Slag van Sacriportus, 82 v.C.

Slag van Sacriportus, 82 v.C.

Slag van Sacriportus, 82 v.C.

Die slag van Sacriportus (82 v.C.) was 'n belangrike slag van Sulla se Tweede Burgeroorlog en het hom die leër van die konsul Marius die Jongere verslaan. In die nadraai word Marius in Praeneste beleër, terwyl Sulla sonder 'n geveg Rome kon inneem.

Aan die begin van die veldtog van 82 v.C. het albei kante hul leërs verdeel. Sulla het Metellus Pius en Pompeius gestuur om veldtogte in die noorde te voer, waar die Mariane sterk steun in die Galliese Cisalpyn gehad het. Sulla self het van Campania noord gevorder om Rome aan te val.

Die konsuls vir 82 vC het ook geskei, met Gnaeus Papirius Carbo noordwaarts, terwyl Marius die Jongere, seun van die groot generaal Gaius Marius, suidwaarts verhuis het om Sulla te hanteer.

Baie min besonderhede oor Sulla se vordering in die noorde het oorleef, maar hy moes 'n mate van weerstand ondervind het. Ons ontmoet hom die eerste keer dat hy Setia (Sezze) aanval, 'n stad aan die rand van die berge wat grens aan die Pontine -moerasse, ongeveer 40 kilometer suid van Rome. Marius vorder suidwaarts om die stad te probeer red, en het naby daar kamp opgeslaan toe dit geval het. Hy het noordwaarts teruggetrek, oor die heuwels, na Signia (moderne Segni), 21 kilometer noord. Sulla het hom agternagesit, en die twee kante het by Sacriportus gebots. Ongelukkig weet ons nie presies waar dit was nie, maar uit die konteks was dit waarskynlik iewers tussen Signia en Praeneste, nog twintig kilometer noordwes van Signia.

Plutarchus verskaf die meeste besonderhede van die geveg. Hy vind dit by Signia en gee vir Marius vyf-en-tagtig kohorte (net meer as 40 000 man). Sulla het 'n droom gehad waarin hy sien hoe die ouer Marius sy seun die volgende dag maan om nie te veg nie, en was vasbeslote om op die dag te veg. Sy leër is egter in twee verdeel, met 'n afdeling onder Dolabella (vader van die Dolabella van Caesar se era). Sulla het probeer om Dolabella te ontbied om by hom aan te sluit, maar Marius versper die paaie. Sulla se manne het probeer om deur te kom, maar 'n kombinasie van hewige weerstand en swaar reën het hulle verwoes. Sulla se militêre tribunes het na hom gekom en hom gevra om die geveg tot die volgende dag uit te stel, aangesien die troepe uitgeput was. Sulla stem teësinnig in en beveel sy manne om kamp op te slaan.

Marius het probeer om dit te benut deur aan te val terwyl Sulla se manne die sloot buite die kamp gegrawe het. Alhoewel hy nie so suksesvol was soos sy pa nie, het die jonger Marius nie moed ontbreek nie, en by hierdie geleentheid het Plutarchus hom van voor gelei (Plutarchus noem ook dat sommige skrywers beweer het dat hy eintlik deur die geveg geslaap het. Sulla was woedend oor hierdie aanval, en sy troepe het sy woede opgetel en dit gebruik om hul weerstand te inspireer.Na 'n kort tydperk van nabye gevegte, het Marius se manne gebreek en gevlug, met groot ongevalle gely.

Appian gee baie min besonderhede oor die verloop van die geveg, maar dra by tot ons kennis van die einde daarvan. Marius se linkervleuel begin meegee. Vyf kohorte infanterie en twee kohorte kavallerie het besluit om na Sulla te vertrek, en dit het 'n meer algemene ineenstorting van Marius se lyn veroorsaak.

Beide bronne is dit eens dat Marius na Praeneste gevlug het. Die eerste toevlugsoorde is die stad ingelaat, maar die hekke is gesluit voordat Marius daar aankom, en hy moes teen 'n tou (of in 'n mandjie) teen die mure opgetrek word.

Plutarchus berig dat Sulla beweer dat hy 20 000 van Marius se mans doodgemaak en 8 000 gevangenes geneem het, terwyl hy slegs 23 mans self verloor het. Appian berig dat daar meer gevegte rondom die mure van Praeneste was, waarin meer van Marius se mans dood is. Onder die gevangenes was 'n groot aantal Samniete wat die Marian-saak ondersteun het sedert Sulla se Eerste Burgeroorlog (88-87 vC). Sulla het al die Samniete laat doodmaak, iets wat hy sou herhaal na die slag van die Colline -hek later in die jaar.

Die beleg van Praeneste het die res van die oorlog geduur. Carbo het verskeie pogings aangewend om die beleg op te hef, wat elkeen misluk het. Sy Samnitiese bondgenote het ook probeer om deur Sulla se beleëringslyne te breek, weer sonder sukses. Teen die einde van die oorlog het die belangrikste Mariane leiers in ballingskap gevlug, en die Samniete het besluit om hul pogings om Marius te help laat vaar en het Rome eerder aangeval. Hulle is verslaan na hewige gevegte buite die Colline -hek, en in die nasleep van hierdie nederlaag het die verdedigers van Praeneste uiteindelik tou opgegooi. Marius het selfmoord gepleeg voordat hy gevang kon word.


Slag van Sacriportus, 82 v.C. - Geskiedenis

Deur Peter L. Boorn

Toe Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix goewerneur van Cilicië was in 95 v.C., ontvang hy 'n ambassade van die Partiërs. “Een van die ambassadeurs, 'n Chaldeuse waarsêer, het Sulla lank en aandagtig bestudeer en uiteindelik uitgeroep: 'Hierdie man moet noodwendig die grootste ter wêreld word', 'skryf die Griekse historikus Plutarch. Hierdie voorspelling het 'n diepgaande uitwerking op Sulla, wat reeds oortuig was dat sy eie nagdrome 'n getroue gids was vir 'n steeds groter wordende lot. Sewentien jaar later, net twee dae voor sy dood, het Sulla in sy herinneringe opgemerk dat die Chaldeër ook geprofeteer het dat die Romeinse goewerneur op die hoogtepunt van sy geluk sou sterf.

Sulla is gebore uit 'n edele, maar arm gesin in 138 v.C. Tot hy 31 jaar oud was, het hy 'n lewe van losbandige lewe beleef, goedkoop verblyf in Rome gehuur en altyd dronk saam met akteurs, musikante, dansers en strokiesprente gesels. Sy ondeugdes het by hom gebly totdat hy gesterf het. Plutarchus, wat 'n Romeinse burger geword het, gee 'n lewendige fisiese beskrywing en beklemtoon Sulla se skok van goue hare, sy fel blougrys oë en 'n gesig wat bedek was met growwe rooi vlekke teen 'n ligte wit vel.

'N Borsbeeld van Lucius
Cornelius Sulla Felix

Die eerste keer dat Sulla se lot verander het, kom in 107 v.C. toe hy twee fortuine vinnig agtereenvolgens erf. Die een was afkomstig van 'n ouerige minnares en die ander van 'n stiefma wat hom aanbid het. Gewapen met hierdie lewensbloed van politiek, het Sulla 'n laat loopbaan in die senaat begin. In 107 v.C. word hy quaestor van die belangrikste generaal van Rome, Gaius Marius.

Destyds was Rome in oorlog met die Berber -koning, Jugurtha van Numidia, in die huidige noordelike Algerië. Romeine het die oorlog, wat in 112 v.C. begin het, verslaan. Dit was omdat Jugurtha nie net aansienlike kennis van Romeinse taktiek, organisasie en dissipline opgedoen het as huursoldaat -kavalleriebevelvoerder onder die Romeine in Spanje nie, maar ook omdat hy voordeel getrek het uit die feit dat iemand in Rome omgekoop kon word.

Toe 'n leër Numidia omstreeks 110 v.C. binnegeval het, het Jugurtha verskeie hoofmanne omkoop om die stryd te werp. Die Berber -koning verslaan toe die leër in die geveg met sy ligte kavallerie.

Toe 'n gefrustreerde Rome Marius die opperbevel gee, het Jugurtha kragte saamgesnoer met sy skoonvader, Bocchus, die koning van Mauretanië, in die huidige Marokko. Toe Sulla in Afrika aankom met 'n formidabele aanvulling van kavalerie, was hy onervare en gedissiplineerd in die kuns van oorlog, het die Romeinse historikus Gaius Sallustius Crispus, bekend as Sallust, opgemerk. "Alhoewel hy sonder vorige ervaring was en onopgelei in die oorlog was, het [hy] gou die beste soldaat in die hele leër geword," het Sallust geskryf.

Sulla het sy hedonistiese maniere 'n tyd lank opsy gesit en volgens Sallust 'n baie praktiese konsentrasie aangeneem. Tog het Sulla se vieslike verlede ook tot sy voordeel gewerk, omdat hy met die gewone soldate kon skakel. Hy het ernstig of grappig met hulle gepraat soos die omstandighede dit vereis het. Hy het dit gedoen, hetsy in die werke, op wag of op optog.

Marius verslaan Jugurtha in verskeie klein gevegte. Die nederlae het Jugurtha genoop om guerrillataktieke te gebruik, wat die Romeine, wat 'n finale oorwinning nodig gehad het, diep gefrustreer het. Om die situasie verder te kompliseer, het Jugurtha uit Numidia gevlug om by Bocchus in Mauretanië skuiling te soek.

Die Romeine het 'n vinnige oplossing van die konflik nodig om 'n groot bedreiging uit die noorde die hoof te bied. Die Kimbriese oorlog, wat in 113 v.C. begin het, was die eerste keer dat Italië en die stad Rome bedreig is sedert die Tweede Puniese Oorlog. Namate die oorlog vorder, het die benadering van die Cimbri en Teutones die noordelike front van Rome onder geweldige druk geplaas. Hierdie twee Germaanse stamme, wat oorspronklik uit Jutland afkomstig was, het ongeveer 500 000 mense getel.

Op daardie stadium het Sulla 'n waaghalsige plan voorgestel. Met groot risiko vir homself, het Sulla aangebied om met Bocchus te onderhandel vir die oorgawe van Jugurtha in ruil vir die westelike deel van laasgenoemde se domein. Bocchus het gedebatteer of hy Sulla aan Jugurtha moet oorgee, maar uiteindelik het die Romeinse buitengewone geluk die oorhand gekry. Jugurtha is in kettings na Marius gelei. Hy is daarna na Rome gebring waar hy in triomf geparadeer is. Hy is daarna in 'n put onder die Tullianum in Rome geplaas, waar hy in 104 vC aan hongersnood gesterf het.

Die vaslegging van Jugurtha was die begin van 'n uitval tussen Sulla en Marius, wat albei uiters ambisieus was. Alhoewel Marius amptelike erkenning en 'n triomf gekry het vir die beëindiging van die oorlog, was dit algemeen bekend dat Sulla die konflik opgelos het. 'N Periode -muntstuk toon hoe Jugurtha in kettings kniel voor Sulla, wat op 'n verhoogde sitplek is. Terwyl Sulla oor Jugurtha doem, bied Bocchus vir hom 'n olyftak.

Op daardie stadium in Rome was die mense in paniek omdat die Cimbri en Teutones onstuitbaar gelyk het. Marius het die opperbevel oor die Romeinse magte gekry, en hy het as sy medekonsul Quintus Lutatius Catulus gekies. Marius het Catalus meer gekies vir sy buigbaarheid as wat sy militêre vaardighede vir Catalus 'n reputasie as 'n swak generaal gehad het. Marius se leër het die Teutones in die skadu gestel, en Catulus se leër het die Cimbri waargeneem. Sulla was aanvanklik as nalatenskap van Marius, maar hy het vinnig besef dat sy onafhanklike bevel deur sy jaloerse bevelvoerder nagegaan sou word. Om hierdie rede het Sulla gereël om na die leër van Catulus oorgeplaas te word.

Quaestor Sulla het 'n ooreenkoms met koning Bocchus van Mauretanië beding waarin die Romeine die gevange Berber -koning Jugurtha ontvang het, 'n lastige vyand wat guerrilla -oorlog teen die Romeine gevoer het.

Marius vernietig die Teutones in die Slag van Aquae Sextiae in 102 v.C. Marius en Catalus het kragte saamgesnoer om die Cimbri op 30 Julie 101, naby die nedersetting Vercellae in Cisalpine Gallië, te konfronteer. By Vercellae beveel Marius die linkervleuel, Catalus in die middel en Sulla regs. Sulla se vleuel was saamgestel uit beide Romeinse en geallieerde kavallerie.

Die weerkaatsing van die opkomende son op die see van Romeinse wapenrusting was so oorweldigend dat die Cimbri geglo het die lug brand. Terwyl hulle opgewonde staan, het 'n groot stofwolk hul leër omhul, sowel as dié van die Romeinse linker- en middelpunt. Die Cimbri -kavallerie huiwer, waarna Sulla hulle aankla en stuur. Die vlugtende Cimbri -kavallerie het daarna die dig verpakte Cimbri -infanterie ontwrig. Die Romeinse infanterie beland toe in die wanordelike vyandelike infanterie en kap dit stukkend. Die twee oorwinnings het die bedreiging van die Germaanse stamme verwyder.

Weer het Marius die eer van 'n triomf ontvang. Tog was dit vir baie duidelik dat die grondslag vir die oorwinning op Vercellae die meesterlike vertoning van Sulla en sy goed geleide kavallerie was.

Destyds het daar in Rome twee kragtige politieke faksies bestaan: die Populares en die Optimates. Eersgenoemde het op die steun van die plebeiërs staatgemaak, terwyl laasgenoemde sy mag ontleen het aan die welvarende koukus wat die senaat oorheers het. Marius het sy lot by die Populares ingegee, en deur omkopery, onluste en sluipmoorde is hy 'n ongekende sesde keer in 101 vC verkies.

Wat Sulla betref, word hy goewerneur van Silisië in 96 v.C. Terwyl hy in die hoedanigheid dien, het hy 'n verkenning van krag deur die koning van Armenië afgeweer. Toe hy in 92 v.C. na Rome terugkeer, het Sulla by die Optimates aangesluit.

Marius, wat 'n veel minder bekwame politikus as 'n soldaat was, kon tydens sy sesde konsulsskap albei faksies beledig. Tydens 'n staatsgreep in 99 v.C. is drie konsulêre kandidate vermoor en wydverspreide onluste ontstaan. In reaksie hierop het die Senaat die Senatus consultum ultimum uitgereik, 'n dekreet wat die aanstelling van 'n diktator vir 'n kort termyn moontlik maak om 'n noodgeval op te los. Dit het Marius die mag gegee wat hy nodig gehad het om die opstand te onderdruk.

Omdat hy besef dat sy politieke posisie onhoudbaar was in die nadraai van die opstand, het Marius vrywillige ballingskap onderneem. Hy reis na die ooste en verklaar dat hy 'n gelofte wil nakom wat hy aan die godin Bona Dea afgelê het, volgens Plutarchus.

Op daardie stadium vloei die gety van politieke fortuin ten gunste van die Optimates. Maar teen 91 v.C. het die Populares volkome beheer oor die howe gekry en 'n welgestelde politikus, Marcus Livius Drusus, as tribune aangestel. By sy aanstelling het Drusus burgerskap uitgebrei na die hele Italiaanse bevolking. Die senaat het hierdie wetgewing onmiddellik nietig verklaar en saamgesweer om Drusus te laat vermoor.

Sulla se legioenen veg teen die Mariane in Rome tydens die eerste burgeroorlog van Sulla. Aan die begin van sy reis na die ooste om oorlog te voer teen Mithridates van Pontus, het konsul Sulla teruggekeer na Rome om versteurings met geweld te onderdruk.

Toe die Italianers die nuus hoor, het hulle 'besluit om heeltemal van die Romeine op te staan ​​en met alle mag teen hulle oorlog te voer', volgens die Griekse historikus Appian. So begin die sosiale oorlog van 91-88 v.C., wat veroorsaak is deur 'n wrok onder Rome se bondgenote wat gegrief was omdat hulle burgerskap geweier is, alhoewel hulle bloed vir die republiek vergiet het.

Die Italianers het 100 000 troepe ingesamel en die mededingende staat Italia gestig. Beide kante het leërs opgestel wat feitlik identies was. Op 'n stadium het Rome gevaarlik naby aan 'n nederlaag gekom. Terwyl sy magte uitgeput was, was Rome genoodsaak om slawe op te skort om sy leërs aan te vul.

Sulla het 'n suksesvolle veldtog in die suide van Italië gelei wat vyandelike vestings oorweldig het en die magte wat teen hom gestuur is, verslaan en hom in glorie bedek het. Intussen het ander Romeinse magte die situasie in die noorde gestabiliseer.

Een van Sulla se belangrikste oorwinnings het plaasgevind in Nola, net oos van Napels, waar hy 'n leër van Samniete en Galliese hulpe verslaan het. Daarna het hy 'n suksesvolle agtervolging uitgevoer waarin sy magte 3 000 van die vyand doodgemaak het.

Die garnisoen van Napels was slegs bereid om een ​​hek oop te maak vir die terugtrekkende rebelle in 'n poging om die kans te verminder dat Sulla se troepe, wat hul hakke fyn gevolg het, agter die vlugtelinge kon inloop. Dit het Sulla se troepe in staat gestel om nog 20 000 vyandelike troepe buite die stadsmure te slag.

Na sy oorwinning op Nola, word Sulla bekroon met die Graskroon, die hoogste versiering wat Rome aan 'n generaal geskenk het. Die Graskroon is gegee aan 'n bevelvoerder wat 'n leër gered het wat gevaar loop om gevange geneem of vernietig te word. Slegs sewe ander individue het die Graskroon ontvang in die hele geskiedenis van die republiek van 482 jaar.

Terwyl die opstand besig was om af te neem, het Mithridates IV "The Great" van Pontus in Klein -Asië die geleentheid gebruik om die kliëntstate van Rome binne te val. Tot vreugde van die gewone mense het Mithridates duisende belastingbetalers en geldleners vermoor. Nadat die Romeine uit Klein -Asië verwyder is, het Pontiese magte na Griekeland gevorder.

Die Romeinse senaat het Sulla toevertrou om die oorlog teen Mithridates te vervolg, maar Marius ontspoor die planne. Marius het in 88 vC met 'n leër uit Afrika teruggekeer en Rome binnegegaan. Om bevel in die ooste te verkry, het Marius omkoopgeld aangewend. Dit het Sulla se eerste burgeroorlog aangeraak.

Sulla het daarna bevele ontvang om die bevel aan Marius af te staan. Op daardie stadium het die Mariaanse hervormings egter 'n terugslag op hul vervaardiger gekry. Sulla het nie net geweier nie, maar hy het 'n optrede onderneem wat so vermetel was dat almal behalwe een van sy senior bevelvoerders geweier het om by hom aan te sluit. Sulla, vol vertroue in die lojaliteit van sy troepe, het sy ses legioene na Rome teruggedraai. Geen ander Romeinse bevelvoerder het dit ooit gewaag nie.

Sulla keer ook terug na Rome in 88 v.C. Hy het chaos en wanorde ondervind, maar daar was geen bakleiery nie. Marius, wat weggekruip het, is tot vyand van die mense verklaar. Sulla was so gretig om sy diplomatieke sake met Mithridates af te handel dat hy as konsul L. Cornelius Cinna, van wie hy agterdogtig was, aangestel het om die oorlog voort te sit sodat hy na Griekeland kon terugkeer.

Op daardie stadium het Marius uit sy skuilplek gekom, 'n leër van slawe opgerig en met Cinna saamgewerk om Rome te verower. Die senaat het die bevel om Marius, wat sy troepe op die stad laat draai het, omgedraai. Rome het vyf dae lank 'n skrikbewind beleef.

Toe Cinna en Marius hulself as mede-konsuls verklaar het in 86 v.C., was dit Sulla se beurt om buite die wet te wees. Daar is beslag gelê op sy eiendom en sy gesin het vir hul lewens gevlug. Dit was die laaste daad van die 70-jarige Marius, wat 17 dae na sy sewende konsulsskap in sy bed aan natuurlike oorsake gesterf het.

Nadat hy na Griekeland teruggekeer het, het Sulla weer sy aandag daarop gevestig om Mithridates te verslaan. Hy vorder na Boeotia en verslaan twee van Mithridates se generaals. Daarna beleër en ontslaan Athene. Daarna het hy 'n ander Pontiese leër in Chaeronea in 86 vC oorwin. Die jaar daarna het Sulla nog 'n Pontiese leër by Orchomenus verpletter. Aangesien Griekeland verloor het, het Mithridates in 85 vC vir vrede gedagvaar.

Nadat die orde in die ooste herstel is, het Sulla 'n brief aan die dienspligtig vaders opgestel waarin hulle ingelig is dat hy binnekort na Rome sou terugkeer om diegene wat teen hom opgetree het, te straf, maar dat diegene wat onskuldig was, geen rede gehad het om bang te wees nie.

Sulla het die opstandige Mariane by Rome se Colline -poort in Sulla se tweede burgeroorlog verpletter. Nadat Marcus Licinius Crassus die flank van die Marians getref het, het Sulla 'n verwoestende aanval geloods wat die vyand weggevee het.

'N Senaat het probeer onderhandel, maar Cinna en sy kollega C. Papirius Carbo het voorbereid op oorlog. In die lente van 84 v.C. het Cinna probeer om sy leër na Griekeland te begin, maar sy soldate het hom vermink en vermoor. In 83 v.C. het Sulla die Adriatiese See oorgesteek vanaf Patrae in Wes -Griekeland en by Brundisium geland. Alhoewel die pad na Rome oop was, het Sulla besluit om sy posisie te konsolideer en ekstra troepe in te samel.

Die konsuls vir 82 v.C. was Carbo en die 26-jarige seun van Marius, bekend as Marius die Jongere. Tussen hulle het hulle 'n groot aantal troepe bymekaargemaak om die sogenaamde Sulla se Tweede Burgeroorlog te vervolg.

Sulla het Marius die Jongere in die Slag van Sacriportus gelei. Die jeugdige bevelvoerder het homself uiteindelik doodgemaak. Nadat hy Rome verseker het, marsjeer Sulla noordwaarts waar hy Gnaeus Papirius Carbo in die geveg by Clusium ontmoet. Clusium was 'n besluitlose saak, maar daarna het Carbo se manne gedemoraliseer. As gevolg hiervan het Carbo self moed verloor. Hy het sy mans aan hul eie lot oorgelaat en na Sicilië gevlug waar hy later vermoor is.

Die verhoog was nou gereed vir die laaste daad van Sulla se Tweede Burgeroorlog. 'N Groot leër van Samniete en Lucaniërs, wat meer as 70 000 getel het, het op Rome neergedaal. Op 1 November 82 v.C. het hulle met die leër van Sulla noord van die stad by die Colline -poort bots. Sulla se troepe het aangekom na gedwonge optogte. Sulla en Marcus Licinius Crassus het onderskeidelik die legioene van die linker- en regtervleuel beveel.

Alhoewel sy troepe baie moeg was, val Sulla aan. Woeste gevegte het tot in die nag aangebreek. Alhoewel Sulla in wanorde teen die stadsmuur teruggedryf is, het Crassus die oorhand gekry. Hy het een van sy eenhede om die flank van die Samnitiese leër gelei en dit van agter aangeval. Dit het Sulla in staat gestel om 'n nuwe aanval te begin en die oorwinning te behaal.

Sulla het geen genade betoon nie. Die volgende dag slag sy leër 4 000 Samnitiese gevangenes binne die bereik van die vergaderde senaat. Die vervolgings wat gevolg het, was meer volgehoue, wydverspreid en deegliker as dié van Marius. Die name van 6 000 slagoffers is in die amptelike lys gepubliseer. Volgens Appian is die name van 90 senatore, 15 van konsulêre rang en 2600 perderuiters ingesluit. Daar is beslag gelê op die eiendom van die persone op die lys om 120 000 vrygestelde soldate te voorsien.

Om die orde in Rome te handhaaf en om homself te beskerm, het Sulla 'n versoenbare weergawe van die toekomstige Praetorian Guard gewerf wat hy die Cornelii genoem het. Hy het 10 000 viriele slawe van die verbode bevry, gewapen en binne die stadsmure gestasioneer.

Sulla is lewenslank verkies tot diktator in 82 v.C. en al sy dade is vooraf bekragtig. Hy was in alles behalwe die naam 'n koning. Hy het geen poging aangewend om die probleme wat die nasie teister, op te los nie. Sy beleid was suiwer reaksionêr: dit is gedoen om die Senaat in sy ou gesag te herstel deur alle moontlike meningsverskille te onderdruk.

Sulla se byna preternatuurlike intuïsie word geïllustreer deur 'n voorval waarin die 18-jarige Gaius Julius Caesar die diktator in die wiele gery het en byna beskuldig is. Toe Caesar se familie en die Vestal Virgins 'n beroep op Sulla doen om sy redding, het die diktator toegegee. 'Hierdie man, vir wie se veiligheid u so angstig is, sal op 'n dag die ondergang van die edeles wees, want in hierdie een keiser sal u baie Marius vind,' het Sulla gesê.

In 79 v.C. het Sulla afstand gedoen van sy diktatuur met vertroue in die lojaliteit van die Cornelii. Die volgende jaar sterf hy skielik op 60 -jarige ouderdom net toe hy sy herinneringe sou voltooi. Sommige van sy eie woorde was op sy graf gegraveer: 'Geen vriend het my ooit gedien nie, geen vyand het my ooit 'n onreg aangedoen wat ek nie ten volle terugbetaal het nie.'


Biografie [wysig | wysig bron]

Gaius Marius Minor van "Promptuarii Iconum Insigniorum"

Marius die jongere was die seun van die Gaius Marius, sewe keer konsul en 'n beroemde militêre bevelvoerder. Α ] Β ] Sy ma, Julia, was 'n tante van Julius Caesar. Γ ]

In sy jeug is Marius opgevoed by Titus Pomponius Atticus en Marcus Tullius Cicero deur Griekse tutors. Net soos sy vader, het Marius sy politieke loopbaan deur populistiese taktiek gevorder. Tydens die Sosiale Oorlog dien hy onder Lucius Porcius Cato, waarvan een bron beweer Marius vermoor het tydens die Slag van Fucine Lake oor Cato se bewerings dat Cato se prestasies gelyk was aan die oorwinning van die ouer Marius oor die Cimbri. Δ ] Op soek na die versterking van sy politieke alliansies, trou die oudste Marius met sy seun met Mucia Tertia, dogter van Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex.

In die politieke onrus wat sy vader in 88 vC geloods het om sy mededinger Lucius Cornelius Sulla van bevel oor die Romeinse magte in die Eerste Mithridatiese Oorlog te ontneem, het die Jonger Marius sy vader in ballingskap vergesel toe Sulla onverwags na Rome marsjeer en hulle altwee moes vlug . By Ostia loop die jong Marius voor sy pa en vaar na Afrika. Ε ] Daar gaan hy na die hof van Hiempsal II van Numidia om sy hulp teen Sulla te soek, maar die koning besluit om hom in plaas daarvan gevange te hou. Ζ ] Hy het daarin geslaag om te ontsnap met die hulp van een van Hiempsal se byvroue wat die jong Marius verlei het. Daarna het hy met sy pa, wat ook na Afrika gekom het, saamgespan, en hulle het na die Kerkennah -eilande ontsnap. Pa en seun het geleer hoe Cinna in die stryd om sy konsulskap te behou in 87 vC teruggekeer, waar Marius die ouderling beheer oor die situasie geneem het, 'n leër van slawe en gladiators versamel en sy vyande vermoor het, beide werklik en verbeeld. Η ] Volgens Cassius Dio het die jonger Marius sy sewende konsulsskap ingehuldig deur een Plebeian Tribune te vermoor en sy kop na die nuut geïnstalleerde konsuls te stuur, terwyl 'n ander tribune uit die hoogtes van die Capitoline Hill gegooi is. Hy het ook twee praetors verban en beveel dat geen van die Romeinse burgers vuur of water moet ontvang nie. ⎖ ]

Toe sy vader in 86 v.C. sterf, het die jong Marius die leiding geneem oor die aanhangers en kliënte van sy vader, hoewel Cinna, wat opeenvolgende jare tot sy dood in 84 vC verkies is, die algehele beheer oor die Mariaanse faksie het. Daar word gesê dat die jong Marius sy vader se charisma ontbreek het en probeer om gewildheid op die familienaam te verkry.

Jong Marius is vir 82 vC tot die konsulskap verkies. ⎗ ] ⎘ ] Dit was 'n politieke stap van Carbo, sy konsulêre kollega, om volksondersteuning en entoesiasme vir die oorlog teen Sulla Marius te veel te jonk om 'n wettig verkose konsul te wees. Twee talentvolle en beter gekwalifiseerde mans onder die Marian-faksie, sy neef Marius Gratidianus en Quintus Sertorius, is verbygesteek ten gunste van die jonger Marius se simboliese waarde. ⎙ ] Baie van die ou veterane uit die voormalige leërs van die oudste Marius het egter uit pensioen gekom en na die jonger Marius se kant gestroom, en tydens die slag van Sacriportus het sy leër 85 groepe getel. ⎚ ]

In die daaropvolgende burgeroorlog in 82 v.C. verslaan Lucius Cornelius Sulla en sy leër die leërs van Marius in die slag van Sacriportus, waarna hy met ongeveer 7000 oorlewende troepe terugtrek na die vestingstad Praeneste, saam met die skatkis van die Capitolynse tempel . ⎛ ] Sulla se prefek Quintus Lucretius Ofella het die beleg uitgevoer, en#9116 ] het die stad versmoor met 'n ring van vinnig opgeboude aarde en tufversperrings. Marius het bevel gegee aan Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus, die stedelike predikant, om almal dood te maak wat waarskynlik Sulla se terugkeer sou ondersteun, waaronder sy skoonpa, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, die oud-konsul Lucius Domitius, Publius Antistius en Papirius Carbo onder andere ander. ⎝ ] Alhoewel beide Gnaeus Papirius Carbo en Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus probeer het om die beleg te verbreek, was hulle onsuksesvol. Aan die einde van die beleg het Marius 'n laaste poging aangewend om te ontsnap, hierdie keer deur 'n tonnel onder die mure te grawe, maar die poging is ontbloot. Marius het selfmoord gepleeg om nie in vyandelike hande te val nie.


Biografie [wysig]

Marius die jongere was die seun van laer-alfa 2 en 93 van die Gaius Marius, wat sewe keer konsul was en 'n beroemde militêre bevelvoerder. Α ] Β ] Sy ma, Julia, was 'n tante van Julius Caesar. Γ ]

In sy jeug is Marius opgevoed by Titus Pomponius Atticus en Marcus Tullius Cicero deur Griekse tutors. Tydens die Sosiale Oorlog dien hy onder Lucius Porcius Cato, waarvan een bron beweer Marius vermoor het tydens die Slag van Fucine Lake oor Cato se bewerings dat Cato se prestasies gelyk was aan die oorwinning van die ouer Marius oor die Cimbri. Δ ] Op soek na die versterking van sy politieke alliansies, trou die oudste Marius met sy seun met Licinia, 'n dogter van Lucius Licinius Crassus. Ε ]

In die politieke onrus wat sy vader in 88 vC geloods het om sy mededinger Lucius Cornelius Sulla van bevel oor die Romeinse magte in die Eerste Mithridatiese Oorlog te ontneem, het die Jonger Marius sy vader in ballingskap vergesel toe Sulla onverwags na Rome marsjeer en hulle altwee moes vlug . Ζ ] Op Ostia het die jong Marius voor sy pa gegaan en na Afrika geseil. Η ] Daar gaan hy na die hof van Hiempsal II van Numidia om sy hulp teen Sulla te soek, maar die koning besluit om hom in plaas daarvan gevange te hou. ⎖ ] Hy het daarin geslaag om te ontsnap met die hulp van een van Hiempsal se byvroue wat die jong Marius verlei het. Daarna het hy met sy pa, wat ook na Afrika gekom het, saamgespan, en hulle het na die Kerkennah -eilande ontsnap.

Toe hy leer oor die stryd van Cinna om sy konsulskap in 87 vC te behou, keer pa en seun terug na Rome, waar Marius die oudste beheer oor die situasie neem, 'n leër van slawe en gladiators versamel en sy vyande vermoor, beide werklik en verbeeld. ⎗ ] Volgens Cassius Dio het die jonger Marius sy sewende konsulsskap ingehuldig deur een plebeiaanse tribune te vermoor en sy kop na die nuut geïnstalleerde konsuls te stuur, terwyl hy nog 'n tribune uit die hoogtes van die Capitoline -heuwel laat gooi het. Hy het ook twee praetore verban en beveel dat geen van die Romeinse burgers vuur of water moet ontvang nie. ⎘ ]

Toe sy vader in 86 v.C. sterf, het die jong Marius die leiding geneem oor die aanhangers en kliënte van sy vader, alhoewel Cinna die algemene beheer oor die Mariaanse faksie onderneem het, wat op opeenvolgende jare tot sy dood in 84 vC tot konsul verkies is. . Daar word gesê dat die jong Marius sy vader se charisma ontbreek het en probeer om gewildheid op die familienaam te verkry.

Jong Marius is vir 82 vC tot die konsulskap verkies. ⎚ ] [ laer-alfa 3 ] Dit was 'n politieke stap van Gnaeus Papirius Carbo, sy konsulêre kollega en die nuwe leier van die Mariane nadat Cinna gesterf het, om volksondersteuning en entoesiasme vir die oorlog teen Sulla Marius op te knap. was veels te jonk en het nie die voorvereiste landdroste gehad om 'n wettig verkose konsul te wees nie. ⎛ ] Twee talentvolle en beter gekwalifiseerde mans onder die Marian-faksie, sy neef Marius Gratidianus en Quintus Sertorius, is verbygesteek ten gunste van die jonger Marius se simboliese waarde. ⎜ ] Baie van die ou veterane uit die voormalige leërs van die oudste Marius het uit pensioen gekom en na die jonger Marius se kant gestroom, en tydens die slag van Sacriportus het sy leër 85 groepe getel. ⎝ ]

In die Slag van Sacriporto, in 82 v.C., verslaan Lucius Cornelius Sulla en sy leër die leër van Marius die Jongere. Marius met ongeveer 7000 oorlewende troepe het teruggetrek na die vestingstad Praeneste, saam met die skatkis van die Capitoline -tempel. ⎞ ] Sulla se prefek Quintus Lucretius Ofella, het die beleg uitgevoer, en#9119 ] die stad versmoor met 'n ring van vinnig opgeboude aarde en tuffversperrings.

By die nederlaag van sy magte het Marius bevel gegee om 'n aantal Sullan-ondersteuners dood te maak voordat Rome deur Sulla gevange geneem word, ⎛ ], waaronder sy skoonpa, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, die oud-konsul Lucius Domitius, Publius Antistius en Gaius Papirius Carbo. ⎠ ] Alhoewel beide Gnaeus Papirius Carbo en Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus probeer het om die beleg te verbreek, was hulle onsuksesvol, terwyl hulpmagte onderweg onderskep en vernietig is. ⎡ ] Teen die einde van die beleg het Marius nog 'n laaste poging aangewend om te ontsnap, hierdie keer deur 'n tonnel onder die mure te grawe, maar die poging is ontbloot. Marius het selfmoord gepleeg om nie in vyandelike hande te val nie. ΐ ]

In 45 vC verskyn 'n man wat na verwys word as Amatius in Rome, wat beweer dat hy die seun van die jonger Marius is. ⎢ ]


Command tydskrif is vanaf 1989 deur XTR gepubliseer en duur tot die laaste uitgawe 54 in 2001.

Command Magazine was 'n tweemaandelikse tydskrif vir militêre geskiedenis, strategie en analise. Die klem val op die rede waarom bevelvoerders sekere besluite geneem het, gekombineer met 'n verslag van 'n veldtog of veldslag. Baie klem is gelê op die gebruik van kleurkaarte en gevegsopdragte. Command was beskikbaar by inskrywing en by boekwinkels.

Baie van die speletjies is sedertdien in Japan heruitgegee deur Kokusai-Tsushin Co., Ltd. (国際 通信 社) in Command Magazine Japan.

1.1 Skakels

  • Tydskrifwebwerf - bevat lyste van al die belangrikste artikels wat in elke uitgawe gepubliseer word
  • Gearchiveerde XTR -webwerf
  • Errata en variante (gearchiveerde waaierwebblad)
  • Errata en variante - lys van errata -tellers op 'n aparte lêer (Web -Grognard)
  • Mini -resensies van tydskrif -wargames wat deur Elias Nordling onderhou word
  • Bespreking oor die einde van Command Magazine

1.2 Geeklists

A series of Geeklists, from the Meta-List: Magazine Wargames, created by Seth Owen and Thom Denholm:


Biografie

Marius the Younger was the son [2] of the Gaius Marius who was seven times consul and a famous military commander. [3] [4] His mother, Julia, was an aunt of Julius Caesar. [5]

In his youth, Marius was educated with Titus Pomponius Atticus and Marcus Tullius Cicero by Greek tutors. Like his father, Marius advanced his political career through popularist tactics. During the Social War, he served under Lucius Porcius Cato, whom one source claims Marius killed at the Battle of Fucine Lake over Cato's claims that Cato's achievements were on par with the elder Marius's victory over the Cimbri. [6] Seeking to strengthen his political alliances, the elder Marius married his son to Mucia Tertia, daughter of Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex.

In the political turmoil launched by his father in 88 BC to strip his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla of command of the Roman forces in the First Mithridatic War, the Younger Marius accompanied his father into exile when Sulla unexpectedly marched on Rome, forcing them both to flee. At Ostia, young Marius went on ahead of his father and sailed to Africa. [7] There he went to the court of Hiempsal II of Numidia to seek his help against Sulla, but the king decided to hold him captive instead. [8] He managed to escape with the help of one of Hiempsal’s concubines whom the young Marius had seduced. He then joined up with his father who had also come to Africa, and they escaped to the Kerkennah Islands. Learning of Cinna’s fight to retain his consulship in 87 BC, father and son returned to Rome, where Marius the elder took control of the situation, gathering an army of slaves and gladiators, and murdering his enemies, both real and imagined. [9] According to Cassius Dio, the younger Marius inaugurated his father’s seventh consulship by murdering one Plebeian Tribune and sending his head to the newly installed consuls, while having another tribune thrown from the heights of the Capitoline Hill. He also banished two praetors, ordering that neither should receive fire or water from any Roman citizen. [10]

When his father died in 86 BC, the young Marius assumed leadership of his father’s adherents and clients, although overall control of the Marian faction was held by Cinna, who was elected consul on consecutive years until his death in 84 BC. The young Marius is said to have lacked his father's charisma and sought to achieve popularity on the family name.

Young Marius was elected to the consulship for 82 BC. [11] [12] This was a political move by Carbo, his consular colleague, to drum up popular support and enthusiasm for the war against Sulla Marius was much too young to be a legally elected consul. Two talented and better-qualified men among the Marian faction, his cousin Marius Gratidianus and Quintus Sertorius, were passed over in favor of the younger Marius's symbolic value. [13] However, many of the old veterans from the elder Marius’s former armies came out of retirement and flocked to the younger Marius’s side, and by the battle of Sacriportus, his army numbered 85 cohorts. [14]

In the subsequent civil war in 82 BC, Lucius Cornelius Sulla and his army defeated the armies of Marius at the battle of Sacriportus, after which he retreated with around 7000 surviving troops to the fortress city of Praeneste, along with the treasury of the Capitoline temple. [15] Sulla's prefect Quintus Lucretius Ofella conducted the siege, [16] throttling the town with a ring of rapidly constructed earth and tuff barricades. Marius gave orders to Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus, the Urban Praetor to kill all those who were likely to support Sulla’s return, including his father-in-law, Quintus Mucius Scaevola Pontifex, the ex-consul Lucius Domitius, Publius Antistius and Papirius Carbo among others. [17] Although both Gnaeus Papirius Carbo and Lucius Junius Brutus Damasippus attempted to break the siege, they were unsuccessful. Towards the end of the siege Marius made one final attempt to escape, this time by digging a tunnel under the walls, but the attempt was uncovered. Marius committed suicide so as not to fall into enemy hands.


Samnite

Ons redakteurs gaan na wat u ingedien het, en bepaal of hulle die artikel moet hersien.

Samnite, a member of the ancient warlike tribes inhabiting the mountainous centre of southern Italy. These tribes, who spoke Oscan and were probably an offshoot of the Sabini, apparently referred to themselves not as Samnite but by the Oscan form of the word, which appears in Latin as Sabine (q.v.).

Four cantons formed a Samnite confederation: Hirpini, Caudini, Caraceni, and Pentri. The league probably had no federal assembly, but a war leader could be chosen to lead a campaign. Although allied with Rome against the Gauls in 354 bc , the Samnites were soon involved in a series of three wars (343–341, 327–304, and 298–290) against the Romans. Despite a spectacular victory over the Romans at the Battle of the Caudine Forks (321), where a Roman army was forced to march under the yoke, the Samnites were eventually subjugated. The Romans surrounded Samnite land with colonies and then split it with colonies at Beneventum (268) and Aesernia (263).

Although reduced and depopulated, the Samnites later helped Pyrrhus and Hannibal against Rome. They also fought from 90 bc in the Social War and later in the civil war against Lucius Cornelius Sulla, who defeated them at the Battle of the Colline Gate (82 bc ).

The longest and most important inscription of the Samnite dialect is the small bronze Tabula Agnonensis, which is engraved in full Oscan alphabet. In June 2004, archaeologists in Pompeii discovered the remains of a wall from a temple built by Samnites.


Social War

The Social War (91–88 BC) resulted from Rome's intransigence regarding the civil liberties of the Socii, Rome's Italian allies. Die Socii were old enemies of Rome that submitted (such as the Samnites) whereas the Latins were confederates of longer standing with Rome therefore the Latins were given more respect and better treatment. [11] Subjects of the Roman Republic, these Italian provincials might be called to arms in its defence or might be subjected to extraordinary taxes, but they had no say in the expenditure of these taxes or in the uses of the armies that might be raised in their territories. The Social War was, in part, caused by the continued rebuttal of those who sought to extend Roman citizenship to the Socii and to address various injustices inherent in the Roman system. The Gracchi, Tiberius and Gaius, were successively killed by optimate supporters who sought to maintain the status quo. The assassination of Marcus Livius Drusus the Younger, whose reforms were intended not only to strengthen the position of the Senate but also to grant Roman Citizenship to the allies, greatly angered the Socii. In consequence, most allied against Rome, leading to the outbreak of the Social War.

At the beginning of the Social War, the Roman aristocracy and Senate were beginning to fear Gaius Marius's ambition, which had already given him 6 consulships (including 5 in a row, from 104 BC to 100 BC). They were determined that he should not have overall command of the war in Italy. In this last rebellion of the Italian allies, Sulla outshone both Marius and the consul Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo (the father of Pompey). In 89 BC Sulla captured Aeclanum, the chief town of the Hirpini, by setting the wooden breastwork on fire. As a result of his success in bringing the Social War to a successful conclusion, he was elected consul for the first time in 88 BC, with Quintus Pompeius Rufus (soon his daughter's father-in-law) as his colleague.

Sulla served exceptionally as a general during the Social War. At Nola he was awarded a Corona Obsidionalis (Obsidional or Blockade Crown), also known as a Corona Graminea (Grass Crown). This was the highest Roman military honour, awarded for personal bravery to a commander who saves a Roman legion or army in the field. Unlike all other Roman military honours, it was awarded by acclamation of the soldiers of the rescued army, and consequently very few were ever awarded. The crown, by tradition, was woven from grasses and other plants taken from the actual battlefield. [12]


Onontdekte Skotland

3000 BC: Maeshowe chambered tomb is built on Orkney.

3000 BC: Alleged date of origin of the Fortingall Yew, probably the world's oldest living thing.

3000 BC: Occupation of what may be the first Crannog or artificial islet residence, on the islet Eilean Domhnuill on Loch Olabhat in North Uist.

2500 BC to 2000 BC: Stone village of Skara Brae on Orkney in occupation.

1400 BC: The era of Scota, the daughter of an Egyptian Pharaoh, who features in the foundation myth of Ireland an Scotland, and who Scotland is named after.

500 BC: Crannogs, houses built on stilts or artificial islets, begin to appear widely on Scottish lochs.

200 BC: According to Irish legend, the "School for Heroes" is run by the warrior queen Scáthach, or Sgathach, at her fortress Dún Scáith, near Tarskavaig on Skye.

200 BC to AD 200: Building and occupation of Brochs, circular stone defensive towers.

20 BC: Pontius Pilate, later to become the Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, is born at Fortingall.

AD 80: Julius Agricola Roman Governor of Britain, invades Scotland, reaching a line between the Rivers Clyde and Forth by AD 82.

AD 83: Julius Agricola invades northern Scotland.

AD 84: The Battle of Mons Graupius takes place at a location still uncertain. The Romans under Julius Agricola convincingly defeat the Caledonians under Calgacus. They fail to press home their advantage, however, and instead establish a defensive line of forts extending north east from Loch Lomond to Stonehaven to guard the exits from the main highland glens.

AD 105: The Romans withdraw from Scotland to a defensive line between the Rivers Solway and Tyne. This is fortified as Hadrian's Wall from AD 121.

AD 139: The Romans advance again, to a line between the Forth and Clyde and build the Antonine Wall.

AD 170: The Romans withdraw to Hadrian's Wall once more.

AD 208: Roman Emperor Septimius Severus launches the last campaign intended to conquer Scotland, establishing a major base at Cramond, on the site of a fort built in AD 142.

AD 211: Septimius Severus dies in York. His successor Caracalla abandons territory north of Hadrians Wall and in 212 the Romans withdraw from what will later become Scotland for the final time.

AD 250: The first raids take place in western Scotland by the strong Irish tribe, the Scots.

AD 367: The Picti, or the Picts, push the Romans back from Hadrian's Wall. "Picti" is the Romans' disparaging slang for their northern neighbours, meaning the painted (or tattooed) ones.

AD 397: Saint Ninian dedicates the first Christian church in Scotland, the Candida Casa at Whithorn, to St Martin.

AD 500: Increased migration of Scoti or Scots from Ireland to Scotland leads to the establishment of the kingdom of Dalriada in what is now Argyll, with its capital at Dunadd in Kilmartin Glen.

AD 500: King of the Scots of Dalriada, Fergus Mor fights both the Picts to the east and the Britons of Strathclyde to the south for land.

10 March 520: St Kessog, the original patron saint of Scotland, is killed at Bandry, on the western shore of Loch Lomond.

7 December 521: The birth in County Donegal in Ireland of the man who would go on to become Saint Columba.

AD 550: The Angles establish Bernicia, later called Northumbria, with boundaries extending south to Yorkshire.

AD 552: St Mungo or St Kentigern founds a church on part of the site that later became Glasgow Cathedral.

AD 562: St Moluag founds a settlement on the Isle of Lismore in the mouth of Loch Linnhe.

12 May 563: Saint Columba and twelve companions land on the island of Iona to establish a monastery.

9 June 597: St Columba dies in his monastery at Iona.

13 January 614: St Mungo or St Kentigern dies, and is buried at his church in Clas-gu which later becomes Glasgow.

17 April 617: Saint Donan and 52 of his followers are murdered during a raid on their monastery on the Island of Eigg.

AD 638: Edinburgh - Din Eidyn - is overrun by the Angles of the Kingdom of Northumbria.

3 January 642: The birth in Ireland of Saint Maelrubha, a monk who founded a monastery at what is now Applecross.

5 August 642: The death at the Battle of Maserfield (near modern Oswestry) of King Oswald of Northumbria, later known as St Oswald.

31 August 651: The death in what is now St Aidan's Church in Bamburgh of St Aidan of Lindisfarne, the Apostle of Northumbria.

AD 672: A Pictish uprising against the Kingdom of Northumbria is suppressed.

20 May 685: The Battle of Dunnichen or Nechtansmere, near Forfar. King Ecgfrith of Northumbria is decisively defeated by the Picts, paving the way for the development of a separate Scottish nation. The battle is later depicted on a cross slab at Aberlemno Kirk.

20 March 687: The death on Inner Farne Island of St Cuthbert, the a monk, bishop and hermit regarded as the patron saint of northern England.

23 September 704: The death of Adomnán of Iona, also known as Saint Adomnán. He was Abbot of Iona, the author of the Life of Columba and the promoter of the hugely influential Law of Adomnán.

6 March 757: The death on Bass Rock of Saint Baldred of Tyninghame.

8 June 793: The monastery at Lindisfarne suffers its first raid by Vikings. Others will follow, leading to the abandonment of the monastery in 875.

795: First recorded Viking raid (probably from Orkney), on Iona, which is raided twice more in the following decade.

839: The Picts, who have controlled all of Scotland north of the Forth and Clyde except for Argyll, suffer a heavy defeat at the hands of the Vikings. Most of the Pictish nobility is wiped out in the defeat, including King Bridei VI.

843: Kenneth Mac Alpin becomes King of the Scots of Dalriada and later becomes King of the Picts of Pictland as well, unifying the main groups in Scotland north of the Forth-Clyde line for the first time within the Kingdom of Alba.

850: Viking pressure leads to the relocation of the capital of Alba from Argyll to Scone, near Perth. The religious centre, and the relics of St Columba, moves from Iona to Dunkeld.

850: Kenneth Mac Alpin, also known as Kenneth I, raids Northumbria six times in the 850s.

870: Following a 15 week siege the Vikings capture the fortress at Dumbarton Rock guarding the entrance to the Clyde and the British Kingdom of Strathclyde.

872: Constantine I arranges the death of the King of Strathclyde in 872. He replaces him with his own brother in law, Rhun: effectively making Strathclyde a subordinate kingdom to Alba.

878: King Aedh is succeeded by the joint rule of Kings Eochaid and Giric.

890: The Vikings capture the Pictish fortress at Dunnottar, near Stonehaven.

900: Constantine II succeeds Donald II and helps incorporate Viking settlers into the emerging Kingdom of Scotland.

937: A joint army comprising Constantine II's Scots and Olaf III Guthfrithson's Vikings is defeated at the Battle of Brunanburh by King Athelstan of England in 937: largely securing the future of what is to become England.

945: Edmund, a Danish King ruling Northumbria, gives Cumbria to Malcolm I of Scotland in return for military support.


Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.

Versteek blaaibalk U huidige posisie in die teks is in blou gemerk. Klik op enige plek in die lyn om na 'n ander posisie te spring:

Hierdie teks is deel van:
Bekyk teks wat deur:
INHOUDSOPGAWE:

PRAENESTE

Yet the very next year the Praenestines were again in arms, and stimulated the other Latin cities against Rome. ( Liv. 6.30 .) With this exception we hear no more of them for some time but a notice which occurs in Diodorus that they concluded a truce with Rome in B.C. 351, shows that they were still acting an independent part, and kept aloof from the other Latins. ( Diod. 16.45 .) It is, however, certain that they took a prominent part in the great Latin War of B.C. 340. In the second year of that war they sent forces to the assistance of the Pedani, and, though defeated by the consul Aemilius, they continued the contest the next year together with the Tiburtines and it was the final defeat of their combined forces by Camillus at Pedum (B.C. 338) that eventually terminated the struggle. ( Liv. 8.12 - 14 .) In the peace which ensued, the Praenestines, as well as their neighbours of Tibur, were punished by the loss of a part of their territory, but in other respects their position remained unchanged: they did not, like the other cities of Latium, receive the Roman franchise, but continued to subsist as a nominally independent state, in alliance with the powerful republic. They furnished like the other “socii” their quota of troops on their own separate account, and the Praenestine auxiliaries are mentioned in several instances as forming a separate body. Even in the time of Polybius it was one of the places which retained the Jus Exilii, and could afford shelter to persons banished from Rome. (Pol. 6.14.)

On the arrival of Pyrrhus in Italy the fidelity of the Praenestines seems to have been suspected, and the Romans compelled them to deliver hostages. ( Zonar. 8.3 .) Shortly afterwards Praeneste was the point from whence that monarch turned back on his advance to Rome. There is no probability that he took the town. Eutropius says merely that he advanced aan Praeneste and the expression of Florus that he looked down upon Rome from the citadel of Praeneste is probably only a rhetorical flourish of that inaccurate writer. ( Flor. 2.18 Eutrop. 2.12 .) In the Second Punic War a body of Praenestine troops distinguished themselves by their gallant defence of Casilinum against Hannibal, and though ultimately compelled to surrender, they were rewarded for their valour and fidelity by the Roman senate, while the highest honours were paid them in their native city. ( Liv. 23.19 , 20 .) It is remarkable that they refused to accept the offer of the Roman franchise and the Praenestines in general retained their independent position till the period of the Social War, when they received the Roman franchise together with the other allies. (Appian, App. BC 1.65 .)

In the civil wars of Marius and Sulla, Praeneste bore an important part. It was occupied by Cinna when he was driven from Rome in B.C. 87 (Appian, App. BC 1.65 ) and appears to have continued in the hands of the Marian party till B.C. 82, when it afforded a shelter to the younger Marius with the remains of his army, after his defeat by Sulla at Sacriportus. The natural strength of the city had been greatly increased by new fortifications, so that Sulla abandoned all idea of reducing it by force of arms, and was content to draw lines of circumvallation round it, and trust to the slower process of a blockade, the command of which he entrusted to Lucretius Ofella, while he himself carried on operations in the field against the other leaders of the Marian party. Repeated attempts were made by these generals to relieve Praeneste, but without effect and at length, after the great battle at the Colline Gate and the defeat of the Samnite general Pontius Telesinus, the inhabitants opened their gates to Ofella. Marius, despairing of safety, after a vain attempt to escape by a subterranean passage, put an end to his own life. (Appian, App. BC 1.87 - 94 Put. Mrt. 46, Sull. 28, 29, 32 Vell. 2.26 , 27 Liv. Epit. lxxxvii., lxxxviii.) The city itself was severely punished all the citizens without distinction were put to the sword, and the town given up to plunder its fortifications were dismantled, and a military colony settled by Sulla in possession of its territory. (Appian, l.c. Lucan 2.194 Strab. v. p.239 Flor. 3.21 .) The town seems to have been at this time transferred from the hill to the plain beneath, and the temple of Fortune with its appurtenances so extended and enlarged as to occupy a great part of the site of the ancient city. (Nibby, Dintorni, vol. ii. bl. 481 but see Bormann, Alt. Lat. Chorogr. bl. 207, note 429.)

But the citadel still remained, and the natural strength of the position rendered Praeneste always a place of importance as a stronghold. Hence, we find it mentioned as one of the points which Catiline was desirous to occupy, but which had been studiously guarded by Cicero ( Cic. in Cat. 1.3 ) and at a later period L. Antonius retired thither in B.C. 41, on the first outbreak of his dispute with Octavian, and from thence endeavoured to dictate terms to his rival at Rome. Fulvia, the wife of M. Antonius took refuge there at the same time. (Appian, App. BC 5.21 , 23 , 29 .) From this time we hear but little of Praeneste in history it is probable from the terms in which it is spoken of both by Strabo and Appian, that it never recovered the blow inflicted on its prosperity by Sulla (Strab. l.c. Appian, App. BC 1.94 ) but the new colony established at that time rose again into a flourishing and considerable town. Its proximity to Rome and its elevated and healthy situation made it a favourite resort of the Romans during the summer, and the poets of the first century of the Empire abound in allusions to it as a cool and pleasant place of suburban retirement. ( Juv. 3.190 , 14.88 Martial, 10.30. 7 Stat. Silv. 4.2. 15 Plin. Ep. 5.6.45 Flor. 1.11 .) Among others it was much frequented by Augustus himself, and was a favourite place of retirement of Horace. ( Suet. Aug. 72 Hor. Carm. 3.4.23 , Ep. 1.2. 1.) Tiberius also recovered there from a dangerous attack of illness (Gell. N. A. 16.13) and Hadrian built a villa there, which, though not comparable to his celebrated villa at Tibur, was apparently on an extensive scale. It was there that the emperor M. Aurelius was residing when he lost his son Annius Verus, a child of seven years old. (Jul. Capit. M. Ant. 21.)

Praeneste appears to have always retained its [p. 2.665] colonial rank and condition. Cicero mentions it by the title of a Colonia ( Cic. in Cat. 1.3 ) and though neither Pliny nor the Liber Coloniarum give it that appellation, its colonial dignity under the Empire is abundantly attested by numerous inscriptions. (Zumpt, de Colon. p. 254 Lib. Colon. p. 236 Orell. Inscr. 1831, 3051, &c.) A. Gellius indeed has a story that the Praenestines applied to Tiberius as a favour to be changed from a colony into a Municipium but if their request was really granted, as he asserts, the change could have lasted for but a short time. (Gell. N. A. 16.13 Zumpt, l.c.

We find scarcely any mention of Praeneste towards the decline of the Western Empire, nor does its name figure in the Gothic wars which followed: but it appears again under the Lombard kings, and bears a conspicuous part in the middle ages. At this period it was commonly known as the Civitas Praenestina, and it is this form of the name--which is already found in an inscription of A.D. 408 (Orell. Inscr. 105)--that has been gradually corrupted into its modern appellation of Palestrina.

The modern city is built almost entirely upon the site and gigantic substructions of the temple of Fortune, which, after its restoration and enlargement by Sulla, occupied the whole of the lower slope of the hill, the summit of which was crowned by the ancient citadel. This hill, which is of very considerable elevation (being not less than 2400 feet above the sea, and more than 1200 above its immediate base), projects like a great buttress or bastion from the angle of the Apennines towards the Alban Hills, so that it looks down upon and seems to command the whole of the Campagna around Rome. It is this position, combined with the great strength of the citadel arising from the elevation and steepness of the hill on which it stands, that rendered Praeneste a position of such importance. The site of the ancient citadel, on the summit of the hill, is now occupied by a castle of the middle ages called Castel S. Pietro: but a considerable part of the ancient walls still remains, constructed in a very massive style of polygonal blocks of limestone and two irregular lines of wall of similar construction descend from thence to the lower town, which they evidently served to connect with the citadel above. The lower, or modern town, rises in a somewhat pyramidal manner on successive terraces, supported by walls or facings of polygonal masonry, nearly resembling that of the walls of the city. There can be no doubt that these successive stages or terraces at one time belonged to the temple of Fortune but it is probable that they are of much older date than the time of Sulla, and previously formed part of the ancient city, the streets of which may have occupied these lines of terraces in the same manner as those of the modern town do at the present day. There are in all five successive terraces, the highest of which was crowned by the temple of Fortune properly so called,--a circular building with a vaulted roof, the ruins of which remained till the end of the 13th century, when they were destroyed by Pope Boniface VIII. Below this was a hemicycle, or semicircular building, with a portico, the plan of which may be still traced and on one of the inferior terraces there still remains a mosaic, celebrated as one of the most perfect and interesting in existence. Various attempts have been made to restore the plan and elevation of the temple, an edifice wholly unlike any other of its kind but they are all to a great extent conjectural. A detailed account of the exiting remains, and of all that can be traced of the plan and arrangement, will be found in Nibby. (Dintorni, vol. ii. bl. 494--510.)

The celebrity of the shrine or sanctuary of Fortune at Praeneste is attested by many ancient writers (Ovid, Ov. Fast. 6.61 Sil. Ital 8.366 Lucan 2.194 Strab. v. p.238 ), and there is no doubt that it derived its origin from an early period. Cicero, who speaks of the temple in his time as one of great antiquity as well as splendour gives us a legend derived from the records of the Praenestines concerning its foundation, and the institution of the oracle known as the Sortes Praenestinae, which was closely associated with the worship of Fortune. ( Cic. de Div. 2.4. 1 ) So celebrated was this mode of divination that not only Romans of distinction, but even foreign potentates, are mentioned as consulting them ( V. Max. 1.3.1 Liv. 45.44 Propert. 3.24. 3) and though Cicero treats them with contempt, as in his day obtaining credit only with the vulgar, we are told by Suetonius that Tiberius was deterred by religious scruples from interfering with them, and Domitian consulted them every year. Alexander Severus also appears, on one occasion at least, to have done the same. ( Suet. Tib. 63 , Domit. 15 Lamprid. Alex. Sev.: 4.) Numerous inscriptions also prove that they continued to be frequently consulted till a late period of the Empire, and it was not till after the establishment of Christianity that the custom fell altogether into disuse. (Inscr. ap. Bormann, pp. 212, 213 Orelli, Inscr. 1756--1759.) The Praenestine goddess seems to have been specially known by the name of Fortuna Primigenia, and her worship was closely associated with that of the infant Jupiter. (Cic. de Div. l.c. Inscr. ut sup.) Another title under which Jupiter mas specially worshipped at Praeneste was that of Jupiter Imperator, and the statue of the deity at Rome which bore that appellation was considered to have been brought from Praeneste ( Liv. 6.29 ).

The other ancient remains which have been discovered at Palestrina belong to the later city or the colony of Sulla, and are situated in the plain at some distance from the foot of the hill. Among these are the extensive ruins of the villa or palace of the emperors, which appears to have been built by Hadrian about A.D. 134. They resemble much in their general style those of his villa at Tivoli, but are much inferior in preservation as well as in extent. Near them is an old church still called Sta Maria della Villa.

It was not far from this spot that were discovered in 1773 the fragments of a Roman calendar, supposed to be the same which was arranged by the grammarian Verrius Flaccus, and set up by him in the forum of Praeneste. (Suet. Gramm. 17.) They are commonly called the Fasti Praenestini, and have been repeatedly published, first by Foggini (fol. Romae, 1779), with an elaborate commentary and again as an appendix to the edition of Suetonius by Wolf (4 vols. 8vo. Lips. 1802) also in Orelli (Inscr. vol. ii. bl. 379, &c.). Not-withstanding this evidence, it is improbable that the forum of Praeneste was so far from the foot of the hill, and its site is more probably indicated by the discovery of a number of pedestals with honorary inscriptions, at a spot near the SW. angle of the modern city. These inscriptions range over a period from the reign of Tiberius to the fifth century, thus [p. 2.666] tending to prove the continued importance of Praeneste throughout the period of the Roman Empire. (Nibby, vol. ii. pp. 513--515 Foggini, l.c. pp. v.--viii.) Other inscriptions mention the existence of a theatre and an amphitheatre, a portico and curia, and a spoliarium but no remains of any of these edifices can be traced. (Gruter, Inscr. bl. 132 Orelli, Inscr. 2532 Bormann, note 434.)

The territory of Praeneste was noted for the excellence of its nuts, which are noticed by Cato. (R. R. 8, 143 Plin. Nat. 17.13. s. 21 Naevius, ap. Macrob. Sat. 3.18). Hence the Praenestines themselves seem to have been nicknamed Nuculae though another explanation of the term is given by Festus, who derives it from the walnuts (nuces) with which the Praenestine garrison of Casilinum is said to have been fed. ( Cic. de Or. 2.6. 2 Fest. s.v. Nuculae.) Pliny also mentions the roses of Praeneste as among the most celebrated in Italy and its wine is noticed by Athenaeus, though it was apparently not one of the choicest kinds. ( Plin. Nat. 21.4. s. 10 Athen. 1.26 f.)

It is evident from the narrative of Livy ( 6.29 ) that Praeneste in the days of its independence, like Tibur, had a considerable territory, with at least eight smaller towns as its dependencies but the names of none of these are preserved to us, and we are wholly unable to fix the limits of its territory.

The name of Via Praenestina was given to the road which, proceeding from Rome through Gabii direct to Praeneste, from thence rejoined the Via Latina at the station near Anagnia. It will be considered in detail in the article VIA PRAENESTINA