George Goring

George Goring

George Goring, die seun van die 1ste graaf van Norwich, is gebore in 1628. In 1633 koop sy skoonpa vir hom 'n kommissie as kolonel en veg in 1637 by die beleg van Breda.

Goring was bevelvoerder oor 'n regiment vir Charles I in die Bishops War in 1639. Die jaar daarna word hy aangestel as goewerneur van Portsmouth.

In 1641 raak Goring betrokke by 'n sameswering teen Royalistiese offisiere en daar was vermoedens dat hy in enige toekomstige konflik vir die parlement sou veg. Net voor die uitbreek van die burgeroorlog verklaar hy egter vir Charles I.

In September 1642 gee Goring Portsmouth oor aan parlementêre magte onder leiding van William Waller. Goring vlug nou na Holland waar hy Henrietta Maria bystaan ​​om wapens te koop en rekrute vir die Royalistiese leër te vind. Uiteindelik keer hy terug na Engeland en neem deel aan die slag by Seacroft Moor in Maart 1643. Hy word twee maande later gevange geneem, maar nadat hy in die Tower of London aangehou is, is hy vrygelaat in ruil vir die graaf van Lothian in April 1644.

In Junie 1644 het prins Rupert en sy Kavaliers die graaf van Newcastle en sy magte uit die stad York gaan red. Op 2 Julie het die Royaliste die parlementariërs op Marston Moor gekonfronteer. Die middag het Oliver Cromwell en sy magte John Byron en sy kavallerie aangekla. Sy manne, in plaas daarvan om Byron se kavallerie na te jaag, hergroepeer en keer terug om die infanterie te beskerm wat nou aangeval is deur Goring en sy kavalerie. Sy aanklag was kortliks suksesvol en vervang Henry Wilmot as luitenant-generaal van die Kavalerie.

Goring se militêre reputasie het verder verbeter na sy optrede in Newbury in Oktober 1644. Hy is na die Wes -land gestuur, maar terwyl hy in 'n reeks geskille met prins Rupert betrokke was. Goring, wat 'n ernstige drankprobleem gehad het, is in Julie 1645 deur Thomas Fairfax in Langport verslaan.

In November 1645 het Goring in ballingskap gegaan. Die volgende jaar sluit hy aan by die Spaanse leër van Vlaandere en neem deel aan die beleg van Barclona (1652).

George Goring sterf in 1657 in Madrid.


Lord George Goring

Baron George Goring, wat later die titel van die eerste graaf van Norwich aangeneem het, was 'n senior Royalistiese bevelvoerder tydens die Engelse Burgeroorlog. In die Slag van Marston Moor in 1644 het Goring die Royalistiese perd gelei in 'n verwoestende aanval wat Fairfax se kavallerie verstrooi het. Alhoewel die stryd verlore was, het Goring 'n reputasie gekry as 'n hoogs bekwame leier.

Goring, gebore in 1608, het van jongs af 'n reputasie as dobbelaar ontwikkel. Maar hy bewys homself ook as 'n bekwame soldaat toe hy vir die Nederlanders in Vlaandere veg. Hy is permanent lam deur 'n wond wat in 1637 by Breda opgedoen is, en het vroeg in 1639 na Engeland teruggekeer toe hy goewerneur van Portsmouth geword het

Goring het probeer om albei kante tevrede te stel in die aanloop tot die burgeroorlog. Alhoewel hy aan die Commons gesê het dat hy lojaal aan hulle was, het hy ook van Portsmouth 'n basis gemaak vir Charles I. Hy was so indrukwekkend in die Commons dat senior parlementslede hom 'n senior rol wou aanstel. Uiteindelik het Charles egter sy lojaliteit aan die koning verklaar.

Lord George Goring

Goring, 'n bevelvoerder van die ruiters, het geïnspireer dat hy gereeld die grens oorgesteek het van dapperheid tot roekeloosheid.

Fairfax het Goring in 1643 in Wakefield gevange geneem, maar hy is die volgende jaar vrygelaat as ruil vir parlementêre gevangenes. Hy het verder bevel gegee oor 'n kavallerie -eenheid by Marston Moor. Die manne van Goring verslaan die ruiters van Sir Thomas Fairfax aan die begin van die geveg. Goring is egter oortref deur Oliver Cromwell.

Ondanks die Royalistiese nederlaag, het Goring se reputasie as 'n bekwame leier na die slag die hoogte ingeskiet. In Oktober 1644 veg hy op Newbury eerbaar, maar dit raak toenemend moeiliker om mee te werk.

Na Naseby was daar gerugte dat Goring se periodes van dronkenskap meer gereeld geword het, en dat sy troepe - alreeds berug bekend as & quotGoring's Crew & quot - nog meer oproerig en ongedissiplineerd geraak het.

In November 1645 word Goring siek en keer hy terug na Frankryk. Hy sou nooit weer na Engeland terugkeer nie. In 1646 bedien Goring die Spaanse is die Neverlands. Hy sterf in 1657 sonder geld in Madrid, 49 jaar oud.


Bronne

1 "Sussex Family History Group (SFHG)". . East Sussex Record Office, Lewes.

2 East Sussex Record Office, Lewes.

3 Victoria County History, editor, & lti & gtA History of the County of Middlesex & lt/i & gt, 12 (London: Victoria County History, 1962), 3: 172-174.

4 & lti & gtA History of the County of Sussex & lt/i & gt, 8 (Londen: Victoria County History, 1953), 7: 94-98. . East Sussex Record Office, Lewes.

5 & lti & gtA History of the County of Sussex & lt/i & gt, 8 (Londen: Victoria County History, 1953), 6 Deel 1: 34-53.

6 & lti & gtA History of the County of Sussex & lt/i & gt, 8 (Londen: Victoria County History, 1953), 7: 227-232.

Buist-Taylor-Keatch-Kendall se familiegeskiedeniswebwerf is gelisensieer onder 'n Creative Commons Erkenning-Nie-Kommersiële 4.0 Internasionale Lisensie


GORING, Sir George (1585-1663), van Danny Park, Hurstpierpoint Lewes, Suss. en Goring House, Westminster.

b. 28 April 1585, 1ste s. van George Goring en dolk van Danny Park, en Anne, da. van Henry Denny van Waltham Abbey, Essex bro. van sir Edward*. opvoed. Sidney Sussex, Camb. 1600 het 1609 na die buiteland gereis. m. teen 1608, Mary (bur. 15 Julie 1648), geb. van Edward Neville & dolk van Birling, Kent, 3s. (2 d.v.p.) 7da. (3 d.v.p.). sukses. fa. 1602 kntd. 29 Mei 1608 cr. Kroeg. Goring 14 April 1628, graaf van Norwich 28 November 1644. d. 6 Januarie 1663.1 sig. George Goring.

Kantore gehou

Commr. riole, Suss. 1610-ten minste 1641, Northants. 1633-ten minste 1634, Westminster 1634 2 vryman, Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire 1617,3 Portsmouth, Hants 16354 rentmeester, eer van Peverell, Notts. (jt.) 1618-38, (sole) 16385 j.p. Westminster 1621-ten minste 1641, Northants. 1628-ten minste 16416 commr. subsidie, Westminster 1621-2, 1624, Suss. 1624,7 Gedwonge lening, Suss. 16278 sek. van die Raad in die optogte van Wallis 1630-41, 1661-d.9 kommr. boogskiet, Londen 1632,10 oyer and terminer, Wales and the Marches 1634-40, Surr. 1640,11 skikking, Suss. 1642.12

Gent. penne. teen 1608,13 lt. 1616-3914 gent. van Privy Chamber aan prins Henry 161015-lid, ambassade by Frankryk 1616, agent Sept.-Okt. 1624, Jan.-Apr. 1625, amb. buitengewone 1643-416 landmeter van seep 162417 boer van suikerpost 162618 onderkamerheer aan koningin Henrietta Maria 1626-8, meester van die perd 1628-ten minste 163819 kommr. verkoop van Franse pryse 162720 boer van wynlisensies 162721 commr. botteruitvoer 1635, goud- en silwerdraad 1636,22 tabaklisensies 1636,23 kothuise 1638, woeker 163824 boer van doeane 1638-4125 onderkamerheer 1639-44 PC 1639-44, 1660-d.26 kommr. subsidie, peerage 1641,27 inkomste ondersoek 164228 kapt. van die wag 1645, 1657-6129 kommr. handel 1660-d.30

Biografie

Goring kom uit 'n junior tak van 'n gevestigde Sussex-familie in Burton, en was die tweede neef van Sir William Goring*. Sy oupa, 'n jonger seun, word ontvanger-generaal van die Court of Wards en koop Danny Park in die gemeente Hurstpierpoint, ses en 'n half kilometer noord-wes van Brighton. Sy pa het ook die koninklike diens aangeneem en 'n gentleman -pensioenaris geword, en beide pa en oupa is twee keer teruggekeer na Lewes, waar die familie eiendom besit het.31 Sy pa is dood toe Goring nog minderjarig was en sy ma Goring se aankoop vir £ 70 gekoop het. 32

Beide sy pa en oupa en het sterk gespekuleer in die Sussex -eiendomsmark, wat die gesin baie skuld laat. By my eerste ingang in die wêreld, vertel Goring in 1618 vir die stygende gunsteling, Buckingham, en ek het nie 100 punte per jaar gratis gehad nie, en ook nie baie jare daarna nie. Ek het so baie skuld uit my wieg gesuig dat ek nooit geweet het wat vryheid is nie. Hy het onvermydelik na die hof gegaan, en in Januarie 1607 speel hy in die masker wat geskryf is vir die huwelik van sy neef, die erfgenaam van sir Edward Denny*, aan die Skotse hofdienaar, James, Lord Hay, later 1ste graaf van Carlisle.34 Twee maande later is sy grootvader se skuld aan die kroon, wat nog op byna £ 12.000 gestaan ​​het, blykbaar afgeskryf deur middel van 'n toelaag aan Sir George Fleetwood* en nog een van sy pa se trustees en twee van sy familielede.35

Goring was baie geskik vir die lewe van die hofdienaar wat nou voor hom oopgemaak het. Anthony Weldon, 'n vyandige kritikus, het hom as 'n meester van die spel vir dwalinge by die Jacobean Court afgemaak, maar sy voortbestaan ​​en bevordering in die rustiger hof van Charles I toon aan dat hy meer blywende eienskappe besit.36 Almal was dit eens hy was 'n politieke liggewig, in die woorde van die Venesiaanse ambassadeur, 'n man wat meer aan grappe as aan sake toegewy is, maar byna almal het van hom gehou, en sy snaakse en aangename humor ’ versoen & mense van alle konstitusies wonderlik vir hom ’, en hy was 'n lojale vriend. Sy mees praktiese talent blyk te wees vir die minder formele aspekte van diplomasie, waarin sy geestigheid en vriendelikheid ten volle kan speel.

Goring het in 1610 'n pos in die huishouding van prins Henry verkry, maar het moontlik na die buiteland gereis toe sy meester in November 1612 oorlede is, nadat hy die vorige Junie 'n reislisensie gekry het. Hy was beslis vroeg in 1613 in Parys, waarvandaan hy na Heidelberg gegaan het om die ontvangs van prinses Elizabeth te sien, wat onlangs met die keurvorst Palatine getroud was.38 By die terugkeer huis toe bevind Goring hom egter sonder 'n hofposisie en het hy moeite gedoen om in te tree homself saam met die heer tesourier, die 1ste graaf van Suffolk. In 1614 reël hy 'n wedstryd vir die jongste seun van Suffolk, Sir Thomas Howard*, met 'n dogter van William Cecil & dolk, daarna 2de graaf van Exeter. van Walden (Theophilus Howard*) het hom aangestel as luitenant van die here -pensioenarisse.40 Hy het saam met Hay op sy sending na Parys gegaan in 1616, gekenmerk deur Chamberlain as een van die drie mignards en#8217 van die ambassade, die ander was (sir ) Henry Rich* en Hay self, en is beloon met 'n verdere pensioen van £ 200 per jaar.41 In die daaropvolgende jaar woon hy die koning in Skotland by en het moontlik die geleentheid gebruik om hom aan die nuutgeskepte graaf van Buckingham te vestig. Sy vrou was 'n dame van koningin Anne, en na die dood van die koningin in Maart 1619 ontvang hy 'n pensioen van £ 3.000 uit haar gewrig, gevolg deur 'n toekenning van £ 2.000 pa vir 20 jaar uit die voorgeskrewe gebruike. Hy het die geld baie nodig gehad en in die herfs aan Buckingham gesê dat hy hoop om binne die week 7 000 van sy skuld af te betaal. Aan die einde van die jaar is hy gestuur om Suffolk te oorreed om in die uittrede uit die amp van sy seuns te stem nadat die graaf uit sy amp geval het. Hy het sy opdrag uitgevoer, maar het ernstig by Buckingham gesmeek vir die gesin en vir sy skoonsuster, die onteerde amptenaar van die staatskas (sir) John Bingley*, wat by die korrupsieskandaal betrokke was wat Suffolk neergelê het. .43

Goring is vir Lewes teruggestuur na die derde Jacobese parlement, danksy vermoedelik nie net sy eie belang nie, maar ook die van sy skoonpa, Edward, eerste lord Bergavenny, wat een van die mede-eienaars was van die eer van Lewes. Gedurende die parlement is Goring en Bergavenny se jongste seun, Christopher Neville*, as trustees aangestel vir die huwelikskikking van Anne, nog 'n dogter van William Cecil.

Gedurende 1621 het die parlement Goring drie opnames gehou en in een komitee aangestel. Tog was sy impak op die geskiedenis daarvan veel groter as wat hierdie karige bydrae sou suggereer. Hy het sy eerste toespraak gehou op 2 Maart na die vlug van die monopolis (sir) Giles Mompesson*. Goring het gesê dat hy die vorige aand op 'n vergadering van die ondersoekkomitee agter Mompesson gestaan ​​het, hoewel hy nie formeel een van die lede was nie. Omdat hy gedink het dat sir Giles siek is, het Goring die komitee tevergeefs laat beweeg om die patenthouer verlof te gee om huis toe te gaan. Met merkwaardige openhartigheid het Goring toegegee dat hy tot dusver bly sou gewees het oor sy ontsnapping, hoewel hy dit nooit bedoel het, of dit wou hê nie.

Dit lyk asof Goring homself net soveel as Buckingham se verteenwoordiger in die Commons beskou het as sy kiesafdeling. Toe Buckingham op 15 Maart deur Randolph Davenport, 'n getuie voor die komitee vir justisie, genoem word, het Goring haastig die voorval by sy beskermheer aangemeld. Hy skryf die dag dat hy Buckingham verseker het dat Davenport trou en duidelik gesê het dat wanneer die markies gevra is om in 'n hofsaak in te gryp, u antwoord op die heerskappy was dat u nooit sou skryf in 'n saak wat tussen party en party, en dat hierdie getuienis deur almal opgeteken is en weer duidelik herhaal is deur die voorsitter sir Robert Phelips. Goring het ook berig dat hy, sonder u heerskappy -lisensie, Sir Edward Sackville* aangepak het oor laasgenoemde se beweerde betrokkenheid by die beplanning teen die gunsteling onder die eweknie, en Sackville se gevoel van lyding in u [Buckingham ’s] goeie mening ’.46

Goring se finale bydrae tot die verrigtinge van die eerste sitting kom op 1 Mei, toe hy alle ander bydraers tot die debat oor die straf van die Katolieke advokaat Edward Floyd, wat daarvan beskuldig word dat hy die keurvorst Palatine en prinses Elizabeth beskuldig het, uitbuit in die gruwel van sy voorstel . Met verwysing na die gebedskrale wat in Floyd se besit gevind is, het hy voorgestel dat hy in twaalf fases geslaan moet word en gedwing word om 'n kraal by elk te sluk. Dit sou gevolg word deur sy neus af te sny en moontlik ook sy ore en tong, sy wange af te sny en dan aan die toring te hang, en daar is 'n einde aan hom. Sy vyandigheid teenoor Floyd is moontlik vererger deur die kommer oor die Protestantse saak in Europa. Volgens een verslag het hy verwys na 'n onlangse slagting in die Valtelline, 'n strategies belangrike vallei in die Alpe, waar die inheemse Katolieke 'n jaar gelede met die hulp van die Habsburgse magte 600 protestante geslag het.

Gedurende die reses is Goring weer beveel om Hay, nou lord Doncaster, na Frankryk te vergesel, maar hy het Buckingham op 13 Julie suksesvol gepleit dat sy privaat aangeleenthede dit vir hom baie moeilik gemaak het om te gehoorsaam, nadat hy sy ‘ -hoofhuis en lande beland het die betaling van & pond6,000 binne agt maande ’. Boonop was sy vrou agt maande swanger, en hoewel sy 'n vordering kan afweer, sal sy nie neerdaal vir 'n reis nie.#8217.48

Gedurende die tweede sitting het Goring gereeld aan Buckingham verslag gedoen oor verrigtinge in die Commons. Op 27 November het hy aan sy beskermheer gesê dat die Huis besluit het om die volgende dag oor die kwessies van aanbod, godsdiens, die beëindiging van die sitting en 'n toespraak aan die koning te debatteer. Hy was gretig om sy kollegas te verdedig en het Buckingham verseker dat die huis nou in 'n baie beter orde en humeur is as gister en dat hulle hulself gedeporteer het. laat Sy Majesteit sien dat dit net hul ywer was wat hulle die eerste keer vervoer het. Hy het aangevoer dat hulle '#affekte' ’ vir enige koning so goed soos altyd was en ontken dat hulle van voorneme was om op sy voorreg te kom of hom in sy rade te rig ’.49

Buckingham blyk egter ander idees te hê, en nadat hy by Goring verneem het dat die Commons die koning wou versoek, het hy sy kliënt opdrag gegee om 'n bykomende klousule voor te stel rakende die herstel van die Palts. Gevolglik het Goring, in die woorde van sy verslag, na die markiestaat wat daardie nag geskryf is, op 29 November 'n beroep op die Commons gedoen om te versoek dat, indien die koning van Spanje tans nie 'n algemene wapenstilstand van die keiser in die Palts verkry nie, #8217 dan ‘ sy Majesteit sal dit met graagte aan hulle verklaar dat hy nie ook sal spaar om oorlog teen die koning van Spanje en enige ander prins of staat wat teen sy kinders sal opponeer of bystaan, aan te kondig nie. Goring, ongetwyfeld bewus daarvan dat hy op gevaarlike gebied trap, was bekommerd dat Buckingham sou dink dat hy sy instruksies oorskry het en het sy beskermheer verseker dat dit juis die woorde is. Ek het dit verskuif en met soveel omsigtigheid in elke soort vir sy Majesteit se diens as wat my swak oordeel dit kon bekostig. Hy het Buckingham ook gevra om nie enige berigte wat hy mag ontvang, te glo nie. Goring het verder gerapporteer dat die mosie wonderlik goed verloop het, maar die huis was baie afgelei daarmee, veral omdat dit van Goring af gekom het, en het ook gedink. dat ek myself by die hof ongedaan gemaak het, of dat ek raad gehad het om te doen wat ek gedoen het. In die kantlyn het hy bygevoeg dat die einde van sy majesteit aan niemand bekend is nie, wat daarop dui dat hy hierdie laaste vermoede gedeel het. Die Huis het hierdie voorstel na die subkomitee verwys wat reeds ingestel is om 'n toespraak oor herhaling voor te berei en die sessie tot 'n einde te bring, wat Goring self die middag bygewoon het.

Toe die konsep petisie op 1 Desember by die komitee gelees word, was die klousule wat oorlog met Spanje voorstel, nie meer afhanklik van die onttrekking aan die Palts nie. Boonop bevat dit 'n bykomende voorstel waarin prins Charles versoek word om met 'n protestant te trou, wat nie deel was van die oorspronklike mosie van Goring nie. dit het gebeur sedert sy laaste verslag die besluit van die Commons was om vir Edwin Sandys*te stuur, wat afwesig was sedert die aanvang van die nuwe sitting. Hy het Buckingham verseker dat die petisie deeglik gedebatteer sal word en die hoop uitgespreek dat dit gepaard gaan met dinge wat waarskynlik sy majesteit die meeste sou aanstoot gee, maar hy beskou die afdeling oor buitelandse beleid steeds as die ‘ punt wat uit my beweging gekom het ’. Hy het later die dag geen aangetekende bydrae tot die daaropvolgende debat gelewer nie, aan die einde waarvan hy sy enigste komitee -aanstelling van die Parlement ontvang het, as een van die raadslede en hofdienaars wat gekies is om die toespraak aan die koning te lewer.52

Die volgende dag is Goring beveel om die adres aan die kanselier van die skatkis, sir Richard Weston*te oorhandig. Dieselfde dag het die Commons egter die woedende brief van James I ’ ontvang oor die versoeking wat nie afgelewer is nie, en verdere planne om dit voor te lê, is opgehou terwyl lede probeer het om hul reg om buitelandse beleid te debatteer, te regverdig. Goring was een van die vier lede wat op 18 Desember aangestel is om die koning van die Raad in kennis te stel en#8217 weiering om wetgewing te voltooi.53

In April 1623 was Goring een van die hofdienaars wat gedagvaar is om by Buckingham en prins Charles in Spanje aan te sluit. Kort daarna is hy gestuur om die vordering van die huweliksonderhandelinge aan die Prince ’s -suster, Elizabeth van Bohemen, nou 'n ballingskap in Den Haag, te rapporteer. Hy was aan die einde van die jaar terug in Den Haag om die hertog van Buckingham en Richmond se versuim om die doop van koningin Elizabeth se seun, Louis, by te woon. (Sir) Dudley Carleton*, ambassadeur in Den Haag, het geskryf dat sy ‘ goeie onderneming ’ hul Kersfeesviering aansienlik verhoog het.

Goring is in 1624 teruggestuur vir Stamford in belang van sy vriend Cecil, maar het verkies om vir Lewes te gaan sit, hoewel hy voorrang kry aan Christopher Neville.55 Op 3 Februarie, voordat die parlement vergader het, het hy aan Carleton geskryf oor sy vrees vir &# 8216 vreemde en gevaarlike praktyke vir die verbrokkeling van hierdie vergadering ’ en sy hoop dat die goed geaffekteerde hulle sou verhinder.56 Goring het vier toesprake in die laaste Jacobese parlement gehou, en sy tien komitees het die komitee van voorregte (23 Februarie) ingesluit. 57 Op 16 Februarie stuur die koning hom na die Huis om die uitstel van die sitting oor die dood van die hertog van Richmond aan te kondig.58 'n Week later spreek hy ten gunste van die keuse van die prins se kapelaan Isaac Bargrave, eerder as James Ussher, as prediker by die nagmaal van die Huis.59 Op 26 Februarie het hy besluit om die raadpleging met die Here oor die herbeswaarskrif te stel, en aangevoer dat ons dit haastig kan wees om ons begeertes om meer effektiewe sake teen hulle te doen, te oortref. 8217. Hy het die huis aangemoedig om eers 'n verslag te doen en 'n paar besluite te neem oor wat ons van die prins en Buckingham gehoor het. Hy het 'n grap gemaak dat hulle moet wag totdat 'n onmiddellike verwagte Spaanse diplomaat opdaag voordat hy die Katolieke uit Londen verdryf, sodat ons ons pousies kan stuur om hom uit hierdie land te bewaar. dae, maar het op bevel van die sekretaris Calvert ook die oorweging van die verhaal van Buckingham uitgestel tot die volgende dag, toe Goring oor die Spaanse ambassadeur se klagte teen die koning teen Buckingham gepraat het. Hy het gesê dat hierdie verontwaardiging bedreig is voor die prins wat uit Spanje kom en dat hy een van die aangestelde was om die oneer wat na bewering aan die hertog aangedoen is, te oorweeg.61 Hy is ook aangestel om op 3 Maart die Here te help om die raad wat aan die koning gegee moet word, en vergesel Buckingham op 16 Maart toe die hertog die antwoord van James gaan hoor het. (9 Maart). Hy was ook een van die wat aangestel is om wetsontwerpe oor die afskaffing van verhoor deur 'n geveg (22 Maart) te oorweeg en statutêre krag te gee aan 'n afgedankte heffing op Tyneside -steenkool (29 April) .63 Op 7 Maart het hy en Neville, onder bevel van die 18de graaf van Oxford, deursoek die huise van John Borough* en Sir Robert Cotton* .64

Later in 1624 word Goring na Frankryk gestuur om sy mede-mignards, nou Lords Kensington en Carlisle, by te staan ​​in die onderhandelinge vir 'n Franse huwelik vir Charles, of liewer om die twisambassadeurs self te versoen, soos die Venesiaanse ambassadeur berig: ‘he is 'n baie diskrete man en 'n vriend van beide ’. Vroeg in 1625 het hy die opdrag gekry om die kousband na Carlisle te neem, net na die dood van die koning. Hy het nog 'n paar reise gemaak in verband met die huwelik, en was een van die klein partytjies wat saam met Buckingham die nuwe koningin na Engeland terug begelei het.

Goring is herkies vir Lewes in die eerste Caroline-parlement. Sy enigste aanstelling in die komitee was om 'n wetsontwerp ter versagting van die vonnis van ekskommunikasie (27 Junie) te oorweeg en om twee versoekskrifte, wat op 10 Aug. die Raad van Oorlog. Sy enigste opgetekende toespraak is op 5 Aug. gelewer, toe hy te reageer op kritiek op sy beskermheer, sonder sukses 'n komitee en die hertog daartoe laat beroep het, sodat hy tevredenheid kan gee oor enige aspersies hy ’. Volgens Sir Francis Nethersole*was hierdie voorstel vir Buckingham net so onwelkom as vir die Commons, maar dit is meer waarskynlik dat Goring weer volgens sy beskermheer se instruksies optree.66 Hy was beslis ten gunste en het Buckingham vergesel na Den Haag in Oktober vir die sluiting van die alliansie teen Habsburg.67

Goring is in Lewens herkies, en is in 1626 in sewe komitees benoem, insluitend die komitee vir voorregte op 9 Februarie, en het 13 opgetekende toesprake gehou.68 maar tydelik buite guns in die hof, om weer te preek tydens die nagmaal van die huis, maar sy kant is verslaan.69 Die volgende dag maak hy beswaar teen (Sir) John Eliot se gebruik van die woord ‘courtier ’ in sy mosie oor verskaffing en griewe, met inagneming dat Eliot ‘ nie so goed weet dat "hofdienaars" as "hofdienaars" hom ’ ken. Toe Eliot homself begin verduidelik, het Goring egter haastig geantwoord dat hy geen uitsondering op die naam geneem het nie. Volgens een korrespondent het Goring ook beweer dat die hofdienaars net so eerlike manne was soos in die huis, en dat hulle hulself net soveel interesseer in die welstand van die staat, maar dit word nie deur die dagboekskrywers bewys nie.70

Goring raak onvermydelik nou betrokke by die verdediging van Buckingham, veral oor die bewerings rakende die inhegtenisneming van die Sint Petrus van Le Havre. Op 23 Februarie is hy by die komitee gevoeg vir ondersoek na die aanhouding van Engelse skeepvaart in Frankryk. Op 1 Maart gesekondeer hy Pym ’s se voorstel dat Buckingham deur sy advokaat aangehoor moet word, en verklaar dat hy dink dat die hertog dit wel begeer, en later op dieselfde dag dat hy een van die vier lede was Buckingham te vra om die hernieude aanhouding van die Sint Petrus.72 Drie dae later is hy aangewys om die konferensie met die Here by te woon oor die dagvaarding wat aan die hertog uitgereik is, waarna hy aan die gemeentelede aangekondig het dat sy beskermheer verlof van die hoër huis gekry het om tevredenheid te gee en dat hy wou dit op die daaropvolgende Maandag doen.73 Toe die prokureur-generaal op 6 Maart by die Commons kom, het Goring aan die huis gesê dat hy die hertog se antwoord kom bring, en vyf dae later verklaar hy dat hy het ‘ briewe onder goeie hande gehad ’ dat die Engelse skeepvaart in Frankryk vrygestel is, en toe die Sint Petrus weer op 1 Mei bespreek is, het hy gesê dat die her arrestasie te wyte was aan nuwe bewys, hoewel dit nie aktueel was nie.

Goring wou graag 'n stem van subsidies bespoedig. Toe 'n boodskap van Charles I om oproep om voorraad gelees word, op 11 Maart voorgelees word, het Goring onsuksesvol gekant teen 'n subkomitee om 'n antwoord op te stel, wat hy blykbaar as 'n vertragingstaktiek beskou het, en dat ons antwoord hierop gemaak kan word, stiptelik en winsgewend ’. Op 18 April, reageer hy op argumente dat griewe voor die toediening moet kom, het hy gesê dat ons nie minder met Sy Majesteit as met ander mag saamgaan nie en dat hy gedink het dat die koning dit nie goed in ons hande kan neem nie. 8217.76 Op 2 Mei het Goring sy mede -lede gewaarsku dat die pogings om Buckingham te vernietig gedoem is tot mislukking, en verklaar dat sy woorde van sy majesteit [wys] dat hy nie so 'n opoffering sal maak dat hy sy gunsteling kan verloor nie. Hy het die vooruitsig op verandering in die hertog uitgespreek en gesê dat 'n hart wat so vrygewig is, homself hervorm deur hierdie krete, maar gewaarsku het teen die vyande in die buiteland Sy Majesteit verlig beslis in hierdie uiterste, want hy is in 'n groot nood en twee dae later reageer hy op die beskuldiging van Hotham dat Buckingham Katolieke ondersteun, en vra Goring 'n komitee om te ondersoek wat die hertog teen hierdie kursus gedoen het en of hy meer gedoen het as wat ander in sy plek gedoen het? hertog is op 12 Junie gelees, hy het uitsondering geneem op die eerste klousule, met betrekking tot die ontbinding van die parlement in Oxford, die maak van balju's en die wegstuur van die heer [John] Glanville*’, wat hy onderhou het. king ’s eer meer as up op die hertog ’s ’. In 'n tweede groot komitee -debat op dieselfde dag het hy ter ondersteuning van aanbod waargeneem dat niks 'n prins meer toevoeg as die reputasie wat hy in sy onderdane het nie. 80

Goring is op 15 Februarie aangestel om die wetsontwerp te oorweeg om die kurators van die Sackville -landgoed in staat te stel om grond te verkoop. Hy was ook een van die name op 14 Maart om die voorstel van Sir Dudley Digges* vir die finansiering van oorlog op see te oorweeg deur die vrywillige gesamentlike voorraad van avonturiers en die petisies van die handelaars op 16 Maart. Op 7 Junie het hy gehelp om die Commons -antwoord op die koning se boodskap oor die hertog se verkiesing na die kanselier van die Universiteit van Cambridge te dra.

Kort na die ontbinding is Goring aangestel as vise-kamerling by die koningin. In Augustus het hy 'n suksesvolle bod gemaak vir die plaas van suikerposte, en in 1627 het hy beheer oor die kleinhandel in wyn gekry. In 'n brief aan Buckingham die volgende November het hy kommentaar gelewer oor die moeilikheid om geld in die stad in te samel, en gesê dat dit die wantroue van die hof was dat geen welgestelde Londoner geld aan die regering sou leen nie, ongeag die sekuriteit wat aangebied word.

Goring is in 1628 'n vyfde keer vir Lewes verkies. Hoewel die stad twee inkepings teruggee, is Goring in albei genoem en kon hy dus onmiddellik sit. Hy is aangestel om die konferensie met die Lords op 21 Maart oor die voorgestelde vas by te woon. Op 2 April het hy 'n mosie van sir Robert Phelips gesekondeer om verdere debat oor die aanbod uit te stel, en die volgende dag het hy tevergeefs 'n nuwe geskrif ingedien om die ander setel in Lewes te vul. Hy het geen verdere bydraes tot die verrigtinge in die Commons gelewer voor sy veredeling op 14 April nie. 83 Carleton, soos gerapporteer deur Lord Houghton (John Holles*), beweer dat die lede wat op hierdie tydstip na die hoër huis verhef is, hul promosie aan die koning verskuldig is. #8217s begeer om homself in die hande van sy mense te plaas, want hulle was die mans wat die meeste teen hul verrigtinge gekant was ’.84

Goring het in die diens van die koningin gebly tot 1639, toe hy 'n privaatraadslid en onderkamerheer van die huishouding geword het. Hy verkry verskeie winsgewende kantore en ontwikkel kommersiële belange waarin hy 'n meer aktiewe besorgdheid beoefen as wat algemeen onder hofdienaars was, en uiteindelik 'n aandeel in die groot plaas van die doeane in 1638 verkry het. Aan die vooraand van die burgeroorlog het hy 'n jaarlikse inkomste van & pond 26,800. Sy aangeleenthede het egter in wanorde gebly, en hy moes ook dié van sy ewe buitensporige oudste seun George, 'n gewetenlose maar briljante soldaat, hanteer wat in Portsmouth in die Long -parlement gesit het voordat hy 'n meedoënlose royalistiese generaal in die burgeroorlog geword het. Goring was self die aktiefste as diplomaat tydens die eerste burgeroorlog, en is in 1644 deur Norwich opgerig. Die weiering van die parlement om hierdie titel te erken, is deels te wyte aan die baie algemene verwarring tussen Goring en sy seun. Gedurende die tweede burgeroorlog in 1648 het Goring die royalistiese magte in Kent gelei en is daarna gevange geneem na die val van Colchester. Hy is deur 'n spesiaal saamgestelde hooggeregshof verhoor en ter dood veroordeel, maar is op 8 Maart 1649 deur die Rump tereggestel danksy die beslissende stem van speaker Lenthall. Daarna het hy by Charles II in ballingskap aangesluit. Hy het die herstel oorleef, maar is op 6 Januarie 1663 oorlede, na bewering aan 'n gebroke hart nadat hy nie sy belangstelling in die groot plaas kon herstel nie. Hy is agt dae later in die Westminster Abbey begrawe. His will, dictated to a servant four days before his death, was solely concerned the settling of his debts. His younger son, Charles, succeeded to the earldom and a leasehold estate worth, by his own account, no more than £450 per annum, and died without issue in 1671.85


George Goring (1608–1657) : Caroline Courtier and Royalist General

George Goring was in many ways the archetypal cavalier, often portrayed as possessing all the worst characteristics associated with the followers of King Charles I. He drank copiously, dressed and entertained lavishly, gambled excessively, abandoned his wife frequently, and was quick to resort to swordplay when he felt his honour was at stake. Yet, he was also an active Member of Parliament and a respected soldier, who learnt his trade on the Continent during the Dutch Wars, and put his expertise to good use in support of the royalist cause during the English Civil War.

In this, the first modern biography of Goring, the main events of his life are interwoven with the wider history of his age. Beginning with his family background in Sussex, it charts his successes at court and exploits in the service of the Dutch, culminating in his experiences at the siege of Breda in 1637, and his role in the Bishops' Wars. However, it is his key role as a royalist general during the Civil War that is the major focus of this book, which concludes with Goring's years of exile during the Republic.

This fascinating and illuminating account of Goring's life, character and actions, provides not only a fresh examination of this contentious figure, but also reveals much about English society and culture in the first half of the seventeenth century.


Biografie

George Goring was born in 1608, the son of George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich. He served as a colonel in the Dutch States Army during the Dutch Revolt, fighting in the 1637 Siege of Breda, during which he was wounded. Goring returned to England in 1639 and became Governor of Portsmouth, and he served in the Bishops' Wars before taking part in an army plot to liberate Thomas Wentworth, 1st Earl of Strafford from Parliamentary captivity in 1641 he was the one who betrayed the details of the plot to Puritan leader John Pym, leading to its failure and Strafford's execution for treason. However, in August 1642, Goring chose to side with King Charles I of England when the First English Civil War broke out. He served as a cavalry commander under William Cavendish, 1st Duke of Newcastle and defeated the Parliamentarian general Thomas Fairfax in the Battle of Seacroft Moor, but he was captured at Wakefield in May 1643. He commanded the Royalist left at the Battle of Marston Moor in 1644, and he later fought at the Siege of Taunton in 1645. On 10 July 1645, shortly after the Battle of Naseby, Fairfax defeated Goring at the Battle of Langport, and, in November 1645, Goring abandoned his forces and fled to France. He came to command English Royalist regiments in the service of the Spanish Army, and he converted to Catholicism before dying in Madrid in 1657.


Lord George Goring

Baron George Goring was a senior Royalist commander during the English Civil War. Goring commanded a detachment of horse at the Battle of Marston Moor and while he was considered a brave fighter he could not compare with the likes of his opponent at Marston Moor, Oliver Cromwell.

Goring was born in 1608. He was the son of one of Henrietta Maria’s favourite courtiers. As a young man he developed a reputation as a hard gambler but he honed his fighting skills fighting for the Dutch in Flanders. Goring was wounded in 1637 during the siege of Breda and had to return home. In 1639 he was appointed Governor of Portsmouth.

Goring was known to be a very ambitious man who was not too fussed about what he had to do to advance himself. Edward Hyde, 1 st Earl of Clarendon, wrote:

“He would, without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery, to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite and, in truth, wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit, and courage, and understanding, and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God or Man) to have been as eminent and successful in the highest attempt in wickedness of any man in the age he lived in, as before.”

In the build up to the start of the Civil War, Goring tried to keep in with both sides. He made Portsmouth a base for Charles I but told the Commons that he was loyal to their interests. His performance in the Commons was so good that senior Parliamentarian figures even discussed appointing him to their senior command. However, when Charles raised his standard, Goring declared for the King.

Goring spent a short time in the Netherlands at the start of the war but returned to fight for the King as a cavalry commander. He inspired his men but there can be little doubt that his bravery bordered on the reckless. In 1643, he was captured by Fairfax at Wakefield. In 1644 he was exchanged for Parliamentarian prisoners and led a cavalry unit at Marston Moor that fought on Prince Rupert’s left flank. In the initial opening phase of this battle, Goring’s men took on and defeated horsemen commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax – a highly respected cavalry commander at the time. However, Goring could not press on his success and his unit was defeated by Oliver Cromwell. When the Royalist foot soldiers started to retreat at Marston Moor, so did what was left of Goring’s cavalry.

The defeat left a mark on Goring and he turned more and more to drink. However, his reputation was such that he was appointed Captain of the Horse in the west of England. In October 1644, he fought with bravery at Newbury but away from the battlefield, he became more and more unpredictable. He quarrelled with Prince Rupert and intrigued against him and disobeyed orders to join up with Rupert just prior to the Battle of Naseby.

Regardless of this Goring was still favoured by Charles and in May 1645 he was given the command of all the Royalist forces in the West of England – despite the loss of Taunton earlier in the year. In July 1645 his forces were heavily defeated at Langport and he was forced back to north Devon. His army suffered badly from desertion and lack of morale. In November 1645, citing ‘ill-health’ he left for France.

In 1646, Goring moved to the Netherlands where he was appointed Commander of the English Regiments serving the Spanish there. In 1650 he moved to Spain and spent the rest of his days there, dying in Madrid in 1657.


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About George Goring, Lord Goring

George Goring, Lord Goring (14 July 1608 – 1657) was an English Royalist soldier. He was known by the courtesy title Lord Goring as the eldest son of the 1st Earl of Norwich.

The son of George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, Goring became famous at court for his prodigality and dissolute manners. He was married to Lettice Boyle, daughter of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, and his father-in-law procured for him a post in the Dutch army with the rank of colonel. He was permanently lamed by a wound received at Breda in 1637, and returned to England early in 1639, when he was made governor of Portsmouth.

Experience before the Civil Wars

He served in the Bishops' Wars, and already had a considerable reputation when he was involved in the "Army Plot" (1641). Officers of the army stationed at York proposed to petition the king and parliament for the maintenance of the royal authority. A second party was in favour of more violent measures, and Goring, in the hope of being appointed lieutenant-general, proposed to march the army on London and overawe the Parliament during Strafford's trial (1641). This proposition being rejected by his fellow-officers, he betrayed the proceedings to Mountjoy Blount, 1st Earl of Newport, who passed on the information indirectly to John Pym in April.

The 'Lieutenant-General of Horse'

Colonel Goring was thereupon called on to give evidence before the Commons, who commended him for his services to the Commonwealth. This betrayal of his comrades induced confidence in the minds of the parliamentary leaders, who sent him back to his Portsmouth command. Nevertheless he declared for the king in August. He surrendered Portsmouth to the parliament in September 1642 after the Siege of Portsmouth and went to the Netherlands to recruit for the Royalist army, returning to England in December. Appointed to a cavalry command by the Earl of Newcastle, he defeated Fairfax at Seacroft Moor near Leeds in March 1643, but in May he was taken prisoner at Wakefield on the capture of the town by Fairfax. In April 1644 he effected an exchange.

At the Battle of Marston Moor, Goring commanded the Royalist left, and charged with great success, but, allowing his troopers to disperse in search of plunder, was routed by Oliver Cromwell at the close of the battle. In November 1644, on his father's elevation to the earldom of Norwich, he became Lord Goring. The parliamentary authorities, however, refused to recognize the creation of the earldom, and continued to speak of the father as "Lord Goring" and the son as "General Goring".

In August Goring had been despatched by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, who recognized his ability, to join Charles I in the south, and in spite of his dissolute and insubordinate character he was appointed to supersede Henry, Lord Wilmot, as lieutenant-general of the Royalist horse. He secured some successes in the west, and in January 1645 advanced through Hampshire and occupied Farnham but want of money compelled him to retreat to Salisbury and thence to Exeter. The excesses committed by his troops seriously injured the Royalist cause, and his exactions made his name hated throughout the west.

He had himself prepared to besiege Taunton in March 1645, yet when in the next month he was desired by Prince Charles, who was at Bristol, to send reinforcements to Sir Richard Grenville for the siege of Taunton, he obeyed the order only with ill-humour. Later in April 1645 he was summoned with his troops to the relief of the king at Oxford.

Lord Goring had long been intriguing for an independent command, and he now secured from the king what was practically supreme authority in the west. It was alleged by the Earl of Newport that he was willing to transfer his allegiance once more to the parliament. It is not likely that he meditated open treason, but he was culpably negligent and occupied with private ambitions and jealousies. He was still engaged in desultory operations against Taunton when the main campaign of 1645 opened.

For the part taken by Goring's army in the operations of the Naseby campaign see English Civil War. After the decisive defeat of the king, the army of Fairfax marched into the west and defeated Goring in a disastrous fight at Langport on July 10, 1645. He made no further serious resistance to the parliamentary general, but wasted his time in frivolous amusements, and in November 1645 he obtained leave to quit his disorganised forces and retire to France on the ground of health.

His father's services secured him the command of some English regiments in the Spanish service. He died at Madrid in July or August 1657.

Clarendon says of Goring that he "would, without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite and in truth wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit, and courage, and understanding and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God or man) to have been as eminent and successful in the highest attempt of wickedness as any man in the age he lived in or before. Of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece in which he so much excelled, that men were not ordinarily ashamed, or out of countenance, with being deceived but twice by him."

See the life by CH Firth in the Dictionary of National Biography Dugdale's Baronage, where there are some doubtful stories of his life in Spain the Clarendon State Papers Clarendon's History of the Great Rebellion and SR Gardiner's History of the Great Civil War.


Bronne

1 <i>A History of the County of Sussex</i>, 8 (London: Victoria County History, 1953), 6 Part 3: 160-164.

2 <i>A History of the County of Sussex</i>, 8 (London: Victoria County History, 1953), 7: 94-98. . East Sussex Record Office, Lewes.

3 <i>A History of the County of Sussex</i>, 8 (London: Victoria County History, 1953), 7: 80-83.

4 <i>A History of the County of Sussex</i>, 8 (London: Victoria County History, 1953), 7: 179-181.

5 <i>A History of the County of Sussex</i>, 8 (London: Victoria County History, 1953), 4: 63-65.

6 <i>A History of the County of Sussex</i>, 8 (London: Victoria County History, 1953), 4: 4-6.


Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Goring, George (1608-1657)

GORING, GEORGE, Lord Goring (1608–1657), son of George Goring, earl of Norwich [q. v.], and Mary, second daughter of Edward Nevill, sixth lord Abergavenny, was born on 14 July 1608, and married, on 25 July 1629, Lettice, third daughter of Richard Boyle, earl of Cork (Lismore Papers, 1st ser. ii. 109). Goring early became famous as the most brilliant and prodigal of the younger courtiers. He is celebrated as ‘a jovial lad’ in two poems ‘On the Gallants of the Times’ (Wit Restored, Hotten's reprint, pp. 134, 137). Though he received a dowry of 10,000l. with his wife, his demands on his father-in-law for money were incessant (Lismore Papers, 1st ser. iii. 189, 195, 226). In 1633 Garrard wrote to Wentworth, ‘Young Mr. Goring is gone to travel, having run himself out of 8,000l., which he purposeth to redeem by his frugality abroad’ (Strafford Letters, i. 185). The persuasion of his daughter and the pressure of the lord-deputy induced the Earl of Cork to make further advances in order to purchase for Goring Lord Vere's post in the Dutch service, which gave him the rank of colonel and the command of twenty-two companies of foot and a troop of horse (ib. bl. 166 Lismore Papers, 1st ser. iii. 213). Wentworth testified to his ‘frank and sweet, generous disposition,’ and warmly recommended him for the post, in which, Wentworth prophesied, he would ‘be an honour and comfort to himself and friends’ (Strafford Letters, i. 119). At the siege of Breda, in October 1637, Goring received a ‘shot in his leg near the ankle-bone’ (ib. ii. 115, 148). The wound lamed him for the rest of his life, and was one of the chief causes of his repeated complaints of ill-health during the campaign of 1645. At first it was rumoured that he was killed, and Davenant wrote a poem on his supposed death, a dialogue between Endymion Porter and Henry Jermyn, in which the latter observes that Sir Philip Sidney ‘in manners and in fate’ was his ‘undoubted type’ ( Davenant , Works, red. 1673, p. 247). On the death of Lord Wimbledon, Goring, whose wound seems to have necessitated his return to England, was appointed governor of Portsmouth, 8 Jan. 1638–1639 (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1638–9, pp. 297, 335). The Earl of Cork seized the opportunity to write his son-in-law a long letter in which he congratulated him on his reconciliation with his wife, and adjured him to give up immoderate gaming (Lismore Papers, 2nd ser. v. 279). In the first Scotch war Goring commanded a regiment, and was with the Earl of Holland in the march to Kelso (ib. iv. 57, 69). Lovelace has a poem entitled ‘Sonnet to General Goring after the pacification of Berwick,’ in which he speaks of Goring's ‘glories’ as if he had already gained reputation as a soldier as well as a good fellow (Gedigte, red. Hazlitt, p. 120). In the second war Goring, who had been seeking to re-enter the Dutch service, commanded a brigade as well as a regiment ( Peacock , Army Lists, bl. 76 Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1640–1, p. 546). The disputes between king and parliament afforded an opportunity which he resolved to use for his own advancement. ‘His ambition,’ says Clarendon, ‘was unlimited, and he was unrestrained by any respect to justice or good nature from pursuing the satisfaction thereof. Goring would without hesitation have broken any trust or done any act of treachery to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite and, in truth, wanted nothing but industry (for he had wit and courage and understanding and ambition, uncontrolled by any fear of God or man) to have been as eminent and successful in the highest attempt in wickedness of any man in the age he lived in. And of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece’ (Rebellie, viii. 169). In March 1641 began ‘the ​ first army plot.’ Goring took part in it, and, not content with the original project of petitioning, urged that the army should be brought up to London and the Tower seized. His aim was to obtain the post of lieutenant-general for himself. ‘If he had not a condition worthy of him,’ he would have nothing to do with the affair. An agent of the queen procured a letter from the officers in the north saying that they would ‘heartily embrace’ Goring as their commander ( Husband , Collection of Orders, &c. 1643, pp. 219, 222). Finding, however, that his brother-officers in London rejected his plans, he informed the parliamentary leaders of the plot through the Earl of Newport [see Blount, Mountjoy ]. The discovery of this treachery led to a quarrel between him and those he had betrayed. Wilmot charged him with perjury for breaking his oath of secrecy, on which the commons voted that Goring had done nothing contrary to justice and honour that he deserved very well of the Commonwealth (9 June), and prohibited him from fighting either Wilmot or Ashburnham (8 July) (Old Parliamentary Hist. ix. 334, 437). Goring was twice examined concerning the plot, but his real share in it appears more plainly in the letter of Henry Percy to the Earl of Northumberland than in his own accounts (Perfect Diurnal, bl. 150 The Examination and Declaration of Col. Goring Husband , Collection of Orders, &c. 1643, pp. 215–32).

Though he did not altogether escape suspicion, the parliament now regarded him as irremediably attached to their cause, and sent him back to his command at Portsmouth with complete confidence. Before the end of the year, however, he ‘wrought upon the king and queen to believe that he so much repented that fault that he would redeem it by any service,’ and in January 1642, when the king first meditated a recourse to arms, Portsmouth played a large part in his calculations ( Gardiner , Hist. of England, x. 154). In November 1641 he was accused of corresponding with the queen and other suspicious acts, but cleared himself by a plausible speech in the House of Commons (ib. x. 73 Clarendon , v. 440). He obtained 3,000l. from the queen to reinforce the garrison, and a supply of money and his arrears of pay from the parliament. It was even intended to appoint him lieutenant-general of the horse under Essex. Finally, on 2 Aug., earlier than he had originally intended, he openly declared for the king (Cal. State Papers, Dom. 1644, p. 179 Clarendon , v. 441). But in spite of the money Goring had received Portsmouth was weakly garrisoned and badly fortified and it was immediately blockaded both by land and sea. The surrender took place early in September 1642 the reasons are stated in a paper drawn up by Goring and his officers (Lismore Papers, 2nd ser. v. 107 Clarendon , Rebellie, vi. 2, 32). Goring now went to Holland, where he busied himself in recruiting for the king among the English regiments serving there. He returned to England in December and landed at Newcastle with a number of officers and veteran soldiers ( Husband , Collection of Orders, &c., 1643, pp. 797, 813). The Earl of Newcastle made him general of his horse, and he at once distinguished himself by routing Sir Thomas Fairfax at Seacroft Moor, near Leeds, on 30 March 1643 (Mercurius Aulicus, 4 April 1643). On 21 May, however, Wakefield was stormed by Sir Thomas Fairfax, and Goring, who was in command, taken prisoner. When the parliamentarians entered the town, he was in bed ill of a fever, but mounted his horse, headed a charge, and showed both courage and presence of mind (ib. 28 May Rushworth , v. 268). Most of the next nine months Goring spent in the Tower, but was finally exchanged for the Earl of Lowthian in April 1644 ( Dugdale , Diary, 2 April 1644). On 10 May he was despatched from Oxford with a regiment of horse, and, joining the cavalry of Lord Newcastle's army, made an unsuccessful attempt to raise the siege of Lincoln. He next made his way into Lancashire and united with Prince Rupert at Preston ( Robinson , Discourse of the War in Lancashire, bl. 54 Rushworth , v. 620). At the battle of Marston Moor Goring commanded the left wing of the royalists, routed the cavalry opposed to him, and was himself routed by Cromwell as he returned to the field with his victorious troops. ‘If his men had but kept together as did Cromwell's, and not dispersed themselves in pursuit, in all probability it had come to a drawn battle at worst, and no great victory to be boasted on either side’ ( Cholmley , Memorials touching the Battle at York). Goring and his beaten troops fled into Lancashire, where they distinguished themselves by their plunderings ( Robinson , p. 56). His career up to this time had been unfortunate, but he had shown considerable ability as a leader, and was now called south to take a more important command. On 8 Aug. 1644, at Liskeard, Goring was declared lieutenant-general of the horse in the king's main army in place of his old enemy Wilmot ( Walker , Historical Discourses, bl. 57). Clarendon seizes the opportunity to contrast the characters of the two, after the manner of Plutarch, and attributes to Goring the sharper wit and the keener courage, but less self-control and a greater love of de ​ bauchery (Rebellie, x. 169). He imputes entirely to Goring's negligence the escape of Essex's cavalry when the foot were obliged to surrender. The notice of their escape and the order to pursue ‘came to Goring,’ according to Clarendon, ‘when he was in one of his jovial exercises … and he continued his delights till all the enemy's horse were passed through his quarters, nor did he then pursue them in any time’ (viii. 116). Though the charge has been generally accepted, it hardly deserves the credit it has obtained. No contemporary authority mentions Goring's drunkenness on this occasion, it is not proved that Goring was negligent in the pursuit of the parliamentary horse, and it is certain that they did not pass through his quarters. Goring gives a brief account of the pursuit in a letter to Prince Rupert (Sussex Archæological Collections, xxiii. 323). During the remainder of the campaign of 1644 his chief exploits were the beating up of Waller's quarters at Andover on 18 Oct., and a very gallant and successful charge at the second battle of Newbury ( Walker , Historical Discourses, pp. 106, 112 Diary of Richard Symonds, bl. 141). On 6 Nov. 1644 Prince Rupert was appointed commander-in-chief, and though Goring professed the greatest affection for Rupert ( Warburton , Prince Rupert, iii. 16), he began from that moment to intrigue for an independent command. He owed his present post mainly to Digby, with whom he had now contracted a fast friendship, ‘either of them believing he could deceive the other and so with equal passion embracing that engagement’ ( Clarendon , Rebellie, viii. 95, 180). The results of these intrigues were in the highest degree disastrous to the king's cause. In December 1644 Goring was sent into Hampshire ‘upon a design of his own of making an incursion into Sussex, where he pretended he had correspondence, and that very many well-affected persons promised to rise and declare for the king, and that Kent would do the same’ (ib. ix. 7). A commission was at the same time granted to him as lieutenant-general of Hampshire, Sussex, Surrey, and Kent (21 Dec. 1644, Black , Oxford Docquets, bl. 244). In pursuance of this design he advanced as far as Farnham, attacked Christchurch, and was repulsed, and then took up his winter quarters at Salisbury. He laid the blame of his ill-success on the defects of his army and the disobedience of his officers, and used these pretexts to obtain greater independence and larger powers ( Warburton , iii. 46, 52). In February he was ordered into Dorsetshire to assist in the capture of Weymouth, but negligently allowed it to be recaptured by the parliamentarians. In the same way he failed to prevent the relief of Taunton, though he succeeded in inflicting a number of trifling defeats on Waller. Some attributed these miscarriages to a fixed plan to make the presence of his forces in the west indispensable ( Clarendon , ix. 21). In March Prince Charles arrived at Bristol to take command of the west, and disputes at once began between Goring and his councillors. It was speedily discovered that Goring aimed at ousting Hopton from his command, and becoming himself lieutenant-general of the western army (ib. ix. 20). The history of the disputes between Goring and the prince's council, disputes which paralysed the western army throughout 1645, is told in detail by Clarendon in the ninth book of his ‘History of the Rebellion.’ This portion of his narrative was written in 1646, and is founded throughout on authentic documents. At the end of April Goring was summoned to Oxford with all his cavalry in order to cover the junction of Rupert and the king. Some of the king's advisers wished to strengthen the field army by retaining Goring's division, a course which might possibly have altered the fate of the campaign. Rupert, however, ‘was jealous of having a rival in the command, and feared Goring, who had the master wit, and had by his late actions gotten much reputation’ ( Walker , p. 126). Accordingly he was sent back to the west with authority which, thanks to Lord Digby, was greatly increased. Commissions were to run in his name, he was to have a seat in the prince's council, and the council was to have the power of advising, but not of ordering him ( Clarendon , Rebellie, ix. 31). On 14 May he was further authorised to command in chief all the forces in the west (ib. 43). Hardly, however, had Goring returned to the blockade of Taunton when he was summoned either to join the king or to raise the siege of Oxford (Cal. Clarendon Papers, i. 266). Goring promised to come as soon as he had reduced Taunton, and begged the king to avoid an engagement till he was able to join him, but his letter was intercepted by Fairfax ( Bulstrode , Herinneringe, bl. 125 Rushworth , vi. 49). After Naseby Fairfax marched west, and Goring was obliged to raise the siege of Taunton, and give battle at Langport in Somersetshire, where he was defeated with the loss of a large part of his infantry (10 July 1645). He then retired into North Devonshire, where he remained completely idle, making no attempt to reorganise his troops, and permitting Fairfax to capture fortress after fortress without opposition. His time was spent partly in ‘jollity’ and debauchery, ​ partly in disputes with his subordinates and the prince's council. He demanded full power to command all forces in the west, and though the demand was not unreasonable, his conduct made it impossible to trust him so far. The remonstrances of the prince and his councillors were entirely unheeded, nor would he obey the king's orders to break through and join him at Oxford. At length, on 20 Nov., he wrote to the prince begging leave to go to France for two months for the recovery of his health. Without waiting for a reply he set sail for Dartmouth. He was really suffering in health, both from his old wound and from the effects of his debauches, but he also hoped to return in command of the foreign forces which the queen was endeavouring to raise ( Gardiner , Great Civil War, ii. 427). While he lingered in France the king's army in the west surrendered to Fairfax (March 1646). Goring now went to the Netherlands, and obtained the command of the English regiments in Spanish service, with the title of colonel-general, and a pension of six hundred crowns a month. This post was given to him on account of the services of Lord Norwich in promoting the treaty of 1648 between France and Spain ( Carte , Original Letters, i. 387 The Declaration of Col. Anthony Weldon, 1649, p. 28). He seems, however, to have found his command merely an empty title, and in March 1650 went to Spain in hope of obtaining some assistance for Charles II and his own arrears of pay ( Carte , Original Letters, i. 359). In 1652 he was at the siege of Barcelona (Sussex Arch. Coll. xix. 98). According to Dugdale, Goring while in Spain was ‘lieutenant-general under John de Silva, and finding him corrupted by Cardinal Mazarin he took him prisoner at the head of his army, whereupon that great don had judgment of death passed upon him’ (Baronage, bl. 461). In 1655 he wrote to Charles II from Madrid apologising for four years' silence and offering his services ( Thurloe , i. 694). Sir Henry Bennet found him at Madrid in July 1657, very ill and very destitute, and the news of his death reached Hyde a month later (Cal. Clarendon Papers, iii. 317, 352). Dugdale, from whom many others have copied the story, represents him as assuming in his last days the habit of a Dominican friar (Baronage, bl. 461).

Goring had undoubtedly considerable ability as a general he possessed courage and fertility of resource, and he had a keen eye for the opportunities of a battle-field. ‘He was, without dispute,’ says Sir Richard Bulstrode, ‘as good an officer as any served the king, and the most dexterous in any sudden emergency that I have ever seen’ (Herinneringe, bl. 134). There was ‘a great difference,’ adds Clarendon, ‘between the presentness of his mind and vivacity in a sudden attempt, though never so full of danger, and an enterprise that required more deliberation and must be attended with patience and a steady circumspection, as if his mind could not be long bent’ (Rebellie, ix. 102).

[Clarendon's Hist. of the Rebellion, ed. Macray Clarendon State Papers Warburton's Prince Rupert, 1849 State Papers, Dom. Memoirs of Sir Richard Bulstrode, 1721 Sir Edward Walker's Historical Discourses, 1705.]


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