guns and turrets were removed, and a radar dome was installed in the position formerly occupied by the chin turret. It was used for air-sea rescue missions and iceberg patrol out of Argentia, Newfoundland, Elizabeth, North Carolina, and California. Once the modifications were complete, the aircraft became PB-1G serial number 77255. At one time, it carried a 27-foot, 3,300-pound air-droppable wooden lifeboat under the fuselage for rescuing people stranded at sea. The aircraft retired from U.S.C.G in 1958.

On May 11, 1959, the airplane was sold to Ace Smelting, Inc. for $5,997.93 where it was assigned to civil registration N3193G. In 1966, Aircraft Specialties, Inc. in Mesa, Arizona purchased the aircraft. They used numerous B-17s as air tankers to fight forest fires and apply pesticides to crops and trees. During 1969, it was one of five B-17s flown to Hawaii for the filming of the movie &ldquoTora, Tora, Tora.&rdquo

In 1985, Globe Air (the successor company to Aircraft Specialties) auctioned off several aircraft including our B-17. . The Yankee Air Museum purchased the aircraft in June 1986 for $250,000. The Museum flew the B-17G to Michigan from Arizona on July 2, 1986 where it was grounded for nine years.


Kyk die video: COBI 5703 Boeing B-17G Flying Fortress - Speed Build Review