Goud van Filippyne: skatte van vergete koninkryke

Goud van Filippyne: skatte van vergete koninkryke

Gepubliseer ter geleentheid van die opening van die uitstalling van "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms", georganiseer deur die Asia Society, New York en die Ayala Museum in die Filippyne in 2015, stel hierdie gelyknamige uitstallingskatalogus die publiek bekend aan die geheimsinnige pre -Hispaanse koninkryke van die Filippynse argipel. Geredigeer deur die kurator van die Asia Society Museum, Florina H. Capistrano-Baker, Filippynse goud is 'n uitstekende premier oor die vakmanskap van die antieke Filippyne.

Kortliks in slegs 100 bladsye geskryf, Filippynse goud plaas die artefakte wat in die uitstalling gevind word binne 'n breë sosio-historiese konteks in Oos- en Suidoos-Asië. Die koninkryke van die ou Filippyne is bevolk deur gevorderde samelewings met uitstekende metallurgiese tegnologie lank voor die aankoms van Ferdinand Magellan en Spaanse ontdekkingsreisigers in 1521 nC. Die antieke Filippyne lê by die kruising van die handel tussen die Indiese en Stille Oseaan. Monsoons het handelaars, matrose en sendelinge honderde jare voor die aankoms van die Spaanse na die Filippynse argipel gebring, so dit is geen verrassing dat baie van die uitstallings stukke stilistiese, ikonografiese en tegniese ooreenkomste met verre en naburige kulture deel nie. Alhoewel dit vanselfsprekend kan lyk, gegewe die heersende weerstoetse, moet u weet dat die Filippyne 'n sentrum van goudmyn was en bly. (Die Filippyne het die tweede grootste gouddeposito ter wêreld, en u kan dit beslis verstaan ​​as u lees Filippynse goud!)

Die teks omskryf eers die belangrikheid van spesifieke vondste en voorraad, soos die 'Surigao -skat' wat in die tagtigerjare ontdek is - en gaan vervolgens in op onderwerpe wat verband hou met antieke metallurgie, die antieke koninkryk Butan en die Boxer Codex uit die 16de eeu nC, wat lewer beeldende bewyse oor pre-Spaanse kostuum en juweliersware. Die werklike nut van Filippynse goud lê in verkenning en daaropvolgende ontleding van die 117 voorwerpe van die uitstalling: pragtige kop, nek, bolyf, middellyf en oorversierings; seremoniële wapens; rituele houers; en godsdienstige stukke getuig van 'n besliste invloed van antieke Indië en die geïndialiseerde koninkryke van Suidoos -Asië op baie voorwerpe wat geprofileer is. ('N Paar items het 'n beperkte invloed uit China.) Diegene wat niks weet van die Filippyne en die geskiedenis nie, sal die goudwerke op die mees basiese vlak kan waardeer. Diegene van ons wat reeds iets weet van Asiatiese kuns en kultuur, sal ook iets heeltemal nuuts sien. Hierdie merkwaardige voorwerpe brei ons begrip van vroeë maritieme handel en kulturele uitruil uit.

'N Handige kaart van die Filippyne, 'n tydlyn van die Filippynse geskiedenis en 'n kontrolelys vir uitstallings met afbeeldings van alle artefakte is in die katalogus ingesluit. Bibliografiese verwysings in Engels, Frans en Spaans verskyn ook aan die einde van Philippine Gold, maar 'n mens is verbaas om geen titels in Tagalog te sien nie. Hierdie lys is nietemin handig vir navorsers wat meer wil leer.

AHE beveel hierdie pragtige katalogus aan vir diegene wat belangstel in Asiatiese geskiedenis, argeologie en kunsgeskiedenis. Die beelde in Philippine Gold is uitbundig en asemrowend. Lesers is dalk nuuskierig net om die beelde alleen te sien.

Filippynse goud. Asia Society, 2015, hardeband, 100 bladsye, kleurprente deurgaans. Beskikbaar by die Asia Society


Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms by Asia Society Museum in New York, 11 September 2015 – 3 Januarie 2016

Die uitstalling toon voorwerpe wat onlangs opgegrawe is, wat die welvaart en prestasies van die onbekende Filippynse koninkryke beklemtoon wat floreer het lank voordat die Spaanse die streek ontdek en dit gekoloniseer het. Die uitstalling bevat ongeveer 120 voorwerpe uit die tiende tot die dertiende eeu en toon gesofistikeerde goudverwerkingstegnieke wat gedurende hierdie tydperk ontwikkel is. Die oorgrote meerderheid werke in die uitstalling word geleen van die Ayala Museum en die Bangko Sentral n Pilipinas Gold Collection en is nog nooit buite die Filippyne vertoon nie. ” - Asia Society Museum

Kinnari. Surigao, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. H. 12 x 7 cm (12 x 7,5 cm). Ayala Museumversameling, kat. 81.5189. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum

Oorversiering. Oos -Visayas of Noordoos -Mindanao, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. Diam. 1 5/8 duim (4,2 cm). Ayala Museumversameling, kat. 73.4192. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum

Stel van drie groot armbande. Baggao, Cagayan provinsie, Luzon, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. A: W. 2 11/16 x Diam. 2 6,8 x 7,5 cm. B: W. 1 9/16 x Diam. 2 4,0 x 7,2 cm (13/16 duim). C: W. 1 1/16 x Diam. 2,7 x 7,5 cm. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G6P-1983-0003, G6P-1983-0005, G6P-1983-0006. Foto deur Wig Tysmans Beeld met vergunning van Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines)

Oorversierings. Butuan, Augusan del Norte, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. H. 3,5 x 3,3 cm. Ayala Museumversameling, kat. 75.4229AB. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum

Bekertjie. Surigao, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. H. 1 1⁄4 x Diam. 3,1 x 7,8 cm. Ayala Museumversameling, kat. 81.5166. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum

Halter. Surigao, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. L. 59 1/16 x W. 1 1/16 (150 x 2,7 cm). Ayala Museumversameling, kat. 81.5186. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum

Stel van twee middellyf koord gewigte. Surigao Treasure, provinsie Surigao del Sur, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. Elkeen: H. 2 3/8 duim (6 cm). Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G7P-1981-0003. Fotografie deur Wig Tysmans Beeld met vergunning van Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines)

Oorversierings. Arasasan, Mindanao. Ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. A: 11,9 x 7,9 cm (11,9 x 7,9 cm) B: H. Ayala Museumversameling, kat. 76.4479AB. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum

Tailleband. Surigao, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. L. 26 7/8 x W. 1 15/16 (68,2 x 4,9 cm). Ayala Museumversameling, kat. 81.5176. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum

Stel van twee gordelgespe. Butuan, Agusan del Norte provinsie, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. Elkeen: 10,8 cm. Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G7P-1981-0001, G7P-1981-0002. Foto deur Wig Tysmans Beeld met vergunning van Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines)

Oorversierings. Mindoro -eiland, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. Elkeen: 7 cm (W. 2 ¾ in.) Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, G5P-1983-0018. Fotografie deur Wig Tysmans Beeld met vergunning van Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines)

Masker. Butuan, Augusan del Norte, ca. 10de tot 13de eeu. Goud. H. 8 7/16 x W. 6 7/16 in. (21,5 x 16,3 cm). Ayala Museumversameling, kat. Nr. 76.4795. Foto deur Neal Oshima Beeld met vergunning van Ayala Museum


Filippynse goud: skatte van vergete koninkryke

Hierdie uitstalling bied skouspelagtige goudwerke wat hoofsaaklik gedurende die afgelope veertig jaar op die Filippynse eilande Luzon, die Visayas en Mindanao ontdek is. Die versierings, juweliersware, seremoniële wapens en rituele en begrafnisvoorwerpe getuig van die onlangs ontblote bewyse van welvaart en prestasie van die Filippynse politiek wat tussen die tiende en dertiende eeu floreer het, lank voordat die Spanjaarde die streek ontdek en gekoloniseer het. Alhoewel die vorms en style van die meerderheid van hierdie werke plaaslik ontwikkel het, dui sommige daarop dat die Filippynse vakmanne blootgestel was aan voorwerpe van buite hul grense deur die robuuste kulturele verbindings en maritieme handel in Suidoos -Asië tydens 'n vroeë ekonomiese oplewing in Asië.

Die Filippynse argipel van meer as 7,000 eilande lê tussen die Stille Oseaan en die Indiese Oseaan in die gebied buite die Asiatiese vasteland, bekend as Island Southeast Asia. Gedurende die tyd toe kunstenaars en vakmanne die werke in hierdie uitstalling geskep het, het seelui, handelaars, sendelinge en afgevaardigdes die waters wat die tropiese eilande verbind het tot verre lande, waaronder China en Indië, gebuig. Monsoonwinde bepaal die kom en gaan van handelskepe - die tyd van die jaar wat hulle aanlê, hoe lank hulle bly en wanneer hulle vaar. Hawe -nedersettings naby beskermde inhamme, soos die ou Butuan by die monding van die Agusan -rivier, waar dit in die Butuanbaai in die noordooste van Mindanao uitmond, het skepe en matrose aangetrek waar hulle hul toevlug gesoek het na die sterk suidwestewinde wat van Mei tot November gewaai het. Sommige van hierdie handelskepe verruil vir die natuurlike hulpbronne van die vroeë Indiese tekste wat Survarnadvipa, of "Islands of Gold" genoem word, 'n geografiese pleknaam wat volgens geleerdes verwys na die eilande van Suidoos -Asië, insluitend Sumatra in Indonesië en naby Mindanao en Luzon in die Filippyne.


Resensie: 'Filippynse goud: skatte van vergete koninkryke'

Meer as 'n half millennium voordat Ferdinand Magellan die argipel bereik het wat nou in 1521 die Filippyne genoem word, het 'n aantal verwante samelewings daar floreer. Min is bekend oor hulle. Hulle het geen blywende argitektuur, monumente of literatuur nagelaat nie. Een ding is egter seker: Hulle was verstommend vaardige goudsmede.

'N Ruim voorbeeld van die onbekende mense se werk in goud word aangebied in "Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms", 'n pragtige en histories interessante uitstalling van ongeveer 120 stukke uit die 10de tot die 13de eeu.

Die vertoning, georganiseer deur die Asia Society se Adriana Proser en, as raadgewende kurator, Florina Capistrano-Baker van die Ayala Museum, Filippyne, waartoe die meeste items te siene behoort, bevat armbande, armbande, halssnoere, hangertjies, pektorale, krae, vinger ringe, skottelgoed, bakke, 'n weegskaal wat geheel en al uit goud bestaan ​​en driehoekige stukke met afgeronde hoeke genaamd "kuisheidskleppe" wat ontwerp is om deur vroue oor hul geslagsdele gedra te word. Baie voorwerpe in die uitstalling is so klein en fyn gemaak dat dit byna onmoontlik is om hul besonderhede met blote oë te waardeer. Gelukkig word 'n vergrootglas voorsien, en kykers word aangeraai om dit te gebruik vir die wonderlike tegniese vaardigheid wat dit openbaar.

Die ster van die vertoning en die grootste stuk is 'n blink venster wat beskou kan word as 'n futuristiese ammunisieriem. Dit is gemaak van talle goue krale en is bedoel om oor een skouer, oor die bors en tot by die heup gedra te word, waar die een kant deur 'n lus draf en eindig met die instelling vir 'n nou verlore finale. Byna vyf voet lank en vierkantig (ongeveer 'n duim aan 'n kant), weeg dit ongeveer nege pond.

Nog 'n opvallende stuk, 'n kamagi genoem, bestaan ​​uit 12 halssnoere wat aan mekaar vasgemaak is tot 'n byna 15 voet lange ketting wat deur klein, gekleurde klippe gesny is. Die individuele halssnoere bestaan ​​uit gladde, ineengeslote krale wat saamsmelt om buigsame, slangagtige lengtes goud te vorm.

Daar is verskeie middellyfbande met pragtige dekoratiewe gespe. Die gordels, ongeveer twee sentimeter breed en twee of meer voet lank, word hoofsaaklik gemaak met 'n "loop-in-lus" -tegniek, wat patrone skep soos dié van 'n gebreide trui. Buisvormige en ander soorte krale wat in die gordels geweef is, trek zigzag- en streeppatrone in.

'N Paar van die voorwerpe wat vertoon word, behels figuurlike beelde, maar die dinge wat opmerklik is, is veral opmerklik. 'N Plat stuk met 'n vlamagtige buitelyn omlê die groot, driehoekige gesig van 'n vrou wat in skerp lyne getrek is met klein skouers en arms omhoog in 'n gebed van aanbidding. Bo haar kop is 'n simbool van 'n lewensboom. Alhoewel daar ander Hindoe- en Boeddhistiese invloede in ander werke voorkom, dui hierdie op 'n natuurgebaseerde godsdiens aan. Dit laat die kyker ook wonder watter ander beeldende tradisies hierdie vroeë Filippyne gehad het, maar dit lyk asof ons dit nooit sal weet nie.

Hoe was die kennis van 'n kultuur - of versameling kulture - wat in staat is tot so 'n uitstekende en gesofistikeerde metaalbewerking, vergeet en sonder 'n naam gelaat? Dit is 'n deurmekaar verhaal.

Goud was altyd volop in die Filippyne, maklik versamel deur panning. Vandag word gesê dat die land die tweede rykste goudneerslag ter wêreld het. Toe die Spanjaarde land, vind hulle inboorlinge met baie goue juweliersware. Illustrasies in 'n boek uit omstreeks 1590 genaamd "The Boxer Codex", wat in die uitstalling te sien is, beeld inheemse mense uit wat opvallende goue versierings oor vloeiende, kleurvolle kledingstukke dra. Maar die Spaanse koloniseerders het min tyd gemors om die inheemse kulture te ontbind en met hul goud af te maak, wat hulle vir hul eie doeleindes laat smelt het.

Die eerste moderne ontdekkings van prekoloniale goud is gemaak deur die Franse ontdekkingsreisiger Alfred Marche, wat in 1881 ongeveer 10 stukke houtkiste en Chinese uitvoerkanne op begraafplase op die eiland Marinduque ontbloot het. (Deur koolstof dateer uit die keramiekvate waarin goudstukke gereeld begrawe is, het argeoloë later vasgestel dat die meeste goud wat aan die lig gekom het, van die 10de tot die 13de eeu vervaardig is.)

Hier en daar het meer goue artefakte opgeduik gedurende die daaropvolgende dekades, maar eers honderd jaar later het die volgende groot vonds plaasgevind. Op 'n dag in April 1981 werk 'n swaar masjinerie -operateur met die naam Edilberto Morales aan 'n besproeiingsprojek in die provinsie Surigao del Sur op die eiland Mindanao toe hy per ongeluk 'n metaalbak, wat uit goud blyk te wees, opgegrawe het. Die gedeeltelik ingeduikte, elegant eenvoudige vaartuig is in die uitstalling. Gedurende die res van die dag het mnr. Morales nog baie meer goudstukke ontdek - wat 22 pond werd was - van wat bekend gestaan ​​het as die Surigao -skat.

Plunderaars het vinnig na die terrein gestroom en 'n groot aantal voorwerpe opgedoen wat hulle aan handelaars en versamelaars verkoop het, en baie argeologiese bewyse vernietig. Morales en sy gesin het weggekruip uit vrees vir diewe en ontvoerders wat belangstel in sy skielike vermoedelike rykdom.

Al die goud sou oor die hele wêreld versprei gebly het, maar vir die pogings van drie mense wat vasbeslote was om hierdie fundamentele dimensie van die Filippynse erfenis te bewaar. Tussen 1960 en 1981 koop die argeoloog Cecilia Y. Locsin en haar man, die argitek Leandro V. Locsin goudstukke by handelaars sowel as by grafgrawers, boere en vissers wat werke op min of meer skaduryke wyse bekom het. Die egpaar het die meer as 1 000 goue voorwerpe bymekaargemaak wat nou in besit is van die Ayala -museum.

In die vroeë tagtigerjare het Jaime C. Laya, destyds goewerneur van die Sentrale Bank van die Filippyne, baie voorwerpe van die Surigao Treasure bekom vir die insameling van die bank. Ongeveer 28 van die uitstallings se voorwerpe kom uit die versameling.

Alhoewel baie hiermee gered is, het baie meer verlore gegaan. Een van die mooiste stukke van die vertoning weerspieël per ongeluk die broosheid van antieke tradisies. Dit is 'n klein beeldjie in die vorm van 'n voël met die kop van 'n vrou, 'n tipe mitiese wese wat bekend staan ​​as 'n kinnari. (Aangesien sulke menslike voëlbasters dikwels in Hindoe- en Boeddhistiese kuns voorkom, dui hierdie op invloede uit ander dele van Asië waarskynlik deur middel van seevaartroetes.) Ongeveer die grootte van 'n goudvink is sy kop in goud gegiet en sy hol, dun- ommuurde lyf met 'n patroon van vere. Ongelukkig is sy vlerke geamputeer, waarskynlik deur 'n gewetenlose goudjagter, en sy liggaam word gedeeltelik verpletter. In hierdie gewonde toestand het dit tog 'n aangrypende, poëtiese eienskap, asof dit op hierdie manier gemaak is om die kortstondige aard van kuns en lewe te betreur.


Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms -tentoonstelling in New York

Dit is mal hoe min ons weet van die pre-Spaanse geskiedenis en hoe 'n groot deel van ons geskiedenis dit is. Op skool bestee ons ongeveer 'n maand aan voorgeskiedenis/pre-Spaanse geskiedenis. Met hierdie spoed kry jy die idee dat die Negritos, Maleiers en Indonesië agterna gekom het, en dan is ons binne 'n paar dekades deur die Spanjaarde ontdek.

Die tydlyn is meer soos: inboorlinge het ongeveer 30 000 jaar gelede ingetrek en die proto-austronesiërs of Maleisiërs het ongeveer 5 000 jaar gelede ingekom. En dan is daar die Callao -bene wat bewys het dat daar reeds ongeveer 60 000 jaar gelede mense in die voorgeskiedenis geleef het.

In terme van geslagte, van ons geslag tot die tyd dat die Spanjaarde gekom het, was dit 16 generasies (as 'n geslag ongeveer 30 jaar daarna verskyn), maar teen die tyd dat die Spanjaarde gekom het, was die Maleise migrasie uit Taiwan, die LAASTE van die groot migrasies , het al vir 115 GENERASIES plaasgevind. Het jy jou ooit voorgestel hoe oud jou lola se kinderjare was? Dit is net 3-4 generasies. Stel jou voor hoeveel tyd honderd geslagte is.

Hoe oud is hierdie juwele? Plaas dit in konteks in hoe lank gelede u dink die Spanjaarde was. Die oudste goud in die video is ongeveer 1000 nC, wat beteken dat dit so oud is vir die Spanjaarde toe hulle aankom, aangesien die aankoms van die Spanjaarde vir ons in die huidige tyd is.

Ek vermoed baie dat Filippyne nie weet nie, en selfs as hulle dit weet, sal hulle nie omgee nie. Soveel van ons definieer ons geskiedenis en kultuur suiwer vanuit 'n koloniale oogpunt, dat alles wat voor die Spaanse en Amerikaners gekom het, per definisie nie die Filippynse kultuur is nie, in elk geval nie werklik nie. Hulle maak geluide oor die Christendom, dankbaar vir die koloniseerders; ons was nog nooit 'n land voordat Spanje gekom het, dit laat gaan het nie, ens.

Die ergste van hulle kan selfs sê dat dit sataniese propaganda, heidense voorwerpe, uitgebreide vervalsings (soos die Kalantiaw -kode was) was, of dat alles van elders in Asië afkomstig is, dat dit nie ons s'n is nie.

Ek bedoel, almal praat dat ons geskiedenis 300 jaar in 'n klooster is en 50 in Hollywood. Jessica Zafra het bygevoeg dat daar ook 66000+ jaar waarvan ons amper niks weet nie, en ek was geneig om met haar saam te stem.

As u H. P. Lovecraft lees, moet dit voel asof u die prehistoriese uitheemse beskawings van die Elder Things ontdek, wat miljoene jare voor die eerste mense groot, komplekse stede gebou het.

O, en weet u waarom so min van ons prekoloniale erfenis oorbly? Dit is nie die enigste rede nie, maar 'n groot deel is: Die Spanjaarde vernietig Dit. Die broeders. Hulle en hul militêre manne het die hout afgode en die voorkoloniale houthuise verbrand. Sekerlik, die bekering was meestal vreedsaam (ten minste volgens die geskiedenisboeke), maar ons afgode teenoor ons voorouers en ons inheemse gode ... as dit hout was, was dit verbrand as dit klei was, was dit stukkend. Ek vermoed dat die Asteke, Inkas, Maya's, ens. Gelukkig was omdat hulle baie groter klipstrukture gehad het, in baie minder toeganklike oerwoude, waarvan die meeste nie heeltemal deur die Spaanse koloniale magte vernietig kon word nie.

Dan wonder mense hoekom ons vandag so 'n kulturele identiteitskrisis het. Wonder nie meer nie. Spanje was waarskynlik een van die suksesvolste koloniale ryke in die hervorming van sy kolonies en die kultuur van die kultuur - in werklikheid soveel dat u selfs vandag nog hele groepe Hispaniste in hierdie land gekry het, en ons wou terugbring na die koloniale dae!


Geskiedenis van goud in die Filippyne bespreek

Op Foto: Capistrano-Baker en Chuasoto

AMERIKANS het die geleentheid gekry om te leer oor goud en die rol daarvan in die Filippynse geskiedenis tydens 'n lesing wat deur dr. Florina Capistrano-Baker by die Filippynse ambassade in die Verenigde State gehou is.

Die lesing was 'Filippynse goud: skatte van vergete koninkryke', en was deel van die viering van die Filippyns-Amerikaanse erfenismaand. Dit is georganiseer deur die US-Philippines Society, met die ondersteuning van die Filippynse ambassade.

Die forum was 'n aanvulling op 'n deurlopende uitstalling in New York met goudvoorwerpe uit die voorkoloniale Filippyne onder leiding van Capistrano-Baker, raadgewende kurator by die Ayala Museum, en Adriana Proser, 'n senior kurator van John H. Foster vir tradisionele Asiatiese kuns in Asië. Samelewing.

Tydens sy openingsrede het die adjunkhoof van die minister van sending, Patrick Chuasoto, die eienskappe van die seldsame edelmetaal met Filippyne vergelyk.

'Wat die meeste mense nie weet nie, is dat goud die mees smeebare metaal is. Dit buig maklik na eksterne kragte sonder om te breek of te kraak. Dit verander van vorm, maar dit kan sy natuurlike eienskappe behou. Op hierdie manier kan goud die essensie van Filippynse wees simboliseer. As individue en as 'n nasie word die Filippyne erken vir hul veerkragtigheid, hul vermoë om aan te pas en te assimileer, terwyl hulle die waarheid oor hulself behou, "het Chuasoto gesê.

Capistrano-Baker het die geskiedenis van Butuan in die suide van die Filippyne en die tuiste van verskeie goue voorwerpe gedeel, hoofsaaklik elite-regalia wat vermoedelik deel uitmaak van 'n heersende gesins kollektiewe erfenis.

Die uitvoerende direkteur van die Amerikaanse samelewing, Hank Hendrickson, sê hulle is verheug om meer inligting oor die tydperk aan Amerikaanse gehore te bring en moedig mense aan om die uitstalling in die Asia Society Museum in New York te besoek.

"Die program oor pre-Spaanse Filippynse goud het ingewikkelde ontwerpe vertoon, komplekse sosiale strukture en uitgestrekte handelsbande in die Filippyne geopenbaar vanaf die 10de tot 13de eeu, 'n era wat tot dusver in die geskiedenis verlore gegaan het," het Hendrickson gesê.

Capistrano-Baker het haar PhD, M.Phil, verwerf. en M.A. van die Departement Kunsgeskiedenis en Argeologie aan die Universiteit van Columbia.

Sy behartig die permanente uitstalling van Gold of Ancestors in die Ayala Museum in 2008 en skryf die katalogus Philippine Ancestral Gold in 2011. Sy ontvang talle toekennings, waaronder genootskappe van die Columbia Universiteit, die Metropolitan Museum of Art, Asian Cultural Council, Ford Foundation, American Association of University Women en die Getty Research Institute.

Die uitstalling bestaan ​​uit meer as 100 goue items, meestal regalia, juweliersware, seremoniële wapens en rituele en begrafnisvoorwerpe wat per ongeluk in 1981 in die gehucht Magroyong naby Butuan ontdek is. Dit sal tot 3 Januarie 2016 in die Asia Society Museum in New York City te sien wees.


Geskiedenis wat goud werd is

Het u geweet ons het koninkryke? & Rdquo Doris Magsaysay Ho het my gevra tydens die bekendstelling van & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms, en rdquo, 'n belangrike uitstalling wat vir die hele vier maande begin, wat op 11 September begin by die Asia Society Museum in New York City. & ldquo (Daar was) koninkryke Butuan, Agusan en Surigao. & rdquo

Alhoewel ander koninkryke gedurende die voor-Spaanse tyd floreer het, het Magsaysay-Ho hierdie terreine genoem as goue juweliersware skatte uit die 10de eeu. Alhoewel hulle vandag nog 'n werklike geldeenheid het, lê hul uiteindelike waarde daarin dat dit in lewensvorme en beskawing verweef is in hul ontwerpe.

In leen van die Ayala -museum en Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas vertel die goue versameling 'n verhaal van die Filippynse mense, selfs al het hul oorspronklike draers hulself nog nie so genoem nie. Dit is sprankelende getuienisse van gevestigde samelewings, robuuste maritieme handel, gesofistikeerde vakmanskap en idees oor mag en skoonheid.

Doris Magsaysay Ho, voorsitter van Asia Society Philippines, hoop dat die meer as 120 skouspelagtige goue voorwerpe in & ldquoPhilippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms & rdquo 'n meer akkurate beeld van die land en rsquos se pre-koloniale verlede sal gee en in die historiese geleerdheid in die Austronesiese konteks geplaas sal word. . & rdquo

& ldquoWe & rsquove werk al 'n hele jaar daaraan, en rdquo sê Magsaysay Ho, die voorsitter van die Asia Society Philippines, oor hul voorbereiding. (Fernando Zobel de Ayala en Loida Nicolas Lewis help haar in hierdie inisiatief.) Basies, met APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) en die hele wêreld wat belangstel in die Filippyne wat die ekonomiese aspek van die land betref, het gedink hoe wonderlik dit is om 'n verhaal te hê oor ons kultuur en erfenis. & rdquo

Van halssnoere, kettings, middellyfbande en armbande tot rituele bakke, werktuie en seremoniële wapens, hierdie artefakte sal die belangrikste plek wees om New Yorkers (sowel as sy miljoene besoekers en die groot Fil-Am-gemeenskap) 'n blik te gee op hoe ons was , voor die sogenaamde beskawingsmissies van die Weste. Ander stukke uit die Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, Musee du Quia Branly in Parys, die Lilly -biblioteek in Indiana en 'n paar stukke uit die persoonlike versameling van die Locsin -familie sal die uitstalling en rsquos -verhaal wat in edelmetaal gesmee is, aanvul en uitbrei.

Vir Magsaysay Ho is dit belangrik dat die versameling hom in die geskiedenisboeke sal vergemaklik en sy plek sal vind in die groter verhaal van die menslike beskawing. Een van ons doelwitte is om 'n beurs te hê oor hierdie (goue stukke) wat werklik vasgestel en verstaan ​​is, en sy het gesê. Ons wil hê dat mense moet weet van die pre-Spaanse goud in die Filippyne, sodat dit sy plek in die geskiedenis kan vind. Die simposiums in die state sal fokus op hoe ons goud in verhouding tot Suidoos -Asië geplaas word. & Rdquo

Een so 'n simposium is & ldquoEncounter with Early Gold, en rdquo wat gelei sal word deur die & ldquoPhilippine Gold & rdquo-kurators Nina Capistrano-Baker, voormalige direkteur van Ayala Museum en Adriana Proser, die John H. Foster Senior Kurator vir Tradisionele Asiatiese Kuns by Asia Society New York. Die toespraak bevat 'n nuwe studie oor die studie van ons begrip van Asiatiese mense in die konteks van goudhandel en beweging tussen die 10de en 13de eeu. , die Herbert Irving -kurator van Suid- en Suidoos -Asiatiese kuns by die Metropolitan Museum of Art.

Goue juweliersware, soos hierdie oorversiering uit die Oos-Visayas, bewys dat gevestigde samelewings, robuuste maritieme handel en gesofistikeerde vakmanskap gedurende die pre-Spaanse tyd bestaan ​​het.

Vir Capistrano-Baker en Proser is die uitstalling belangrik omdat dit uitstekende bewyse lewer dat die Filippyne 'n gesofistikeerde kultuur gehad het voor Westerse kontak. Die uitstekende kwaliteit van die goue ornamente verdryf ook die Westerse stereotipe van pre-koloniale Filippyne as onkundige en primitiewe woeste voor die beskaafde invloede uit Spanje en Amerika. & Rdquo

Hulle hoop dat die Filippynse goud: skatte van vergete koninkryke verder navorsing, toespraak en vakkundigheid oor die pre-koloniale Filippyne sal oplewer, en in die proses ons gevoel sal versterk van wie ons as 'n volk was voordat Islam en die Christendom by ons oewer aangekom het, en die veelvlakkige, kollektiewe verlede wat ons maak van wie ons vandag is. & rdquo


Filippynse geskiedenis, bewerk in goud

MANILA - Te lank het baie Filippyne en buitelanders gewerk met die verkeerde persepsie dat die land in 'n era van onkunde tot die koms van Westerse invloed verdwyn het. 'N Uitstalling hoop om 'n bydrae te lewer om die idee uit die weg te ruim en 'n goue lig op die saak te werp.

Van 10 September 2015 tot 3 Januarie 2016 bied die Asia Society 'Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms' aan-'n uitstalling wat saamval met 'n reeks lesings oor die verskillende aspekte van die pre-koloniale Filippynse kultuur waarin goud gebruik is alledaagse versierings-, handels- en begrafnisrituele. Dit sal die eerste keer wees dat 'n uitstalling van hierdie omvang na die Verenigde State gebring word, wat die vaardigheid en kuns van die pre-koloniale Filippyne beklemtoon.

Die uitstalling fokus op antieke gemeenskappe in Butuan, Samar, Cebu, Leyte, Palawan, Mindoro, Marinduque en Luzon. Die skatte wat herwin is, sluit in halssnoere, armbande, krale, lyfbande, seremoniële wapens, rituele gereedskap en ander werktuie wat ingewikkelde vakmanskap en groot kunstenaarskap toon. Die sorgvuldig geselekteerde items word geleen van die Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, wat die Met's -goudversameling huisves en van die Ayala -museum, wat die Loscin -versameling huisves.

Bekostigbare items uit die uitstalling sluit in die kinnari (tans in die Ayala Museum), 'n vaartuig wat in Butuan gevind is, en 'n gevleuelde vrou uitbeeld waarvan die Filipynse kenmerke gevorm is deur dieselfde handige hand wat haar grasieuse voëlagtige vlerke en vere, die sorgvuldig gekamde hare, uitgebeeld het. en netjiese broodjie, en 'n diadeem wat haar wenkbrou versier. Die feit dat pre-Spaanse Filippynse subkulture so gesofistikeerd was dat sewe verskillende grade die kwaliteit van goud kon onderskei-"dalisay" of 24K as die beste kwaliteit beskou-dui op 'n verlore geskiedenis of vertelling toe die Filippyne 'n ryk handelskultuur gehad het wat nie het slegs goud as betaling vir goedere en dienste gebruik, maar dit ook in die hiernamaals gebruik.

Die uitstalling, wat saamgewerk is deur die Florina Capistrano-Baker van Ayala Museum en die Adriana Proser van die Asia Society, sal ook huidige bykomstige ontwerpers vertoon: Wynn Wynn Ong Tina Ocampo van Celestina Bea Valdes en Rafe Totengco.

"Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms", met die viering van die skatte van 'n historiese verlede, hoop om trots te wees, 'n sterk gevoel van nasionale identiteit en nalatenskap vir Filippyne wat gelukkig is om hierdie items te aanskou. Gelaai met geskiedenis en trots, is dit artefakte wat nou baie meer werd is as hul gewig in trounse.


Gevind: die verlore ou skat van Filippyne en#8211 Gulf News

'N UNIEKE uitstalling van goue artefakte uit die Filippyne, wat dateer uit die 10de tot 13de eeu, het die publiek se verbeelding in New York aangegryp. Behalwe hierdie unieke artefakte uit die voorkoloniale geskiedenis van die Filippyne, werp hierdie versameling goue ornamente, dekoratiewe voorwerpe en ander voorwerpe met 'n sterk Hindoe-Boeddhistiese kulturele invloed ook 'n ander lig op die geskiedenis van die Filippyne.

Daar is nie veel bekend oor die geskiedenis van die land voordat die Spaanse verowering daartoe gelei het dat die land 400 jaar lank 'n kolonie was nie. Baie geleerdes, navorsers en historici sê nou dat die versameling 'n 'heeltemal nuwe begrip' van die Filippynse geskiedenis beloof.

Die uitstalling, “Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms”, is middel September geopen by die Asia Society in New York.

Die Filippynse konsul-generaal in New York, Mario de Leone, wat uitgenooi is na 'n voorskou saam met die media, het aan Weekend Review gesê dat die uitstalling die grootste Filippynse geleentheid in sy soort is wat in New York gehou is. 'Dit is die eerste keer dat hierdie goue artefakte buite die Filippyne vertoon word,' het hy gesê.

Sommige kenners het die ingewikkelde goudwerk vergelyk met die versameling wat op die tentoonstelling van koning Tutankhamun se graf en sy skatte uitgestal is.

'N Uitstekende stuk is die vaartuig "Kinnari" van Surigao. Designed as half-woman and half-bird, it reflects the Indian mythical “kinnari”, a celestial female with wings and legs of a bird personifying beauty, grace and accomplishment.

Another masterpiece is a heavy gold caste cord that denotes the existence of a prosperous upper class with a strong Hindu cultural influence. And then there are lotus ear ornaments from Butuan, belt buckles from Mindanao and burial ensembles from Daet and elsewhere.

Florina Capistrano-Baker, who has a doctorate in the history of Asia-Pacific and in-depth knowledge of precolonial Filipino art, is a special consultant for international operations as well as consulting curator at the Ayala Museum in the Philippines. She told Weekend Review that “we ourselves were not aware of the Philippines’ Hindu past. As the gold artefacts here suggest, we had strong links with the Hindu culture in India or through Bali, Indonesia … this culture was ubiquitous in the Philippines”.

She rues that the period before Spanish colonialism was de facto “erased from the Filipino consciousness”. She cited similarities between the customs, culture, architecture, etc. that were prevalent at that time in Southeast Asia.

Capistrano-Baker says that the discovery of these gold artefacts had uncovered evidence of a lost civilisation, which was “revolutionary”.

“The economic implications will also be immense. By highlighting and depicting this past, we can attract tourism from countries that will have an inherent interest in such artefacts,” she said, adding that it will appeal not only to Hindu and Buddhist tourists from India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, but also from the West.

She said she would also seek material and research help available from India and other countries that should be interested in this discovery.

Adriana Proser, an Asian arts specialist and senior curator at the Asia Society, said that the spectacular works in the exhibition — including exquisite regalia, jewellery, functional and ritualistic objects, ceremonial weapons and funerary masks — stemmed from collections in the Philippines and were supplemented with objects from the United States.

“This exhibition showcases recently excavated objects that highlight the prosperity and achievements of the little-known Philippine kingdoms that flourished long before the Spanish discovered the region and colonised it,” Proser told Weekend Review.

The collection, which comprises about 120 objects, also reflects sophisticated gold-work techniques developed during this period. Most of the works in the exhibition are on loan from the Ayala Museum and the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas Gold Collection.

Many of the works, excavated between the 1960s and 1981, affirm the unprecedented creativity, prosperity and sophisticated metalworking tradition of the precolonial period. They also bear testimony to the flourishing cultural connections and maritime trade in Southeast Asia during what was an Asian economic boom.

Experts now want to find out the reasons behind the Spanish attempts to hide or even obliterate the Philippines’s precolonial history. Would it be an oversimplification to say they wanted to “Christianise” the country?

Filipino experts told this writer that in addition to the array of gold objects from various sites throughout the archipelago, archaeologists had recovered hundreds of clay crucibles for smelting gold, gold-working tools, and raw and wrought gold during the excavations of precolonial wooden plank boats (balangay) in Butuan in 1976.

In precolonial Philippine politics, village chiefs, called “datu”, ruled through consensus. Some of the objects showcased in the section Adornments for the Datu contain remains of the adornments, weapons and garments that marked the prosperity and power of the datu, whose similarity with the present-day Malaysian title “Datuk” or “Dato” (knighthood granted to Malaysians) is quite striking, though it is premature to claim historical etymological links between the terms.

An affluent datu who actively engaged in foreign trade assumed the loftier Hindu title “rajah”.

The exhibition is divided into four sections: archaeology, trade, the Kingdom of Butuan and the surrounding kingdoms.

Most objects trace back to the Kingdom of Butuan — a still scarcely understood civilisation centred on the island of Mindanao that rose to prominence in the 10th century before mysteriously declining in the 13th. But it took more than seven centuries for the objects to be found, and even after their discovery, they were not seen in the West for several decades.

Like in India and China, gold played an important role in the history of the Philippines, a country that, some geologists say, may have huge gold deposits.

According to Filipino experts present at the exhibition, many artefacts were dug out in the 1970s during the construction of a network of drainage canals. Among them were ceramics of Southeast Asian and Chinese origin, as well as boats used in trading. These details have been supported by records from China’s Song Dynasty, whose officials maintained contact with Butuan in the early 11th century. There is evidence to suggest that an enterprising and wealthy seafaring civilisation existed in the Philippines centuries before Spanish colonisation began with explorer Ferdinand Magellan’s arrival in 1521.

The discovery of these gold artefacts reads almost like a thriller. A construction site in Mindanao in southern Philippines in 1981 turned up what would be the most valuable Butuan cache. It was by sheer accident that Berto Morales, who was using heavy digging machinery, discovered a gold bowl. He dug further and discovered gold bracelets, vessels, necklaces and other ornaments. By the end of the day he had piled up a tidy collection of artefacts.

But Morales, unaware of the true value of his find, took the artefacts home and hid them for a while before approaching his parish priest to find out how he could benefit from the discovery — a decision he would later regret.

As word spread, gold hunters and other dubious characters thronged the site. And allegedly, even the military, on the pretext of protecting the finding, moved to the site to get “a fistful of gold”, as Filipinos like to say.

Meanwhile, Morales found his own life and that of his family in danger. His family was kidnapped and released when he paid ransom. He then fled the island and lived under a new name. But when he returned, the priest told him that the remaining items were not there any longer.

Luckily, some of the artefacts landed at the Central Bank whose governor Jaime Laya, an art collector, recognised the value of the objects. Many of the artefacts were also bought by Leandro and Cecilia Locsin, who prevented the objects from being melted and sold in the market — a fate that many other objects had faced.

Cecilia Locsin, an archaeologist, spared no effort to preserve the artefacts. In 2008, the Butuan gold artefacts were displayed at the Ayala Museum, protected by a special security force.

The exhibition has aroused interest in the Butuan Kingdom. As Capistrano-Baker put it, she would like the world to help unearth the “rich culture and history of the Philippines”.

Manik Mehta is a commentator on Asian affairs.

“Philippine Gold: Treasures of Forgotten Kingdoms” will run at the Asia Society, New York, until January 3, 2016. (By Manik Mehta. Special to Weekend Review – Gulf News)


12 thoughts on &ldquo3,500 Ton Philippine Gold Bars Unlawfully Shipped Out, But for Whose Benefit?&rdquo

yeah [email protected]&K THEM! not men who would throw them out., but God will (Isaiah 27:1)

Anyone read “GOLD WARRIORS” by Sterling and Peggy Seagrave? If so,don’t be surprised if any “Certified True copy of a Gold Bullion Certificate, claimed to be issued by Union Bank of Switzerland (UBS), covering 3,500 MT of 99.999 Gold” is later declared to be a forgery. Remember, possession is nine tenths of the law. Once someone has possession of any asset, what simpler way of paying nothing for it is there than claiming the receipt they gave is a forgery?
No one knows for sure how much gold, silver and precious stones were plundered up to the end of WW 2, but we do know that a hell of a lot of it ended up NOT in the possession of its rightful owners or their heirs.

This bugs me ..
Another attempt by the OP to talk about something he knows little or nothing about ..
We are talking about the Yamashita / Golden Lily Treasure ..
Are we not?
This goes back to Edward Lansdale of the OSS ..
He’s dead, we can’t talk to him ..
Col. Fletcher Prouty knew Lansdale ..
He’s dead, we can’t talk to him ..
Marcos is dead ..
They are ALL dead, aren’t they?
Who is alive, that IS an expert on this matter?
Anyone, anyone?
Bueller, Bueller?
Who spent an entire year in the Philippines, in 1986 assisting Marcos ..
Under orders of President Reagan, under the Truman Doctrine?
This same person who would later purchase 2,000 metric tonnes ..
Of gold bullion from the Soviet Union, soon to become ..
The Russian Federation, with same purchaser’s of said gold, assistance?
Do you think he just might be a “subject matter expert” here?
And, he is alive and well ………. for the part ..
It boggles the mind, why so many spend time and energy ..
On certain subjects, omitting certain “subject matter experts” ..
That could really shed some light here ..
Especially tying into what is going on this very nanosecond!
Like, say for instance ..
Why isn’t Trump telling us about the $60,000,000,000,000+ ..
In the US Treasury?
That is TRILLIONS ………….. with a “T”
Why would anyone in his right mind ..
Wish to, and/or feel/think they must BORROW ..
Another $8/9 TRILLION, over the next DECADE ..
To “rebuild America?”
When enough of us know for certain ..
That the so-called existing

$20,000,000,000,000 in national debt ..
Is ……………….. COMPLETE FRAUD!
.
And this has nothing to do with what is being reported going on in ..
The Philippines at this very nanosecond?
https://youtu.be/8tYTSR9gheQ
https://youtu.be/R1LhQ48L-Ls?list=PL1yWdjkeR-5JpXPL92NHlupE2E3xz6hIu
(Time spent in the Philippines is mentioned in Part 4, towards the end. Good to begin at Part 1 for full context.)

INTEL Update via email (Real News you Won’t Find on MSM “FAKE” Evening News)
1) Maryland Congressman Elijah Cumming’s secretary was responsible for the Rumor regarding the Russian Hacking of the election. Her house was hit with a “Direct Energy” Weapon and 6 children were killed. She is in hiding. At 4a.m. this morning, the military told the CIA, FBI, DHS and other agencies that if anything happens to Trump, they will take over the U.S. Government by massive force.
2) Yesterday, Donald Trump was sworn in as the next legal President of the U.S.
3) The European Union will be rearranged to include Russia.
4) The FBI is in 150 cities demolishing the Clinton foundation and exposing all terrorist Mosques.
5) China began its Tribunals yesterday.Up to 80,000 crooks will be tried in the coming months.
6) A Cache of weapons was found yesterday under a pile of trash in Washington D.C. by a woman who was out for a stroll.
7) The Duke of Luxemburg, who is a Draconian like Pope Francis, has been exposed as the real leader of the Order Of The Garter who gives orders to the elites who own the big corporations and are Millionaires and Billionaires.
8) The RV will go within 72 hours of the inauguration ceremony and N.E.S.A.R.A. will be announced. Currency exchanges have paid Tier #1, #2, and #3. Tier #4 is next. The gold to back this massive financial transaction is stored off planet at the Planetary Facility on Venus. Space shuttles have been secretly taking it there for months.
9) Colonies on Planet Mars began settlements in 1967. Mining operations have been ongoing since.
10) The secret arrests of 15,000 crooks is ending. The next phase will arrest even more as the FBI moves down the governmental chain to Lieutenant Governor.
11) We are living in a time of a world secret revolution and a large segment of citizens still have no idea what is going on which shows just how mind controlled the populations of the planet are.
________________________________

Nesara funds from Kennedy, being pillaged. OUR millenial nation building funds, being absconded by the banksters.

Do was buriedes anyone consider that some of the gold from the Philippines should go into relief of the children who run the streets without shoes, begging for food. The Japan military buried gold and many treasures into caves within the Philippine Islands, they hired the Filipino people to bury their treasures so that after bombing the United States the Americans would not find it when they countered Japan. This unsuspecting Filipino workforce was buried alive with the treasures so that their location would not ever be talked about. So on and so on, still the poor in the beautiful Philippine Islands are kept poor by their very own government and priest, without care or consideration. SHAME TO ALL WHO DESERVE IT.

Haven’t you all heard of Tiburcio Villamor Marcos Tallano Tangean IV, he is the successor, owner, heir, sole signatory to the world wealth? Google his name, The wealth is for the benefits of the Filipino people.

Gold for gold. Find the gold. Share the gold. Philippine Islands are “Riches Country in the World!” There are 950,000 metric tons of gold ( declared missing in the International Court of Justice in Hague) picked up by Yamashita from its European Ally, Hitler and another 250,000 metric tons of the Japanese loot around Southeast Asia are both now in the Philippines. Very few Filipinos knows this( Wall Street Journal, November 15,1985 issue wrote: “ Two Thirds of all the gold in the world is in Philippines and One third is divided among the rest of the countries of the world”) During A TALK SHOW in a U.S. TV , the week following the bombing of the New York Twin Towers, President George Bush was asked this question: Which is the richest country in the world today? With a smile he said “The Philippines.” In a US TV interview as well with President Barrack Obama, in his “700 Billion USD stimulus funds” for US economy, he was asked a question where will he get the billion dollar substantial funds needed and quoted saying. “We have friends outside US who will support us”.
The branded Yamashita Treasure was considered “booty”. There were varied country claimants who are victims of the said WWII loots and these countries filed protest and claims after the war in the International Court of Justice. Though, there was a passage of law for thirty years starting 1946, that without a valid claim against it this “booty” it would belong to its new possessor. That would have been in 1976. However, the International Criminal Court (ICC) extended the deadline of the claims to 10 years up to 1986. With the conspiracy of the International Banking Cartel, neither the ICJ denied the existence of these gold and claims. Sadly, Successive governments of the Philippines denied its existence and failed to acknowledged the gold. For almost 24 years, Information has been conspired to keep from being known to Filipino people.
This country is approximately a holder of estimated 1.2 Million Metric Tons of buried Gold excluding gold bullions way back to history of the “Maharlika” time. Only some of the Yamashita and Prince Chichibu buried gold in the Philippines has been found and the bulk of it is still around all over the archipelago to this day. Up to now, thousands of local individuals, company and foreign groups ventured secretly digging for it, including Japanese Treasure Hunters.
These gold loots are kept, transported, hoarded, concealed and buried in said to be 175 “imperial” vaults constructed in a maze of underground tunnels in the Philippines under the command and implementation of General Chichibu . The looting started in December 1937 in China’s Chinese Capitol of Nanking up to the advent and action of WWII .
Prince Chichibu is the younger brother of Emperor Hirohito and had been selected to head the ultra-secret treasure recovery team. The Prime Minister, Prince Asaka had come from the Emperor with instructions to fully implement the plan. This led to the Rape of Nanking and the death of 300,000 Chinese civilians and military. Many had been tortured to reveal the locations of treasures and summarily executed. This secret team was given a code name of the Golden Lily after a poem the Emperor had once written. 6000 metric tons of gold were recovered from Nanking alone plus silver and precious stones.
Prince Chichibu
Top military and government officials meet in Mukden, Manchukuo in late 1936 to discuss the forthcoming war with the Chinese, Americans, Netherlands and French. The Emperor of Japan and others had developed a plan to finance the expansion of their military and to construct the ships, planes and other military hardware that would be required in order to implement their plans.
In December 1937 Japan had openly declared war on China and had surrounded the Chinese Capitol of Nanking. Prince Chichibu, the younger brother of Emperor Hirohito had been selected to head the ultra-secret treasure recovery team code name: Golden Lily.
In July 1940, Winston Churchill, the wartime Prime Minister of Great Britain, met with Lord Beaverbrook. France had just fallen to Hitler’s blitzkrieg. The Germans had amassed their troops in the ports of France ready to cross the English Channel and invade Britain. Churchill had learned that the French had transferred their national treasures to French Indochina just before they had signed an armistice with the Germans. He had also learned from the Queen of The Netherlands that they had moved their treasures to the Dutch East Indies. He and the King of England decided to move the British treasures to the supposedly safe island fortress of Singapore off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula.
In 1941, Japan had sunk most of the American Pacific fleet with a sneak attack on Pearl Harbor. On December 1941 Christmas Day, Japan had taken most of the major port cities of China and had forced the British into surrendering Hong Kong. By early January 1942 Japan’s victories had been nothing short of miraculous. Guam and Wake lands had fallen. Japan had assimilated Thailand and the northern part of French Indochina. The Japanese had launched a vigorous invasion of the Philippine Islands and were pushing the Americans into a final defensive position on Bataan. Her armies were fighting their way down the Malay Peninsula approaching Singapore. Although the Japanese were encountering little resistance they were greatly outnumbered by the British and Indian troops. The Golden Lily team had been greatly expanded to handle these rapidly changing situations. It is fair to say that they were actually overwhelmed.
Emperor Hirohito had requested Prince Chichibu to fly to Hanoi in French Indochina to meet with his younger brother Prince Mikasa.
The Japanese secret police had learned that France had sent their National Treasures there.
But, where were they hidden? Prince Chichibu had ordered the torture of the Bankers and former Diplomats in order to find out. They learned the treasure had been sent to Saigon by rail just before the Japanese troops had moved into Hanoi. The treasure had been hidden in the ruins of an ancient temple at the end of track. The excitement of this recovery was only overshadowed by later events.
The fortress of Singapore fell to General Yamashita and with General MacArthur being ordered out of the Philippines, the last American and Filipino troops on Bataan and Corregidor surrendered to General Homma. The infamous Death March began. The Japanese victories on all fronts were extremely heady. They began to believe in their own invincibility. Burma was now in Japanese hands and invasion plans had been drawn up for a move into Northern Australia. Asia and Southeast Asia and most of the Islands in the Pacific were as good as theirs.
Prince Chichibu in Singapore was elated when his team found the treasures of Britain stored in the banks. The collection of wealth throughout the conquered lands continued. With over 5000 years of Asia’s antiquity to pillage, the amounts collected were astronomical. Far surpassing what was thought to be the total amount of gold ever mined throughout history. With Shanghai in their hands the Golden Lily team found themselves stretched to the limit in keeping up with the collection and melting down of the precious metals. Another surprise experienced by Prince Chichibu was the discovery that the Dutch had moved their treasures to Batavia in the Netherlands East Indies. Now, not only did Japan have the wealth of the Asian continent, but they were rewarded with much of the European treasures as well. Hitler’s loss was Japan’s gain.
Japan’s luck had begun to run out by May 1942. Their first setback was the Battle of the Coral Sea where the Allies had forced Japan to turn back her invasion fleet which they had planned to land in New Guinea. The following month they suffered a further major setback with the Battle of Midway where Japan lost four of her front line fleet carriers and the cream of her trained aviators. These were the same ships and pilots that had attacked Pearl Harbor five months earlier. In August 1942 the Americans landed an invasion force on Guadalcanal. Japan tried for months to dislodge the stubborn American Marines but eventually had to concede this unknown but important island base. After that Japan could never again launch another major offensive anywhere. The war would continue for another three years while the Japanese slowly lost the lands that they had conquered. Japan’s dream was over and their nightmare had begun.
By mid-1942 American submarines and aircraft had begun to take a serious toll on Japanese shipping. Prince Chichibu could no longer send the many tons of treasure back to Japan with any guarantee that it would get there and not end up on the bottom of the ocean floor. Actually he had to revise his thinking about where to send the treasures after the Midway fiasco. Following a meeting with his brother, the Emperor, it was decided that the treasures should be hidden in the Philippine Islands. Why the Philippines? Because Japan was certain that they would end up with these islands during surrender negotiations with the Allies. Also, it was the shortest distance from Hong Kong and Singapore where the material was being processed.
Prince Chichibu had begun shipping material to the Philippines even before this decision was made. It was originally intended to be sent on to Japan in returning war ships. The Prince was still nervous about these shipments even after the decision was made. He commandeered four large freighters and had them painted all white with a red cross on their sides. These were “hospital” ships which he loaded with the many treasures. To be absolutely sure that even these ships were not molested he announced their movement on a clear radio channel so that the Americans would know their times of departure and their courses.
PRINCE CHICHIBU IN THE PHILIPPINES
Prince Chichibu had moved his Headquarters to Manila in the Philippines. He had entrusted his younger brother Prince Mikasa and his cousin Prince Asaka to continue the collection of the treasures. Before he left he had begun to cut up the many golden pagodas and Buddha’s which were being melted down and poured into 75 kilo bars. This amassing of the treasures would continue until Japan ultimately surrendered.
Prince Chichibu was now faced with new challenges, Where and how to hide the treasures so that they could not be accidentally discovered after the war. The Prince was not as certain as his brother, the Emperor that Japan would end up with the Philippine Islands following their defeat. He decided that these treasures would have to be hidden in deep, well-engineered tunnel systems. He had no experience in mining and basically that was what was going to be required.
Major Nakasone was the only member of the Golden Lily team who had any mining background. He had studied mining engineering but never had any on the job training. He sent for him anyway. In the meantime he asked The Emperor for help and he responded by having someone locate twenty experience men in underground excavation in Japan who were quickly sent to the Philippines. If the Prince needed more workers, he would have to get them from the Filipinos. In addition the Emperor had reminded Chichibu that the POWs of the Americans and the British contained a lot of engineering experts especially those who served in the construction battalions.
Manpower was the least of his problems. There were thousands of POWs who the Japanese considered expendable. If that wasn’t enough then there were millions of Filipino males that could be used. As soon as here received his experts he immediately began work in a dozen locations. While this was going on the treasure ships were arriving weekly and their precious cargo had been added to the other treasure already stored in heavily guarded warehouses. There were other problems the movement of the cargo from the ships to the warehouses attracted a lot of attention. Chichibu decided to construct an underground tunnel system from the piers to the warehouses which were in the capture American base named Fort McKinley. Eventually this tunnel would branch out under Manila and run for 35 miles. The entrance was in Intramuros, the ancient walled city of the Spaniards, which was near the docks. It terminated at MacArthur’s headquarters in Fort McKinley.
Prince Chichibu had to make some other major decisions. Why not hide all the treasure in one large location? The Emperor had answered that question. Security. Too many people who had worked on the location would know where it was, also if someone should accidentally find the location all would be lost. Early on the Prince had made the decision that except for a few foreign engineers the entire work force would have to be exterminated. The next question was where could this work be done where the local population would not be aware of what was going on there. Japanese military bases were perfect. Only the military had access to them and most bases had POW camps nearby. Prince Chichibu visualized that when the Americans returned to recapture the Philippines that there would be massive bombings. The map makers needed permanent landmarks in order to relocate these sites after the war. The Americans had shown in Europe that they would avoid bombing historical buildings. The four hundred year old historical Spanish Churches and fortifications were perfect. But just to make sure he would house American POWs in them, mainly women and children. He would then arrange for clear radio communications to announce this fact. It worked, the Americans spared these sites.
Major Nakasone was at Fort Santiago, a 16th century Spanish fortification, collecting slave labors from the Kempeitai Headquarters’ dungeons and torture chambers. One of the physically strong Filipino’s he selected was Leopoldo Giga. Nakasone knew a Colonel Kantaro Giga who was one of his instructors at the military academy. Out of curiosity he decided to personally interview Giga. He found him an intelligent, 28 year old, who spoke fluent Japanese. He also learned he was a nephew of his academy instructor. Giga’s father was the brother of the instructor who was a minor diplomat who had been attached to the Japanese Embassy in the Philippines 1913. Giga’s mother had met the Diplomat and had become his common-law wife. Another advantage that Nakasone found in Giga was that he spoke two of the main dialects of the Filipino people. Instead of making him a slave laborer he assigned him to his staff. Giga came to the attention of Prince Chichibu who had him commissioned as a sub-lieutenant in the Imperial Army. He was sent to Japan to attend schooling on tunneling and inventorying the treasure. He returned a Captain and worked on most of the treasure sites.
Prince Chichibu was in Nueva Vizcaya in early 1942. He was examining a major excavation outside of the town of Bambang. He and his staff had a young Filipino boy who had come down with a fever and had died. He had been a houseboy who did the laundry of the Prince and his staff as well as kept their boots and other equipment cleaned and polished. He sent his aide out to locate a replacement. The Aide came back with a 14 year old uneducated farm boy whose name was Benjamin Valmores. During the next three and a half years Valmores traveled with the Prince to many of the sites all over the Philippines. He learned Japanese and a smattering of English. He was never allowed to go down into the tunnels, but he watched them being constructed and filled with the treasures. He and Giga would survive the war.
As the war reached its inevitable climax in early 1945 the Japanese were receiving more treasure than they could prepare sites for in which to hide it. Their warships became useless due to the American air- superiority, so they loaded them with these newly arrived treasures and pretended they were being sent back to Japan. Instead the Japanese deliberately sank or scuttled these ships and machine-gunned their own men so that the ships would go down in predetermined locations and no witnesses would be alive to tell the tale. There were thirteen of these planned sinking’s. Some of these went down in Manila Bay others were sunk in not to deep Philippine Waters throughout the archipelago.
The bloody war was over. The hopes of Emperor Hirohito and others to force the Americans to agree to a treaty that would allow Japan to keep some of the lands they had taken by conquest had been shattered. They had planned the final battle that they were certain would cause the Americans over a million casualties when they invaded the Japanese home islands. The two atomic bombs and Russia’s invasion of Manchuria in an attempt to annex some of Japan’s conquered lands had cause the Emperor to agree to an unconditional surrender. Now the conquerors wanted to bring to justice those who were responsible for the many atrocities. Over 4000 war criminals were charged. Of these 2400 received a prison sentence of three years or more and 809 were ultimately hung.
THE BRANDING OF “YAMASHITA GOLD”
The famous Yamashita Gold treasure trove takes its name from General Tomoyuki Yamashita, who assumed command of Japanese forces in the Philippines only in 1944, a year before the war ends. But, the irony of it, the whole treasure troves was not all buried by Yamashita as many believe. There are team of Japanese Officers and Generals assigned who lead the 14th Army in the Philippines ahead of him since the Japanese invasions and occupations in 1941 .
These generals were Lt. General Masaharu Homma Vice Admiral Ibo Takahashi Vice Admiral Nishizo Tsukahara Lt. General Shizuiki Tanaka Lt. General Shigenori Kuroda and some of their Chief of Staffs Major Gen. Takaji Wachi Lt General Haruki Isayama Lt. Gen. Tsuchino Yamaguchi Lt Gen. Ryuzo Sakuma and Lt. Gen. Akira Muto were burying already the bulk of gold loots carried over by the command and implementation of Prince Chichibu or General Chichibu way back starting 1942 up to early 1945. Only why it was branded as “Yamashita Gold” due to first news informed treasure recoveries in the late 70’s particularly of “Roxas – His Golden Budda” and the gold recoveries of “Sta Romana” in Northern Luzon buried by Yamashita who also was in charge then for the quick burying concealment because Japan is already losing the war . He was as well-known as “Tiger of Malaya” and strongly identified as the general tasked to transport the bulk of gold loots from Singapore to Philippines by Japanese Navy Fleets carrying himself to his new command post in the Philippines in September 1944 as 14th Area Army Commander. And the fact that, Yamashita was the last General on command of the Japanese forces in the Philippines during the unconditional surrender of Japan in 1945. The “gold” includes many different kinds of valuables looted from banks, depositories, mosques, temples, churches, shops, museums and private homes. It was intended that loot from South East Asia would finance Japan’s war effort. Most of the loot was first shipped to the port of Singapore, where it was then relayed to the Philippines. From the Philippines, it was intended that the treasure would be shipped to the Japanese home islands which did not materialized.
When the gold was buried, it was done in anticipation that the Americans would defeat the Japanese and the underground vaults, tunnels, and entrances were booby trapped with gas, explosives, and water. The water traps were created by digging 300 – 350 feet underground in the dry months, at which time the water table was at its lowest.
As the Pacific War progressed, Allied submarines and aircraft took a heavy toll on Japan’s shipping. Some ships carrying gold loots back to Japan were sunk. The Japanese military began to hide the loot in caves and underground complexes throughout the Philippines, hoping to recover it after the war was over. Many of those who knew the locations of the loot were either executed or incarcerated for war crimes, including Yamashita. Thus, the whereabouts of the treasure locations were lost. Many years later, Former Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos located some of the treasure and obtained part of his personal fortune from it. His recoveries are known as the “Marcos Gold “or “Marcos Wealth”. Aside from these finds, others finds are not sufficiently documented.
HITLER’S NAZI LOOT OF EUROPE, THE VATICAN AND ANTONIO DIAZ STA ROMANA CONTROVERSY:
In the early 1930’s, Europe was in depression and Germany was financially bankrupt, An unknown party leader emerged and promise the German people that he could create jobs and boost the economy. The Germans dared him and put him in power. His name is Adolf Hitler. In 1933, the Vatican and Hitler, a Roman Catholic signed a concordat and mutual protection and enhancement. That was apparently that Vatican was spared of the ruins of war in Europe during WWII. “Hitler was loaded with gold and money”. He built a massive army and manufactured weapons of war. Then Hitler took Poland. Before 1918 there was no Poland. That land was part of Germany and used as a buffer zone to separate Germany from Russia. But when Hitler reclaimed it, England declared war on Germany.
By the advent of the WWII, Germany and Japan made strong allies and positioned their army forces and manufactured weapons not only for war or expanding their empire but conquest for wealth and connived for the European and Asian Looting.
After the War, accordingly “Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz,”aka Fr Hayes Severino Garcia Sta Romana, et al and other used names formerly of the OSS and CIA was entrusted by the Vatican to take charge of Vatican gold buried on the Philippines. The claims of the “Vatican gold” was identified as bullion that had been “captured by Hitler” and that had belonged to the royal families of Europe and been placed under the trusteeship of the Vatican. It also includes gold bullions that was plundered by the Japanese under General Chichibu and buried in the Philippines.
Ds. Diaz had “assumed several names when he moved to the Philippines.” One of these was “Col. Severino Sta. Romana.” Being with the OSS after the war, he was able to retrieved, unlock on only some of the buried gold bullion treasures in Northern Part of Luzon, Philippine Island. By peacetime, he was also the major catalyst for the safe return of 640,000 metric tons of Gold owned by the royalty family of the former “maharlika” or the Philipines borrowed by the Vatican in 1939 and facilitated its return to the original owners in Philippines and rewarded with paid commissions of 30% of the returned gold. The value of the gold now estimated at $4 trillion in which anyone could raise eyebrows its existence. Where it is now? It was noted that Sta. Romana during that time had “hired the young Marcos as his lawyer and trustee.” By 1949, It was said the Two (2) richest man in the world were Fr. Jose Antonio Diaz and Atty. Ferdinand E Marcos . Perhaps, there is a good reason to believe now for people who defended and stay on hold to the programs of the former “strong man” that his wealth is “Not Ill-Gotten”.
In 1974, Fr, Jose Antonio Diaz, alias Severino Sta. Romana died and all that 30% commission in gold become the legendary “MARCOS GOLD”. In power, after providing for his family in Marcos “Letter of Instruction”, the whole wealth derived from this was supposed to be given to the FILIPINO PEOPLE. However, the “MARCOS GOLD or MARCOS WEALTH” was labeled as “Ill-Gotten” as some of Philippine Politicians and Churchmen kept on saying. There was nothing secret about the said.. “Marcos Secret Account”. History of and by the said “Letter of Instructions”, will show that the money was not stashed away and inaccessible but available to truly deserving Filipinos. Filipinos should know this. The grand scheme of these with these International banking cartels with the backdrop control of Superpower Nations with so much interest no less than by greed so that this country and its people will remain a slave and shackled to these foreign powers. They don’t want our country to be made a “ First World Country”. The phony scheme of the CIA backed EDSA “PEOPLE POWER REVOLUTION” exhibition in 1986 continually blinded FILIPINOS up to now and keep repeating that MARCOS was a thief so that those hundreds of billions of “ MARCOS WEALTH” will remain froze and not given to the Filipino people.
WHO SHOULD OWN THE GOLD TREASURES IN THE PHILIPPINES?
Apparently, after 1986 under the International Court of Justice, the gold treasure buried in the Philippines or in other nations will be owned by the possessor of it. Who are they? For Filipinos, It’s us Filipinos who have the control of private or government land allegedly to contain of these buried gold loots. However, in reality, we have to accept the fact that it was not ours since time in memorial this gold was owned by varied international country claimants. But who to prove it that it’s theirs? Even the International Court of Justice up to now denied its existence for reason how will they prove it? To “someone” who had accumulated the German and Japanese plundered gold gathered in by General Chichibu and General Yamashita obviously preferred not to come forward with their claims because such claims would possibly reveal the source of such wealth. To take note the Japan’s ravage of the war in Burma and Asian neighbors where their historical and ancient gold was looted , was cut , stripped, melted and formed into another gold bars. The war was over and it would be difficult to identify the actual ownership of these gold if found. However, gold hallmarks can do so, and the hallmarks still carry international warrants for claims. The come and go to the Philippines of mandates and representatives by the international gold bullion buyers from Europe, China, America etc. are taking advantage of huge buying % discounts from who would be finders and holders/sellers of the gold loots. To note, before transporting these items , a must buying policy that these hallmarks of gold identity would be first erased or removed and re-melted again into new dory or plain bars form before shipment and payments. Other buying schemes would have it shipped out after making any financial payment guarantees to the sellers and after re-smelting and refining, payments can be done off-shore. Thus, legalizing and documenting said gold treasures would be easy for them.

So much fraud and the same story that only the rich will benefit from this haul.


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